R E S E A R C H Open Access
Piperine enhances carbohydrate/fat
metabolism in skeletal muscle during
acute exercise in mice
, Kang-Pa Lee
, Dae-Won Lee
and Kiwon Lim
Background: Exercise promotes energy metabolism (e.g., metabolism of glucose and lipids) in skeletal muscles;
however, reactive oxygen species are also generated during exercise. Various spices have been reported to have
beneficial effects in sports medicine. Here, we investigated the effects of piperine, an active compound in black
pepper, to determine its effects on metabolism during acute endurance exercise.
Methods: ICR mice (n= 18) were divided into three groups: nonexercise (CON), exercise (EX), and exercise with
piperine (5 mg/kg) treatment (EP). Mice were subjected to enforced exercise on a treadmill at a speed of 22 m/min
for 1 h. To evaluate the inflammatory responses following exercise, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis was
performed to monitor changes in CD4
cells within the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of mice. The
expression levels of metabolic pathway components and redox-related factors were evaluated in the soleus muscle
by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting.
Results: There were no changes in the differentiation of immune cells in PBMCs in both the EX and EP groups
compared with that in the CON group. Mice in the EX group exhibited a significant increase in the expression of
metabolic pathway components and redox signal-related components compared with mice in the CON group.
Moreover, mice in the EP group showed greater metabolic (GLUT4, MCT1, FAT/CD36, CPT1, CS) changes than mice in
the EX group, and changes in the expression of redox signal components were lower in the EP group than those
in the EX group.
Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that piperine promoted beneficial metabolism during exercise by regulating
carbohydrate/fat metabolism and redox signals. Therefore, piperine may be a candidate supplement for improvement
of exercise ability.
Keywords: Acute endurance exercise, Piperine, Carbohydrate metabolism, Fat metabolism, Antioxidant
The western diet generally includes excessive caloric in-
take. Moreover, many individuals have adopted a seden-
tary lifestyle, including little or irregular physical activity,
leading to increased rates of obesity and mortality .
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends
that individuals exercise daily to alleviate obesity and
improve health . Therefore, appropriate research is
needed to fully elucidate the effects of exercise on health
and the appropriate type of exercise that should be
adopted to ensure a healthy lifestyle.
Endurance exercise demands consumption of energy
through increased metabolism, leading to reduction of
body weight [3, 4]. Moreover, endurance exercise involves
generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during energy
synthesis. Excessive ROS generation from high-intensity
endurance exercise can lead to muscle rupture and im-
mune system over-reaction . Additionally, continuous
exercise increases immune system function by activating
immune cells, including T cells, natural killer (NK) cells,
* Correspondence: email@example.com
Physical Activity & Performance Institute, Konkuk University, 120
Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05029, Republic of Korea
Department of Physical Education, Laboratory of Exercise Nutrition, Korea
University, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701, Republic of
Full list of author information is available at the end of the article
© The Author(s). 2017 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0
International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and
reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to
the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver
(http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Kim et al. Nutrition & Metabolism (2017) 14:43
and T helper (Th) cells [6, 7]. Despite these findings, add-
itional work is still needed to determine the effects of im-
mune system activation and exercise on the generation of
ROS. Low levels of ROS augment metabolism, thereby en-
hancing cell proliferation and differentiation, whereas the
presence of high levels of ROS induces cell death [8, 9].
Enzymes within the redox signaling cascade function to
maintain homeostasis despite ROS generation. For ex-
ample, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
(NADPH)-oxidase (NOX), which is encoded by NOX
family genes , is a key enzyme involved in ROS gener-
ation. NOX1 is expressed in a variety of cells and pro-
motes ROS generation [10, 11]. Oxidative stress from the
generated ROS is eliminated by antioxidant signaling and
enzymes involved in redox homeostasis, such as manga-
nese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), catalase, zinc
superoxide dismutase (Zn-SOD), and Ape/Ref-1 [12, 13].
In particular, Ape/Ref-1 is a multifunctional protein with
endonuclease, transcription factor, and antioxidant func-
tions. However, the effects of Ape/Ref-1 on the mainten-
ance of redox homeostasis and immune system function
in the context of excessive exercise have not yet been
Skeletal muscles have important metabolic energy
functions based on the generation and utilization of en-
ergy sources from the phosphagen system, glycolysis,
and the anaerobic system. Carbohydrate and fat metab-
olism occur in the muscles during exercise . Skeletal
muscles generate energy using energy sources source
such as glucose, lactate, and fatty acids [4, 15]. These
components are transported into muscle cells via spe-
cific metabolic transporters, including glucose trans-
porter type 4 (GLUT4), monocarboxylate transporter 1
(MCT1), and FAT/CD36 [16, 17]. The energy required
for transport is generated through the tricarboxylic acid
(TCA) cycle in the mitochondria [18, 19]. In particular,
carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), which is present
in the mitochondrial outer membrane and plays an im-
portant role in fat metabolism, transports long-chain
acetyl-CoA, which is generated from fatty acids in the
inner mitochondrial membrane [20, 21]. In addition, cit-
rate synthase (CS), which converts acetyl-Co-A to citrate
before entering the TCA cycle, is also important in the
production of energy [22, 23].
In both athletes and individuals who are exercising for
the first time, strenuous exercise can cause various types
of damage in the body. Therefore, an effective exercise
routine for each person is necessary, taking into account
nutritional and physiological changes. Accordingly, re-
cent research has focused on the role of health supple-
ments in promoting the beneficial effects of exercise.
Piperine, one of the main components of pepper, has
been shown to have diverse biological activities, includ-
ing anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-atherosclerotic
anti-obesity effects and blood lipid improvement in a
variety of cell types and animal models. However, the ef-
fects of piperine on endurance exercise and changes in
skeletal muscles have not yet been established.
Accordingly, in this study, we determined the effects
of piperine on muscles during endurance exercise in a
Six-week-old male ICR mice (n= 18) were purchased
from Orient Bio Inc. (Seongnam, Korea). All mice were
housed in standard plastic cages under controlled condi-
tions of humidity (50%) and temperature (23 ± 1 °C)
with an alternating 12-h light/dark cycle. Mice were ac-
climated to the laboratory housing conditions for 7 days.
Mice were randomized into three groups: nonexercise
(CON), exercise (EX), and exercise with piperine treat-
ment (EP). Piperine was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide
(DMSO; via oral gavage, in a volume of 50 μL) and ad-
ministered to the EP group at 5 mg/kg; the CON group
and EX groups were treated with distilled water via oral
administration at 30 min before acute endurance exer-
cise. All experimental procedures were performed at the
Animal Experiment Research Center of Konkuk Univer-
sity. This study was conducted in accordance with the
ethical guidelines of the Konkuk University Institutional
Animal Care and Use Committee. All mice were adapted
to treadmill training (Daejong Systems, Korea) at a fixed
intensity (10 m/min, 8° slope, 10 min) for 3 days. The
following protocols were used: 22 m/min, 8° slope,
60 min (approximately 70% maximal oxygen consump-
]) for acute exercise. Blood samples and soleus
muscles were collected immediately after exercise.
Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis
FACS assays were performed as previously reported .
To determine the expression of T-cell-related surface
molecules, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)
were isolated using a Ficoll-Hypaque gradient (Sigma-
Aldrich, UK). For analysis of cytokine production in dif-
ferentiated Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells, isolated PBMCs
were stained with anti-CD3-PerCP, anti-CD4-APC, and/
or anti-CD8-APC-Cy7 antibodies (BioLegend, USA).
After washing with FACS buffer (0.1% bovine serum al-
bumin [BSA] in phosphate-buffered saline [PBS]), the
cells were then stimulated with 50 ng/mL phorbol 12-
myristate 13-acetate (PMA; Sigma-Aldrich) and 1 μg/mL
ionomycin (Sigma-Aldrich) in the presence of Golgistop
(BD Biosciences, USA) for 4 h at 37 °C. The stimulated
cells were washed with FACS buffer and fixed for
10 min with 4% paraformaldehyde. After fixation, the
cells were permeabilized with FACS Perm 2 according to
the manufacturer’s instructions (BD Biosciences, USA)
Kim et al. Nutrition & Metabolism (2017) 14:43 Page 2 of 8
and stained with appropriate fluorochrome-conjugated
antibodies, including anti-mouse interferon (IFN)-γconju-
gated with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC; BD Biosciences,
USA) and anti-mouse interleukin (IL)-17A conjugated with
phycoerythrin (eBioscience, Germany) antibodies using iso-
type antibodies as controls. All data were collected on a
FACSCalibur flow cytometer (BD Biosciences) and analyzed
using FlowJo software (Tree Star Inc., USA).
Total RNA isolation and reverse transcription (RT)-
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
Total RNA isolation and RT-PCR analyses were per-
formed as previously reported . The soleus muscles
of each mouse were harvested, and total RNA was iso-
lated from cells using TRI-reagent (GenDEPOT, Korea).
Next, cDNA was synthesized using 1.0 μg of total RNA
with oligo dT(18mer). For PCR, 1 μLofcDNAwassub-
jected to predenaturation at 95 °C for 3 min, 35 cycles of
denaturation at 94 °C for 1 min, primer annealing at the
optimal temperature for 1 min, and extension at 72 °C for
1 min, followed by a final extension at 72 °C for 10 min.
The following primers were used for PCR: GLUT4 (60 °C;
sense primer, 5′-AACTTGGCATTGTGGAAGG-3′,and
antisense primer, 5′-ACACATTGGGGGTAGGAACA-3′),
MCT1 (60 °C; sense primer, 5′-GCTGGAGGTCCTAT
CAGCAG-3′, and antisense primer, 5′-AGTTGAAAG
CAAGCCCAAGA-3′), CD36 (60 °C; sense primer, 5′-
5′-CAGATCCGAACACAGCGTAGA-3′), CPT1 (60 °C;
sense primer, 5′-ATCATGTATCGCCGCAAACT-3′,and
antisense primer, 5′-CCATCTGGTAGGAGCACATGG-
3′), CS (60 °C; sense primer, 5′-CAAGTCATCTACGC
CAGGGAC3′, and antisense primer, 5′-CAAAGCGTCTC
CAGCTAACCA-3′), and GAPDH,senseprimer,5′-GG
were separated by 2.0% agarose gel electrophoresis and vi-
sualized by staining with ethidium bromide.
Tissue processing and immunoblotting assay
Immunoblotting was performed as previously reported
. Tissue was homogenized in ice-cold cell lysis buffer
(50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4, 150 mM NaCl, 0.25% deoxy-
cholic acid, 1% NP-40, 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic
acid [EDTA], and protease inhibitors, including 1 mM phe-
nylmethylsulfonyl fluoride [PMSF], 1 g/mL aprotinin, 1 g/
mL leupeptin, 1 mM Na
, and 1 mM NaF), and ho-
mogenates were agitated for 1 h at 4 °C. Homogenates were
then centrifuged at 13,000×gat 4 °C for 15 min, and the
supernatant was collected and stored at 80 °C until further
analysis. To analyze protein expression, we performed
western blotting using specific antibodies. Briefly, 30 μgof
protein from each group was boiled, separated by electro-
phoresis on 12% acrylamide gels, and then transferred onto
polyvinylidene difluoride membranes in transfer buffer
at 4 °C for 2 h. The membranes were blocked with 5%
BSA in Tris-buffered saline (TBS) at room temperature
for 1 h and then washed in TBS with 0.1% Tween 20
(TBS/T). The membranes were incubated overnight at 4 °C
with specific antibodies against NOX-1, Ape/Ref-1, Mn-
SOD, and β-actin (1:1000 dilution [Santa Cruz, USA]). The
membranes were washed with TBS/T, followed by incubation
with IgG secondary antibodies conjugated with horseradish
peroxidase (1:1000 dilution [Santa Cruz, USA]). The expres-
sion levels of the proteins were analyzed using chemilumin-
escence (ECL Plus Kit; Amersham Pharmacia Biotech).
Developed protein bands were visualized and quantified
using Image J software (NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA).
Data were expressed as the mean ± standard error of the
means (SEMs). Statistical evaluation of the data was per-
formed using GraphPad Prism, version 5.0 (GraphPad
Software, USA). Student’st-tests and one-way analysis of
variance (ANOVA) with Tukey’s post-hoc tests were
used to compare the data. Differences with P< 0.05
were considered statistically significant.
Effects of piperine on acute endurance exercise-induced
Physical exercise can enhance the activity of immune re-
sponses, including both the innate and adaptive immune
responses . Therefore, we investigated the effects of
piperine on acute endurance excise by evaluating differen-
tiated Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells in PBMCs using FACS
analysis. The one-time acute endurance excise experiment
is depicted in Fig. 1b. As shown in Fig. 2, there were no
changes in IFN-γor IL-17 expression in mice in the EX or
EP groups compared with those in the control group.
Effects of piperine on carbohydrate/fat metabolism in
soleus muscles from mice after acute endurance exercise
The skeletal muscle system represents an accessible meta-
bolic energy source, providing small carbohydrates during
exercise . Therefore, to determine the effects of piper-
ine on the energy source used during acute endurance ex-
ercise, we evaluated GLUT4,MCT1,FAT/CD36,CPT1,
and CS mRNA expression by RT-PCR. As shown in Fig.
3a, the expression levels of GLUT4 and MCT1 mRNAs
were higher in the EP group than in the EX and CON
groups. Moreover, as shown in Fig. 3b, FAT/CD36,CPT1,
and CS mRNAs were also significantly upregulated by ex-
ercise and piperine administration. Besides, we performed
the following additional experiments. We checked the pro-
tein (GLUT4, FAT/36 and CPT1) levels using the western
blot assay. As show in Additional file 1: Figure S1, these
results showed similar expression of genes and proteins.
Kim et al. Nutrition & Metabolism (2017) 14:43 Page 3 of 8
Effects of piperine on antioxidant enzymes in soleus
muscles from mice after acute endurance exercise
High-intensity exercise-induced oxidative stress usually
involves elimination mechanisms and homeostasis sys-
tems . Therefore, to examine whether piperine inhib-
ited ROS generation, we measured the expression levels of
antioxidant enzymes by immunoblotting. As shown in
Fig. 4, NOX-1, Ape/Ref-1, and Mn-SOD levels were
significantly increased in soleus muscles following exercise
as compared with those in the control group. However,
piperine administration significantly reduced the expres-
sion levels of NOX-1, Ape/Ref-1, and Mn-SOD compared
with those in the control group. In addition, we checked
the results of L6 cell in vitro as follows. To explore the
effect of piperine on H2O2-stimulated L6 cell, we per-
formed the three experiments such as cell observed assay
and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-
PCR) analysis. Cell morphology change was observed by
inverted microscope for 1 h, respectively. RT-PCR analysis
was used to determine CAT, NOX-1, APE/REF1 and Mn-
SOD. As show in Additional file 2: Figure S2A, the cell
morphology for 1 h is not altered in all conditions (un-
treated, 100 μMH2O2,and100μMH2O2withpeprine
(10 uM). H2O2 significantly increases the expression
levels of mRNA CAT, NOX-1, APE/REF1 and Mn-SOD
whereas piperine significantly regulated those-signals.
Fig. 2 Effects of piperine on the immune response in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) following acute exercise. a,bImmune cells
were prepared from PBMCs. Cells were stimulated with PMA, ionomycin, and golgistop for 4 h and then stained with anti-IFN-γand anti-IL-17
antibodies for 1 h. Flow cytometry analysis was used to gate IFN-γ
T cells (T helper type 1; Th1) and IL-17
T cells (Th17). The graphs show the
frequencies of Th1 and Th17 cells
Fig. 1 Study design. aStructure of piperine (C
; molecular weight: 285.34 Da). bStudy design showing the exercise protocol. Mice were
administered 5 mg/kg piperine orally 30 min prior to running on a treadmill for 1 h. After exercise, mice were sacrificed, and tissues were collected
Kim et al. Nutrition & Metabolism (2017) 14:43 Page 4 of 8
Although piperine has been shown to have anti-
inflammatory, anticancer, anti-atherosclerotic, and anti-
oxidant effects and to inhibit lipid synthesis, the effects
of piperine on carbohydrate/fat metabolism and skeletal
muscle damage during endurance exercise have not been
evaluated. Here, we provide evidence of the role of pip-
erine in mediating carbohydrate/fat metabolism in skel-
etal muscle in acute endurance exercise for the first
time. Our findings demonstrate that piperine treatment
enhanced fat/carbohydrate metabolism in skeletal
muscle and that piperine administration decreased the
expression of NOX1 and antioxidant enzymes, such as
Mn-SOD and Ape/Ref-1, after acute exercise. Moreover,
acute endurance exercise did not alter immune re-
sponses, with or without piperine treatment. These re-
sults imply that piperine regulated muscle damage and
energy metabolism during acute endurance exercise.
Regular exercise can have beneficial effects on health;
however, high-intensity physical exercise or excessive exer-
cise can induce muscle degeneration and inflammation
[28, 29]. Recently, sports science and nutrition experts
have suggested that short-term supplementation with
antioxidants may provide beneficial effects on health
and reduce damage and inflammation after exercise
. Based on our data, there were no changes in
Fig. 3 Effects of piperine on the expression of glucose/fat metabolism-associated mRNAs in the soleus muscle after acute exercise. aTotal RNA
from soleus muscles was isolated, and the expression of glucose metabolism-related genes was evaluated using RT-PCR. The graphs were obtained
from the left bands and show GLUT4 and MCT1 mRNA expression (%). Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM (n= 6). mRNA expression in the exercise
(EX) group was set at 100%. *P< 0.05 versus the EX group. bThe expression of fat metabolism-related genes was analyzed by RT-PCR. The graph
shows FAT/CD36,CPT1,andCS mRNA expression (%). Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM (n= 6). mRNA expression in the exercise (EX) group was
set at 100%. *P< 0.05 versus the EX group
Fig. 4 Effects of piperine on the expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-regulated mRNA in the soleus muscle after acute exercise. aSoleus
muscles were collected after exercise, and protein expression was evaluated using immunoblotting. bThe graphs represent the intensities of
NOX1, APE/Ref-1, and Mn-SOD bands (%). Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM (n= 6). The band intensity in the exercise (EX) group was set at
100%. *P< 0.05 versus the EX group
Kim et al. Nutrition & Metabolism (2017) 14:43 Page 5 of 8
immune responses in PBMCs among the three groups
(control, exercise, and exercise after piperine adminis-
tration). These results imply that the performance in
the EP group was not related to the innate immune
response during acute exercise after short-term ad-
ministration of piperine. Therefore, we suggest that
Exercise is tightly associated with the generation of ROS
in the skeletal muscle . During exercise, ROS are pro-
duced through energy-generating metabolic processes,
which consume high levels of oxygen. We found that
NOX1, Mn-SOD, and Ape/ref.-1 expression levels were
decreased in mice administered piperine and subjected to
acute exercise compared with those in exercised mice
without piperine administration. These results imply that
piperine provided scavenging activity against superoxide
generation, consistent with a previous study .
Because of the increased metabolic rate and energy de-
mand associated with exercise, the oxidization of both
fat and carbohydrates must be activated simultaneously
. Previous studies have reported that FAT/CD36,
CPT1, and CS are key components of the molecular ma-
chinery required for regulating fat oxidation in skeletal
muscle [32, 33]. During exercise, increased glycolysis
and subsequent production and accumulation of lactate
necessitate increased expression of GLUT4 and MCT1
. Our data also indicate that the expression levels of
fat metabolism-related genes, such as FAT/CD36,CPT1,
and CS, were significantly increased in the skeletal
muscle following exercise with or without short-term
piperine administration. A previous study reported that
piperine was supplemented in different doses (20, 30
and 40 mg/kg) through administration of a high-fat diet
(HFD) for 42 days to experimental rats. Piperine signifi-
cantly reduced the concentration of plasma and liver
lipids in obese rats to near normal levels, and HDL was
elevated . Thus, piperine ingestion may influence fat
Moreover, our data indicate that the transcription of
GLUT4 and MCT1 was promoted by acute exercise after
short-time administration of piperine. Therefore, we
suggest that piperine, an active component of black pep-
per, may be used as a sports supplement for improving
exercise ability and adaption.
However, a limitation of this study is that we did not
use the mice only treated with piperine as a control
group. This is because we 1) intended to differentiate
our study from previous studies and 2) wanted to con-
firm the effects of supplementation of piperine in acute
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an enzyme
that controls key players of metabolic pathways, such as
glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation [35, 36]. Although we
did not evaluate AMPK signaling in this study, piperine
may regulate the AMPK pathway, as shown in previous
reports  and supported by our current data. Previ-
ously, several in vitro and in vivo studies attempted to de-
termine the mechanisms through which piperine affects
fat metabolism [38–41]. Overall, our results show that
piperine treatment can improve the carbohydrate/fat me-
tabolism in skeletal muscle during acute exercise. Further
studies are needed to clarify the long-term effects of piper-
ine on exercise endurance capacity in athletes.
In conclusion, our findings suggest that piperine improve
beneficial energy metabolism during exercise by regulating
carbohydrate/fat metabolism without stimulating the innate
immune response or superoxide generation. Therefore, pip-
erine may have applications as a nutritional supplement for
improvement of exercise ability.
Additional file 1: Figure S1. Effects of piperine on the expression of
glucose/fat metabolism-associated protein in the soleus muscle after
acute exercise. Total protein from soleus muscles was isolated, and the
expression of glucose metabolism-related genes was evaluated using
western blot. (JPEG 40 kb)
Additional file 2: Figure S2. Effects of piperine on exogenous hydrogen
peroxide (H2O2)-stimulated L6 skeletal muscle cells. L6 cells were treated
with piperine (10 μM) and presence or absence of H2O2 (100 μM) for 1
h. These morphological changes were observed by inverted microscope
(A). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to
determine CAT, NOX-1, APE/REF1 and Mn-SOD (B). These graphs are pre-
sented as mean ± standard error (P< 0.05). (JPEG 230 kb)
AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase; ANOVA: Analysis of variance;
CPT1: Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1; CS: Citrate synthase; FITC: Fluorescein
isothiocynanate; GLUT4: Glucose transporter type 4; IFN: Interferon;
IL: Interleukin; MCT1: Monocarboxylate transporter 1; Mn-SOD: Manganese
superoxide dismutase; NADPH: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
phosphate; NK: Natural killer; NOX: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
phosphate; PBMC: Peripheral blood mononuclear cell; PCR: Polymerase chain
reaction; PMA: Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate; ROS: Reactive oxygen
species; RT: Reverse transcription; SEM: Standard error of the mean; TBS: Tris-
buffered saline; TBS/T: Tween 20; TCA: Tricarboxylic acid; Th: T helper; Zn-
SOD: Zinc superoxide dismutase
This paper was supported by the KU Research Professor Program of Konkuk
This study was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through
the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of
Availability of data and materials
Data are all contained within the article.
JSK contributed to the study conception and experimental design, collected
data, and performed analyses. KPL interpreted the data and had primary
responsibility for the final content. DWL participated in the study conception.
KWL provided advice on the study design and management. All authors
Kim et al. Nutrition & Metabolism (2017) 14:43 Page 6 of 8
were involved in editing the manuscript and read and approved the final
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Consent for publication
All experimental procedures were performed at the Animal Experiment
Research Center of Konkuk University. This study was conducted in
accordance with the ethical guidelines of the Konkuk University Institutional
Animal Care and Use Committee.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published
maps and institutional affiliations.
Physical Activity & Performance Institute, Konkuk University, 120
Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05029, Republic of Korea.
of Medical Science, School of Medicine Konkuk University, 120
Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05029, Republic of Korea.
of Bio-Science, College of Natural Science, Dongguk University, Dongdae-ro
123, Gyeongju, Gyeongsangbuk-do 38066, Republic of Korea.
Physical Education, Laboratory of Exercise Nutrition, Korea University, 120
Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701, Republic of Korea.
Received: 22 December 2016 Accepted: 7 June 2017
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