Article

ShuffleNet: An Extremely Efficient Convolutional Neural Network for Mobile Devices

Authors:
  • Megvii Technology Inc.
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Abstract

We introduce an extremely computation efficient CNN architecture named ShuffleNet, designed specially for mobile devices with very limited computing power (e.g., 10-150 MFLOPs). The new architecture utilizes two proposed operations, pointwise group convolution and channel shuffle, to greatly reduce computation cost while maintaining accuracy. Experiments on ImageNet classification and MS COCO object detection demonstrate the superior performance of ShuffleNet over other structures, e.g. lower top-1 error (absolute 6.7\%) than the recent MobileNet system on ImageNet classification under the computation budget of 40 MFLOPs. On an ARM-based mobile device, ShuffleNet achieves \textasciitilde 13$\times$ actual speedup over AlexNet while maintaining comparable accuracy.

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... Decoupling the tasks preserves the representation power of the network and reduces the number of parameters and FLOPS. Several recent methods [18,28,35,46] have successfully built lightweight architectures by (1) constructing CNN with DSConv and (2) training the model from scratch. ...
... Recent works [17,18,28,35,46] have constructed lightweight architectures by designing modules based on depthwise separable convolution. Our proposed formulation GEP is crucial to understand modules based on depthwise separable convolution. ...
... GDGConv, which is used in Shufflenet [46], consists of four sublayers, group pointwise convolution, channel shuffle, depthwise convolution, and another group pointwise convolution, as well as a shortcut. We examine the relation between standard convolution and the last two convolutions of GDGConv using GEP as follows. ...
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... In spite of the great achievements of sign language recog- 24 nition, real-time recognition on the mobile terminal still 25 has not lived up to expectations. The huge and complicated 26 network architecture achieves recognition accuracy but lost 27 computing efficiency. ...
... However, the detection speed of this network 117 is slow when applied to the mobile terminal, Because the 118 GPU computing speed of mobile terminals is much lower 119 than that of PC terminals. In order to meet the needs of 120 mobile devices, some lightweight CNN networks such as 121 MobileNet [23] and ShuffleNet [24] have been proposed, 122 which have a good balance between speed and accuracy. 123 The proposed ShufflenetV2 [25] uses channel shuffling to 124 improve the exchange of information flow between chan-125 nels, and further considers the actual speed of the hardware. ...
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... With the increasing demand for mobile applications limited by storage and computing resources in recent years, lightweight models with few parameters and low FLOPs have attracted significant attention from developers and researchers. The earliest attempt for designing an efficient model dates back to the Inceptionv3 [47] era that uses asymmetric convolutions to replace standard convolution, later MobileNet [18] proposes depth-wise separable convolution to significantly decrease the amount of computation and parameters, which is viewed as a fundamental CNN-based component for subsequent works [14,36,41,68]. Remarkably, MobileNetv2 [44] proposes an efficient Inverted Residual Block (IRB) based on Depth-Wise Convolution (DW-Conv) that becomes the standard efficient module. ...
... SqueezeNet [21] replaces 3x3 filters with 1x1 filters and decreases channel numbers to reduce model parameters, while Inceptionv3 [47] factorizes the standard convolution into asymmetric convolutions. Later MobileNet [18] introduces depth-wise separable convolution to alleviate a large amount of computation and parameters, followed in subsequent lightweight models [14,36,41,44,68]. Besides the above handcraft methods, researchers exploit automatic architecture design in the pre-defined search space [3,17,30,49,50] and obtain considerable results. ...
Preprint
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... Lo et al. [11] and Szegedy et al. [43] used the strategy of decomposing the standard 3 × 3 convolution into 3×1 and 1×3 convolutions to reduce the number of parameters and computational costs at the expense of slight performance degradation. ShuffleNet [44] divides the convolutions into multiple groups in a similar way to [12], which leads to a significant reduction in FLOPs with a rather small decrease on accuracy. By combining asymmetric convolution and dilation convolution, researchers [45] [46] further designed a depthwise asymmetric dilation convolution to reduce the number of parameters of models. ...
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... (i) For the Basic performance evaluation and snapshot recovery from training crash experiments, the model training is performed on the PyTorch deep learning framework [51] with six typical DNNs: VGG-16 [9], ResNet-18 [52], GoogleNet [2], MobileNet [53], ShuffleNet [54]. We train each DNNs on CIFAR-10 dataset [55] with 200 epochs. ...
... We conducted experiments on different supervised classification models (GoogLeNet [20], ShuffleNet [25], VggNet [17], ResNet [10] and HRNet [19]) and competitive SSL models (Cross Pseudo Supervision (CPS) [7], Cross Consistency Training (CCT) [15], Entropy Minimization (EM) [23] Deep Co-Training (DCT) [16] and Mean Teacher (MT) [21]) to select the more efficient backbone. For the classification, we split our database into train input with 18624 tumor patch images Table 2. HRNet backbone performed best in both classification and SSL segmentation tasks. ...
... Theoretically, the amount of computation can still be reduced. ShuffleNet [52] used group convolution and channel shuffling to effectively reduce the amount of computation for point convolution, which achieved better performance. With the advancement of mobile devices and the diversified development of application scenarios, lightweight networks show higher engineering value. ...
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... There are many pre-trained CNN models available which are used for the classification of the image. Googlenet (Zhang et al. 2017) and Squeezenet (Iandola et al. 2016) are just some of the many pretrained CNN models available. The model selected for current research is Inceptionv3. ...
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... ShuffleFaceNet [179] is a compact FR model based on ShuffleNet-V2 [173]. Shuf-fleNetV2 utilizes a channel shuffle operation proposed by ShuffleNetV1 [291], achieving an acceptable trade-off between accuracy and computational efficiency. Channel shuffle operation enables information flowing between different groups of channels by shuffling a group of g channels of the convolution output (i.e. ...
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Neural networks are both computationally intensive and memory intensive, making them difficult to deploy on embedded systems with limited hardware resources. To address this limitation, We introduce a three stage pipeline: pruning, quantization and Huffman encoding, that work together to reduce the storage requirement of neural networks by 35x to 49x without affecting their accuracy. Our method first prunes the network by learning only the important connections. Next, we quantize the weights to enforce weight sharing, finally, we apply Huffman encoding. After the first two steps we retrain the network to fine tune the remaining connections and the quantized centroids. Pruning, reduces the number of connections by 9x to 13x; Quantization then reduces the number of bits that represent each connection from 32 to 5. On the ImageNet dataset, our method reduced the storage required by AlexNet by 35x from 240MB to 6.9MB, without loss of accuracy. Our method reduced the size of VGG16 by 49x from 552MB to 11.3MB, again with no loss of accuracy. This allows fitting the model into on-chip SRAM cache rather than off-chip DRAM memory, which has 180x less access energy.
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Porting state of the art deep learning algorithms to resource constrained compute platforms (e.g. VR, AR, wearables) is extremely challenging. We propose a fast, compact, and accurate model for convolutional neural networks that enables efficient learning and inference. We introduce LCNN, a lookup-based convolutional neural network that encodes convolutions by few lookups to a dictionary that is trained to cover the space of weights in CNNs. Training LCNN involves jointly learning a dictionary and a small set of linear combinations. The size of the dictionary naturally traces a spectrum of trade-offs between efficiency and accuracy. Our experimental results on ImageNet challenge show that LCNN can offer 3.2x speedup while achieving 55.1% top-1 accuracy using AlexNet architecture. Our fastest LCNN offers 37.6x speed up over AlexNet while maintaining 44.3% top-1 accuracy. LCNN not only offers dramatic speed ups at inference, but it also enables efficient training. In this paper, we show the benefits of LCNN in few-shot learning and few-iteration learning, two crucial aspects of on-device training of deep learning models.
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We present a simple, highly modularized network architecture for image classification. Our network is constructed by repeating a building block that aggregates a set of transformations with the same topology. Our simple design results in a homogeneous, multi-branch architecture that has only a few hyper-parameters to set. This strategy exposes a new dimension, which we call "cardinality" (the size of the set of transformations), as an essential factor in addition to the dimensions of depth and width. On the ImageNet-1K dataset, we empirically show that even under the restricted condition of maintaining complexity, increasing cardinality is able to improve classification accuracy. Moreover, increasing cardinality is more effective than going deeper or wider when we increase the capacity. Our models, codenamed ResNeXt, are the foundations of our entry to the ILSVRC 2016 classification task in which we secured 2nd place. We further investigate ResNeXt on an ImageNet-5K set and the COCO detection set, also showing better results than its ResNet counterpart.
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Deep residual networks have emerged as a family of extremely deep architectures showing compelling accuracy and nice convergence behaviors. In this paper, we analyze the propagation formulations behind the residual building blocks, which suggest that the forward and backward signals can be directly propagated from one block to any other block, when using identity mappings as the skip connections and after-addition activation. A series of ablation experiments support the importance of these identity mappings. This motivates us to propose a new residual unit, which makes training easier and improves generalization. We report improved results using a 1001-layer ResNet on CIFAR-10 (4.62 % error) and CIFAR-100, and a 200-layer ResNet on ImageNet. Code is available at: https:// github. com/ KaimingHe/ resnet-1k-layers.
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We propose two efficient approximations to standard convolutional neural networks: Binary-Weight-Networks and XNOR-Networks. In Binary-Weight-Networks, the filters are approximated with binary values resulting in 32\(\times \) memory saving. In XNOR-Networks, both the filters and the input to convolutional layers are binary. XNOR-Networks approximate convolutions using primarily binary operations. This results in 58\(\times \) faster convolutional operations (in terms of number of the high precision operations) and 32\(\times \) memory savings. XNOR-Nets offer the possibility of running state-of-the-art networks on CPUs (rather than GPUs) in real-time. Our binary networks are simple, accurate, efficient, and work on challenging visual tasks. We evaluate our approach on the ImageNet classification task. The classification accuracy with a Binary-Weight-Network version of AlexNet is the same as the full-precision AlexNet. We compare our method with recent network binarization methods, BinaryConnect and BinaryNets, and outperform these methods by large margins on ImageNet, more than \(16\,\%\) in top-1 accuracy. Our code is available at: http:// allenai. org/ plato/ xnornet.
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Convolutional networks are at the core of most stateof-the-art computer vision solutions for a wide variety of tasks. Since 2014 very deep convolutional networks started to become mainstream, yielding substantial gains in various benchmarks. Although increased model size and computational cost tend to translate to immediate quality gains for most tasks (as long as enough labeled data is provided for training), computational efficiency and low parameter count are still enabling factors for various use cases such as mobile vision and big-data scenarios. Here we are exploring ways to scale up networks in ways that aim at utilizing the added computation as efficiently as possible by suitably factorized convolutions and aggressive regularization. We benchmark our methods on the ILSVRC 2012 classification challenge validation set demonstrate substantial gains over the state of the art: 21.2% top-1 and 5.6% top-5 error for single frame evaluation using a network with a computational cost of 5 billion multiply-adds per inference and with using less than 25 million parameters. With an ensemble of 4 models and multi-crop evaluation, we report 3.5% top-5 error and 17.3% top-1 error.
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High demand for computation resources severely hinders deployment of large-scale Deep Neural Networks (DNN) in resource constrained devices. In this work, we propose a Structured Sparsity Learning (SSL) method to regularize the structures (i.e., filters, channels, filter shapes, and layer depth) of DNNs. SSL can: (1) learn a compact structure from a bigger DNN to reduce computation cost; (2) obtain a hardware-friendly structured sparsity of DNN to efficiently accelerate the DNNs evaluation. Experimental results show that SSL achieves on average 5.1x and 3.1x speedups of convolutional layer computation of AlexNet against CPU and GPU, respectively, with off-the-shelf libraries. These speedups are about twice speedups of non-structured sparsity; (3) regularize the DNN structure to improve classification accuracy. The results show that for CIFAR-10, regularization on layer depth can reduce 20 layers of a Deep Residual Network (ResNet) to 18 layers while improve the accuracy from 91.25% to 92.60%, which is still slightly higher than that of original ResNet with 32 layers. For AlexNet, structure regularization by SSL also reduces the error by around ~1%.
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Very deep convolutional networks have been central to the largest advances in image recognition performance in recent years. One example is the Inception architecture that has been shown to achieve very good performance at relatively low computational cost. Recently, the introduction of residual connections in conjunction with a more traditional architecture has yielded state-of-the-art performance in the 2015 ILSVRC challenge; its performance was similar to the latest generation Inception-v3 network. This raises the question of whether there are any benefit in combining the Inception architecture with residual connections. Here we give clear empirical evidence that training with residual connections accelerates the training of Inception networks significantly. There is also some evidence of residual Inception networks outperforming similarly expensive Inception networks without residual connections by a thin margin. We also present several new streamlined architectures for both residual and non-residual Inception networks. These variations improve the single-frame recognition performance on the ILSVRC 2012 classification task significantly. We further demonstrate how proper activation scaling stabilizes the training of very wide residual Inception networks. With an ensemble of three residual and one Inception-v4, we achieve 3.08 percent top-5 error on the test set of the ImageNet classification (CLS) challenge
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Neural networks are both computationally intensive and memory intensive, making them difficult to deploy on embedded systems. Also, conventional networks fix the architecture before training starts; as a result, training cannot improve the architecture. To address these limitations, we describe a method to reduce the storage and computation required by neural networks by an order of magnitude without affecting their accuracy, by learning only the important connections. Our method prunes redundant connections using a three-step method. First, we train the network to learn which connections are important. Next, we prune the unimportant connections. Finally, we retrain the network to fine tune the weights of the remaining connections. On the ImageNet dataset, our method reduced the number of parameters of AlexNet by a factor of 9x, from 61 million to 6.7 million, without incurring accuracy loss. Similar experiments with VGG16 found that the network as a whole can be reduced 6.8x just by pruning the fully-connected layers, again with no loss of accuracy.
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State-of-the-art object detection networks depend on region proposal algorithms to hypothesize object locations. Advances like SPPnet and Fast R-CNN have reduced the running time of these detection networks, exposing region proposal computation as a bottleneck. In this work, we introduce a Region Proposal Network (RPN) that shares full-image convolutional features with the detection network, thus enabling nearly cost-free region proposals. An RPN is a fully-convolutional network that simultaneously predicts object bounds and objectness scores at each position. RPNs are trained end-to-end to generate high-quality region proposals, which are used by Fast R-CNN for detection. With a simple alternating optimization, RPN and Fast R-CNN can be trained to share convolutional features. For the very deep VGG-16 model, our detection system has a frame rate of 5fps (including all steps) on a GPU, while achieving state-of-the-art object detection accuracy on PASCAL VOC 2007 (73.2% mAP) and 2012 (70.4% mAP) using 300 proposals per image. The code will be released.
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This paper aims to accelerate the test-time computation of convolutional neural networks (CNNs), especially very deep CNNs that have substantially impacted the computer vision community. Unlike existing methods that are designed for approximating linear filters or linear responses, our method takes the nonlinear units into account. We develop an effective solution to the resulting nonlinear optimization problem without the need of stochastic gradient descent (SGD). More importantly, while current methods mainly focus on optimizing one or two layers, our nonlinear method enables an asymmetric reconstruction that reduces the rapidly accumulated error when multiple (e.g., >=10) layers are approximated. For the widely used very deep VGG-16 model, our method achieves a whole-model speedup of 4x with merely a 0.3% increase of top-5 error in ImageNet classification. Our 4x accelerated VGG-16 model also shows a graceful accuracy degradation for object detection when plugged into the latest Fast R-CNN detector.
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A very simple way to improve the performance of almost any machine learning algorithm is to train many different models on the same data and then to average their predictions. Unfortunately, making predictions using a whole ensemble of models is cumbersome and may be too computationally expensive to allow deployment to a large number of users, especially if the individual models are large neural nets. Caruana and his collaborators have shown that it is possible to compress the knowledge in an ensemble into a single model which is much easier to deploy and we develop this approach further using a different compression technique. We achieve some surprising results on MNIST and we show that we can significantly improve the acoustic model of a heavily used commercial system by distilling the knowledge in an ensemble of models into a single model. We also introduce a new type of ensemble composed of one or more full models and many specialist models which learn to distinguish fine-grained classes that the full models confuse. Unlike a mixture of experts, these specialist models can be trained rapidly and in parallel.
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Training Deep Neural Networks is complicated by the fact that the distribution of each layer's inputs changes during training, as the parameters of the previous layers change. This slows down the training by requiring lower learning rates and careful parameter initialization, and makes it notoriously hard to train models with saturating nonlinearities. We refer to this phenomenon as internal covariate shift, and address the problem by normalizing layer inputs. Our method draws its strength from making normalization a part of the model architecture and performing the normalization for each training mini-batch}. Batch Normalization allows us to use much higher learning rates and be less careful about initialization. It also acts as a regularizer, in some cases eliminating the need for Dropout. Applied to a state-of-the-art image classification model, Batch Normalization achieves the same accuracy with 14 times fewer training steps, and beats the original model by a significant margin. Using an ensemble of batch-normalized networks, we improve upon the best published result on ImageNet classification: reaching 4.9% top-5 validation error (and 4.8% test error), exceeding the accuracy of human raters.
We trained a large, deep convolutional neural network to classify the 1.2 million high-resolution images in the ImageNet LSVRC-2010 contest into the 1000 dif-ferent classes. On the test data, we achieved top-1 and top-5 error rates of 37.5% and 17.0% which is considerably better than the previous state-of-the-art. The neural network, which has 60 million parameters and 650,000 neurons, consists of five convolutional layers, some of which are followed by max-pooling layers, and three fully-connected layers with a final 1000-way softmax. To make train-ing faster, we used non-saturating neurons and a very efficient GPU implemen-tation of the convolution operation. To reduce overfitting in the fully-connected layers we employed a recently-developed regularization method called "dropout" that proved to be very effective. We also entered a variant of this model in the ILSVRC-2012 competition and achieved a winning top-5 test error rate of 15.3%, compared to 26.2% achieved by the second-best entry.
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In this work we investigate the effect of the convolutional network depth on its accuracy in the large-scale image recognition setting. Our main contribution is a thorough evaluation of networks of increasing depth, which shows that a significant improvement on the prior-art configurations can be achieved by pushing the depth to 16-19 weight layers. These findings were the basis of our ImageNet Challenge 2014 submission, where our team secured the first and the second places in the localisation and classification tracks respectively.
Conference Paper
We present a new dataset with the goal of advancing the state-of-the-art in object recognition by placing the question of object recognition in the context of the broader question of scene understanding. This is achieved by gathering images of complex everyday scenes containing common objects in their natural context. Objects are labeled using per-instance segmentations to aid in understanding an object's precise 2D location. Our dataset contains photos of 91 objects types that would be easily recognizable by a 4 year old along with per-instance segmentation masks. With a total of 2.5 million labeled instances in 328k images, the creation of our dataset drew upon extensive crowd worker involvement via novel user interfaces for category detection, instance spotting and instance segmentation. We present a detailed statistical analysis of the dataset in comparison to PASCAL, ImageNet, and SUN. Finally, we provide baseline performance analysis for bounding box and segmentation detection results using a Deformable Parts Model.
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The focus of this paper is speeding up the evaluation of convolutional neural networks. While delivering impressive results across a range of computer vision and machine learning tasks, these networks are computationally demanding, limiting their deployability. Convolutional layers generally consume the bulk of the processing time, and so in this work we present two simple schemes for drastically speeding up these layers. This is achieved by exploiting cross-channel or filter redundancy to construct a low rank basis of filters that are rank-1 in the spatial domain. Our methods are architecture agnostic, and can be easily applied to existing CPU and GPU convolutional frameworks for tuneable speedup performance. We demonstrate this with a real world network designed for scene text character recognition, showing a possible 2.5x speedup with no loss in accuracy, and 4.5x speedup with less than 1% drop in accuracy, still achieving state-of-the-art on standard benchmarks.
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Convolutional networks are one of the most widely employed architectures in computer vision and machine learning. In order to leverage their ability to learn complex functions, large amounts of data are required for training. Training a large convolutional network to produce state-of-the-art results can take weeks, even when using modern GPUs. Producing labels using a trained network can also be costly when dealing with web-scale datasets. In this work, we present a simple algorithm which accelerates training and inference by a significant factor, and can yield improvements of over an order of magnitude compared to existing state-of-the-art implementations. This is done by computing convolutions as pointwise products in the Fourier domain while reusing the same transformed feature map many times. The algorithm is implemented on a GPU architecture and addresses a number of related challenges.
  • Martín Abadi
  • Ashish Agarwal
  • Paul Barham
  • Eugene Brevdo
  • Zhifeng Chen
  • Craig Citro
  • Greg S Corrado
  • Andy Davis
  • Jeffrey Dean
  • Matthieu Devin
Martín Abadi, Ashish Agarwal, Paul Barham, Eugene Brevdo, Zhifeng Chen, Craig Citro, Greg S Corrado, Andy Davis, Jeffrey Dean, Matthieu Devin, et al. Tensorflow: Large-scale machine learning on heterogeneous distributed systems. arXiv preprint arXiv:1603.04467, 2016.
Caffe: Convolutional architecture for fast feature embedding
  • Yangqing Jia
  • Evan Shelhamer
  • Jeff Donahue
  • Sergey Karayev
  • Jonathan Long
  • Ross Girshick
  • Sergio Guadarrama
  • Trevor Darrell
Yangqing Jia, Evan Shelhamer, Jeff Donahue, Sergey Karayev, Jonathan Long, Ross Girshick, Sergio Guadarrama, and Trevor Darrell. Caffe: Convolutional architecture for fast feature embedding. In Proceedings of the 22nd ACM international conference on Multimedia, pages 675-678. ACM, 2014.
Speeding-up convolutional neural networks using fine-tuned cp-decomposition
  • Vadim Lebedev
  • Yaroslav Ganin
  • Maksim Rakhuba
  • Ivan Oseledets
  • Victor Lempitsky
Vadim Lebedev, Yaroslav Ganin, Maksim Rakhuba, Ivan Oseledets, and Victor Lempitsky. Speeding-up convolutional neural networks using fine-tuned cp-decomposition. arXiv preprint arXiv:1412.6553, 2014.
  • Nicolas Vasilache
  • Jeff Johnson
  • Michael Mathieu
Nicolas Vasilache, Jeff Johnson, Michael Mathieu, Soumith Chintala, Serkan Piantino, and Yann LeCun. Fast convolutional nets with fbfft: A gpu performance evaluation. arXiv preprint arXiv:1412.7580, 2014.
Design of efficient convolutional layers using single intra-channel convolution, topological subdivisioning and spatial "bottleneck" structure
  • Min Wang
  • Baoyuan Liu
  • Hassan Foroosh
Min Wang, Baoyuan Liu, and Hassan Foroosh. Design of efficient convolutional layers using single intra-channel convolution, topological subdivisioning and spatial "bottleneck" structure. arXiv preprint arXiv:1608.04337, 2016.
Faster r-cnn: Towards real-time object detection with region proposal networks
  • Kaiming Shaoqing Ren
  • Ross He
  • Jian Girshick
  • Sun
Shaoqing Ren, Kaiming He, Ross Girshick, and Jian Sun. Faster r-cnn: Towards real-time object detection with region proposal networks. In Advances in neural information processing systems, pages 91-99, 2015.