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We conducted the first comprehensive floristic study of the lichens and allied fungi of Salmonier Nature Park on the Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland, Canada. By comparing our results to those from other provincial parks in Newfoundland, we show that Salmonier Nature Park has a regionally rich lichen biota that includes several uncommon species. We carry out an assessment of landscape-level drivers including geographic location and land cover diversity to determine whether lichen richness corresponds to patterns at the landscape extent. Within Salmonier, one species (Erioderma pedicellatum) is listed as ‘‘special concern’’ by the federal Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada and ‘‘critically endangered’’ by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Two species are new to the island of Newfoundland: Phaeophyscia ciliata and Stereocaulon subcoralloides. Six species are new to the province of Newfoundland and Labrador: Ephebe hispidula, Muellerella lichenicola, Mycoblastus sanguinarioides, Placynthium flabellosum, Usnea flammea, and Xanthoparmelia angustiphylla. Our results provide baseline knowledge that allows changes in the lichen community to be monitored, the discovery of new species in the park to be acknowledged, regional distributions and frequencies to be better understood, and accurate comparisons to be made with other parks.
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Lichens and allied fungi of Salmonier Nature Park,
Author(s): Richard Troy McMullin and Yolanda F. Wiersma
Source: The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, 144(3):357-369.
Published By: Torrey Botanical Society
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Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 144(3): 357–369, 2017.
Lichens and allied fungi of Salmonier Nature Park, Newfoundland
Richard Troy McMullin
Research and Collections, Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa, ON, K1P 6P4, Canada,
Department of Biology, Memorial University, St. John’s, NL, A1B 3X9, Canada
Yolanda F. Wiersma
Department of Biology, Memorial University, St. John’s, NL, A1B 3X9, Canada
Abstract. We conducted the first comprehensive floristic study of the lichens and allied fungi of Salmonier Nature
Park on the Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland, Canada. By comparing our results to those from other provincial
parks in Newfoundland, we show that Salmonier Nature Park has a regionally rich lichen biota that includes several
uncommon species. We carry out an assessment of landscape-level drivers including geographic location and land
cover diversity to determine whether lichen richness corresponds to patterns at the landscape extent. Within
Salmonier, one species (Erioderma pedicellatum) is listed as ‘‘special concern’’ by the federal Committee on the
Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada and ‘‘critically endangered’’ by the International Union for Conservation of
Nature. Two species are new to the island of Newfoundland: Phaeophyscia ciliata and Stereocaulon subcoralloides.
Six species are new to the province of Newfoundland and Labrador: Ephebe hispidula, Muellerella lichenicola,
Mycoblastus sanguinarioides, Placynthium flabellosum, Usnea flammea, and Xanthoparmelia angustiphylla. Our
results provide baseline knowledge that allows changes in the lichen community to be monitored, the discovery of
new species in the park to be acknowledged, regional distributions and frequencies to be better understood, and
accurate comparisons to be made with other parks.
Key words: Atlantic Canada, Avalon Forest Ecoregion, biogeography, landscape ecology, lichen biodiversity
Floristics creates fundamental knowledge that
provides an important foundation for conservation
initiatives (Reid and Miller 1989; Environment
Canada 1995; Powell, Barborak, and Rodriguez
2000). This information shapes our understanding
of species distribution and frequency in particular
areas. Comprehensive floristic studies also provide
a baseline from which changes can be monitored,
including acknowledging previously unreported
species or the effects of disturbances such as air
pollution or acid rain (Henderson 2000, Richard-
son and Cameron 2004, McMullin and Ure 2008).
Accurate ecological comparisons with other re-
gions or localities are made possible as well, which
contributes greater insight into landscape-level
diversity patterns (Pickett 1989, Fukami and
Wardle 2005). Lichens are particularly sensitive
to microclimatic conditions and are strong indica-
tors of variation among ecosystems (Brodo, Sharn-
off, and Sharnoff 2001; Nash 2008). However,
fundamental baseline knowledge for lichens in
many areas of Canada is limited or does not exist
(Goward, Brodo, and Clayden 1998).
On the Canadian island of Newfoundland,
lichens collections have been frequent relative to
other regions in the country (Ahti 1974, 1983;
Goward, Brodo, and Clayden 1998). Collections
date back to those made by Joseph Banks in 1766
(Lysaght 1971). Major published collections that
followed include those by Arthur Waghorne
(Arnold 1896, Eckfeldt 1895, Macoun 1902,
Brassard 1980), Teuvo Ahti (Ahti 1983), and John
McCarthy (McCarthy, Driscoll, and Clayden
2015). Important collections have also been made
that were not published (e.g., see Goward, Brodo,
and Clayden 1998; Pitcher and Clayden 2007).
Summaries of all species reported or collected in
Newfoundland were compiled by Eckfeld (1895)
and Ahti (1983), and an updated list is currently
We gratefully acknowledge D. Howell, J. Kennedy,
M. Blackwood, R. Jarvis, and the staff at Salmonier
Nature Park for hosting R.T.M. for the duration of this
study and providing permission for us to collect; K.
Unger and M. Lafferty, our field companions from the
Nature Conservancy of Canada; J. Kennedy for being a
guide through unmarked wilderness; J. McCarthy for
assisting with determining new provincial and
Newfoundland records; M. Pitcher for helpful
discussion about the ecosystems and lichen species in
the park; B. Dorin for data entry; and R. Wigle for
curating specimens. This study was conducted under
provincial park research permit 0895. Funding was
provided by the Natural Sciences and Engineering
Research Council of Canada to Y.F.W.
Author for correspondence: tmcmullin@mus-nature.
doi: 10.3159/TORREY-D-16-00041
ÓCopyright 2017 by The Torrey Botanical Society
Received for publication July 29, 2016, and in revised
form November 6, 2016; first published June 30, 2017.
being assembled and added to by John McCarthy,
Teuvo Ahti, and Stephen Clayden. A history of
lichen collecting on the island is described by Ahti
(1974, 1983) and by Goward, Brodo, and Clayden
(1998). Since 1998, several additional lichen
collections from Newfoundland have been pub-
lished (Deduke and Piercey-Normore 2013; Pier-
cey-Normore 2013; Deduke, Ahti, and Piercey-
Normore 2014; McCarthy, Driscoll, and Clayden
2015; McMullin and Arsenault 2016). In 2007, an
international group of lichenologists gathered for
the Tuckerman Workshop and made collections at
several sites on the Avalon Peninsula (the Avalon)
(Pitcher and Clayden 2007), which comprises the
easternmost region of Newfoundland and is known
for a rich and unusual lichen biota (Ahti 1974,
1983; McCarthy, Driscoll, and Clayden 2015;
COSEWIC 2014). Despite the large number of
lichen collections that have been made in New-
foundland, comprehensive inventories of spatially
defined areas (e.g., parks and protected areas) have
been limited and new island records are still
regularly discovered (Knudsen and Kokourkova
2015; McCarthy, Driscoll, and Clayden 2015;
McMullin and Arsenault 2016).
A recent survey of lichen diversity in New-
foundland (McCarthy, Driscoll, and Clayden
2015) found 133 taxa, of which 15 were new
records for the province. McCarthy, Driscoll, and
Clayden (2015) surveyed four provincial parks,
which extended from the west to the east coast of
the island, in close proximity to the southern coast
of the island. Of these, one (Jipujijikeui Kues-
pem) is a known lichen hotspot, and Fitzgerald’s
Pond on the Avalon protects a population of the
globally rare lichen Erioderma pedicellatum
(Scheidegger 2003, COSEWIC 2014). Salmonier
Nature Park (Salmonier), located in the center of
the Avalon, is currently the only protected area in
the Avalon Forest Ecoregion, the smallest ecor-
egion in the province (Damman 1983), but which
is known for an unusual and rich lichen biota
(Ahti 1983). None of the provincial parks
surveyed by McCarthy, Driscoll, and Clayden
(2015) are in this ecoregion, but Salmonier Nature
Park is close to one of them (ca. 35 km east of
Fitzgerald’s Pond Provincial Park Reserve). To
our knowledge, a detailed list of the lichens of
Salmonier Nature Park has not been published.
Given the proximity of Salmonier to known areas
of high lichen richness (Ahti 1983), and its status
as a protected area that is largely unimpacted (see
Study Area below), it is valuable to gain a better
understanding of the lichen diversity within this
In addition to developing a comprehensive list
of lichen and allied fungi in Salmonier Nature
Park, we were interested in understanding patterns
of lichen diversity at larger spatial extents. A
comparison of lichen richness and species compo-
sition in the four parks surveyed by McCarthy,
Driscoll, and Clayden (2015) to our survey here
might yield insights into the alpha, beta, and
gamma diversity along a roughly east-west transect
of protected areas on the island of Newfoundland.
We hypothesize that factors that might affect
within-park species richness include park size
(driven by classic species-area relationships) and
habitat diversity within parks (parks with a higher
variety of land cover/habitat types will have higher
lichen species richness). We expect to see variation
in species composition as we move east to west,
driven largely by climatic and ecoregion differ-
Methods. STUDY AREA. Salmonier Nature Park
is a provincial protected area managed by the
Wildlife Division for the purpose of environmental
education (Fig. 1). The park was established in
1978 and is 1,455 ha in size. Of this, most visitors
only visit the 40 ha that include a boardwalk and
animal enclosures where the park houses injured or
orphaned wildlife. These are available for viewing
to the public for the purpose of increasing
understanding and appreciation of the province’s
wildlife (Government of Newfoundland and Lab-
rador, no date). The park receives over 40,000
visitors per annum; however, very few of these
visit the 1,415 ha of ‘‘backcountry’’ that exists
outside of the nature trail and educational facilities.
Other than two primitive cabins and a few trails
(both of which are primarily used by park staff),
the majority of the park is not heavily impacted by
visitor use. The eastern boundary of the nature
park borders on the 1,070-km
Avalon Wilderness
Reserve, the largest protected area on the Avalon
Peninsula, which represents a portion of the
Maritime Barrens Ecoregion.
Salmonier Nature Park is located within the
Avalon Forest Ecoregion, which is the smallest
ecoregion in the province (555 km
) (Damman
1983). This Ecoregion is characterized by ribbed
moraines and domed bogs of glacial origin,
covered with forests dominated by balsam fir
FIG. 1. (A) Salmonier Nature Park. Polygons indicate habitat types (based on Earth Observation for
Sustainable Development data course for land cover for which a representative sample was surveyed in this
study). Roman numerals indicate sampling locations as described in Table 1. Colored polygons (see map legend
for description) indicate habitat types for which no representative site was sampled in this study. (B) Indicates
location of Salmonier Nature Park (diamond) relative to the four provincial parks (triangles) recently surveyed for
lichens. (C) Shows location of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador (dark grey) within Canada.
(Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) intermixed with yellow
birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.) and white birch
(Betula papyrifera Marsh.). The climate is charac-
terized by cool summers, with a mean July
temperature of 16.5 61.5 8C; mild winters, with
a mean January temperature of 3.1 61.8 8C
(Environment Canada 2015); and high precipita-
tion, over 1,100 mm per year (Damman 1983).
SAMPLING. Our lichen survey at Salmonier
occurred between October 5 and October 29,
2015. Sampling was scattered throughout this
time, totaling approximately 4 days. Our survey
methods followed Newmaster et al. (2005), who
showed that examining large areas (referred to as
floristic habitat sampling) captures cryptogam
diversity more effectively than using smaller
representative plots. Using floristic habitat sam-
pling, we surveyed as many ecosystems in the park
as possible. All observed restricted mesohabitats
(e.g., streams, rock outcrops) were examined in
each ecosystem. We attempted to assess as many
microhabitats (e.g., snags, different tree species
and rock types) as possible at each location. This
method was described as an ‘‘intelligent meander’’
by Selva (1999, 2003).
IDENTIFICATION. We identified specimens using
microscopy to examine morphology and chemical
spot tests following Brodo, Sharnoff, and Sharnoff
(2001). Chemistry was further examined using an
ultraviolet light chamber and thin-layer chroma-
tography following Culberson and Kristinsson
(1970) and Orange, James, and White (2001) in
solvents A and C. Images were captured using a
Canon PowerShot Elph 130 IS digital camera.
Voucher specimens have been deposited at the
Ayre Herbarium at Memorial University and the
Canadian Museum of Nature.
contrast habitat diversity in Salmonier Nature Park
with the four provincial parks surveyed by
McCarthy, Driscoll, and Clayden (2015) we
quantified the land cover diversity using remotely
sensed satellite data. While the dataset used, the
Earth Observation for Sustainable Development
(EOSD) data (Wulder and Nelson 2003), does not
yield land cover classes that match the habitats
described by McCarthy, Driscoll, and Clayden
(2015) they provide an index of overall diversity of
land cover types. The EOSD data are based on
Landsat TM imagery and classified to the same
standard across the country with a 30-m pixel size.
We overlaid these data for the province with the
boundary files for the four provincial parks and for
Salmonier Nature Park (obtained from CanVec
geogratis/11042). We clipped the EOSD raster by
the boundaries of each park and then used the data
in each attribute table to count land cover types
(number of EOSD classes, not including shadow
and cloud), which we took to represent ‘‘land cover
richness’’ within each park. We also used the count
of pixels for each land cover type to calculate
landscape-level Shannon diversity index for each
park as follows:
SHDI ¼Rpi3lnpi;
where p
is the proportion of pixels within the park
of land cover type i. We chose the Shannon index
over the Simpson’s index because it has been
shown in landscape analyses that the Shannon
index better captures and quantifies diversity in
landscapes with rare habitat types (Nagendra
2002). Given the habitat specificity of many
lichens, we hypothesize that those parks with
more rare habitats or higher overall land cover
diversity will have higher lichen diversity.
used the Sorensen-Dice coefficient of similarity to
compare the lichen community across all pair-wise
comparisons of the five parks. The coefficient is
calculated as follows:
where Arepresents the total number of species
common to both parks, Bis the number of species
at park 1 that are absent from the other park, and C
is the number of species at park 2 that are absent
from park 1.
Results. LANDSCAPE DIVERSITY. Land cover
richness was highest in Salmonier and Fitzgerald’s
Pond parks, with 14 land cover classes in each.
Shannon landscape diversity was highest in
Sandbanks Provincial Park and lowest in Jipujij-
kuei Kuespem (Table 2).
SPECIES DIVERSITY. One hundred and thirty-seven
lichen and allied fungus species in 66 genera were
discovered at Salmonier during our study. Com-
bined with previous unpublished reports, which are
the nonbolded species in the annotated list below,
144 species in 67 genera are now known from the
park. These include 46 (32%) microlichens
(crustose species, which includes all allied fungi)
and 98 (68%) macrolichens (44 foliose and 54
fruticose). One hundred and twenty-seven (88%)
species have green algae as a primary photobiont,
12 (8%) species have cyanobacteria as their
primary photobiont, and 5 (3%) species are
nonlichenized fungi traditionally treated with
lichens. Seven (5%) species are calicioids and
two (1.4 %) species are lichenicolous.
The species with cyanobacteria as a primary
photobiont (cyanolichens) are Ephebe hispidula,
Erioderma pedicellatum (Fig. 2), Fuscopannaria
ahlneri, Lichinodium sirosiphoideum, Parmeliella
parvula, Peltigera canina, Peltigera hymenina,
Peltigera membranacea, Peltigera polydactylon,
Table 1. Lichen collection sites in Salmonier Nature Park. Roman numerals correspond with collection
numbers in the Annotated Species List.
Site Name Latitude Longitude Habitat
I Boardwalk Trail 47.263798N
to 47.263428N
to 53.275778W
Mature and humid mixed-wood
conifer forests. Tree cover
dominated by Abies balsamea
and Picea spp.
II Trail between the
administration building
and the old visitor center
47.263468N 53.285158W A mature mixed-wood conifer
forest dominated by Abies
balsamea and Picea spp.
surrounding a bog.
III Butler’s Pool 47.245848N 53.270838W A humid sheltered mixed-wood
conifer forest along the
Salmonier River. Tree cover
dominated by Abies balsamea
and Picea spp. Exposed
boulders are along the shores of
the river.
IV Boardwalk Trail, around
the snowy owl enclosure
47.26278N 53.283288W Sparsely treed bog. Tree cover
dominated by Picea mariana
and Larix laricina.
V Three Rivers 47.252838N 53.251098W Exposed boulders and shoreline
trees (conifers) among the three
rivers entering Three Rivers
Pond from Salmon Pond.
VI Mackay’s Lookout 47.245818N 53.237328W Maritime barrens with the highest
points of exposed rock reaching
arctic-alpine conditions.
VII Trail between the three
rivers and Metcalfe Falls
to 47.2525378N
to 53.2329488W
Mature mixed-wood forest
dominated by Abies balsamea,
Betula papyrifera, and Picea
VIII Murphy’s Falls 47.247288N 53.259668W Exposed boulders in the river
below a waterfall.
IX Trail from Highway 90 to
Butler’s Pool
to 47.2458438N
to 53.2708298W
Mature mixed-wood forest
dominated Abies balsamea,
Betula alleghaniensis, and
Picea spp.
X Whiskey Ponds River 47.251188N 53.286978W Exposed boulders in the river
between the two smallest ponds
in the Whiskey Ponds chain.
XI Eastern moraines 47.249818N 53.281348W Moraines in the eastern corner of
Salmonier Nature Park that are
surrounded by sparsely treed
bogs. Tree cover on the
moraines is dominated by Abies
balsamea and Picea mariana.
In the bogs, scattered tree cover
is dominated by Larix laricina.
XII Metcalfe’s Falls 47.2525378N 53.2329488W Exposed boulders in the river
above and below a waterfall.
Peltigera ponojensis,Peltigera scabrosa, and
Placynthium flabellosum; the calicioid species are
Calicium abietinum, Calicium lenticulare, Chae-
notheca balsamconensis, Chaenotheca brunneola,
Mycocalicium subtile, Phaeocalicium compressu-
lum, and Phaeocalicium matthewsianum; and the
lichenicolous species are Cystobasidium hypogym-
niicola and Muellerella lichenicola.
gerald’s Pond (closest park to Salmonier) had the
highest similarity coefficient relative to Salmonier
(Table 3). Sandbanks and J.T. Cheeseman are both
in the Maritime Barrens Ecoregion, while Jipujij-
kuei Kuespem is in a different ecoregion. Salmon-
ier and Fitzgerald’s Pond are on the Avalon (albeit
in different ecoregions) and so are somewhat
isolated from the other three by a narrow isthmus.
Sorensen-Dice similarity coefficients do not follow
ecoregion patterns or geographic proximity (see
Table 2 and Fig. 1 for geographic relationships).
. With only five protected areas, we do not
have sufficient power for a statistical test of our
hypotheses that lichen diversity is related to park
size or diversity of land cover types. Although the
largest protected area, Salmonier (14.5 km
), has
the highest reported lichen richness (144 species);
the other protected areas have richness that does
not align with their size. The smallest provincial
park, Fitzgerald’s Pond (1.9 km
) has similar
reported richness as Jipujijkuei Kuespem, which
is more than three times as large, and Fitzgerald’s
Pond has higher richness (63 species) than J.T.
Cheeseman (44 species), which is slightly larger.
Nor does there appear to be any pattern with
respect to landscover diversity, as measured by the
EOSD data. All five protected areas had very
similar landscape level diversity (between 12 and
14 EOSD land cover types) and the park with the
highest Shannon landscape diversity (Sandbanks)
did not have the highest reported lichen richness.
As noted above with respect to Sorensen-Dice
similarity in species composition, there was no
pattern where geographically close protected areas
had higher similarity. The farthest east protected
area (Salmonier) had the highest reported lichen
richness (144) and the farthest west protected area
(J.T. Cheeseman) had the lowest (44), but the other
three protected areas all had similar reported lichen
FIG. 2. The two thalli of Erioderma pedicellatum
discovered in Salmonier Nature Park. (A) Habitat.
(B,C) The thalli occur on the corresponding flagged
trees directly above each image. (B) Mature thallus,
scale bar ¼1.5 cm, McMullin 16217 (observation
only). (C) Immature thallus, scale bar ¼1 cm,
McMullin 16218 (observation only).
Table 2. Summary of land cover richness (quantified as number of Earth Observation for Sustainable
Development [EOSD] land cover classes) and Shannon landscape diversity index in five parks in
Newfoundland, compared with lichen species richness.
Provincial park
Approximate distance
from Salmonier (km)
No. of EOSD
Shannon landscape
diversity index
Fitzgerald’s Pond 1.9 35 63 14 1.896
J.T. Cheeseman 2.4 450 44 12 1.932
Jipujijkuei Kuespem 6.8 185 61 13 1.718
Salmonier 14.5 0 144 14 1.745
Sandbanks 2.3 330 63 13 2.077
richness (61–64) and did not follow any west-to-
east gradient.
The list is arranged alphabetically by genus and
Nomenclature follows the 20th edition of the
North American Lichen Checklist (Esslinger
2015). Any deviation from this list is the
opinion of the authors.
Species authors are cited following Brummitt
and Powell (1996), authors after 1996 follow the
20th edition of the North American Lichen
Checklist (Esslinger 2015).
Collection numbers belong to the first author
unless otherwise stated.
Nonbolded species were not collected during the
present study.
Roman numerals correspond to collection sites
in Table 1.
Herbarium acronyms follow Index Herbariorum
(Thiers 2016).
*¼New species to the island of Newfoundland.
** ¼New species to the province of Newfound-
land and Labrador.
¼Nonlichenized fungi traditionally treated
with lichens.
Alectoria sarmentosa (Ach.) Ach. – Corticolous
(Abies balsamea, Larix laricina (Du Roi) K.
Koch). 16003 (IV), 16091 (IX).
Arctoparmelia centrifuga (L.) Hale – Saxicolous.
16172 (VI), 16180 (VI).
Arctoparmelia incurva (Pers.) Hale – Saxicolous.
16188 (VI).
Baeomyces rufus (Huds.) Rebent. – Terricolous.
16059 (IX).
Biatora pycnidiata Printzen & Tønsberg – Cortico-
lous. R.C. Harris 53963 (I) (NY).
Bryoria americana (Motyka) Holien – Cortico-
lous (Abies balsamea, Larix laricina), terrico-
lous. 16089 (XI), 16136 (V), 16154 (VI), 16164
Bryoria bicolor (Ehrh.) Brodo & D. Hawksw.
Terricolous (thin soil over rock). 16056 (X).
Bryoria furcellata (Fr.) Brodo & D. Hawksw.
Corticolous (Larix laricina). 16005 (IV), 16090
(VI), 16196 (VI).
Bryoria fuscescens (Gyeln.) Brodo & D.
Hawksw. – Corticolous (Abies balsamea,Larix
laricina,Picea mariana (Mill.) Britt., Sterns &
Poggenb). 16023 (I), 16093 (XI), 16097 (V),
16131 (V), 16197 (I).
Bryoria nadvornikiana (Gyeln.) Brodo & D.
Hawksw. – Corticolous (Abies balsamea,Bet-
ula papyrifera, Larix laricina). 16000 (I), 16124
(VII), 16178 (VI).
Bryoria trichodes (Michaux) Brodo & D.
Hawksw. – Corticolous (Abies balsamea, Abies
balsamea snag). 16001 (I), 16121 (V), 16139
Calicium abietinum Pers. – Lignicolous (snag).
16100 (IX).
Calicium lenticulare Ach. – Lignicolous (snag).
16021 (I), 16084 (IX).
Caloplaca holocarpa (Hoffm. ex Ach.) M. Wad
Saxicolous. 16129 (V).
Candelariella vitellina (Hoffm.) Mu¨ ll. Arg.
Saxicolous. 16130 (V).
Cetraria islandica subsp. crispiformis (R¨
arnefelt – Terricolous. 16149 (VI).
Cetraria aculeata (Schreb.) Fr. – Terricolous. S.R.
Clayden 13985 (II) (NBM).
Cetraria muricata (Ach.) Eckfeldt – Terricolous.
16061 (X), 16144 (VI), 16153 (VI).
Chaenotheca balsamconensis J.L. Allen &
McMullin – Fungicolous (Trichaptum abieti-
num (Pers. ex J.F. Gmel.) Ryvarden). 16030 (I).
Chaenotheca brunneola (Ach.) Mull Arg.
Lignicolous (snag). 16076 (IX).
Cladonia arbuscula (Wallr.) Flot. – Terricolous.
16051 (II).
Cladonia boryi Tuck. – Terricolous. 16177 (VI),
16210 (VI).
Cladonia cenotea (Ach.) Schaer. – Terricolous.
16037 (II).
Table 3. Sorensen-Dice coefficient of lichen species similarity between provincial protected areas. Higher
coefficient indicates species composition overlaps more. Total lichen species richness is given in Table 2.
Fitzgerald’s Pond J.T. Cheeseman Jipujijkuei Kuespem Salmonier Sandbanks
Fitzgerald’s Pond 1 0.5047 0.5000 0.4638 0.4921
J.T. Cheeseman 0.5047 1 0.4000 0.3511 0.4112
Jipujijkuei Kuespem 0.5000 0.4000 1 0.33317 0.4193
Salmonier 0.4638 0.3511 0.3317 1 0.4155
Sandbanks 0.4921 0.4112 0.4193 0.4155 1
Cladonia chlorophaea (Fl¨
orke ex Sommerf.)
Spreng. – Lignicolous (log). 16029 (I), 16162
Cladonia coccifera (L.) Willd. – Terricolous.
16170 (VI).
Cladonia cornuta subsp. groenlandica (E. Dahl)
Ahti – Terricolous. 16042 (II).
Cladonia crispata (Ach.) Flot. – Lignicolous
(stump), terricolous. 16034 (II), 16086 (VI),
16111 (XI), 16142 (I).
Cladonia cristatella Tuck. – Lignicolous (log).
16064 (IX).
Cladonia digitata (L.) Hoffm. –Lignicolous
(stump). 16032 (I).
Cladonia fimbriata (L.) Fr. – Terricolous. 16044
Cladonia gracilis subsp. elongata (Jacq.) Vain.
Terricolous. 16143 (VI).
Cladonia gracilis subsp. gracilis (L.) Willd.
Terricolous. 16055 (X), 16184 (VI).
Cladonia grayi G. Merr. ex Sandst. – Terricolous.
R.C. Harris 53932 (I) (NY).
Cladonia macilenta var. bacillaris (Genth)
Schaer. – Terricolous. 16043 (II).
Cladonia maxima (Asahina) Ahti – Terricolous.
16038 (II).
Cladonia multiformis G. Merr. – Terricolous.
16041 (II).
Cladonia ochrochlora Fl¨
orke – Lignicolous (log).
16031 (I).
Cladonia pleurota (Fl¨
orke) Schaer. – Lignicolous
(log). 16066 (IX), 16112 (XI).
Cladonia pyxidata (L.) Hoffm. – Terricolous.
16135 (VII).
Cladonia rangiferina (L.) F.H. Wigg. – Terrico-
lous. 16048 (II).
Cladonia scabriuscula (Delise) Nyl. – Terricolous.
S.R. Clayden 13991 (II) (NBM).
Cladonia squamosa Hoffm. – Lignicolous
(stump). 16033 (II).
Cladonia stellaris (Opiz) Pouzar & Vˇ
Terricolous. 16057 (II).
Cladonia stygia (Fr.) Ruoss – Terricolous. 16047
Cladonia subulata (L.) F. H. Wigg. – Lignicolous
(log). 16137 (VII).
Cladonia terrae-novae Ahti – Terricolous. 16050
Cladonia uncialis subsp. biuncialis (Hoffm.) M.
Choisy – Terricolous. 16049 (II), 16216 (VI).
Cladonia verticillata (Hoffm.) Schear. – Terrico-
lous. 16046 (II).
Cladonia wainioi Savicz – Terricolous. 16141
Coccocarpia palmicola (Spreng.) Arv. & D.J.
Galloway –Corticolous(Abies balsamea).
16072 (IX), 16119 (XI).
Cystobasidium hypogymniicola Diederich &
Ahti – Lichenicolous (Hypogymnia incurvoides
Rass., Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl.). 16104
(XI), 16161 (VIII).
Dermatocarpon luridum (With.) J.R. Laundon
Saxicolous. 16109 (XII), 16126 (V).
Dibaeis baeomyces (L. f.) Rambold & Hertel
Terricolous. 16045 (II), 16211 (VI).
**Ephebe hispidula (Ach.) Horw. – Saxicolous.
16070 (X).
Erioderma pedicellatum (Hue) P.M. Jørg.
Corticolous (Abies balsamea). 16217, 16218
Fuscidea recensa var. arcuatula (Arnold) Fry-
day – Saxicolous. 16186 (VII).
Fuscopannaria ahlneri (P.M. Jørg.) P.M. Jørg.
Corticolous (Abies balsamea). 16117 (XI).
Graphis scripta (L.) Ach. – Corticolous (Betula
alleghaniensis,Picea mariana). 16026 (II),
16096 (IX).
Hypogymnia hultenii (Degel.) Krog – Corticolous
(Picea mariana). 16035 (IV).
Hypogymnia incurvoides Rass. – Corticolous
(conifer snag). 16053 (II).
Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. – Corticolous
(Larix laricina, Picea mariana). 16004 (IV),
16105 (XI).
Hypogymnia tubulosa (Schaer.) – Corticolous
(Picea mariana). 16010 (IV).
Hypogymnia vittata (Ach.) Parrique – Cortico-
lous (Picea mariana). 16014 (I).
Icmadophila ericetorum (L.) Zahlbr. – Lignico-
lous (stump). 16016 (I).
Imshaugia aleurites (Ach.) S.F. Mey. – Lignico-
lous (snag). 16065 (IX).
Lasallia papulosa (Ach.) Llano – Saxicolous.
16138 (V), 16171 (VI), 16181 (VI).
Lecanactis abietina (Ach.) K¨
orb. – Corticolous
(Betula alleghaniensis). 16194 (IX).
Lecanora polytropa (Ehrh.) Rabenh. – Saxico-
lous. 16142 (VI).
Lecanora muralis (Schreb.) Rabenh. – Saxico-
lous. 16122 (V).
Lecanora symmicta (Ach.) Ach. – Lignicolous
(snag). 16106 (IX).
Lecidea albofuscescens Nyl. – Corticolous. R.C.
Harris 53955 (I) (NY).
Lecidea tessellata Fl¨
orke – Saxicolous. 16193
Lepraria finkii (B. de Lesd.) R. C. Harris
Corticolous (Betula alleghaniensis). 16095 (IX).
Lichinodium sirosiphoideum Nyl. – Corticolous
(Abies balsamea). 16120 (XI).
Lichenomphalia umbellifera (L. : Fr.) Redhead,
Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys – Lignicolous
(log). 16077 (IX).
Lopadium disciforme (Flot.) Kullh. – Corticolous
(Abies balsamea, Betula alleghaniensis). 16028
(II), 16107 (IX).
Loxospora cismonica (Beltr.) Hafellner – Corti-
colous (Abies balsamea). 16025 (II).
Loxospora elatina (Ach.) A. Massal. – Cortico-
lous (Picea mariana). 16027 (II).
Melanelia hepatizon (Ach.) A. Thell – Saxico-
lous. 16173 (VI), 16179 (VI).
Melanelia panniformis (Nyl.) Essl. – Saxicolous.
16189 (VI).
Menegazzia subsimilis (H. Magn.) R. Sant. –
Corticolous. R.C. Harris 53924 (I) (NY), R.C.
Harris 53963-A (I) (NY).
Menegazzia terebrata (Hoffm.) A. Massal.
Corticolous (Abies balsamea). 16071 (IX),
16102 (IX).
Micarea peliocarpa (Anzi) Coppins & R. Sant.
Lignicolous (log). 16079 (IX).
**†Muellerella lichenicola (Sommerf. ex Fr.)
D.Hawksw. – Lichenicolous (Mycoblastus san-
guinarioides, M. sanguinarius). 16147 (I),
16075 (X).
Mycoblastus affinis (Schaer.) Schauer. – Cortico-
lous (Abies balsamea). S.R. Clayden 14011 (II)
Mycoblastus caesius (Coppins & P. James)
Tønsberg – Corticolous (Picea mariana).
16020 (I).
**Mycoblastus sanguinarioides Kantvilas – Cor-
ticolous (coniferous snag). 16036 (I).
Mycoblastus sanguinarius (L.) Norman – Lig-
nicolous (snag). 16190 (VI), 16213 (X).
Mycocalicium subtile (Pers.) Szatala – Lignic-
olous (snag). 16083 (IX).
Ochrolechia androgyna (Hoffm.) Arnold
Corticolous (Abies balsamea). 16018 (I),
16099 (IX), 16110 (I).
Ochrolechia frigida (Sw.) Lynge – Terricolous.
16127 (VI), 16201 (VI).
Ophioparma ventosa (L.) Norman – Saxicolous.
16192 (VI).
Orphniospora moriopsis (A. Massal.) D.
Hawksw. – Saxicolous. 16185 (VI).
Parmelia saxatilis (L.) Ach. – Saxicolous. 16074
(X), 16176 (VI).
Parmelia squarrosa Hale – Corticolous (Picea
mariana). 16019 (I).
Parmelia sulcata Taylor – Saxicolous. 16060
Parmeliella parvula P. M. Jørg. – Corticolous
(Abies balsamea). 16080 (IX), 16118 (XI).
Parmeliopsis capitata R.C. Harris – Corticolous
(Picea mariana). 16012 (IV).
Parmeliopsis hyperopta (Ach.) Arnold – Cortico-
lous (Picea mariana). 16013 (IV).
Peltigera canina (L.) Willd. – Terricolous. 16150
Peltigera hymenina (Ach.) Delise – Terricolous
16145 (III).
Peltigera membranacea (Ach.) Nyl. – Terricolous.
16103 (III), 16134 (III), 16146 (III).
Peltigera polydactylon (Neck.) Hoffm. – Cortico-
lous (Abies balsamea), terricolous. 16098 (V),
16140 (XI).
Peltigera ponojensis Gyeln. – Terricolous. 16158
Peltigera scabrosa Th. Fr. – Terricolous. 16128
Phaeocalicium compressulum (Nyl. ex Szatala)
A.F.W. Schmidt – Corticolous (Alnus viridus
(Chaix) DC. ssp. crispa (Aiton) Turrill). 16039
Phaeocalicium matthewsianum Selva & Tibell
– Corticolous (Betula alleghaniensis). 16040
*Phaeophyscia ciliata (Hoffm.) Moberg – Bryic-
olous. 16088 (XII).
**Placynthium flabellosum (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
Saxicolous. 16073 (X).
Platismatia glauca (L.) Culb. & C. Culb.
Corticolous (conifer snag). 16024 (I).
Platismatia norvegica (Lynge) Culb. & C. Culb.
– Corticolous (Picea mariana). 16017 (I).
Porpidia flavicunda (Ach.) Gowan – Saxicolous.
16191 (VI).
Porpidia macrocarpa (DC.) Hertel & A. J.
Schwab – Saxicolous. 16081 (IX).
Pycnothelia papillaria Dufour – Terricolous.
16115 (VI), 16133 (VI), 16200 (VI).
Ramalina dilacerata (Hoffm.) Hoffm. – Cortico-
lous (Larix laricina). 16007 (IV).
Ramalina roesleri (Hochst. ex Schaer.) Hue
Corticolous (Larix laricina). 16006 (IV).
Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) DC. – Saxico-
lous. 16195 (VI).
Rhizocarpon reductum Th. Fr. – Saxicolous.
16187 (IX).
Sphaerophorus fragilis (L.) Pers. – Saxicolous.
16062 (X), 16114 (VI), 16182 (VI).
Sphaerophorus globosus (Huds.) Vain. – Cortico-
lous (Betula alleghaniensis, Picea mariana).
16015 (I), 16212 (IX).
Stereocaulon dactylophyllum Fl¨
orke – Saxico-
lous. 16063 (III).
Stereocaulon paschale (L.) Hoffm. – Saxicolous.
16078 (X).
*Stereocaulon subcoralloides (Nyl.) Nyl. – Sax-
icolous. 16152 (VI).
Stereocaulon vesuvianum Pers. – Saxicolous.
16148 (VI), 16157 (XII).
Thelotrema lepadinum (Ach.) Ach. – Corticolous
(Betula alleghaniensis, snag). 16054 (IX),
16092 (IX).
Trapeliopsis granulosa (Hoffm.) Lumbsch
Terricolous. 16067 (IX).
Tremolecia atrata (Ach.) Hertel – Saxicolous.
16174 (VI).
Tuckermanopsis americana (Spreng.) Hale
Corticolous (Betula alleghaniensis,Larix larici-
na). 16008 (IV), 16052 (II), 16116 (XI), 16155
Umbilicaria deusta (L.) Baumg. – Saxicolous.
16069 (X).
Umbilicaria hyperborea (Ach.) Hoffm. – Saxic-
olous. 16167 (VI).
Umbilicaria muehlenbergii (Ach.) Tuck. – Sax-
icolous. 16183 (VI).
Umbilicaria polyphylla (L.) Baumg. – Saxicolous.
16175 (VI).
Umbilicaria torrefacta (Lightf.) Schrad. – Saxic-
olous. 16113 (VI), 16168 (VI).
Usnea dasopoga (Ach.) Nyl. – Corticolous (Abies
balsamea). 16082 (IX), 16199 (I).
**Usnea flammea Stirt. – Corticolous (Betula
alleghaniensis). 16085 (IX).
Usnea longissima Ach. – Corticolous (Picea
mariana). 16011 (IV).
Variolaria amara Ach. – Corticolous (conifer
snag). 16022 (I). 16123 (IX).
Vulpicida pinastri (Scop.) J.-E. Mattsson & M.J.
Lai – Corticolous (Picea mariana). 16009 (IV).
**Xanthoparmelia angustiphylla (Gyeln.) Hale
Saxicolous. 16094 (V).
Xanthoparmelia conspersa (Ehrh. ex Ach.) Hale
– Saxicolous. 16058 (X).
Xanthoria elegans (Link) Th.Fr.’ – Saxicolous.
16132 (V).
Xanthoria polycarpa (Hoffm.) Rieber – Saxico-
lous. 16125 (V).
Xylographa opegraphella Nyl. – Lignicolous
(snag). 16108 (IX).
Xylographa parallela (Ach.: Fr.) Fr. – Lignico-
lous (log). 16087 (V).
Discussion. Beta diversity of lichens in these
five protected areas in Newfoundland does not
follow predictable patterns. Parks in the same
ecoregion or in close geographic proximity do not
have higher similarity to each other than to parks
that are farther apart or in different ecoregions.
Across all parks, total lichen diversity (gamma
diversity) is 203 species.
The differences observed in total species
richness (alpha diversity) within parks might also
be a result of different survey efforts, and may be
affecting the lack of any predictable pattern in beta
diversity. McCarthy, Driscoll, and Clayden (2015)
spent 2 days in each park and acknowledge that
their surveys were limited to more accessible areas
and that their data should be viewed as prelimi-
nary. Similarly, we did not cover all areas of
Salmonier Nature Park (see Fig. 1) and there are at
least seven species previously collected in Sal-
monier that we did not observe. We did spend the
equivalent of 4 days surveying, twice that of
McCarthy, Driscoll, and Clayden (2015). Lichen
richness was shown to positively correspond with
survey effort by McMullin et al. (2014) in the
Arboretum in Guelph, Ontario, where they contin-
ued to find additional species in the park after 46
collecting trips. Thus, it is reasonable to predict
higher alpha diversity in the Newfoundland
provincial parks than reported by McCarthy,
Driscoll, and Clayden (2015).
Lichen richness in Salmonier appears to be high
compared to other provincial protected areas in
Newfoundland. We found approximately twice the
number of species in Salmonier as McCarthy,
Driscoll, and Clayden (2015) did in any of their
five parks. Increased survey effort in Salmonier
may play a role, or this might be a consequence of
species-area relationships, as Salmonier is much
larger than the other parks. However, the relation-
ship between park size and lichen richness in the
other four parks does not follow any predictable
pattern, albeit with insufficient statistical power (n
¼5) for any robust test. Our analysis of habitat
diversity does not suggest that Salmonier has
dramatically higher habitat diversity, at least not as
measured using the EOSD data. However, EOSD
is based on satellite-based remote sensing, and thus
does not delineate fine-scale habitat types, which
are important for lichens. The much larger size of
Salmonier means that it is possible that there is a
higher diversity of meso- and microhabitats
compared to the other parks surveyed by Mc-
Carthy, Driscoll, and Clayden (2015). We can
speculate that Salmonier might have uniquely high
lichen diversity compared to the other four
provincial parks. This could be due to simple
species-area relationships, a higher diversity of
meso- and microhabitats, the fact that this part of
the province has older forest stands than most of
the other regions, unique climate patterns, or some
combination of these factors. However, we do not
have data suitable to test these hypotheses.
One species discovered at Salmonier, Erioderma
pedicellatum (Fig. 2), is a foliose cyanolichen with
convex apothecia that are red-brown to brown,
conspicuous hairs on the upper surface, and no
vegetative propagules (Galloway and Jørgensen
1987, Maass and Yetman 2002). It is listed as a
species at risk of extinction at several levels.
Provincially, it is listed as ‘‘vulnerable’’ by the
Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Envi-
ronment and Conservation (2016). Federally, the
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in
Canada has listed it as a species of ‘‘special
concern’’ (COSEWIC 2014). Globally, it is listed
by the International Union for Conservation of
Nature as ‘‘critically endangered’’ (Scheidegger
2003). Two thalli were discovered in the moraine
and bog ecosystem in the southwest corner of the
park. We expect that further survey efforts in this
area will result in additional thalli being discovered.
In 2000, thalli of E. pedicellatum were transplanted
onto four balsam fir trees in the park along the
wildlife boardwalk near the current great horned
owl (Bubo virginianus) enclosure by Christoph
Scheidegger and Mac Pitcher (M. Pitcher, retired.
Former employee of Salmonier Nature Park). We
extensively searched the area, but the transplants
appear to have been unsuccessful.
Several lichens and one lichenicolous fungus
discovered in Salmonier are also uncommon or
new to Newfoundland and Labrador. Six species
are reported for the first time in the province:
Ephebe hispidula, Muellerella lichenicola, Myco-
blastus sanguinarioides, Placynthium flabellosum,
Usnea flammea, and Xanthoparmelia angustiphyl-
la. Ephebe hispidula is a filamentous cyanolichen
that was found growing on a boulder in moving
water. It is distinguished from the more common
Ephebe lanata (L.) Vain. by the presence of spine-
like perpendicular branchlets along the main
branches (Henssen 1963). Muellerella lichenicola
is a lichenicolous fungus that was regularly
observed growing on the thalli of Mycoblastus
sanguinarioides and M. sanguinarius. It is distin-
guished by its small (,125 lm in diameter) dark
and immersed to sessile perithecia with pale brown
two-celled spores (Triebel and Kainz 2004).
Mycoblastus sanguinarioides was recently report-
ed from northeastern North America by Spribille,
Klug, and Mayrhofer (2011). They show that
specimens in this region previously identified as M.
sanguinarius might be M. sanguinarioides,a
similar species that was only known from the
Southern Hemisphere. Mycoblastus sanguinar-
ioides differs in having birefringent crystals in the
hymenium that do not occur in M. sanguinarius
(Spribille, Klug, and Mayrhofer 2011). Pla-
cynthium flabellosum is a subfoliose cyanolichen
on boulders in moving water. It differs from other
species of Placynthium by its overlapping, radially
extended lobes with crenulate margins, its lack of a
hypothallus, and its occurrence on noncalcareous
rock (Henssen 1963, Schultz 2002). Usnea flam-
mea is a tufted fruticose lichen that was found
growing on Betula alleghaniensis. Among the
species of Usnea in Newfoundland and Labrador it
can be identified by its pale base, pale to white
medulla and cental axis, and the presence of
soredia, isidia, and stictic and menegazziaic acids
(KOHþyellow to orange-red) (Hinds and Hinds
2007). Xanthoparmelia angustiphylla was grow-
ing on lakeside boulders. It is distinguished from
other species of Xanthoparmelia by a lack of
vegetative propagules, a black lower surface, and
the presence of stictic and nortstic acids (KOHþ
yellow to orange-red) (Hale 1990, Thomson 1993).
Two additional species are reported for the first
time from the island of Newfoundland: Phaeophy-
scia ciliata and Stereocaulon subcoralloides.
Phaeophyscia ciliata was growing on bryophytes
on lakeside boulders. It is distinguished from
similar species in the province by a lack of
atranorin in the upper cortex (KOH), a black
lower surface, the absence of vegetative propa-
gules, and lobes that are ,1 mm wide (Moberg
1977, Esslinger 1978). It was previously reported
in the province from southeastern Labrador (Lynge
1947). Stereocaulon subcoralloides is an erect
fruticose species that was also growing on lakeside
boulders. It differs from other species of Stereo-
caulon by its cylindrical coralloid phyllocladia that
are ,0.6 mm long, pseudopodetia without
tomentum, and the absence of stictic and norstic
acids (Lamb 1978, Hinds and Hinds 2007). It was
previously reported in the province from western
Labrador by Lamb (1977) and Thomson (1984).
Our results provide a better understanding of the
distribution of lichens in Newfoundland and
Labrador and within the Avalon Forest Ecoregion.
These baseline data aid our ability to analyze
landscape diversity patterns for lichens in the
province and in the development of the required
evidence for sound conservation strategies (Suther-
land et al. 2004). Within Salmonier, rare species,
new species to the park, and rare habitats can now be
better acknowledged. Changes to the lichen biota in
the park can now be monitored as well. Compre-
hensive surveys of spatially defined areas or
ecosystems in Newfoundland and Labrador, how-
ever, continue to be necessary for a more complete
understanding of the lichen biota in the province.
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... Those authors found that this method captures cryptogam diversity more effectively than sampling from smaller representative plots. This method of sampling is widely used by lichenologists for surveying lichens (e.g., Lendemer et al. 2013, McMullin and Wiersma 2017, Selva 1999 (Fig. 2), we examined as many mesohabitats as possible. We surveyed each dominant mesohabitat within the forest ecosystem (i.e., stands of different species composition and age structure) and as many restricted mesohabitats as possible within those (e.g., aquatic features, exposed rock) (Fig. 3). ...
... Our results contribute to establishing a better understanding of the lichen biota in the northern Appalachian Mountains and the Gaspé Peninsula. They also add to notable work on lichen biogeography and diversity in eastern Canada (e.g., Gowan and Brodo 1988, McMullin and Wiersma 2017, Selva 1999, and more broadly to the body of knowledge on Appalachian lichens (e.g., Allen and Lendemer 2016b, Lendemer et al. 2013). ...
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In Canada, detailed knowledge of the macrolichen biota in national parks is surprisingly sparse. Forillon National Park (Forillon) in Quebec, Canada, is an example, with no previously published accounts of lichens. To fill this knowledge gap, we conducted a survey of the macrolichens in the park and reviewed past collections to establish a baseline list of species. We report 140 taxa from Forillon (139 species and 2 subspecies, in 39 genera). Notable species include: Melanohalea exasperata, a first record for Canada; Scytinium teretiusculum, a first record for Quebec; Parmelia fertilis, a northern range extension; Hypogymnia subobscura, a species with an Arctic affinity; and Bryoria salazinica, Cladonia labradorica, and Leptogium acadiense, which are endemic to northeastern North America and infrequently collected. We provide an annotated list of species and an identification key to the macrolichen species of Forillon.
... This species has been found only once in the last decade (in the province of Quebec; Paquette and McMullin 2020), despite large-scale activity throughout the Canadian Maritimes by expert lichenologists (e.g. Selva 1999, Anderson 2014, McMullin et al. 2012, 2017b, McCarthy et al. 2015, McMullin and Wiersma 2017, McMullin and Arsenault 2019, Tumur and Richardson 2019; and the US (as noted). The exact number of mature individuals at each site is unknown; however, given overall rarity and that it is represented by a single voucher from all but one site (the three collections from Prince Edward Island National Park in Prince Edward Island, Canada are represented by a single occurrence point), we estimate that the modern sites host five or fewer functional individuals. ...
... Of the 552 million hectares of boreal forest in Canada, only 8% (45 million hectares) is protected within national and provincial parks, reserves, and other protected areas (Brandt et al. 2013). The Avalon Forest Ecoregion is a 500 km 2 section of the boreal forest on the island of Newfoundland, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada (with no protected lands), where there are a high number of rare lichen species (McMullin and Wiersma 2017;McMullin and Arsenault 2019). Frequent precipitation and dense fog, average annual temperatures of 5°C, and dense, closed forest stands create the ideal habitat for lichens (South 1983). ...
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There is debate about what drives and maintains the structure of arboreal lichen communities and what the relative importance of substrate vs. local environment is. Here, we aim to determine which lichen species are unique to two trees species (Abies balsamea and Betula alleghaniensis) in the boreal forests of Newfoundland’s Avalon Peninsula, and which environmental variables are most important for their colonization and community structure. We collected lichen diversity data from tree boles along with environmental data (tree size, bark pH, canopy cover) for each tree and each site. Multivariate analyses were used to determine the relationship between community structure and environmental data. Results showed that a diverse range of tree characteristics are needed to support a diverse range of lichen species. Certain stands, such as old B. alleghaniensis stands, are more suitable to host a unique community of lichens than others. These results can inform land managers on the Avalon, recommending strategies for protected areas and providing forest harvest guidelines that limit clear-cutting of A. balsamea to maintain a diverse community structure and limit harvest of B. alleghaniensis trees in sites less optimal for lichen growth. These baseline data can also be used to monitor changes caused by moose browse and selective harvesting, two locally-important threats to lichen diversity.
... One group that has been particularly understudied in Terra Nova National Park, compared with other parks in eastern North America, is the calicioids (McMullin & Wiersma 2017;Paquette et al. 2019;Selva 2016). Calicioids, also known as stubble or pin lichens, are an artificial assemblage of superficially similar lichenized and non-lichenized fungi with a stipe and/or a mazaedium (Tibell 1996(Tibell , 1999. ...
During lichen surveys conducted in Terra Nova National Park, Newfoundland and Labrador, two new calicioid lichen species for the province were discovered, increasing the number of known calicioid species in the province to 35. One of the species, Chaenotheca brachypoda, was previously known in the Maritimes provinces, Ontario, and British Columbia within Canada. The other species, Sclerophora peronella, was known from Nova Scotia, Quebec, and British Columbia within Canada and is listed under Schedule 1 of the Canadian Species At Risk Act as Special Concern. A key to the calicioids of Newfoundland and Labrador is provided. Additional survey efforts should be made in the rest of the province to better understand each species’ distribution.
... Our results contribute to establishing a better understanding of the lichen biota in the northern Appalachian Mountains and the Gaspé Peninsula (e.g., Dodge 1926, McMullin & Dorin 2016, McMullin et al. 2017b, Sirois et al. 1988). They also add to notable work on lichen biogeography and diversity in eastern Canada (e.g., Gowan & Brodo 1988;McMullin 2009McMullin , 2012McMullin , 2015McMullin & Wiersma 2017;McMullin et al. 2008McMullin et al. , 2017aSelva 1999), and more broadly to the body of knowledge on Appalachian lichens (e.g., Allen & Lendemer 2016b;Selva 2013Selva , 2014Selva , 2016Lendemer et al. 2013). ...
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The lichen biota of North America is poorly documented in many areas, including many of Canada's national parks. For example, Forillon National Park in Quebec, Canada had no previously published accounts of its lichen biota. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive survey of macrolichens and calicioid lichens and fungi in the park to establish a baseline species list. We discovered 170 taxa in the park (169 species and two subspecies in 48 genera). One species, Melanohalea exasperata, is a first record for Canada; three species, Calicium denigratum, Sclerophora coniophaea, and Scytinium teretiusculum, are new provincial records; two species; Chaenothecopsis oregana and Parmelia fertilis, have notable range extensions; and one species, Sclerophora peronella, is listed as ‘special concern’ under Schedule 1 of the Canadian Species at Risk Act. We present annotated checklists and identification keys to the macrolichen and calicioid species of Forillon National Park.
... Distribution and ecology: New to South America; this species was previously known from highly oceanic sites in coastal and Mediterranean Europe and Macaronesia; it was also recently reported from North America (Clerc & May 2007, Herrera-Campos 2016, McMullin & Wiersma 2017; the new report from the Galapagos is based on a single saxicolous specimen found in an agricultural area of the humid zone. A detailed description of U. galapagona can be found in Lumbsch et al. (2011); particularly characteristic for the species is its unusual anatomy with a thick, hard and vitreous cortex, a thick axis, and a very thin, almost indistinct medulla. ...
As part of an ongoing, comprehensive inventory of all Galapagos lichens, the genus Usnea is revised. In Galapagos this genus is represented by 27 species. Although 23 species had previously been reported, two are synonyms, and seven historic records must now be considered erroneous. Nine species are reported here for the first time and an additional four are described new to science: Usnea mayrhoferi, U. leana, U. patriciana, and U. subcomplecta. With two species previously described as new, U. clerciana and U. galapagona, six of the species now known are presumed to be endemic (22 %), a proportion of endemism similar to percentages reported for other, recently reviewed groups of Galapagos lichens. For two species, U. angulata and U. subflammea, only historic collections are currently known. Usnea angulata, with its trapezoid branch segments, is a very conspicuous, easily identified species. Despite thoroughly revisiting its historic collection sites, no material was found again and this species is therefore presumed to be locally extinct. Usnea subflammea, however, is less easily recognized and its original collection sites have not been intensively surveyed again. It is thus possible that this species is rare and overlooked, but not necessarily extinct. Characteristics of all species are illustrated and an identification key emphasizes their diagnostic characters. Detailed descriptions are provided for all newly described species and for those previously not well-documented.
The globally rare epiphyte Erioderma pedicellatum is reported for the first time from Qubec and the saxicolous Parmelia fraudans, uncommon in eastern North America, is reported for the first time from Nova Scotia.
Forested wetlands are ecologically and economically important, but many are poorly understood. A robust inventory of species is important for sound management in these ecosystems, particularly ones that include cryptogams such as arboreal lichens, which are rich and abundant in forested wetlands. On the island of Newfoundland, Canada, little is known about what lichens are found in forested wetlands, how lichen communities interact with different forested wetlands, or whether there are lichens unique to forested wetlands. Therefore, we investigated the potential for macrolichens to act as indicators of forested bog, fen and swamp wetland classes in four regions. We counted macrolichen thalli, by species, on the lower bole of black spruce (Picea mariana) trees within plots from each forested wetland class in each region. We also collected data on habitat characteristics in each wetland: soil pH, canopy closure, and ground and shrub cover, all of which differed significantly among forested wetland classes. Macrolichen communities differed among regions and forested wetland classes but the greatest differences were among regions. We also attempted to identify reliable macrolichen indicator species for forested wetland classes and regions but were unsuccessful. A lichen of conservation concern, Erioderma pedicellatum (Hue) P.M.Jørg., was detected in some of our forested wetland sites, highlighting the importance of proper management of these unique habitats.
Biodiversity hotspots are regions with high numbers of rare species that are conservation priorities. Hall’s Gullies is a region on the Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland, Canada, that is well known for a large population of Erioderma pedicellatum, a lichen that is listed globally as critically endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. To determine if there are other species of conservation interest in this region, we completed a detailed survey of the lichens and allied fungi. We combined our results with historical collections and report 179 species in 86 genera, which include 18 cyanolichens and 20 calicioids. Three species are listed on the federal Species at Risk Act: Degelia plumbea, Erioderma mollissimum, and E. pedicellatum. Fifteen species discovered during our study were new to Newfoundland and Labrador. Eleven of those species (the calicioids) we reported in a previous publication, but 4 are reported here for the first time from the province: Abrothallus santessonii, Biatora chrysantha, Heterodermia neglecta, and Plectocarpon scrobiculatae. Hall’s Gullies is a hotspot for rare lichen species, but it is not legally protected and, as a result, should be a conservation priority.
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Version 21 of the checklist of lichen-forming, lichenicolous and allied fungi occurring in North America north of Mexico is presented. It includesa a total of 5,421 species in 733 genera, with an additional 41 subspecies, 45 varieties, and 3 forms. The total species number includes 588 lichenicolous fungi, 96 saprophytic fungi related to lichens or to lichenicolous fungi, and another 53 species of varying and/or uncertain biological status.
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Eight mature forests throughout the Island of Newfoundland in Canada were surveyed for lichenized and non-lichenized calicioid fungi. Thirty-two species were discovered, which increases the number of calicioids known from the island to 34. Twenty-two species are reported for the first time in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador: Calicium glaucellum, C. lenticulare, Chaenotheca balsamconensis, C. chrysocephala, C. gracilenta, C. gracillima, C. laevigata, C. trichialis, C. xyloxena, Chaenothecopsis consociata, C. debilis, C. marcineae, C. nana, C. pusiola, C. savonica, C. viridireagens, Microcalicium conversum, M. disseminatum, Phaeocalicium compressulum, P. matthewsianum, Stenocybe flexuosa, and S. pullatula. Additional calicioid species are expected to occur in Newfoundland as many ecoregions and habitats remain unexplored for these taxa.
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Acarospora maccarthyi is described as new from southwestern Newfoundland in Canada. The species is compared with Polysporina terricola from Tasmania which is also transferred to Acarospora and given the new name A. tasmaniensis. Acarospora anatolica, another similar species, is reported new from the northern Himalayas in Pakistan.
The ecoregion is homologous with the major climatic subregions of Newfoundland. Bearing in mind site differences related to such factors as topography and history of disturbance, each ecoregion has a distinctive, recurring pattern of vegetation and soil development, controlled by regional climate. The general characteristics, vegetation, climate and (where appropriate) major geographical variation, effects of altitude, changes in lithology, climatic gradients and intra-ecoregional subdivisions are described for the following ecoregions: Central Newfoundland, Northern Peninsula, Avalon Forest, Maritime Barrens Eastern Hyper-oceanic Barrens, Long Range Barrens (highlands from the SW coast to the northern part of the Northern Peninsula), and Strait of Belle Isle. The phytogeographical position of these ecoregions is discussed.-P.J.Jarvis
Clear-cut or mosaic forestry practices are known to reduce biodiversity in harvested areas, but the biodiversity in the remaining adjacent forests is also affected. Interior parts of the forest that become edge have increased light, wind, and temperature, and a decrease in moisture. Species with a narrow range of tolerance to environmental change are most affected. To better understand this ‘edge effect’ in the Acadian Forest, 20 mature deciduous stands in northeastern New Brunswick were examined that were adjacent to clear-cuts ranging from 6–11 years old. We used lichens as our bioindicators and selected the genus Lobaria because it is particularly sensitive to disturbance, but also common in mature deciduous forests of this region. Three Lobaria species that are known to occur in the Acadian Forest were examined: L. pulmonaria, L. quercizans, and L. scrobiculata. Canopy closure, temperature, and presence data were recorded at the forest edge and at the first occurrence of any of these three species along a transect running directly into the forest (three transects at each stand, 60 total). Our results show that the species selected have a negative response to newly created forest edges. Lobaria pulmonaria was the most tolerant to edge effects followed by L. quercizan and L. scrobiculata. The mean occurrence distance from the forest edge for all three species was 12.12 m (± 5.66). Forest managers can use these findings to better understand the impacts of clear-cutting on the biodiversity that inhabits the edges created in the residual forests.