ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

Instant noodles are generally used up in Asian nations. Instant noodles seem to have started in Japan in the 1950s and today, are created in more than 80 nations around the world. Accommodation and practicality are critical components adding to its expanding fame. Besides this all ultra-processed foods including instant noodles containing artificial food colors, flavorings and certain preservatives have adverse effects upon children. Children with ADHD are advised to avoid all food that may contain preservatives such as BHA, BHT, TBHQ and sodium benzoate. Safety concerns identified with instant noodle utilization are regularly ascribed to the higher measure of fat and sodium content in the item. Despite the fact that expanding utilization of noodles has prompted deliberate actions to investigate the attainability of utilizing instant noodles as a vehicle for micronutrient fortification. Another step towards bioremediation is to treat noodle waste as a tool. Noodle waste contains significant amounts of starch, lignocellulosic material and oil. Then, using esterification and transesterification reactions, the pretreated oil is converted to biodiesel. The residual starch and lignocellulosic mixtures are hydrolyzed enzymatically to form small sugar units, such as glucose and fructose. The obtained hydrolysate is then fermented to produce bioethanol (conversion rate 96.8%). The hydrolysate can also be used as a nutrient for growing microorganisms for the production of lipids, enzymes and pigments. Additionally, noodle waste can be converted to animal feed. By intervening new health friendly compounds in noodle manufacturing may start a new era of fear free instant noodle consumption. Furthermore, fortification of instant noodles with essential micronutrients like vitamins and minerals, fiber and other flours, which enhance their nutritional attributes, can be targeted to ensure better nutrition to the people.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Electronic Journal of Biology, 2017, Vol.13(3): 222-227
ISSN 1860-3122 - 222 -
Abstract
Instant noodles are generally used up in Asian
nations. Instant noodles seem to have started in
Japan in the 1950s and today, are created in more
than 80 nations around the world. Accommodation
and practicality are critical components adding to
its expanding fame. Besides this all ultra-processed
foods including instant noodles containing articial
food colors, avorings and certain preservatives
have adverse effects upon children. Children with
ADHD are advised to avoid all food that may contain
preservatives such as BHA, BHT, TBHQ and sodium
benzoate. Safety concerns identied with instant
noodle utilization are regularly ascribed to the higher
measure of fat and sodium content in the item.
Despite the fact that expanding utilization of noodles
has prompted deliberate actions to investigate
the attainability of utilizing instant noodles as a
vehicle for micronutrient fortication. Another step
towards bioremediation is to treat noodle waste as
a tool. Noodle waste contains signicant amounts of
starch, lignocellulosic material and oil. Then, using
esterication and transesterication reactions, the
pretreated oil is converted to biodiesel. The residual
starch and lignocellulosic mixtures are hydrolyzed
enzymatically to form small sugar units, such as
glucose and fructose. The obtained hydrolysate is
then fermented to produce bioethanol (conversion
rate 96.8%). The hydrolysate can also be used as a
nutrient for growing microorganisms for the production
of lipids, enzymes and pigments. Additionally,
noodle waste can be converted to animal feed. By
intervening new health friendly compounds in noodle
manufacturing may start a new era of fear free instant
noodle consumption. Furthermore, fortication of
instant noodles with essential micronutrients like
vitamins and minerals, ber and other ours, which
enhance their nutritional attributes, can be targeted
to ensure better nutrition to the people.
Keywords: Instant noodles; Fried Noodles; TBHQ;
Ramen; Udon.
1. Introduction
Long thin piece of dough made from a combination
of eggs, our and water typically cooked in soup or
boiling water, is referred to as noodles. This food stuff
is crafted from unleavened dough that is prepared
from various types of components [1].
In many Asian states noodles are fed on as one of
the staple food stuff. Instant noodles have turn out to
be globally recognized food and global intake is getting
higher. The strengths of instant noodles like nutrients,
avor, safety, convenience, affordable price and longer
shelf-existence have made them famous. Shade,
texture, avor, cooking features, absence or presence
of rancid avor after long term storage and rehydration
degrees throughout nal provision are the value factors
essential for instant noodles [2].
Instant noodles are available in dried and precooked
noodle block, with seasoning oil and/or avoring
powder. The seasoning is commonly in a different
sachet, in spite of the fact that if there should arise an
occurrence of container noodles the avoring powder
is regularly free in the glass. Precooked instant
noodle range is seal pressed and those might be
warmth up or eaten in a ash from the holder/parcel.
While dried noodle pieces are cooked or absorbed
boiling water before expending [3].
1.1 History
Asian noodles, originated from China back in 5000
BC. Momofuku Ando developed “Chicken Ramen
TM.” In 1958, the world’s rst Instant noodles product
manufactured on large scale by Nissin Foods, Japan.
In culinary culture, a revolution delivered by means of
his accomplishment. He mounted the manufacturing
technique of ash frying noodles once they have been
made, developing the "instant" noodle. This manner
dried the noodles and furnished them a longer shelf
life, even surpassing that of frozen noodles. Each
noodle block become pre-avored and sold for 35
Instant Noodles: Are they Really Good for Health? A Review.
Madiha Sikander1,*, Arif Malik2, Muhammad Sikander Ghayas Khan3, Qurrat-
ul-ain4, Rabia Ghayas khan4
1 PhD Scholar, Department of Biochemistry, University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan;
2 Associate Professor, IMBB, University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan;
3 Assistant Professor, Riphah College Rehabilitation Sciences, Riphah International University, Lahore, Pakistan;
4 Post Graduate Trainee, Shalamar Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan.
*Corresponding author. Tel: 0333-7612525 E-mail: dr.madihakhan83@gmail.com
Citation: Sikander M, Malik A, Khan MSG, et al. Instant Noodles: Are they Really Good for Health? A Review. Electronic
J Biol, 13:3.
Received: May 09, 2017; Accepted: June 09, 2017; Published: June 15, 2017
Review Article
Electronic Journal of Biology, 2017, Vol.13(3): 222-227
ISSN 1860-3122 - 223 -
Survey (KNHANES) III report, instant noodles were
expended at a level of 18.1 g for each day per capita
across the country, that made instant noodles the
second biggest nourishment sort after steamed
rice that adds to the general vitality consumption of
Japanese [5].
In the year 2000, according to a Japanese poll "the
Japanese considered instant noodles as their best
development of the twentieth century. Roughly 96
billion servings of instant noodles are eaten worldwide
consistently, estimated in 2010. Indonesia consumes
14 billion packages of instant noodles per year, while
China consume 42 billion packages that comprises
of 44% of world consumption, like wise Japan, 5.3
billion, USA 4 billion, Vietnam 4.8 billion, Per capita.
The greatest amount of instant noodles that is 69
billion per capita per year is consumed by South
Koreans [6].
1.3 Composition
The primary constituents in instant noodles are
our, starch, water, salt and additionally a salt
substitute known as kansui, a kind of antacid mineral
water containing sodium carbonate and ordinarily
potassium carbonate and in addition at times a
little measure of phosphoric acid. Particular sorts of
noodle can be produced using a blend of wheat our
and other our, for example, buckwheat. There are
differences in the ingredients used depending on the
country of origin in terms of the our content and the
salt content.
1.4 Production
Instant noodles are portrayed into two classications
on the premise of strategies used for the ejection
of sogginess, i.e., instant dried noodles and instant
fried noodles. Instant dried noodles are conveyed
in a totally customized era line like the sort used for
steamed and sautéed noodles, beside that a constant
drying chamber replaces the signicant fryer, using
hot air as the drying medium. Sautéing the noodles
in oil reduces the sogginess substance of noodles to
around 2-5%, however in hot air dried noodles, it is
around 8-12%.
Noodles get a penetrable surface subsequent
Types of Instant
Noodles
Calories
(kcal)
Total
Fat (g)
Sodium
(mg)
Potassium
(mg)
Total Carbs
(g)
Dietary
Fiber (g)
Sugars
(g) Protein (g)
Ramen 420 20 0 0 60 0 0 10
Rice 160 0 25 0 37 0 0 3
Soba/Buckwheat 226.7 1.3 600 0 46.7 2.7 1.3 6.7
Bean thread 260 0 6 0 65 2 0 0
Udon/wheat our 250 2 192 0 51 2 1 8
Shirataki 10 0 0 0 0 5 0 0
Egg 334 2 7 0 75 1 0 11
Table 1. Nutrition facts of different kinds of noodles.
Figure 1. Consumption of instant noodles in different
countries [data gures represents 100 million packets;
plotted using data from WINA (2011)].
yen. At the beginning, because of its novelty and
high price, “Chicken Ramen” becomes taken into
consideration a luxury product, as eastern grocery
stores typically retailed fresh noodles for one-6th
their rates.
Instant noodles won enormous recognition in spite of
this, especially after being sponsored by Mitsubishi
Enterprise. Nissin delivered Nissin cup noodles
in 1971, a polystyrene cup has instant noodles, to
cook the noodles, boiling water is brought to create
a complete instant soup dish, in addition innovation
added dried vegetables to the cup [4].
1.2 Consumption world wide
Starting at 2008, right around 93.6 billion servings of
instant noodles have been utilized around the world.
Amid 2008, 45.2 billion bundles of instant noodles
devoured in China, speaking to 51% of the worldwide
utilization of instant noodles, while Indonesians spent
13.7 billion bundles, 5.1 billion bundles expended in
Japan, Americans utilized 4.3 billion bundles and
3.3 billion bundles devoured in South Koreans.
South Koreans devour the most noteworthy per
capita measure of instant noodles at 69 servings for
each year, which is 4.8 times more prominent than
the utilization of Americans and 1.7 times higher
than the per capita allow in Japan. Set up on the
Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination
Electronic Journal of Biology, 2017, Vol.13(3): 222-227
ISSN 1860-3122 - 224 -
to warming amid browning or hot air drying that
gelatinizes the starch, which encourages rehydration
prepare while cooking the noodles. Hot air drying
brings about uneven drying that harmfully inuences
the nature of the completed noodles, in this manner
does not have the unique avor presented by
profound broiling and requires a more drawn out
cooking time. Frying is the favored technique for
drying and over 80% of instant noodles are fried on
account of the resultant noodle item is much better
in taste and taking care of. The downside of broiling,
in any case, is that fried noodles hold around 15–
20% oil (contrasted and a most extreme of 3% fat
in hot air-dried noodles), are more exposed against
oxidation creating in rancidity, and have medical
problems because of higher fat substance. The
use of cancer prevention agents, be that as it may,
protracts the timeframe of realistic usability of instant
fried noodles [2].
1.5 Types and avors of instant noodles
Ramen, udon, buckwheat and rice noodles are
usually called Oriental noodles as well, contrasting
American noodles, which are produced using durum
wheat our and indicated to contain egg, Oriental
noodles are set up from hard or delicate wheat ours
and for the most part do not have egg. Now and then
other grain sources use to made starches or ours
from. Oriental noodles can be separated by and large
into Chinese and Japanese sorts. Despite the fact
that an exact minute rate of the constituents, the
utilization of salt accords the key distinction among
the two sorts. Where Chinese noodles utilize antacid
salts, Japanese noodles utilize customary salt, a
typical case of which is Kan-Sui, a blend of sodium
carbonate and potassium carbonate. Fragile and low
protein ours gotten from delicate wheat are utilized
to make Japanese noodles. While Chinese noodles
as a rule utilize hard wheat which has strong and
high protein ours. The high protein our makes
batter that is more grounded and more exible when
consolidated with the antacid salts, and a noodle that
is chewier and more yellow than Japanese noodles.
Moreover shortly, Oriental noodles vary as per their
arrangement and ingredients. Plant inception of
the our, give the genuine assortment in kinds of
noodles, with noodles from wheat our being the
most widely recognized. More sorts utilize wheat our
in mix with starch, mung bean our or potato starch,
or buckwheat our. One excellent kind of noodle is
delivered altogether from mung bean starch. Rice
noodles are additionally accessible. The level of
Figure 2. Processing and classication of instant noodles.
Electronic Journal of Biology, 2017, Vol.13(3): 222-227
ISSN 1860-3122 - 225 -
precooking and dampness content convey essential
merits in Oriental noodles.
They are offered as wet [bubbled] noodles, crisp
[crude] noodles, steamed and boiled instant [ramen]
noodles and steamed and dried [alpha] noodles,
dried noodles. Oriental noodles come in all sizes
and shapes, wide, medium or thin; round or square;
short or long; in strips, diced or bars frames. Their
shading and surface shifts as per the components
utilized. Starch and bean string noodles are optically
clear. Noodles containing salt are white and murky.
Buckwheat noodles are dark colored. Antacid/
alkaline noodles are splendid yellow in shading. For
quality white and yellow shading, high review our
processed from white wheat is utilized. Elective and
minor elements, for example, gluten, eggs, altered
starch or gums, additives, emulsiers and dried
spinach or other coloring agents may inuence
surface and tinting.
1.6 Fortication of instant noodles
Instant noodles can be strengthened either via
avoring, expended alongside the noodles or by
sustaining the our used to make the noodles.
Micronutrients containing vitamin, B2, B1, A, folic
acid, niacin, iodine and iron can be included, however
the micronutrients and their overages will contrast
with every technique. Choosing the appropriate type
of forticant is critical to limit supplement sustenance
and additionally supplement connections and any
resultant unfavorable impacts. Iron, for example, is
a hard mineral to add to nourishments as the most
bioavailable sorts have a tendency to invigorate
fat oxidation bringing on in the development of
unsuitable tactile adjustments in the completed
item. In any case, ferrous sulfate in dried frame is
the favored sort of iron to strengthen the wheat our
that is utilized inside 1-2 months of creation. Before
being utilized as a part of instant noodles generation,
ferrous fumarate or electrolytic iron (of molecule size:
98% <48 µm) are more qualied for wheat our that
is put away for a more drawn out time. Electrolytic
iron may be additionally appropriate type of forticant
for instant noodles avoring to decrease tangible
difculties [7].
1.7 Flour fortication
Wheat our fortication at the factory has for quite
some time been practiced everywhere throughout
the world and involves relatively forthright innovation.
The procedure of fortication is done through a
volumetric feeder that is situated towards the end
of the processing procedure which included a
micronutrient premix in our. Single premix gives
better control over the amount and dispersion of
micronutrients in the our in this way micronutrients
are generally included as blend.
1.8 Flavoring fortication
Fortifying the avoring brought with the noodles
is normally rened in a few sections of the world.
In business generation of sustained instant noodle
avoring in South East Asia, forticant are included
alongside the other avoring constituents to a
ribbon blender and blended precisely. The sustained
avoring is around then sprinkled over the noodles
[for container style] or bundled into a sachet [for
pocket style].
1.9 Hazards related with instant noodles
consumption
Tertiary butylhydroquinone, TBHQ
TBHQ is in fact a chemical preservative which
is a form of butane. It is used in food products; it
greatly extends the shelf life of foods and delays the
onset of rancidness. It's not surprising that certain
convenience foods and fast foods seem to retain
a life time on the shelves now a days. The allowed
amount by FDA is up to 0.02% of the total oils in food
to be TBHQ. It may not sound like a lot, but why there
require being a limit on the amount if it is seemingly
a 'harmless preservative.' Beware; everything which
originates from butane, no matter how small the dose
is could barely be classied as safe.
Expending high dosages (in the vicinity of 1 and 4 g)
of TBHQ can bring about sickness, incoherence, fall,
tinnitus (ringing in the ears) and retching. There are
additionally recommendations that it might prompt
hyperactivity in youngsters and in addition asthma,
rhinitis and dermatitis. It might likewise additionally
irritate ADHD manifestations and cause eagerness
[8]. Long haul, high dosages of TBHQ in research
facility creatures have demonstrated an inclination
for them to create malignant antecedents in their
stomachs and in addition cause DNA harm to them
[9]. It is likewise proposed that it might be in charge
of inuencing estrogen levels in ladies.
The blend of disodium EDTA (500 ppm) and TBHQ
(200 ppm) in the frying oil quintupled the time span
of usability. The inside surface use of TBHQ (200
ppm) delayed time span of usability twice that of an
equivalent measure of TBHQ in the frying oil [8].
Sodium
Sodium substance was observed to be in the range
of 821 mg for each 100 g much above points of
connement set by the British sustenance wellbeing
organization. Knorr Soupy Noodles contained the
most noteworthy sodium substance of 1,943 mg for
each 100 g, while the least sodium substance was in
Maggi Mera Masala at 821 mg for every 100 g [9].
In the present review, the sodium allow in the INC
meeting was >6.4 g for each day, which was 3.2
times higher than the prescribed KDRI approval.
Electronic Journal of Biology, 2017, Vol.13(3): 222-227
ISSN 1860-3122 - 226 -
Instant noodle utilization contributed roughly 30% of
the aggregate sodium intake (2,032.2 mg for every
day). The salty taste of the soup base is supported
by numerous customers. Luckily, Koreans do not lean
toward salty and oily tastes [10]. A review was directed to
decrease sodium levels in instant noodles; that review
revealed that 20% of the sodium content, roughly 350
mg, from not eating the soup base without changing
taste and avor [11]. As of late, the Ministry of Health
and Welfare in Korea reported "Dietary Guidelines
for Korean Adults", which recommend ten dietary
objectives, six dietary rules and 23 real rules, including
expending an adjusted vitality consumption and <5 g
sodium allow in the eating regimen [12]. The Korea Food
and Drug Administration has as of late settled a manual
for "the correct nourishment determinations for Korean
children" to guarantee sound dietary propensities in
later life. The Toyama Birth Cohort Study in Japan as
of late detailed that middle school understudies who
habitually expend instant noodles [no less than 3 days/
week] from the age of 3 demonstrate a higher hazard
for a lower personal satisfaction [chances proportion
[OR], 1.49; P=0.007] [13]. Youngsters who have an
inclination for salty sustenance have a tendency to
keep up and fortify this propensity in their later life, so
nourishing instruction programs advancing appropriate
sodium utilization ought to be led right on time in life
[14].
Bisphenol A
The review, distributed in The Journal of Nutrition,
was based on information from the Korean National
Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007-
2009. Utilizing the review information, analysts
inspected the weight control plans of a sum of
10,711 grown-ups between the ages of 19-64. The
review says a compound called bisphenol A [BPA] is
regularly found in Styrofoam compartments used to
hold a few brands of instant noodles. Researchers
have demonstrated that BPA can meddle with the
body's hormones, especially the female sex hormone
estrogen, Shin said in an announcement [15].
Monosodium glutamate
Instant noodles and the seasoning soup base
likewise contain high measures of monosodium
glutamate (MSG). It is a avor enhancer utilized by
instant noodle producers to make their shrimp avors
"shrimpier" and hamburger avors "beeer". MSG
can trigger an unfavorably susceptible response in 1
to 2% of the populace. People who are oversensitive
to MSG can get consuming sensations, trunk and
facial ushing or torment and cerebral pains from it
[16].
Propylene glycol
The component in the instant noodles called
"Propylene Glycol" which has a liquid catalyst property.
This ingredient is utilized on the grounds that it keeps
the noodles from drying by holding dampness. It
enervates the insusceptible arrangement of our
body. It is effortlessly consumed by the body and it
amasses in the kidneys, heart and liver. It makes
variations from the norm and harm those ranges [17].
Polystyrene packaging
1) Polyethylene terephthalate that is mostly used in
packaging of drinks and mineral water that is toxic and
has damaging effects on the body; 2) polypropylene
that is used in packaging of a variety of snacks; 3)
high-density polyethylene; 4) polystyrene which
is used in foam and non-foam in the manufacture
of disposable one-time usage containers such as
cups, plates, utensils, etc. These substances are
carcinogenic aromatic compounds and according
to warnings from experts, in long-term use, have
harmful effects on human health [18].
In addition, there are other compounds used in
plastic material that may have toxic effects on the
body. Bisphenol, an unbreakable, light, as well as
transparent material, is used to make polycarbonate
plastic (such as athletes’ water bottle in the coating
of food cans, beverage cans, and also dental
lling materials). With washing and frequent use of
plastics, Bisphenol A leaks into uid that can induce
asthma and allergies in children. Moreover, it has
a likely effect on the cell DNA and creates genetic
mutation. Perhaps the increasing prevalence of
asthma in the past 30 years could be attributed to
certain factors in the environment such as Bisphenol
A. The fat droplets on the surface of hot liquids in
the plastic disposable cups is in fact polystyrene
which is a poison derived from the plastic. Dioxin is
another highly toxic chemical substance for human
cells that is particularly produced from plastic
dishes by the heat of high-fat foods. Phthalates in
plastic materials cause hormonal abnormalities,
birth defects, reproductive problems, as well as high
concentrations of phthalates metabolites in the urine
exacerbates the asthma symptoms [19].
Noodles waste recycling
Noodle waste contains signicant amounts of starch,
lignocellulosic material and oil. Pretreatment involving
extraction followed by centrifugation is necessary to
separate the oil from the starch and lignocellulosic
mixtures. The isolated oil is subjected to a separation
process to make it water and solvent free. Then,
using esterication and transesterication reactions,
the oil is converted to biodiesel by chemical (97.8–
98.5% yield) and enzymatic (95.4% yield) methods.
The residual starch and lignocellosic mixtures
are hydrolyzed enzymatically to form small sugar
Electronic Journal of Biology, 2017, Vol.13(3): 222-227
ISSN 1860-3122 - 227 -
units, such as glucose and fructose. The obtained
hydrolysate is then fermented to produce bioethanol
(conversion rate 96.8%). The hydrolysate can also
be used as a nutrient for growing microorganisms
for the production of lipids, enzymes and pigments.
Additionally, noodle waste can be converted to
animal feed [20].
2. Conclusion
To cope up with the daily hectic routine of mankind,
it is necessary to take food which can provide
the required energy in less time with great taste.
Purposive fortication may help instant noodle
to carry some nutrition but there is much need to
divert attention of people that there are healthier
and natural resources of good and fast food other
than instant noodles. By switching eating habits from
staple to fast and ultra-processed food we are just
collecting the new bunch of health and envoirmental
hazards. More scientic studies should be proceed to
nd out benets of healthy eating so that people can
be convinced to stay healthy with good food.
3. Acknowledgement
We acknowledge Khunsha Sikander and Saif Ullah
khan for their cooperation in manuscript writing.
References
[1] Taneya M, Biswas M, Ud-Din MS. (2014). The studies
on the preparation of instant noodles from wheat our
supplementing with sweet potato our. Journal of the
Bangladesh Agricultural University. 12: 135-142.
[2] Gulia N, Dhaka V, Khatkar B. (2014). Instant noodles:
Processing, quality and nutritional aspects. Crit Rev
Food Sci Nutr. 54: 1386-1399.
[3] Wang L, Hou GG, Hsu Y-H, Zhou L. (2011). Effect of
phosphate salts on the Korean non-fried instant noodle
quality. J Cereal Sci. 54: 506-512.
[4] Zhang N, Ma G. (2016). Noodles, traditionally and
today. J Ethnic Foods. 3: 209-212.
[5] Lee JS, Kim J, Hong KH, et al. (2009). A comparison
of food and nutrient intakes between instant noodle
consumers and non-consumers among Korean children
and adolescents. Korean J Nutr. 42: 723-731.
[6] Kim D, Lee CK, Seo DY. (2016). Food deserts in Korea?
A GIS analysis of food consumption patterns at sub-
district level in Seoul using the KNHANES 2008-2012
data. Nutr Res Pract. 10: 530-536.
[7] Nestel P, Nalubola R. (2002). Technical brief on iron
compounds for fortication of staple foods. Washington,
DC: International Nutritional Anemia Consultative Group.
[8] Choy AL, Hughes JG, Small DM. (2010). The effects
of microbial transglutaminase, sodium stearoyl lactylate
and water on the quality of instant fried noodles. Food
Chem. 122: 957-964.
[9] Choy AL, May BK, Small DM. (2012). The effects of
acetylated potato starch and sodium carboxymethyl
cellulose on the quality of instant fried noodles. Food
Hydrocoll. 26: 2-8.
[10] Kim SK, Lee AR. (1989). Survey on consumption
pattern of ramyon in Seoul area. Journal of the Korean
Society of Food Culture. 4: 395-404.
[11] Chang SO. (2006). The amount of sodium in the
processed foods, the use of sodium information on the
nutrition label and the acceptance of sodium reduced
ramen in the female college students. Korean J Nutr.
39: 585-591.
[12] Paik HY, Kim CI, Moon HK, et al. (2008). Dietary goals
and dietary guidelines for Korean adults. Korean J
Nutr. 41: 887-899.
[13] Wang H, Sekine M, Chen X, et al. (2008). Lifestyle at 3
years of age and quality of life (QOL) in rst-year junior
high school students in Japan: results of the Toyama
Birth Cohort Study. Qual Life Res. 17: 257-265.
[14] Park J, Lee JS, Jang YA, et al. (2011). A comparison
of food and nutrient intake between instant noodle
consumers and non-instant noodle consumers in
Korean adults. Nutr Res Pract. 5: 443-449.
[15] Yang M, Kim SY, Lee SM, et al. (2003). Biological
monitoring of bisphenol A in a Korean population. Arch
Environ Contam Toxicol. 44: 546-551.
[16] Liu F, He Y. (2008). Classication of brands of
instant noodles using Vis/NIR spectroscopy and
chemometrics. Food Res Int. 41: 562-567.
[17] Kim J, Shin M. (2016). Classication of noodles and
development of gluten-free rice noodle.
[18] Robinson L, Miller R. (2015). The impact of bisphenol
A and phthalates on allergy, asthma and immune
function: A review of latest ndings. Curr Environ
Health Rep. 2: 379-387.
[19] Athari S. (2017). Using plastic containers for hot meals
may induce potential risk of allergic asthma. Journal of
Food Quality and Hazards Control. 4: 1-2.
[20] Karmee SK. (2017). Noodle waste based biorenery:
An approach to address fuel, waste management and
sustainability. Biofuels. 1-10.
... However, their consumption has increasingly grown globally [2,3]. Increasing consumption has been noted among the youth population, especially students [4,5]. According to literature, instant noodles are preferred because of their taste, extended shelf life, cheap price as well as convenience, which suit the busy lifestyle of the student population [2,4,6]. ...
... Increasing consumption has been noted among the youth population, especially students [4,5]. According to literature, instant noodles are preferred because of their taste, extended shelf life, cheap price as well as convenience, which suit the busy lifestyle of the student population [2,4,6]. However, it has been highlighted that instant noodles are not always a healthy food choice [6]. ...
... There is a concern on the adequacy of nutrients obtained from instant noodles, especially when consumed as a single food item as a meal. This can lead to malnutrition if noodles are consumed in large portions and may be detrimental to the health of young women [4,7,8]. The nutrient quality compromise poses a negative impact on the functioning of the body, which can affect the students negatively [7]. ...
Full-text available
Article
There has been a significant increase in the consumption of instant noodles among the youth, especially students. According to literature, instant noodles are preferred because of their taste, extended shelf life, cheap price as well as convenience, which suit the busy lifestyle of the student population. However, it has been highlighted that instant noodles are not always a healthy food choice. The nutrient quality compromise poses a negative impact on the functioning of the body, which could affect the student’s nutrition negatively. The objective of the study was, therefore, to determine the potential of Amaranthus leaf powder in fortifying instant noodles. Articles looking at instant noodle utilization and consumption by students as well as Amaranthus use, perceptions and utilization were used in this narrative review. These were selected and grouped by the authors according to the sub-topics mentioned above. Literature reports that instant noodles can be fortified by substituting wheat flour with Amaranthus grain flour. Studies on Amaranthus snacks and other starch-based foods using the leaf part have been reported but the fortification of noodles with Amaranthus leaf powder is not documented. The findings on the consumer acceptability of Amaranthus leaf powder-fortified foods have reported lower acceptability. This is due to unfamiliar sensory attributes such as a green color and a ‘leafy’ taste. Amaranthus is still perceived as food for poor and backward people, which contributes to lower acceptability of the plant to the youth. Nevertheless, Amaranthus leaves are considerably nutritious and the incorporation in staple foods could maximise crop utilization. Therefore, incorporation of Amaranthus with the noodles could lead to instant noodle indigenization in South Africa and give a sense of identity to the future generations. Furthermore, Amaranth-fortified noodles could sustain the utilization of traditional foods, promoting local-based food systems and help reduce unemployment among the youth.
... In 1958, Momofuku Ando invented the world's first instant noodles in Japan. These were produced on a large scale by Nissin Foods [3][4][5]. Instant noodles are popular in over 80 countries around the world. According to the World Instant Noodles Association (WINA), in 2020, the demand for instant noodles was 116.560 trillion servings of instant noodles worldwide, equivalent to 319 million servings per day [6]. ...
... Instant noodles represent such convenience foods, as a product ready to be heated or for thermal processing [7]. The advantages of instant noodles include convenience, ease and speed of preparation, single-portion packaging, sensory values (obtained in the deep-fat frying process) expected by consumers (taste, color, texture), and an affordable price [5,8]. Another advantage of instant noodles is their absorbing the taste of sauces or other additives, and coexisting well with other ingredients [4]. ...
Full-text available
Article
The goal of this study was to determine the effect of rice and hemp protein addition together with transglutaminase on the quality and fat content of fried instant noodles. The following parameters have been analyzed during this research: the amount of water, fat content, hydration time, color and texture parameters. The evaluation of sensory parameters before and after cooking of instant noodles has been performed. It can be concluded that the addition of TGase significantly decreased the fat content; the recipe with a 3% hemp protein addition with TGase in an amount of 2% was the most promising solution to obtain a low-fat product. On the other hand, the better consumer acceptance levels were observed for the rice protein addition (1%) with 2% TGase. It seems that the most promising product is the sample with a 5% addition of rice protein with 2% TGase-a reduction in the fat content by 30% (from 25% to 16%). The addition of rice protein, hemp protein and TGase reduced the fat content of the instant noodles in comparison to the control sample. The additives used had an impact on the L*, a* and b* color parameters. All instant noodles obtained during the research process were characterized by a short hydration time, which did not exceed 5 min. During the sensory evaluation, analyzed samples of the instant noodles obtained scores higher than 4.2 points on a five-point scale.
... 26 Mi instan mengandung kalori sebanyak 420kkal, lemak total 20g, karbohidrat total 60g, dan protein sebesar 10g. 27 Efek gabungan dari kepadatan energi yang tinggi (381-464 kkal/100 g), muatan glikemik tinggi dengan karbohidrat olahan, kadar lemak jenuh tinggi (66,2-87,2 kkal/100 g), dan natrium tinggi (1,7-2,5g/porsi) pada mi instan dapat berkontribusi pada peningkatan risiko sindrom metabolik dan obesitas sentral. 23 Berdasarkan hasil penelitian sebelumnya, konsumsi mi instan ≥ 2 kali/minggu berhubungan dengan sindrom metabolik (OR: 1,68; 95% CI: 1,10-2,55) dan obesitas sentral (OR: 1,48; 95% CI: 0,99-2,21) pada wanita tetapi tidak pada lakilaki. ...
Article
Adolescents who are overweight or obese are at higher risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer at a later time. Consumption of fast food and inadequate physical activity are important risk factors for overweight and obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of fast food consumption and physical activity with the nutritional status of adolescents in SMK Negeri 2 Tangerang Selatan 2019. The study was a cross-sectional design, conducted in April 2009. Participants were 269 vocational highschool students, aged 15-18 years. Information on fast food consumption was collected by Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Logistic regression was used for analysis. The results of multivariate analysis showed that consumption of instant noodles and lack of physical activity were significantly associated with overweight and obesity in adolescents (p-value <0.05). The odds ratios (OR) for instant noodles consumption of ≥1 time/week and less physical activity were 2.310 (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.292-4.132) and 1.937 (95% CI: 1.064-3.534), respectively. In conclusion, consumption of instant noodles ≥ 1 time/week and lack of physical activity were associated with an increased risk of overweight or obesity in the adolescent. This study recommended the importance of reducing fast-food consumption and increasing physical activity in order to prevent overweight or obesity in adolescents. Abstrak Berat badan berlebih dan obesitas pada remaja dapat meningkatkan risiko penyakit kronik seperti penyakit kardiovaskular dan kanker di kemudian hari. Konsumsi makanan cepat saji dan aktivitas fisik yang rendah merupakan faktor risiko yang dapat menyebabkan kelebihan berat badan dan obesitas. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara konsumsi makanan cepat saji dan aktivitas fisik dengan status gizi remaja di SMK Negeri 2 Kota Tangerang Selatan. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain penelitian cross-sectional yang dilaksanakan di bulan April 2019. Partisipan terdiri dari 269 siswa SMK, berusia 15-18 tahun. Informasi mengenai konsumsi makanan cepat saji dikumpulkan dengan menggunakan Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan regresi logistik. Hasil analisis multivariat menunjukkan bahwa konsumsi mi instan dan kurang aktivitas fisik berhubungan secara signifikan dengan kelebihan berat badan dan obesitas pada remaja (p-value <0,05). Odds Ratio (OR) untuk konsumsi mi instan ≥1 kali/minggu adalah 2,310 (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1,292-4,132) dan OR aktivitas fisik yang kurang adalah 1,937, 95% CI: 1,064-3,534). Dapat disimpulkan bahwa konsumsi mi instan ≥1 kali/minggu dan aktivitas fisik yang kurang berhubungan dengan peningkatan risiko kelebihan berat badan dan obesitas pada remaja. Penelitian ini merekomendasikan pentingnya mengurangi konsumsi makanan cepat saji dan meningkatkan aktivitas fisik untuk mencegah kelebihan berat badan atau obesitas pada remaja.
... Chowdhury et al., (2020) indicated that the instant noodles contain 8.5% to 12.5% protein with deficiency of other main nutrients, such as dietary fiber and vitamins. On the same content Sikander et al., (2017) found that the instant noodles contain about 2 % of dietary fibre, the thiamine content of commercial Asian instant noodles ranged between 0.077 and 0.156 mg/100 g (Bui and Small, 2008), whereas riboflavin varied between 0.37 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2022.101833 1018-3647/Ó 2022 The Author(s). ...
Full-text available
Article
Objective: To increase the nutritional value of instant noodles, enriched wheat flour with selected legume flours, chickpea or yellow lentil, at substitution ratios of 15%, 20%, and 25%. Methods: The technological and nutritional properties of the obtained instant noodles were studied in terms of proximate analysis, energy, cooking quality, amino acids content, rheological properties, and sensory evaluation. Results: Enrichment of durum wheat flour with lentil or chickpea flour improved the resulting instant noodles in terms of protein, crude fat, ash, and crude fiber contents, and contributed in reducing carbohydrates and energy obtained. Lysin, tryptophan, and threonine contents in durum wheat noodles were found to be 2.31, 1.09, and 3.15 g/100 g protein, respectively, which increased to 3.32, 1.34, and 3.45 g/100 g protein, respectively, with 25% replacement of chickpea flour. Greater increases were obtained with 25% replacement with lentil flour as the concentration of lysin, tryptophan, and threonine reached 3.34, 1.27, and 3.61 g/100 g protein, respectively. As the replacement ratio increased, the total essential amino acids increased from 36.96 % to 39.01% with 25% replacement of chickpea flour and 38.59 % with 25% replacement of lentil flour. Water absorption increased significantly from 59.71% to 69.01% with increasing proportion of chickpea or lentil flours in dough mixtures. The elevation in arrival time, dough development time, and stability time among the flour blends with 15% to 25% chickpea or lentil flours ranged from 1.7 to 2.1 min, 4.8 to 5.9 min, and 2.8 to 4.8 min, respectively. Sensory evaluation showed that the panelists significantly (p
... Noodles are popular foods in Asia and are made from wheat flour into a long and thin shape. It is a staple Asian food that can be categorized as a substitute food because it acts as an alternative to rice, is affordable, and is easy to serve (Sikander et al., 2017;Adejuwon et al., 2019). Noodles are usually yellow but may come in a variety of colours to attract customers. ...
Article
Caulerpa racemosa is a green macroalga that contains chlorophyll, a natural colorant, which has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiparasitic, and antioxidant properties. This study aimed to determine the effect different concentrations of C. racemosa mixed with distilled water have on raw noodles and to discover the optimal concentration. Fresh C. racemosa was mixed with distilled water into 25%, 50%, and 75% w/v solutions. It was then added to the dough for making noodles, the latter of which were tested in triplicate for colour, total phenol, total chlorophyll, protein, tensile strength, and consumer preference. The C. racemosa extracts had a significant effect (P<0.05) on colour, total phenol, total chlorophyll, protein, and consumer preference, but did not significantly influence tensile strength. Noodles with a 75% C. racemosa concentration were preferred for their attractive green colour.
... Noodles came to China prior to 5000 BC, then spread to other Asian countries, such as Japan, Thailand, Korea, and Indonesia (Lee et al., 2002). Noodles are consumed as one of the basic foodstuffs in many Asian countries (Sikander et al., 2017) and preferred by people of all ages because they are relatively inexpensive and easy to serve. Noodles are also widely consumed in Indonesia, which is not the primary producer of wheat flour. ...
Full-text available
Article
Noodles are generally made from wheat flour, so their nutritional contents and characteristics depend on flour and other ingredients used. In the present work, fresh noodles were fortified with Caulerpa sp. filtrate in proportions of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%, and the quality and characteristics of fresh noodles obtained were determined. The assessments were conducted on the proximate compositions, dietary fibre, β-carotene, total phenolic content, textural properties, physical properties, and sensory qualities of noodles. The addition of Caulerpa sp. filtrate increased the ash contents of noodles, and the ash contents of noodles were 1.45 ± 0.03 to 1.52 ± 0.04%. The β-carotene contents of noodles increased from 1.92 ± 0.19 to 3.68 ± 0.40 mg/kg with the addition of 15% Caulerpa sp. filtrate. Furthermore, total phenolic compounds were increased to a maximum of 85.2 ±1.82 mg GAE/100 g with the addition of Caulerpa sp. filtrate. The tensile strengths of noodles increased as Caulerpa sp. filtrate increased, while the elongations of noodles slightly decreased with the addition of Caulerpa sp. filtrate. The brightness of noodles decreased, and the greenness increased with the addition of Caulerpa sp. filtrate. Noodles with 15 and 20% Caulerpa sp. filtrate had significantly higher cooking yields than noodles without Caulerpa sp. filtrate. Consumer acceptance of noodles was not affected by Caulerpa sp. filtrate. Caulerpa sp. noodles could be a nutritional benefit for daily diets since they contain more β-carotene, minerals, and phenolic compounds.
... Noodles came to China prior to 5000 BC, then spread to other Asian countries, such as Japan, Thailand, Korea, and Indonesia (Lee et al., 2002). Noodles are consumed as one of the basic foodstuffs in many Asian countries (Sikander et al., 2017) and preferred by people of all ages because they are relatively inexpensive and easy to serve. Noodles are also widely consumed in Indonesia, which is not the primary producer of wheat flour. ...
Full-text available
Article
Noodles are generally made from wheat flour, so their nutritional contents and characteristics depend on flour and other ingredients used. In the present work, fresh noodles were fortified with Caulerpa sp. filtrate in proportions of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%, and the quality and characteristics of fresh noodles obtained were determined. The assessments were conducted on the proximate compositions, dietary fibre, β-carotene, total phenolic content, textural properties, physical properties, and sensory qualities of noodles. The addition of Caulerpa sp. filtrate increased the ash contents of noodles, and the ash contents of noodles were 1.45 ± 0.03 to 1.52 ± 0.04%. The β-carotene contents of noodles increased from 1.92 ± 0.19 to 3.68 ± 0.40 mg/kg with the addition of 15% Caulerpa sp. filtrate. Furthermore, total phenolic compounds were increased to a maximum of 85.2 ±1.82 mg GAE/100 g with the addition of Caulerpa sp. filtrate. The tensile strengths of noodles increased as Caulerpa sp. filtrate increased, while the elongations of noodles slightly decreased with the addition of Caulerpa sp. filtrate. The brightness of noodles decreased, and the greenness increased with the addition of Caulerpa sp. filtrate. Noodles with 15 and 20% Caulerpa sp. filtrate had significantly higher cooking yields than noodles without Caulerpa sp. filtrate. Consumer acceptance of noodles was not affected by Caulerpa sp. filtrate. Caulerpa sp. noodles could be a nutritional benefit for daily diets since they contain more β-carotene, minerals, and phenolic compounds.
... MSG induces appetite positively and stimulates weight gain due to its irritation of the ornosensory receptors and enhancing the palatability of food [5]. Dried noodle pieces are cooked or absorbed boiling water before expending [6]. Levels of free glutamate in foods of animal are quite low in beef 33 mg/100 g and in cows' milk 2 mg/100 g), while the higher levels in vegetables such as in seasoning, sauce and restaurant foods is about 30-200 mg/100 g [7]. ...
Article
Aim of study is to evaluate the influence of Monosodium glutamate on lipid profile (Cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL and HDL) and heart tissues of Wistar rats. Group one represented non treated rat(Control), group two received 0.5 g monosodium glutamate ((MSG), group three received i.0 g MSG and group four received 1.5 g MSG. Results indicated that significance increasing in serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL (low density lipoprotein), HDL (High density lipoprotein) with increasing the dose of MSG. In addition, change in heart tissues of rats is clear observed in low, mid and high dose of MSG compared with non-treated rats. The experiment was clear indicated the effect MSG on lipid profile and heart tissues of Wistar rats.
Article
Noodles are a popular starchy food among youth and children. However, they are not nutritionally adequate as a single meal. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of Amaranthus leaf powder (ALP) addition on the nutritional composition, physical quality and consumer acceptability of instant noodles. Instant noodle samples were developed by partially substituting wheat flour used in a common noodle recipe with 1, 2 and 3% (w/w) of ALP. The samples were analyzed for nutritional composition using AOAC methods. Physical quality was evaluated in terms of color (CIELAB color values) and texture (g cutting force). Consumer acceptability was evaluated by 60 panelists using a 9-point hedonic scale. Increasing ALP from 0% to 3% had a non-significant effect on the total glycemic carbohydrate, protein, fiber and mineral contents of the noodles. However, the fat content significantly increased (from 1.55% to 4.57%) with the inclusion of ALP, leading to a higher energy value. ALP-fortified noodle samples were significantly softer in texture (271.39 g) than standard noodles (control) (609.08 g), and a significantly greener color was observed with ALP addition. All noodle samples were as acceptable as the control, which suggests that ALP could be used to improve the nutritional value of instant noodles.
Full-text available
Article
Noodle waste contains significant amounts of starch, lignocellulosic material and oil. Pretreatment involving extraction followed by centrifugation is necessary to separate the oil from the starch and lignocellulosic mixtures. The isolated oil is subjected to a separation process to make it water and solvent free. Then, using esterification and transesterification reactions, the oil is converted to biodiesel by chemical (97.8–98.5% yield) and enzymatic (95.4% yield) methods. The residual starch and lignocellosic mixtures are hydrolyzed enzymatically to form small sugar units, such as glucose and fructose. The obtained hydrolysate is then fermented to produce bioethanol (conversion rate 96.8%). The hydrolysate can also be used as a nutrient for growing microorganisms for the production of lipids, enzymes and pigments. Additionally, noodle waste can be converted to animal feed.
Full-text available
Article
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The concept of "food deserts" has been widely used in Western countries as a framework to identify areas with constrained access to fresh and nutritious foods, providing guidelines for targeted nutrition and public health programs. Unlike the vast amount of literature on food deserts in a Western context, only a few studies have addressed the concept in an East Asian context, and none of them have investigated spatial patterns of unhealthy food consumption from a South Korean perspective. SUBJECTS/METHODS We first evaluated the applicability of food deserts in a Korean setting and identified four Korean-specific unhealthy food consumption indicators, including insufficient food consumption due to financial difficulty, limited consumption of fruits and vegetables, excessive consumption of junk food, and excessive consumption of instant noodles. The KNHANES 2008-2012 data in Seoul were analyzed with stratified sampling weights to understand the trends and basic characteristics of these eating patterns in each category. GIS analyses were then conducted for the data spatially aggregated at the sub-district level in order to create maps identifying areas of concern regarding each of these indicators and their combinations. RESULTS Despite significant reduction in the rate of food insufficiency due to financial difficulty, the rates of excessive consumption of unhealthy foods (junk food and instant noodles) as well as limited consumption of fruits and vegetables have increased or remained high. These patterns tend to be found among relatively younger and more educated groups, regardless of income status. CONCLUSIONS A GIS-based analysis demonstrated several hotspots as potential "food deserts" tailored to the Korean context based on the observed spatial patterns of undesirable food consumption. These findings could be used as a guide to prioritize areas for targeted intervention programs to facilitate healthy food consumption behaviors and thus improve nutrition and food-related health outcomes.
Full-text available
Article
Chinese noodles originated in the Han dynasty, which has more than 4,000 years of history. There are many stories about the origin of noodles. To a certain extent, noodles also reflect the cultural traditions and customs of China, which essentially means “human nature” and “worldly common sense”. There are thousands of varieties of noodles in China, according to the classification of the shape of noodles, seasoning gravy, cooking craft, and so on. Many noodles have local characteristics. Noodles are accepted by people from all over the world. The industrial revolution and the development of the food industry realized the transition from a traditional handicraft industry to mass production using machinery. In addition, the invention of instant noodles and their mass production also greatly changed the noodle industry. In essence, noodles are a kind of cereal food, which is the main body of the traditional Chinese diet. It is the main source of energy for Chinese people and the most economical energy food. Adhering to the principle of “making cereal food the main food”, is to maintain our Chinese good diet tradition, which can avoid the disadvantages of a high energy, high fat, and low carbohydrate diet, and promote health. The importance of the status of noodles in the dietary structure of residents in our country and the health impact should not be ignored.
Full-text available
Article
Noodles are one of the staple foods consumed in many Asian countries. Instant noodles have become internationally recognized food, and worldwide consumption is on the rise. The properties of instant noodles like taste, nutrition, convenience, safety, longer shelf-life, and reasonable price have made them popular. Quality factors important for instant noodles are color, flavor, and texture, cooking quality, rehydration rates during final preparation, and the presence or absence of rancid taste after extended storage. Microstructure of dough and noodles has been studied to understand the influence of ingredients and processing variables on the noodle quality by employing scanning electron microscopy. Applications of newer techniques like confocal laser scanning microscopy and epifluorescence light microscopy employed to understand the microstructure changes in dough and noodles have also been discussed. Sincere efforts of researchers are underway to improve the formulation, extend the shelf life, and promote universal fortification of instant noodles. Accordingly, many researchers are exploring the potential of noodle fortification as an effective public health intervention and improve its nutritional properties. This review focuses on the functionality of ingredients, unit operations involved, quality criteria for evaluation, recent trends in fortification, and current knowledge in relation to instant noodles.
Full-text available
Article
Instant noodle is one of the most popular foods in Korea. The objective of this study was to examine the association of instant noodle consumption and food and nutrient intake among children and teenagers in Korea. We used dietary data from 24-h recall of 1,748 subjects aged 7-19 years who participated in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Those who consumed instant noodle once or more during the survey period were categorized as "instant noodle consumer (INC)" and were compared for food and nutrient intakes with the others (non-INC). The average age of the INC was 13.4 and that of the non-INC was 12.4; girls consumed more instant noodles than boys (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in BMI between the two groups. With the exception of grains, as compared to the non-INC, the INC consumed significantly less amounts of potatoes, vegetables, mush-rooms, fruits, spices, seafood, and milk and dairy products. With respect to nutrient intakes, the INC-group showed significantly higher nutrient intakes of energy, fat, carbohydrate, sodium, thiamine, and riboflavin; however, as compared to the non-INC-group, the INC-group showed significantly less intakes of calcium, niacin, and vitamin C. The overall result suggests that consuming instant noodles may lead to excessive intake of fat and sodium, but it may cause an increased intake of thiamine and riboflavin. Therefore, nutrition education that helps children and teenagers choose a balanced meal while consuming instant noodle should be carried out. In addition, manufactures of instant noodles should consider nutritional aspects in product development processes.
Article
The study reports on the effect of composite flours consisting of wheat and sweet potato flour on the physicochemical and sensory properties of instant noodles. Sweet potato flour was incorporated into wheat flour at flour replacement levels of 0, 10, 20 and 30%. The levels of sweet potato flours increased in the formulations of instant noodle that increased ash, starch, crude fiber and total carbohydrate contents but decreased level of protein. The instant noodles with 20% sweet potato flour had decreased moisture content but had higher levels of fat and calories (per 100 g) when compared with 10% sweet potato flour in the formulation. The instant noodles with 0, 10, 20 and 30% of sweet potato flours that higher level of water absorption and increased volume of cooked noodles. Instant noodles with 30% sweet potato flour that the highest sensory scores for colour, flavour, texture and overall acceptability when compared with control and other samples but noodles with 20% sweet potato flour was equally acceptable. Studies on the shelf life of dried instant noodles packed in polyethylene bags showed no remarkable change in mold growth, texture and flavor but free fatty acid value, peroxide value and moisture content slightly increased gradually after 90 days duration at room temperature. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/jbau.v12i1.21403 J. Bangladesh Agril. Univ. 12(1): 135-142, June 2014
Article
In recent years, the impact of environmental exposure to chemicals and their immunological effects, including the development of allergy, has been a topic of great interest. Epidemiologic studies indicate that exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals produced in high volumes, including bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates, is ubiquitous. The links between their exposure and the development of allergy, asthma, and immune dysfunction have been studied in vitro, in vivo, and through human cohort studies. The purpose of this review is to examine the current body of research and to highlight deficits and strengths of current findings. Emerging science indicates that deleterious immunologic changes, including increased propensity to develop wheeze, allergy, and asthma after dietary and inhalation exposure to these chemicals, may be occurring.
Article
Instant fried noodles are typically made from flour of medium protein content. In order to examine the potential application of microbial transglutaminase (MTGase), a low-protein soft wheat flour (Australian Soft) has been used. Trials were carried out to evaluate the effects of varying proportions of three ingredients (MTGase, sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL) and water) on product texture and colour of instant noodles. The variables were studied using a central composite design. Textural characteristics were assessed using the TA-TX2, colour by the Minolta Chroma meter and the results analysed by response surface methodology. MTGase and SSL enhanced the textural properties of noodles prepared with the low-protein flour and electron microscopy confirmed the enhanced development of structure within the noodles. No significant observable difference was found in noodle colour between the various treatment combinations. MTGase and water had an impact on fat uptake with an inverse relationship between water incorporation and uptake.
Article
As consumers worldwide are concerned about health issues, the demand for non-fried instant noodle has increased rapidly in recent years. Korean instant noodle typically contains a high level of modified starch, especially modified potato starch such as acetylated potato starch (APS), for its unique eating quality. This often leads to high material cost. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of three phosphate salts (PS) on the quality of Korean non-fried instant noodle made with reduced level of APS. The results showed that PS and APS had similar effects on noodle quality. All PS gave noodle a brighter and yellower appearance. Reducing APS level from 15% to 10% resulted in a much harder noodle, but adding PS into noodles with 10% APS yielded a softer texture. The RVA analysis of instant noodle formula dry mix showed that at the 10% APS level, all PS significantly increased noodle flour PV and FV. The RVA analysis of finished instant noodle powder indicated that at the 10% APS level, both PV and FV were significantly increased with 0.30% DSP or DKP, and 0.03% MSP was able to increase PV significantly. It was suggested that APS used in Korean non-fried instant noodle could be partially substituted by PS with minimal impact on finished product quality.