The article discusses features of emigration from the Russian Federation during 1990-2010s, that is, after collapse of the USSR. Identified is singularity of modern accounting system of emigration from Russia and real estimates are given of number of Russian immigrants based on corrected data from Federal Service of State Statistics data supplied by countries receiving Russian migrants. Identified are geographical features of the settlement of migrants from Russia, as well factors promoting formation of the Russian-speaking communities abroad. Identified are six types of identity that allow a rough estimation of the number of Russian-speaking communities. The article explains the term "Russian-speaking communities" instead of the term "Russian diaspora" supported by the results of empirical statistical and sociological studies. Russian-speaking community is considered as a factor for the future capable to provide stable functioning and development of the Russian economy and the state. However, it is concluded that at present, the Russian-speaking community resource is undervalued by the Russian government, and diasporal policy is ineffective.