ArticlePDF Available

Effects of Chlorophyll on Body Functioning and Blood Glucose Levels

Authors:

Abstract

Background and Objective: Blood glucose levels can be affected by the various types of chlorophyll. Experiments have proven that chlorophyll has antioxidant activities that are present in various foods. This study aimed to identify the effects of chlorophyll type on blood glucose and body functioning. Methodology: For the study, five different high-chlorophyll products were selected: Mint, broccoli, thyme, grapes and bell peppers. The chlorophyll was extracted from each source. Two types of chlorophyll, chlorophyll a and b, were extracted. The total chlorophyll content was determined. Toxicity tests were conducted using 40 Swiss albino male rats, 6-7 weeks old. The rats were randomly split into 4 groups. The control group was fed ad libitum with a Purina® chow diet. The chlorophyll extracts were ground and mixed with the standard pellets so that the feed contained 15% carbohydrate weight replacement with chlorophyll. Student's t-test and the chi-square test were used to assess the significance of the values obtained in both the treated and the control groups during the study. Results: Body weights increased after feeding with chlorophyll from all sources except bell peppers. The weight before feeding was 334.10±26.5 g, after feeding, it was 318.7±26.96 g, which is interpreted as a low difference. The mean glucose level was monitored 0, 1, 2 and 3 h after the intake of chlorophyll. A diet rich in chlorophyll led to a slight decrease in the number of white blood cells, haematocrit, haemoglobin and an increase in red blood cells compared with control. The results of the treatment did not show any significant changes in the levels of total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, glucose, urea and creatinine among the experimental and control groups. Moreover, there was significant difference (p < 0.05) in the weights of the animals' organs among the groups. Conclusion: It is concluded that chlorophyll extracts from mint, broccoli, thyme and bell pepper are likely to have important implications regarding blood sugar. Bell pepper extracts and juice has benefits in body weight and further studies are warranted.
OPEN ACCESS Asian Journal of Clinical Nutrition
ISSN 1992-1470
DOI: 10.3923/ajcn.2017.64.70
Research Article
Effects of Chlorophyll on Body Functioning and Blood Glucose
Levels
Amnah Mohammed Alsuhaibani, Nora Mohammed ALkehayez, Amal Hassan Alshawi and
Nora Abdullah Al-Faris
Department of Nutrition and Food Science , College of Home Economics, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh,
Saudi Arabia
Abstract
Background and Objective: Blood glucose levels can be affected by the various types of chlorophyll. Experiments have proven that
chlorophyll has antioxidant activities that are present in various foods. This study aimed to identify the effects of chlorophyll type on blood
glucose and body functioning. Methodology: For the study, five different high-chlorophyll products were selected: Mint, broccoli, thyme,
grapes and bell peppers. The chlorophyll was extracted from each source. Two types of chlorophyll, chlorophyll a and b, were extracted.
The total chlorophyll content was determined. Toxicity tests were conducted using 40 Swiss albino male rats, 6-7 weeks old. The rats were
randomly split into 4 groups. The control group was fed
ad libitum
with a Purina® chow diet. The chlorophyll extracts were ground and
mixed with the standard pellets so that the feed contained 15% carbohydrate weight replacement with chlorophyll. Students t-test and
the chi-square test were used to assess the significance of the values obtained in both the treated and the control groups during the study.
Results: Body weights increased after feeding with chlorophyll from all sources except bell peppers. The weight before feeding was
334.10±26.5 g, after feeding, it was 318.7±26.96 g, which is interpreted as a low difference. The mean glucose level was monitored
0, 1, 2 and 3 h after the intake of chlorophyll. A diet rich in chlorophyll led to a slight decrease in the number of white blood cells,
haematocrit, haemoglobin and an increase in red blood cells compared with control. The results of the treatment did not show any
significant changes in the levels of total cholesterol, LDL , HDL , tr igl yce rid es, g luc ose , ur ea a nd cr eat ini ne am on g th e ex per im ent al
and control groups. Moreover, there was significant difference (p<0.05) in the weights of the animals organs among the groups.
Conclusion: It is concluded that chlorophyll extracts from mint, broccoli, thyme and bell pepper are likely to have important implications
regarding blood sugar. Bell pepper extracts and juice has benefits in body weight and further studies are warranted.
Key words: Body functioning, chlorophyll, extraction, juices, body weight
Received: January 05, 2017 Accepted: March 02, 2017 Published: March 15, 2017
Citation: Amnah Mohammed Alsuhaibani, Nora Mohammed Alkehayez, Amal Hassan Alshawi and Nora Abdullah Al-Faris, 2017. Effects of chlorophyll on
body functioning and blood glucose levels. Asian J. Clin. Nutr., 9: 64-70.
Corresponding Author: Nora Abdullah Al-Faris, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, College of Home Economics,
Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Tel: +966118237437
Copyright: © 2017 Amnah Mohammed Alsuhaibani
et al
. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the creative commons attribution
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Competing Interest: The authors have declared that no competing interest exists.
Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its supporting information files.
Asian J. Clin. Nutr., 9 (2): 64-70, 2017
INTRODUCTION
Glucose is an instant source of energy but when
consumed in high concentration, it leads to major problems.
The blood glucose level is the amount of sugar or glucose
present in the blood stream. The body naturally regulates
glucose levels as a part the bodys metabolic processes. It is a
primary energy mechanism for cells and the blood lipid profile.
Bloodglucose is transported from the intestines/liver to the
cells via the bloodstream. The absorption of glucose is
promoted in the presence of insulin, a hormone produced in
the pancreas. If blood glucose levels are not balanced, both
high and low blood glucose leads to the malfunctioning of
body organs1. Fruit and vegetables contain phytochemicals
that may be prevent diabetes by regulating glucosidase and
lipase activities, reducing the postprandial glycaemic level,
providing anti-inflammatory activity and improving pancreatic
function and synergistic action with hypoglycaemic drugs2.
Fruit and vegetables have been reported to contain
antioxidant compounds that are valuable in human health,
such as carotenoids, vitamin C, vitamin E and phenolic and
thiol (SH) compounds2-4. The consumption of fruit and
vegetables is part of the Arabic cultural heritage and they play
important roles in the customs, traditions and food culture of
the Saudi household. Mint (
Menthapulegium
), broccoli
(
Brassica oleracea
), thyme (
Thymus vulgaris
) and
Gongronema latfolium
are green leafy vegetables that
contain a fair amount of chlorophyll. The consumption of a
diet rich in fruits and vegetables that are rich in chlorophyll is
associated with lower incidences of oxidation-linked diseases,
such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease2-4.
Increased consumption of phytochemicals that have
antioxidant activity can suppress the development of
diabetes5. In contrast to other phytochemical compounds,
such as phenolic components, chlorophyll is present in large
quantities in plants1% dry weight); therefore, it has the
potential to be a functional food6. Chlorophyll is a component
that may help to prevent disease. Moreover, the chlorophylls
are the most abundant natural pigment and is considered a
plant-derived antioxidant7. They are called dihydroporphyrins
because they contain four pyrrole rings coordinated with
magnesium metal. Along with the porphyrin ring, they also
contain a long hydrophobic sidechain derived from an alcohol
called phytol (C20H39OH), which is responsible for the
hydrophobicity of the whole molecule. Generally, higher-level
plants contain two types of chlorophyll: a and b. These
chlorophyll types differ in terms of the R group, which may be
an aldehyde group in chlorophyll b or a methyl group in
chlorophyll a7.
The role of chlorophyll as a hypoglycemic agent occurs
through the inhibition of free radicals. Chlorophyll is an
antioxidant chain breaker that donates its electrons to free
radicals and forms complexes with peroxyl radicals to
generate a stable product8. Ferruzzi
et al
.9 reported that
dietary chlorophyll derivatives prevalent in both fresh and
processed foods and dietary supplements have antioxidant
and antimutagenic activities. There are many imported foods
based on chlorophyll and the highest chlorophyll content
occurs in the green fruits and vegetables mint, broccoli,
thyme, grapes and bell peppers. The aim of this study was to
evaluate the chlorophyll content of mint, broccoli, thyme,
grapes and bell peppers which are commonly consumed in
Saudi.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Preparation of products
Extraction of chlorophyll: First, five products (mint, broccoli,
thyme, grapes and bell peppers) with a high phenol content
were collected from local vendors. They were referred to as
FP 1 (mint), FP 2 (broccoli), FP 3 (thyme), FP4 (grapes) and
FP 5 (bell peppers), respectively. Then, whole chlorophyll was
extracted and the chlorophyll a and b component contents
were determined according to AOAC10 methods. Table 1
shows the total chlorophyll a and b components per 100 g.
Preparation of samples: Fresh grapes juice was prepared by
homogenizing the fruit right before the start of the
experiments (1 mL of juice contained approximately 2 g of
fresh grapes). The mint, broccoli, thyme and bell pepper leaves
were washed, weighed (100 g LG1) and triturated with water in
a blender for 7 min. The juice was filtered and frozen in a flask
placed in a refrigerator. Each flask was thawed daily at
ambient temperature two hours prior to administration.
Animal testing methods: The study was approved by the
Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Princess Nourah
Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudiin September
2011. Using chronic modes, toxicity studies were conducted
with 40 male Swiss albino rats, aged 6-7 weeks and with
different weights. The animals were bred and raised at
the Animal House, Central Laboratory for Drug and Food
Analysis, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The
animals were handled in accordance with the guidelines for
selecting doses for long-term treatment and minimal
toxicity11. The rats were randomly split into 4 groups (10 rats
per group). The environment was maintained under standard
65
Asian J. Clin. Nutr., 9 (2): 64-70, 2017
conditions with a humidity of 50%, a temperature of 22±2EC
and light conditions of 12 h each for dark and light.
All the animals were given free access to water. The
control group was fed
ad libitum
with a Purina® chow diet
purchased from the Arabian Agricultural Services Company
(Arasco), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The feeds given to the
experimental groups were prepared according to the
American Institute of Nutrition (AIN) guidelines12. Dose
selection was based on the regulatory guidelines requiring
minimal toxicity during long-term treatment. As body weight
and water intake increased over time, the daily dose was
adjusted to approximate the initial human therapeutic dose
specified by the manufacturer. The extracts were ground and
mixed with standard pellets so that 15% of the feeds
carbohydrate weight was replaced with the experimental
products. The feed was stored at 5EC until it was used.
Table 2 summarizes the control and experimental diets. The
juices were administered orally at a dose of 0.29 g kgG1 once
a day. The dose administered to the animals was based on
100 g LG1, which corresponds to a daily intake of 200 mL of
juice by an adult man weighing 70.0 kg (this intake was based
o n p op u la t io n c o ns u lt at i on ) . T h e d i et s we r e l a be l le d FP 1 mi n t,
FP 2 broccoli, FP 3 thyme, FP 4 grapes and FP 5 bell peppers.
Parameters assessed
Toxicity: It was measured as suggested by the WHO Scientific
Group13 and Wilson
et al
.11.
Weight change: Body weights were recorded before and after
the experimental period to examine the impact of the
different drugs on body weight. Furthermore, at the end of the
treatment, the weights of the vital organs (heart, lungs,
kidneys, spleen, liver and testes) were weighed and reported
per 100 g b. wt., to facilitate comparisons between the normal
and control animals.
Haematological and biochemical analysis: These were
assessed before and after the experimental period. The
haematological profiles included White Blood Cell count
(WBC), Red Blood Cell count (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb),
haematocrit (HCT) and the Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV).
Blood was also collected and the serum was separated and
stored at -20EC for later biochemical analysis of liver and
kidney function and lipid profile. Specifically, alanine
aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST)14,
glucose15, urea16, creatinine17, cholesterol; triglycerides18,
High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol19 and Low
Density Lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol20 were measured. The
parameters were analysed with enzymatic colorimetry using
test combination reagents (Boehringer Mannheim GmbH,
Diagnostica, Germany). Measurements were made using a
spectrophotometer (Introspect II, LKB).
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT): Oral glucose tolerance
was measured after fasting rats were given a glucose solution
Table 1: Total chlorophyll a and b components per 100 g
Sources Test-ref Chlorophyll a (ppm) Chlorophyll b (ppm) Total
FP 1 AOAC 972.04 549.00 201.78 750.78
FB 2 AOAC 972.04 75.47 32.00 107.47
FP 3 AOAC 972.04 393.10 585.88 978.98
FP 4 AOAC 9772.04 3.79 1.45 5.24
FP 5 AOAC 972.04 31.66 9.69 41.35
FP 1: Mint, FP 2: Broccoli, FP 3: Thyme, FP 4: Grapes, FP 5: Bell pepper
Table 2: Constituents of control and experimental diets in g/100 g
Quantity of nutrients per 100 g
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chemical components Control FP 1 FP 2 FP 3 FP 4 FP 5
Corn-starch 46.57 39.58 39.58 39.58 39.58 39.58
Casein 14.00 14.00 14.00 14.00 14.00 14.00
Dextrinised corn-starch 15.50 15.50 15.50 15.50 15.50 15.50
Sucrose 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00
Soybean oil 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00
Fiber 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00
Mineral mix 3.50 3.50 3.50 3.50 3.50 3.50
Vitamin mix 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
L-cystine 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18
Choline bitartrate 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
Extract (15% carbohydrate) - 6.99 6.99 6.99 6.99 6.99
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
FP 1: Mint, FP 2: Broccoli, FP 3: Thyme, FP 4: Grapes, FP 5: Bell pepper
66
Asian J. Clin. Nutr., 9 (2): 64-70, 2017
(1.75 g kgG1 of weight of the rats). Blood glucose was
measured after 1, 2 and 3 h and the test was repeated once a
week. The average of the readings was taken.
Statistical analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using
SPSS v.16 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 16,
SPSS, Inc., Chicago, USA)21. Students t-test and the chi-square
test were used to assess the significance of the values
obtained in both the treated and the control groups during
the study. p values of <0.05 were considered statistically
significant22.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Effect of chlorophyll extraction and juices on body weight:
Table 3 shows that the rats weightsincreased gradually after
consuming chlorophyll in the form of mint, broccoli, thyme,
grapes but not as a result of bell pepper extract consumption.
The pre-treatment value was 334.10±26.50 g, whereas the
post-treatment value was 318.70±26.96 g. Both the difference
and the standard deviation were low. The consumption of
chlorophyll extracts led to growth and the increase in weight
reached as much as 1.27 g dayG1 8.
Additionally, changes in the body weights of male rats
were also observed with the administration of chlorophyll
in the form of juices made from mint, broccoli, thyme,
grapes and bell peppers. Again, the intake of bell pepper
juice was associated with a decrease inthe body weight
of the male rats. Dias23 demonstrated that bell peppers
contain substances that lead to increases in bodys heat
production and oxy gen c ons ump tion for ap pro ximat ely
20 min after eating. Under such circumstances, the body burns
extra calories, which helps with weight loss.
Effect of chlorophyll extracts and juices on the Oral Glucose
Tolerance Test (OGTT): The mean glucose level of the male
rats was monitored at 0, 1, 2 and 3 h after the intake of
chlorophyll in the form of mint, broccoli, thyme, grape and bell
pepper extracts and juices. The resultsindicated that treatment
with chlorophyll extract led to decreased blood glucose after
3 h (Fig. 1). The highest decrease occurred in the rats that were
fed thyme extract. Nissa
et al
.8 demonstrated that higher
doses of chlorophyll extract led to blood glucose levels. The
mechanism of chlorophyll as ahypoglycemic agent occurs
through its inhibition of free radicals. Chlorophyll is an
antioxidant chain breaker that donates its electrons to free
r ad ic a ls a nd fo r ms c om p le x es w it h pe r ox y ra d ic a ls t o g e ne r at e
Table 3: Effect of chlorophyll extracts and juices on weight
Body weight (g)
-------------------------------------------------------------
Treatment groups Pre-treatment** Post-treatment**
Control 339.24±19.39 391.89±24.41
Mint extract 339.24±19.39 394.80±10.52
Broccoli flower extract 336.90±21.50 395.80±27.44
Bell pepper extract 334.10±26.50 318.70±26.96*
Thyme extract 338.80±27.92 396.80±32.64
Grape extract 333.40±11.40 389.40±9.00
Control 2 339.24±19.39 391.89±24.41
Mint juice 338.06±19.90 395.06±10.79
Broccoli flower juice 336.18±22.06 396.09±28.15
Bell pepper juice 339.93±27.19 326.99±27.66*
Thyme juice 334.75±28.65 388.82±33.49
Grape juice 339.21±11.70 394.40±9.23
*Compare between the experimental group and control, *p<0.05 (student
t-test), **Mean±Standard Deviation
Fig. 1: Effect of chlorophyll extracts and juices on oral glucose tolerance test results
67
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
0123
Blood glucose (mg dLG1)
Time (h)
Control Mint extract Broccoli flower extract
Bell pepper extract Thyme extract Grape extract
Mint juice Broccoli flower juice Bell pepper juice
Thyme juice Grape juice
Asian J. Clin. Nutr., 9 (2): 64-70, 2017
a stable product7. In addition to chlorophyll, chloroplasts
also contain exogenous superoxide dismutase24 and ascorbic
acid25, which also have antioxidant capacity. Paradoxically,
grape juice led to an increase in blood glucose, while grape
extract had the opposite effect, possibly because of the high
sugar content of grapes compared with the other fruits and
vegetables used.
Effects of chlorophyll extracts and juices on haematological
parameters: Table 4 shows the effects of the chlorophyll
products on the haematological profile of experimental
animals. Itshows that the group fed with chlorophyll
experienced a slight decrease in the number of white
blood cells and an increase in red blood cells compared
with controls. The decreases in white blood cells may
have occurred b ec au se c hl oro ph yll pl ays ananti-bacterial
role26. The results indicated that the treatment did
not lead to any significant changes.
Data analysis indicated that there was no significant
difference between the treatment groups and the control
group in terms of lipid profile and blood glucose levels.
Figure 2 shows that there were no significant differences in
the levels of total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglyceride, glucose,
urea and creatinine among the experimental and control
groups. These results agree with the study of Aminian
et al
.27,
who showed that unripe gra pe juice consumption had no
measurable effect on serum HDL-C levels in healthy
individuals. They also stated that grape juice had no effect
on TG, total cholesterol and LDL-C27. Some studies found
that daily consumption of grapes or grape juice reduced
body weight, blood pressure and lipids compared with the
control28.
Table 4: Impact of chlorophyll extracts and juices on the haematological test results
Haematology tests
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Treatment groups WBC** (×101 LG1) RBC** (×1012 LG1) Hb** (g dLG1) MCV** (fl) HCT** (%)
Control 8.98±0.11 8.08±0.13* 16.78±0.23 51.32±0.92 46.58±0.66
Mint extract 8.67±0.10 8.74±0.16 15.04±0.27 53.07±0.95 42.66±0.76
Broccoli flower extract 8.92±0.37* 8.70±0.16 16.32±0.26 49.56±0.89 41.42±0.74
Bell pepper extract 8.51±0.37* 8.57±0.15 16.53±0.26 48.53±0.87 42.45±0.76
Thyme extract 8.23±0.20* 8.18±0.15 15.84±0.27 49.36±0.88 42.45±0.76
Grape extract 8.11±0.13* 8.13±0.15 16.32±0.26 51.52±0.92 40.39±0.72
Mint juice 8.78±0.10 8.91±0.16 16.34±0.27 54.12±0.97 43.51±0.78
Broccoli flower juice 8.33±0.38 8.87±0.16 16.61±0.26 50.55±0.91 42.25±0.76
Bell pepper juice 8.91±0.37 8.74±0.16 15.82±0.27 49.50±0.89 43.30±0.78
Thyme juice 8.46±0.21 8.34±0.15 15.13±0.27 50.34±0.90 43.30±0.78
Grape juice 8.25±0.13 8.29±0.15 16.61±0.26 52.55±0.94 41.20±0.74
WBC: White blood cell, RBC: Red blood cell, Hb: Haemoglobin, MCV: Mean corpuscular, HCT: Haematocrit, *Compare between the experimental group and control,
*p<0.05 (student t-test), **Mean±Standard Deviation
Fig. 2: Effect of chlorophyll extracts and juices on lipids profile and glucose level
68
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
Control Mint
extract Broccoli
flower
extract
Bell pepper
extract Thyme
extract Grape
extract Mint juice Broccoli
flower
juice
Bell pepper
juice Thyme
juice Grape juice
Blood level (mg dLG1)
Treatements
Glucose Urea Creatinine Cholesterol HDL cholesterol LDL cholesterol Triglycerides
Asian J. Clin. Nutr., 9 (2): 64-70, 2017
Table 5: Effect of chlorophyll extracts and juices on organ weights
Organ weight changes (g/100 g b.wt.)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Treatment groups Heart** Lungs** Liver** Spleen** Testes** Kidneys**
Control 1.7±0.03 1.59±0.04 10.99±0.27 1.02±0.03 1.88±0.05 1.29±0.03
Mint extract 1.33±0.03 1.79±0.04 10.25±0.28 1.13±0.03 1.88±0.05 1.32±0.03
Broccoli flower extract 1.28±0.03 1.73±0.04 10.96±0.32 1.06±0.03 1.83±0.05 1.31±0.03
Bell pepper extract 1.58±0.03 1.67±0.04 10.58±0.26 1.04±0.03 1.81±0.05 1.10±0.03
Thyme extract 1. 5±0.03 1.63±0.04 10.98±0.27 1.04±0.03 1.92±0.05 1.05±0.03
Grape extract 1.59±0.028 1.465±0.036 10.577±0.263 0.983±0.024 1.846±0.05 1.015±0.025
Mint juice 1.129±0.033 1.789±0.044 11.247±0.280 1.130±0.028 1.883±0.05 1.318±0.033
Broccoli flower juice 1.38±0.03 1.73±0.04 11.96±0.32 1.06±0.03 1.83±0.05 1.31±0.03
Bell pepper juice 1.18±0.03 1.67±0.04 10.58±0.26 1.04±0.03 1.81±0.05 1.10±0.03
Thyme juice 1.015±0.025 1.632±0.041 10.975±0.27 1.036±0.03 1.915±0.05 1.046±0.026
Grape juice 1.12±0.03 1.47±0.04 10.58±0.26 0.98±0.02 1.95±0.05 1.02±0.025
*Compare between the experimental group and control, *p<0.05 (student t-test), **Mean±Standard Deviation
There was also no significant difference in the weights of
the animals organs among the groups (Table 5).
CONCLUSION
Consumption of chlorophyll of mint, broccoli, thyme,
grapes led to increase of weight while chlorophyll of bell
pepper demonstrated decreased the weight. Based on the
findings in this study, a key observation was that chlorophyll
was the key factor related to increase in weight and decreased
blood glucose. It can be concluded that include chlorophyll
rich food and its extraction in diet positively influence on
health.
SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT
This study discovers the potential of chlorophyll in the
form of mint, broccoli, thyme, grapes as a source of
phytochemicals that can be beneficial for humannutrition.
This study will help the researcher to uncover the critical areas
of food applications that can use chlorophyll chemical
constituents. Thus, new information about chlorophyll in the
form of macro- and micronutrients can be obtained and used
in a practical way.
REFERENCES
1. Ettinger, S., 2004. Macronutrients: Carbohydrates, Proteins
and Lipids. In: Krause's Food, Nutrition and Diet Therapy,
Mahan, L.K. and S. Escott-Stump (Eds.). 11th Edn., Saunders,
USA., ISBN: 9780721697840, pp: 37-73.
2. Zhang, Y.J., R.Y. Gan, S. Li, Y. Zhou, A.N. Li, D.P. Xu and H.B. Li,
2015. Antioxidant phytochemicals for the prevention and
treatment of chronic diseases. Molecules, 20: 21138-21156.
3. Arshiya, S., 2013. The antioxidant effect of certain fruits:
A review. J. Pharm. Sci. Res., 5: 265-268.
4. Parashar, S., H. Sharma and M. Garg, 2014. Antimicrobial and
antioxidant activities of fruits and vegetable peels: A review.
J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem., 3: 160-164.
5. Pandey, K.B. and S.I. Rizvi, 2009. Plant polyphenols as dietary
antioxidants in human health and disease. Oxidative Med.
Cell. Longevity, 2: 270-278.
6. Prangdimurti, E., D. Muchtadi, M. Astawan and F.R. Zakaria,
2006. Aktivitas antioksidan ekstrak daun suji (
Pleomele
angustifolia
N.E. Brown) [antioxidant activity of suji (
Pleomele
angustifolia
N.E. Brown) leaf extract]. J. Teknologi dan
Industri Pangan, 17: 79-86.
7. Inanc, A.L., 2011. Chlorophyll: Structural properties, health
benefits and its occurrence in virgin olive oils. Akademik G2da,
9: 26-32.
8. Nissa, C., M.I. Kartasurya and B. Rahmawati, 2016. Effects of
chlorophyll in papaya leaves on superoxide dismutation and
blood glucose level of diabetic rats. Makara J. Health Re s.,
19: 75-80.
9. Ferruzzi, M.G., V. Bohm, P.D. Courtney and S.J. Schwartz, 2002.
Antioxidant and antimutagenic activity of dietary chlorophyll
derivatives determined by radical scavenging and bacterial
reverse mutagenesis assays. J. Food Sci., 67: 2589-2595.
10. AOAC., 2012. Official Method of Analysis. 19th Edn.,
Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC.,
USA.
11. Wilson, D.T., J.F. Hardisty, J.R. Hayes and N.H. Wilson, 2014.
Short-Term, Subchronic and Chronic Toxicology Studies.
In: Princip les and M ethods o f Tox icology , Hay es, A.W a nd
C.L. Kruger (Eds.). 6th Edn., CRC Press, New York,
pp: 1205-1250.
12. Lien, E.L., F.G. Boyle, J.M. Wrenn, R.W. Perry, C.A. Thompson
and J.F. Borzelleca, 2001. Comparison of AIN-76A and
AIN-93G diets: A 13-week study in rats. Food Chem. Toxicol.,
39: 385-392.
13. Allmark, M.G., 2005. World Health Organization Technical
Report Series, No. 348: Procedures for Investigating
Intentional and Unintentional Food Additives. World Health
Organization, Geneva.
69
Asian J. Clin. Nutr., 9 (2): 64-70, 2017
14. Huang, X.J., Y.K. Choi, H.S. Im, O. Yarimaga, E. Yoon and
H.S. Kim, 2006. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST/GOT) and
alanine aminotransferase (ALT/GPT) detection techniques.
Sensors, 6: 756-782.
15. Rocco, R.M., 2006. Enzymaticglucose. In: Landmark Papers in
Clinical Chemistry, Rocco, R.M. (Ed.). 1st Edn., Elsevier,
Amsterdam, pp: 271-275.
16. Francis, P.S., S.W. Lewis and K.F. Lim, 2002. Analytical
methodology for the determination of urea: Current practice
and future trends. TrAC Trends Anal. Chem., 21: 389-400.
17. Delaney, M.P., C.P. Price and E.J. Lamb, 2007. Kidney Function
and Disease. In: Tietz Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry
Passcode Only, Burtis, C.A., E.R. Ashwood and D.E. Bruns (Eds.).
6th Edn., W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, pp: 631-655.
18. Kalia, V. and C.S. Pundir, 2004. Determination of serum
triglycerides using lipase, glycerol kinase, glycerol-3-
phosphate oxidase and peroxidase co-immobilized onto
alkylamine glass beads. Indian J. Biochem. Biophys,
41: 326-328.
19. Nauck, M., D. Wiebe and G.R. Warnick, 2000. Measurement of
High-Density-Lipoprotein Cholesterol. In: Handbook of
Lipoprotein Testing, Rifai, N., G.R. Warnick and
M.H. Dominiczak (Eds.). 2nd Edn., AACC Press, Washington,
DC., pp: 227-230.
20. Nauck, M., G.R. Warnick and N. Rifai, 2002. Methods for
measurement of LDL-cholesterol: A critical assessment of
direct measurement by homogeneous assays versus
calculation. Clin. Chem., 48: 236-254.
21. SPSS., 2007. SPSS for Windows, Version 16.0. SPSS Inc.,
Chicago, IL., USA.
22. Ross, S.M., 2010. Introductory Statistics. 3rd Edn.,
Academic Press, Japan, UK., USA., ISBN: 9780080922102,
Pages: 848.
23. Dias, J.S., 2012. Nutritional quality and health benefits of
vegetables: A review. Food Nutr. Sci., 3: 1354-1374.
24. Winarsi, H., 2007. Antioksidan Alami dan Radikal Bebas:
Potensi dan Aplikasinya Dalam Kesehatan. Penerbit Kanisius,
Yogyakarta.
25. Shao, H.B., L.Y. Chu, Z.H. Lu and C.M. Kang, 2008.
Primary antioxidant free radical scavenging and redox
signaling pathways in higher plant cells. Int. J. Biol.
Sci., 4: 8-14.
26. Kumar, N.S., M. Murali, A.M. Nair and A.S. Nair, 2016.
Green blood therapy of wheat grass-nature's finest
medicine-A literature review. IOSR J. Pharm. Biol.
Sci., 11: 57-64.
27. Aminian, B., S.M. Massoompour, A. Sadeghalvaad and
G.H. Omrani, 2003. Unripe grape juice (verjuice) as a
lipid-lowering agent: Fact or fiction. Arch. Iran. Med.,
6: 32-34.
28. Dow, C.A., S.B. Going, H.H.S. Chow, B.S. Patil and
C.A. Thomson, 2012. The effects of daily consumption
of grapefruit on body weight, lipids and blood
pressure in healthy, overweight adults. Metabolism,
61: 1026-1035.
70
... One of the highly valued bioactive ingredients groups is polyphenol because they possess numerous bioactive, for example, antioxidant, antivirus, anticancer, improving resistance [19]. Besides, chlorophyll is a valuable active ingredient possessing antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer, toxicity movement, improvement of red blood cells [20], [21]. Nowadays, there are many methods for the extraction of polyphenol, chlorophyll from Hydrocotyle asiatica, for example, soxhlet, static soak [22], microwave-assisted [23], [24], and ultrasound-assisted [22], [25], and the ultrasound method is one of the interesting green extraction methods. ...
Article
Full-text available
The impact of extraction condition of antioxidant polyphenol and chlorophyll from species Hydrocotyle asiatica grown in Vietnam was presented in the current study. The extraction condition was studied composed of solvent concentrations (60 to 100 with jump step (δ) of 5) and solvent pH (2 to 10 with δ of 1). Besides the content of polyphenol and chlorophyll, the target function of antioxidant activity was also evaluated based on total antioxidant activity and reducing power activity. The results showed that polyphenol and chlorophyll content and antioxidant activity from Hydrocotyle asiatica were affected by the solvent concentration and solvent pH significantly (p<0.05). The content of polyphenol (3.958±0.028 mg gallic acid equivalent/g DW) and chlorophyll (2.412±0.057 mg/g DW), and the antioxidant activity composed of total antioxidant activity (2.077±0.022 mg ascorbic acid/g DW) and reducing power activity (11.366±0.53 mg FeSO4 equivalent/g DW), was the highest at 95% ethanol and solvent (pH 5), compared to other conditions. Polyphenol, chlorophyll content, and antioxidant activity were changed according to the model of level 2 under the impact of solvent concentration and solvent pH. The results were valuable in the antioxidant polyphenol and chlorophyll extraction for applicating functional food and pharmaceuticals.
... The consumption of a diet rich in vegetables rich in chlorophyll is associated with lower incidences of oxidation-linked diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease (Arshiya, 2013;Parashar et al., 2014;Zhang et al., 2015). Alsuhaibani et al. (2017) reported that chlorophyll had important implications regarding blood sugar. The difference in the composition of the growing media also affects the mineral content of green leafy lettuce ( Figure 5). ...
Article
Full-text available
p>Soilless culture system (SCS) production is preferred because it is more hygienic and highly nutritious and free of chemical pesticides. However, the application of organic fertilizers in SCS for green vegetable cultivation is still rarely used. This study was to test various growing media compositions and vermicompost rates on green lettuce's nutritional quality. Four types of growing media (using the mixture of cocopeat, zeolite, rice husk biochar and sand) and five levels of vermicompost rates (50-250 g pot<sup>-1</sup>) were tested. The greatest total fresh weight and marketable yield were found using 55% cocopeat, 30% rice husk biochar and 15% sand with a vermicompost rate of 250 g pot<sup>-1</sup>. The highest nutritional quality of green lettuce as measured by the highest content of chlorophyll A, B, the total chlorophyll and calcium (Ca) was found in the composition of cocopeat 55%, zeolite 30% and sand 15%. As was, the highest mineral content of of potassium (K) and phosphorus (P). Good quality lettuce was found in growing media using 30% biochar with a vermicompost rates of 200-250 g pot<sup>-1</sup> and growing media using 30% zeolite with a vermicompost rates of 150-200 g pot<sup>-1</sup>. Thus, the admixtures of biochar and zeolite into the cocopeat substrate for the soilless culture system of green leafy lettuce significantly affected yield and nutritional quality.</p
... They associated these results with a protective effect on the transfer of electrons in complex III linked to the loss of cytochromes c + c 1 . The role of chlorophylls as hypoglycemic agents is thought to be mediated by the inhibition of free radicals, because chlorophylls donate their electrons to such free radicals and form complexes with peroxyl radicals to generate stable molecules (Alsuhaibani et al., 2017). In avocado oil, chlorophyll and its derivatives are implicated in oxidation; however, at adequate conditions (absence of light and oxygen) they exhibit antioxidant properties (Ramos-Aguilar et al., 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Avocado is a subtropical/tropical fruit with creamy texture, peculiar flavor, and high nutritional value. Due to its high oil content, a significant quantity of avocado fruit is used for the production of oil using different methods. Avocado oil is rich in lipid‐soluble bioactive compounds, but their content depends on different factors. Several phytochemicals in the oil have been linked to prevention of cancer, age‐related macular degeneration, and cardiovascular diseases and therefore have generated an increase in consumer demand for avocado oil. The aim of this review is to critically and systematically analyze the worldwide production and commercialization of avocado oil, its extraction methods, changes in its fat‐soluble phytochemical content, health benefits, and new trends and applications. There is a lack of information on the production and commercialization of the different types of avocado oil, but there are abundant data on extraction methods using solvents, centrifugation‐assisted aqueous extraction, mechanical extraction by cold pressing (varying concentration and type of enzymes, temperature and time of reaction, and dilution ratio), ultrasound‐assisted extraction, and supercritical fluid to enhance the yield and quality of oil. Extensive information is available on the content of fatty acids, although it is limited on carotenoids and chlorophylls. The effect of avocado oil on cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases has been demonstrated through in vitro and animal studies, but not in humans. Avocado oil continues to be of interest to the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries and is also generating increased attention in other areas including structured lipids, nanotechnology, and environmental care. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/share/author/TAPXYTUEBIGPETGIXK8R?target=10.1111/1541-4337.12784
... The structural resemblance portrays the vital role of chlorophylls in metabolism. Chlorophylls help in reinstating the red blood cells (RBCs) which contain hemoglobin to carry oxygen from the lungs to all body parts, while the enzymes present (chlorophyllase, peroxidases, and catalases) assists in the purification of blood and enhance the ability to carry more oxygen [127] . The electron leakage from the mitochondrial matrix in the electron transport chain is the source for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the form of free radicals like superoxide (O − 2 ) and hydroxyl radicals (OH − ) and the nonradical species such as hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). ...
Article
Vegetables are essential protective diet ingredients that supply ample amounts of minerals, vitamins, carbohydrates, proteins, dietary fiber, and various nutraceutical compounds for protection against various disease conditions. Color is the most important quality parameter for the farmers to access the harvest maturity while for the consumer's reliable indices to define acceptability or rejection. The colored vegetables contain functional compounds like chlorophylls, carotenoids, betalains, anthocyanins, etc. well recognized for their anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, hypolipidemic, neuroprotective, anti-aging, diuretic, and anti-diabetic properties. Recently, there has been a shift in food consumption patterns from processed to semi-processed or fresh fruits and vegetables to ensure a healthy disease-free life. This shifted the focus of agriculture scientists and food processors from food security to nutrition security. This has resulted in recent improvements to existing crops like blue tomato, orange cauliflower, colored/black carrots, with improved color, and thus enriched bioactive compounds. Exhaustive laboratory trials though are required to document and establish their minimum effective concentrations, bioavailability, and specific health benefits. Efforts should also be directed to breed color-rich cultivars or to improve the existing varieties through conventional and molecular breeding approaches. The present review has been devoted to a better understanding of vegetable colors with specific health benefits and to provide in-hand information about the effect of specific pigment on body organs, the effect of processing on their bioavailability, and recent improvements in colors to ensure a healthy lifestyle.
... These results together indicated that dyslipidemia requires long exposure of high-fat high sugar diet with the presence of exogenous pure cholesterol and the aid of cholic acid in the diet. Results from this study confirmed that 29 days of intake ofan N. scutellarius-containing diet can ameliorate the serum lipid profile whereby total energy reduction and antioxidants from N. scutellarius in the intervention diet may play a major role in the lipid profile improvement.The antioxidant activity of chlorophyll and carotenoids as natural pigments and other phytonutrients in the leaves of N. scutellarius could assist in reducing serum cholesterol levels through pathways such as preventing the absorption of cholesterol in the presence of saponins, improving liver function to reduce blood cholesterol through bile acid formation, binding of fat and cholesterol by phytonutrients such as phytol and eliminating them from the digestive tract via the excretory system 41 and inhibition of the activity of key enzymes of cholesterol synthesis, i.e., the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase.42 ...
Article
Full-text available
The antioxidant activity of Nothopanax scutellarius (Burm. f.) Merr, an edible plant, can prevent oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome (MetS). Thus, our research aimed to study the effect of dietary inclusion of fresh or boiled N. scutellarius on body weight and biochemical markers of Wistar rats with MetS. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided randomly into four groups, i.e., normal control group, high-fat-high-fructose diet (HFFD) group, fresh N. scutellarius (FNs) group, and boiled N. scutellarius (BNs) group. The normal control group was fed only a standard diet during the entire experiment. High-fat and high-fructose (HFHFr) diet accompanied with 20% fructose in drinking water to induce MetS was given to the HFFD, FNs, and BNs groups for 29 days. This was followed by a 29-day intervention diet in which standard normal diet, fresh N. scutellarius-containing standard diet, and boiled N. scutellarius-containing standard diet were given to the HFFD, FNs, and BNs groups, respectively. HFHFr diet significantly (p<0.05) raised fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and malondialdehyde (MDA), and significantly (p<0.05) reduced HDL-cholesterol. After 29 days on the intervention diet, serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol levels were found to decrease, and HDL-cholesterol levels were found to increase significantly (p<0.05). Thus, it can be concluded that dietary intake of N. scutellarius for 29 days can improve MetS components, i.e., FBG, serum lipid profile, and MDA, similar to those seen in rats on a normal control diet.
... However, the entire route of chromoplast formation on molecular level is yet to be elucidated. Plastid pigments (chlorophyll and their derivatives) provide two main health benefits to the human body: (1) they block dietary iron-induced metabolites from generating desolation in the body, and (2) they serve as dietary sources of magnesium that promotes healthy pH level thereby helping useful bacteria to thrive (Alsuhaibani et al., 2017). The possible mechanisms by which dietary chlorophyll and their derivatives play their role in reducing the risk of cancers in human being include anti-oxidation process, chelation of pro-oxidant ions especially iron or stimulation of cellular defense systems (Hsu et al., 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
The use of synthetic antioxidants has been associated with serious concerns for human and environmental health. During ripening stages, tomato fruit is exposed to different abiotic stresses which not only influence its nutritional, mechanical, and functional characteristics at harvest, but also affect the quality and shelf life of the fruit during storage. This study investigated the pattern of changes in dietary antioxidants during various ripening stages of tomato fruit (cv. Red Rose) and their impact on storage behavior of the fruit during cold storage. Tomato fruits were harvested at mature green, breaker, turning, pink, light-red and red stages of maturity. Then, they were analysed for flesh firmness, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, total sugars, pH, dry matter content, lipophilic (lycopene, β-carotene, and total carotenoids), and hydrophilic (ascorbic acid, phenolic and flavonoids) antioxidants. Additional fruits were harvested at each maturity stage and divided into three equal lots, then were subjected to low-temperature (10 ± 1 °C) storage with 80 ± 5 % RH, for 7, 14, and 21 days. Flesh firmness, and the levels of dietary antioxidants were analysed following the subsequent storage periods. The results revealed that the peak of hydrophilic antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, phenolic compounds, and flavonoids was between the ‘pink’ and the ‘light-red’ stages of fruit maturity. Whereas tomatoes harvested at the ‘red’ stage of maturity had the highest levels of lycopene and β-carotene. Both the stage of fruit maturity at harvest and duration of cold storage inflenced flesh firmness, organoleptic and functional properties of ‘Red Rose’ tomato fruit. In conclusion, the results of the current investigation have practical implications in formulating foods with improved functional properties at processing industries.
... Semakin pekat ekstrak yang dihasilkan maka menghasilkan warna sangat hijau, menunjukkan adanya kandungan klorofil, sehingga dengan semakin tingginya kandungan klorofil maka kadar antioksidannya juga semakin tinggi. Berbagai hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa klorofil mempunyai beberapa manfaat bagi kesehatan tubuh seperti merangsang sel-sel darah putih sehingga dapat memperkuat sistem kekebalan tubuh (Alsuhaibani et al., 2017). Antioksidan merupakan senyawa yang mampu memperlambat atau mencegah proses oksidasi dalam tubuh dengan kemampuan menangkap radikal bebas (Ighodaro dan Akinloye, 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan bubuk ekstrak daun kacang tujuh jurai terhadap sifat fisik dan kimia tablet effervescent. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) dengan 5 perlakuan yaitu penambahan bubuk ekstrak daun kacang tujuh jurai masing-masing 10, 15, 20, 25, dan 30% dengan 3 kali ulangan. Pengamatan tablet effervescent meliputi pengamatan fisik : penampakan, waktu larut, kekerasan dan kerapuhan; pengamatan kimia : kadar air, pH larutan, kadar vitamin C, aktivitas antioksidan, kadar klorofil, dan warna. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan bubuk ekstrak daun kacang tujuh jurai berpengaruh nyata terhadap ketebalan tablet, waktu larut, kerapuhan, kadar air, vitamin C, aktivitas antioksidan, kadar klorofil dan warna tablet effervescent yang dihasilkan. Penambahan bubuk ekstrak daun kacang tujuh jurai tidak mempengaruhi ukuran diameter tablet effervescent, kekerasan dan pH.ABSTRACTThis study was aimed to determine the effect of the addition of lima bean leaf extract powder on the physical chemical and properties of effervescent tablets. This study used a completely randomized design (CRD) with 5 treatments, the addition of lima bean leaf extract powder of 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30% with 3 replications, respectively. Tablet effervescent observations include physical observations: appearance, dissolution time, hardness and fragility; chemical observations: water content, pH of the solution, vitamin C level, antioxidant activity, chlorophyll content, and color. The results showed that the addition of lima bean leaf extract powder significantly affected tablet thickness, dissolution time, fragility, moisture content, vitamin C, antioxidant activity, chlorophyll content and effervescent tablet color produced. The addition of lima bean leaf extract powder did not affect the size of the effervescent tablet diameter, hardness and pH.
... In this respect, Aboel-Zahab et al. (1997) illustrated an increase in blood eosinophils of albino rats receiving TAZ for 30 and 60 days. A high chlorophyll diet decreased leukocytic count, hematocrit, and hemoglobin but increased erythrocytic count was achieved (Alsuhaibani et al. 2017). They attributed that to an antibacterial effect of CPL and the molecular structure of CPL and hemoglobin is analogous. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study assessed the long-term daily administration of benzoic acid (BA), potassium sorbate (PS), chlorophyll (CPL), tartrazine (TAZ), and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) on hepato-renal changes and DNA damage in rats. Animals were orally administered with the 10 times of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) from each tested substance daily for 60 consecutive days. Blood, liver, and kidney samples were collected to evaluate hematological, biochemical, histopathological, and genotoxic alterations. The extent of liver and kidney damage was evaluated by comet assay and histopathologically. Significant reduction of leukocyte numbers and lymphocytes % in CPL- and TAZ-treated rats. However, significant increases in platelet count in all treated groups after 60 days were detected. The levels of serum transaminases enzymes (ALT, AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and creatinine were significantly increased in all treatments except with BHA group, but no substantial differences were found in urea after 60 days. Aside from BHA, results of DNA damage revealed significant increases in tailed nuclei, tail moment, DNA% in the tail, and tail length in liver and kidney at different degrees. Moreover, the histopathological figures of liver and kidneys affirmed destructive and degenerative changes. The study indicates that most of the tested food additives may provoke genotoxicity and hepato-nephropathy, which could be serious for human health. Therefore, it is necessary to be informed about the hazardous effects of food additives and more attention should be focused towards using natural substitutes.
Article
In vitro antioxidant and antimutagenic activity of dietary chlorophyll derivatives was assessed. Antioxidant activity was determined by the ability of each compound to scavenge the long-lived free radicals 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS+). Antimutagenic activity was assayed with a modified microscreen bacterial reverse mutagenicity assay using Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and benzo[a]pyrene as the tester strain and mutagen respectively. Derivatives of chlorophyll a were found to be more effective radical quenchers than those of chlorophyll b. Furthermore, metal-free derivatives such as chlorins, pheophytins, and pyropheophytins exhibited significantly lower antiradical capacity than metallo-derivatives such as Mg-chlorophylls, Zn-pheophytins, Zn-pyropheophytins, Cu-pheophytina, andCu-chlorophyllins. Both metal-free and metallo-chlorophyll derivatives demonstrated similar dose-dependent inhibitory activity against B[a]P induced mutagenesis. These results demonstrate that dietary chlorophyll derivatives prevalent in both fresh and processed foods and dietary supplements have antioxidant and antimutagenic activities.