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... Digitale Technik erlaubt es, die Verfolgung dieser Ziele zu intensivieren und mitunter auf neue Bereiche zu übertragen. Durch die Technisierung vormals "technisierungsaverser" Bereiche zum Beispiel im Dienstleistungsbereich, die zentrale Steuerung dezentraler Abläufe und die technische Steuerung vormals interpersonaler Abstimmungen (Staab und Nachtwey, 2016) oder durch die algorithmisierte Steuerung von Planungs-und Entscheidungsprozessen auf Ebene des Managements (Raffetseder et al., 2017) ergeben sich neuartige Steuerungsmöglichkeiten. Zu neuen Formen der Planung, Steuerung und Vernetzung treten neue Möglichkeiten der Dezentralisierung der Arbeitsorganisation und des Personaleinsatzes (Hirsch-Kreinsen, 2016;Colbert et al., 2016;Picot und Neuburger, 2008). Digitale Kommunikationsmöglichkeiten und Vernetzung ermöglichen darüber hinaus neue Formen innerbetrieblicher Arbeitsorganisation, außerbetrieblicher Kommunikation und von Kooperationen über klassische Organisationsgrenzen hinweg (Pfeiffer, 2018;Papsdorf, 2018). ...
Technical Report
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The aim of the present study is to reconstruct and analyse digitisation discourses observed at conferences on social services, volunteering and rural development attended in 2018 and 2019. At conferences, actors give a common meaning to their field of activity by representing points of view, formulating expectations and creating or reinforcing narratives. The analysis of the observation protocols, the documented lectures and the conference material identified the overarching discourses "organisation of social services" and "development of rural areas" with their respective sub-discourses "professional provision of social services", "organisation and work in civil society organisations", "social services in rural areas", "services of general interest and living conditions in rural areas", "citizen participation" and "economic development", in which the topic "digitisation" takes on specific functions in each case. _____________________________________________________________________ The term "digitisation" remains open to many attributions and interpretations in the discourses. Different actors can thus discuss their own goals and activities under the sign of digitisation. Overall, the discourses observed are characterised by technology-optimistic hopes and visions of digital technological feasibility. The embedding of technologies in the respective institutional and social conditions became clear, for example, where it was pointed out that for the successful implementation of digitally supported reforms of work processes and organisational structures, the interests and needs of local actors must be considered. With regard to telemedicine and telecare, the legal framework, limited funding possibilities and lack of acceptance were discussed as the non-technical limits of digitally supported changes. _____________________________________________________________________ Due to the conceptualisation of digitisation as a neutral, extra-societal technical change, which is widespread in the identified discourses, the interest-based and political dimension of the development, implementation and use of (digital) technology is not considered. Especially the discourse on the development of rural areas moreover shows how various stakeholders add authority to other demands with the narrative of digitization as progress. For example, political actors underline the supposedly forward-looking nature of the idea of mobilising unpaid work to overcome weaknesses in social services in rural areas by referring to digitisation. Moreover, by concentrating on the technological solution, the discourse hardly reflects on the approach of increasing the use of unpaid work or contrasts it with alternative solutions. In this way, projects can be legitimized with technical problem statements without further questioning the goal behind them. Within the discourses, however, digitisation was largely conceptualised as socially and politically neutral technical change. In this perspective, specific interests and the political dimensions inherent in the development, implementation, and usage of (digital) technology remain invisible. _____________________________________________________________________ In the discourse on rural development it becomes apparent how the narrative of digital progress adds authority to further specific claims. Reference to digital solutions emphasizes, for example, the supposedly forward-looking character of the claim for an increase in unpaid work for the sake of social services provision in rural areas. Moreover, the discourse's concentration on technical solutions hinders reflections upon the actual approach to the problem, i.e. the increased reliance on unpaid work, or its comparisons with alternative approaches. Thereby, technical problems can legitimate projects without further questioning of the underlying aim.
... Liegt es daran, dass die neuen Technologien bisherige Unzulänglichkeiten tayloristischer Kontrolle und Prozesssteuerung, wie die unvollständige, fehlerhafte und zeitliche verzögerte Bereitstellung von Informationen, zu überwinden helfen (vgl. Raffetsteder, Schaupp, & Staab, 2017)? ...
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Das mit dem Schlagwort ‚Digitaler Taylorismus‘ verknüpfte Szenario einer digital gestützten Intensivierung tayloristischer Prinzipien wird gerne am Beispiel der Verteilzentren von Amazon illustriert. Die vorliegende Fallstudie bei einem deutschen Amazon-Konkurrenten verdeutlicht jedoch, dass die dortige Intensivierung tayloristischer Prinzipien sich maßgeblich der Radikalisierung eines vor zwei Jahrzehnten etablierten, vom Lean Paradigma geprägten Rationalisierungskonzepts verdankt, das auch den aktuellen Transformationsprozess strukturiert. Die Analyse dieser Tiefenstrukturen des gegenwärtigen Wandels erleichtert das Verständnis von aktuellen Strategien der betrieblichen Akteure bei der Aushandlung der konkreten arbeitspolitischen Implikationen und legt Inkohärenzen und gegenläufige Dynamiken offen. Denn die Radikalisierung des Rationalisierungskonzepts überlastet auch die zugehörigen arbeitspolitischen Kompromisse. Mit Rekurs auf den Machtressourcenansatz lässt sich zeigen, wie insbesondere die stärkere Aktivierung institutioneller Ressourcen durch den Betriebsrat in Verbindung mit der strukturellen Macht von Beschäftigten durch erhöhten Arbeitskräftemangel hilft, die ‚despotische‘ Variante des ‚digitalen Taylorismus‘ à la Amazon zu vermeiden und partielle Verbesserung der Arbeitsbedingungen durchzusetzen. Solche Dynamiken bleiben bei einer Fokussierung auf die vermeintliche Kohärenz von Rationalisierungsstrategien der digitalen Avantgarde zu sehr im Dunkeln. The 'digital Taylorism' scenario is often illustrated using the example of Amazon's distribution centers. The present case study of a German competitor of Amazon shows, however, that the intensification of Taylorist principles is largely due to the radicalization of a rationalisation concept shaped by the lean paradigm that emerged two decades ago and continues to structure the current ‘digital’ transformation process. The analysis of these deep structures of the current transformation enhances our understanding of management’s and staff representatives’ strategies in negotiating the implications for job quality. Moreover, it helps to reveal destabilising trends, since the radicalisation of the rationalisation concept is exhausting the associated compromises between management and labour. Drawing on the power resource approach the analysis shows how the (re-)activation of institutional resources by the works council and the increased structural power of employees due to labour shortages help to avoid the 'despotic' variant of 'digital Taylorism' à la Amazon and even to achieve some improvement of working conditions. Such dynamics go unnoticed when solely focusing on the supposedly coherent new rationalisation logics of the digital avant-garde.
... 41 In diesem Fall waren es also eben jenen politischen Implikationen der Kybernetik, die zu ihrem Aus geführt haben. Andersherum hat die gegenwärtige massive Kybernetisierung von Arbeitsprozessen jedoch keineswegs aus sich heraus politische Transformationen, etwa im Sinne einer Eliminierung betrieblicher Herrschaft bewirkt.42 ...
... The engineers and managers we interviewed envisioned this as a process of self-regulation, in which production is linked directly to market feedback. As a result, managers envision a delegation of responsibility to the lower levels of the organisation and, perhaps more importantly, they envision the near elimination of production failures due to human-driven management, planning and hierarchical order (Raffetseder et al., 2017). ...
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Governments and private sectors have collaborated on national initiatives that will introduce ‘cyberphysical systems’ and the ‘industrial internet of things’ to the sphere of production in a new wave of capitalist development currently referred to in Germany as ‘Industrie 4.0’. We refer to the historical and technical development of the means of control within the capitalist mode of production that began with scientific management, management cybernetics, digital process control, and now Industrie 4.0, as the cybernetisation of production. This article analyses the German context of Industrie 4.0 as a new regime of production. Data drawn from a series of semi-structured interviews with managers and engineers of Industrie 4.0 companies reveal current developments and future visions for the digital transformation of German industry. Based on these data and some theoretical considerations, we argue that Industrie 4.0 is designed to automate the self-organisation of industrial capital in ‘smart factories’. This will shift the personal control of middle management toward the more direct and immediate cybernetic control of market forces over the production process. The article concludes that as direct labour and managerial labour is replicated, extended and/or entirely replaced with autonomous machines, the cybernetisation of production is advancing capital’s real subsumption of the labour process toward capital’s autonomisation from labour-power, which is creating new autonomous forms of production.
... Governance ‚mit anderen Mitteln' betrachtet. Eine eher der Industrie-und Betriebssoziologie zuzuordnende Perspektive auf die handlungsstrukturierenden Effekte von Algorithmen entwickeln Raffetseder et al. (2017). Die zunehmende Verbreitung von Instrumenten der "algorithmischen Steuerung" in Wirtschaftsbetrieben deuten sie als "Zeichen eines Comebacks kybernetischer Steuerungsideen in der Arbeitswelt" (ibid.: 229). ...
Technical Report
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Bringing together perspectives from the social sciences, economics, informatics, and legal science, the expertise assesses how individual instruments of big data-based behavioural regulation can be categorized, which implications these instruments have on the individual as well as on society, and whether and to what extent these instruments can be put to use in a legal as well as legitimate way. The report brings together the fragmented discussions on big data-driven behavioural regulation, relates the results of these debates to each other and thus identifies both new research questions and needs for political action. To this end, a conceptual framework was developed first which was then used to classify and characterise the instruments, both in existence and under discussion, of big data-driven behavioural regulation. Based on this mapping, the individual and societal impacts of these instruments are determined, followed by a thorough legal assessment of their practical application. In addition, the report develops criteria for determining the legitimacy of big data-driven behavioural regulation. The results were then used to formulate recommendations for a regulatory framework and propose ways of public political outreach and research policy.
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This article develops a multi-level frame-work for the analysis of a bottom-up politics of technol-ogy at the workplace. It draws on a multi-case study on algorithmic management of manual labor in manufactur-ing and delivery platforms in Germany. In researching how workers influenced the use of algorithmic manage-ment systems, the concept of technopolitics is developed to refer to three different arenas of negotiation: (1) the arena of regulation, where institutional framings of tech-nologies in production are negotiated, typically between state actors, employers’ associations, and unions. (2) The arena of implementation, where strategies of technology deployment are negotiated—in the German production model typically between management and works coun-cil. (3) The arena of appropriation, in which different organizational technocultures offer contesting schemes for the actual use of technology at work. Whereas most recent research on digitalization of work conceptualizes workers as mere objects of digitalization processes, this paper focuses on worker agency as a “technopolitics from below.” It thus demonstrates how workers influence the concrete outcome of digitalization projects.
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On examining the day-to-day operation of worker resistance and managerial counter-pressure one finds that the proletariat, rather than forming a revolutionary class, often appears to be fighting among itself. Worker resistance is unevenly developed among different groups of workers, and managers use these divisions to maintain their authority and to subdue overall resistance. The first part of this book analyses the capitalist mode of production in general, starting from Marx's framework. The usefulness of the analysis for examining concrete situations is demonstrated in industry-area studies which follow. These include 2 19th century studies (silk-ribbon trade in Hillfields and the Coventry region more generally, and hosiery in Leicester) and 2 from the 20th century (the motor cycle and the motor car industries, both focussing on Coventry and, in more detail, on Hillfields. -from Publisher
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