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Abstract

Although literacy achievement has improved in Chile, adolescents’ underperformance in reading comprehension is still a serious concern. In English, core academic-language skills (CALS) have been found to significantly predict reading comprehension, even controlling for academic vocabulary knowledge. CALS are high-utility language skills that support reading comprehension across school content areas. Guided by an operational definition of Spanish CALS (S-CALS), three goals drove this study: to develop two psychometrically reliable tests, the S-CALS Instrument and the Spanish Academic Vocabulary (S-AVoc) Test; to explore the dimensionality of core academic-language proficiencies, as measured by these two tests; and to examine the contribution of core academic-language proficiencies to reading comprehension. A cross-sectional sample of 810 Chilean students (grades 4–8) participated in four assessments that measured standardized reading comprehension, word-reading fluency, Spanish academic vocabulary, and S-CALS. Using classical test theory and item response theory analyses, results yielded robust reliability evidence for both instruments. Consistent with prior research, S-CALS and academic vocabulary scores displayed upward trends in higher grades yet considerable within-grade variability. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that S-CALS and S-AVoc were best conceptualized as part of a higher order construct, the Spanish core academic-language and vocabulary skills (S-CALVS). The aggregated S-CALVS scores predicted reading comprehension, beyond the contribution of grade, school factors, and word-reading fluency. This study advances our scientific understanding of CALS as relevant for adolescent literacy beyond the English language. The high-utility school-relevant language and vocabulary skills offer promising tools to inform and evaluate innovative reading comprehension interventions for Spanish-speaking adolescents.

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... In contrast, we focused on an understanding of conceptual anaphora or hypernyms ("this process", "this phenomenon") which are characteristic of expository texts . The knowledge of hypernyms develops between grade four and eight (Meneses et al., 2017;Uccelli et al., 2015), but it has not been assessed before. Second, previous research demonstrates that sixth-grade students have some awareness of expository text structures (Richgels, McGee, Lomax, & Sheard, 1987) and this awareness improves between the ages of 8 to 12 years (Englert & Hiebert, 1984). ...
... Our second objective was to determine whether rhetorical competence makes a unique contribution to third through to sixth graders' comprehension of expository text, above and beyond variables known to be strongly related to this skill (namely word decoding, integration/ inference skills, prior knowledge, and working memory). Knowledge about each of the rhetorical devices that we studied is related to reading comprehension (Ehrlich et al., 1999;Engelen, Bouwmeester, de Bruin, & Zwaan, 2014;García, Bustos, & Sánchez, 2015;Megherbi & Ehrlich, 2005;Meneses et al., 2017;Uccelli et al., 2015;Yuill & Oakhill, 1988. Teaching students about these devices improves the amount and quality of information remembered from a text (Hebert, Bohaty, Nelson, & Brown, 2016;Meyer & Poon, 2001;Wijekumar, Meyer, & Lei, 2013Williams et al., 2007;Williams, Stafford, Lauer, Hall, & Pollini, 2009). ...
... With respect to anaphors, our data add to the extant literature by showing that third graders not only have some knowledge of concrete anaphoric elements such as repeated nouns, general nouns, pronouns or adverbs (e.g., Borzone, 2005;Ehrlich et al., 1999;Oakhill & Yuill, 1986), but also knowledge about conceptual anaphora or hypernyms ("this process", "this phenomenon"). Uccelli et al. (2015) and Meneses et al. (2017) have demonstrated this knowledge in fourth grade. In contrast to our expectations, the youngest age group was also aware and able to Table 4 Summary of fixed-order hierarchical regression analyses on expository text comprehension to assess the impact of each measure of rhetorical competence **p < .01, ...
Article
Readers' rhetorical competence is related to reading comprehension and moderates the impact of rhetorical devices in expository texts since upper elementary school years. In this cross-sectional study, we examine the differences in four measures of rhetorical competence (knowledge of anaphors, organizational signals, refutations, and a total score) in grades three through to six, we determine its contribution to expository text comprehension after controlling the effect of a wide set of linguistic and cognitive variables, and we study whether this contribution is moderated by grade or any of our control variables. First, although we found evidence for some level of rhetorical competence at early ages, data suggest that rhetorical competence development takes many years. Second, we found that knowledge of some rhetorical devices is acquired before knowledge of others. Finally, rhetorical competence was a unique predictor of expository text comprehension, and its influence was evident regardless of grade and all of the control variables.
... Inspired by these hypotheses, we focus on the relations between Spanish and English ALs proficiencies and English reading comprehension in a sample of fourth and fifth graders attending DLI schools. We use a unique pair of Spanish and English instruments that capture ALs proficiencies as operationalized in the Core Academic Language Skills (CALS) construct (Meneses et al., 2018;. This pair of theoretically-grounded and psychometrically-valid assessments capture students' knowledge of the language used to achieve precision, concision, and stepwise text organization in English and Spanish academic written communication across disciplines, which in turn facilitates their comprehension and production of texts in middle-grade settings. ...
... In fact, studies consistently find that bi/multilingual and monolingual students educated in English-only settings with higher levels of English ALs proficiency demonstrate an advantage in English text comprehension (Barr, Uccelli, & Phillips Galloway, 2019;. Similarly, Spanish ALs proficiency significantly contributes to Spanish reading comprehension for students educated in Spanish (Meneses et al., 2018). ...
... Thus, in designing two independent CALS instruments (CALS-I)-one in Spanish and one English-to assess cross-disciplinary ALs knowledge, we found that parallel skillsets were relevant across languages. The English CALS-I was designed for English-speaking students in Grades 4 to 8. The Spanish CALS-I (or Evaluación de lenguaje académico, ELA) was subsequently modeled after the English CALS-I, but developed for Spanish-speaking students (Meneses et al., 2018). To select CALS to be assessed in each language, we engaged in independent language-specific literature syntheses, examination of English and Spanish academic corpora, and analysis of textbooks designed for U.S. English-speaking and for Chilean Spanishspeaking middle graders (for more details, see Meneses et al., 2018;. ...
Article
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In this study, we examine the unique and shared contributions of Spanish and English core academic language skills (CALS) to English reading comprehension in a population of Spanish-English dual language learners in Grades 4 and 5 (n = 165). We focus on cross-disciplinary CALS, operationalized as sets of high-utility lexical, syntactic and discourse resources prevalent in school texts. This study finds that Spanish and English CALS are positively and significantly related, and, further, that both sets of skills exert a unique positive influence on English reading comprehension. Aligned with an interpretation of linguistic interdependence between Spanish and English academic language skills, results document their cross-linguistic contribution to reading comprehension for students enrolled in educational programs that foster literacy and content learning regularly in two languages.
... Recientemente, para el español se ha operacionalizado dicho constructo (Spanish Core Academic Language Skills S-CALS) y se ha diseñado el instrumento de evaluación de lenguaje académico (ELA o S-CALS-I). Este utilizó como modelo el instrumento CALS-I en inglés; no obstante, se desarrolló, refinó y validó independientemente con estudiantes chilenos (Meneses, Uccelli et al., 2018). ...
... Para el español, se definieron ocho habilidades de lenguaje académico receptivo, además del dominio del vocabulario académico transdisciplinar, y se crearon tareas para evaluarlas (Meneses, Uccelli et al., 2018). En la tabla 3.1 se presentan las habilidades medidas y las tareas del instrumento ELA validado psicométricamente con una muestra de 810 estudiantes chilenos entre 4º y 8º básico (α=.88) (Meneses, Uccelli et al., 2018). ...
... Para el español, se definieron ocho habilidades de lenguaje académico receptivo, además del dominio del vocabulario académico transdisciplinar, y se crearon tareas para evaluarlas (Meneses, Uccelli et al., 2018). En la tabla 3.1 se presentan las habilidades medidas y las tareas del instrumento ELA validado psicométricamente con una muestra de 810 estudiantes chilenos entre 4º y 8º básico (α=.88) (Meneses, Uccelli et al., 2018). En el primer set de ítems, el estudiante lee una nominalización ("refutación"), la que debe descomponer para obtener la forma adecuada para una oración dada ("El científico logró refutar la hipótesis"). ...
Chapter
Actualmente, el aprendizaje de la escritura académica se considera un requisito fundamental para desenvolverse adecuadamente en contextos especializados de comunicación. Sin embargo, muchos estudiantes llegan a la universidad sin las habilidades de lenguaje necesarias para participar exitosamente en actividades de aprendizaje y evaluación. Las nuevas políticas educativas han promovido un acceso masivo a la educación superior, lo que ha aumentado la diversidad lingüística en el aula y con ello los desafíos de enseñanza del lenguaje académico. Si bien se cuenta con numerosos estudios sobre escritura académica en niveles universitarios, el desarrollo del lenguaje académico en edades escolares ha sido escasamente investigado. En este capítulo, se presenta el constructo de lenguaje académico transdisciplinar, así como evidencias empíricas sobre los desempeños de escolares chilenos. Además, se releva la contribución de estos desempeños en la comprensión lectora y en el aprendizaje de las disciplinas. El lenguaje académico es propuesto como catalizador de la equidad en contextos escolares. https://wac.colostate.edu/docs/books/multilingual/chapter3.pdf
... However, not all students will learn this expected skill (Biancarosa & Snow, 2006;RAND, 2002). Although more research has focused on understanding the challenges related to decoding skills across languages (Ziegler & Goswami, 2005;Ziegler et al., 2010), recent years have seen the emergence of studies exploring predictors of reading comprehension beyond decoding and vocabulary (LaRusso et al., 2016;Language and Reading Research Consortium, 2015;Meneses et al., 2017;. This research illuminates the point that not all texts pose the same reading comprehension challenges to students. ...
... As such, the texts and their characteristicsdin particular, those that students read in various subject areasdhave become a relevant focus of study in recent decades (Shanahan & Shanahan, 2008). Academic texts are very different from everyday conversations (Schleppegrell, 2001(Schleppegrell, , 2004Snow & Uccelli, 2009;Meneses et al., 2017;. They are frequently described as complex and abstract, because their language often contains a lot of conjunctions, discourse markers, extended noun groups with modifiers, nominalizations, extended and embedded clauses, high lexical density, cross-discipline, and discipline-specific vocabulary. ...
Article
This study explores Chilean pre-service teachers’ specialized knowledge that facilitates text-based discussions in the context of an institutional plan to improve a practice-based teacher education. The specialized knowledge’s performances for this core practice were examined across courses after carrying out a practice-based pedagogical approach. Seventy-nine pre-service teachers performed four scenario-based tasks: text analysis, making decisions, evidences and errors, and observing productive discussions. The results show significant differences within and across courses on making decisions and noticing a text-based discussion. This paper highlights the relevance of decomposing a complex practice in specialized knowledge to promote the learning in teacher education. Your personalized Share Link: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1VtsH,Gtqvg5XS
... En el contexto latinoamericano, y en particular en el mexicano, el desarrollo de las habilidades que configuran la competencia discursiva académica no es ni homogéneo ni suficiente para garantizar el éxito de las nuevas generaciones a la hora de ingresar a y permanecer en el nivel superior. Además de los resultados de exámenes de carácter nacional o regional aplicados al término del bachillerato 1 , la investigación sistemática de interés pedagógico en el campo de las habilidades académicas pone el foco sobre la necesidad de continuar contribuyendo a la identificación de barreras de aprendizaje y al diseño de propuestas de solución para afrontar las carencias que colocan a una gran proporción de los jóvenes preuniversitarios en situación de desventaja frente a quienes poseen las destrezas lingüístico-discursivas exigidas por la universidad (Carlino, 2012;Cisneros, 2006;Cisneros y Muñoz, 2014;Meneses et al., 2017;Uccelli, Barr, Phillips Galloway y Meneses, 2015;Uccelli et al., 2015, entre otros). ...
... Podemos inferir que el léxico especializado parece ser accesible para estos escritores noveles quizá debido a que este tipo de palabras tiene referentes más precisos que, por ejemplo, los conceptos abstractos (Bello, 2016;Halliday y Martin, 1993). Aunque, por supuesto, la adopción de un vocabulario especializado no es la única habilidad favorecida por la escolarización, como queda claro gracias a investigaciones recientes de largo alcance en diversas lenguas y registros (Meneses et al., 2017;Uccelli et al., 2015aUccelli et al., , 2015b, entre otros), sí abre una ventana a la exploración de posibilidades didácticas que la promuevan como parte no desdeñable de las competencias académicas. ...
Chapter
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El léxico especializado como expresión de la competencia discursiva académica en ensayos producidos por jóvenes escolarizados en una clase de literatura El presente trabajo da sustento a la premisa de que el empleo de léxico espe- cializado en los textos ofrece información sobre la competencia discursiva académica de quienes los produjeron, por cuanto, entre las habilidades aca- démicas, se incluye el conocimiento y el uso de vocabulario relacionado con alguna disciplina particular para comunicarse e interactuar con otros sobre un tema específico. El propósito del estudio fue identificar el repertorio y el uso de términos especializados empleados por un grupo de estudiantes, mediante el examen de los sustantivos en sus textos, para luego relacionarestas características con las calificaciones otorgadas por jueces expertos; ello, con el objeto de analizar si el uso de léxico especializado es valorado como expresión de la competencia discursiva académica. Para este fin, se analizaron 120 ensayos producidos por estudiantes de un bachillerato pri- vado del centro de México en su clase de español y literatura, y una muestra fue sometida a análisis de varianza para buscar diferencias en el repertorio y su uso, según su promedio de calificaciones. Los resultados permitieron observar que, en efecto, la materia curricular en que se llevó a cabo la tarea de escritura provee un input léxico especializado que es adoptado por los estudiantes en sus textos y que mientras mayor es ese repertorio y más se usa, estos son mejor valorados por los jueces calificadores. Estos hallazgos abren una ventana a la exploración de posibilidades didácticas que promue- van la adquisición de vocabulario disciplinar como parte importante de las competencias académicas. Palabras clave: competencia discursiva, discurso académico, escritura académica, léxico especializado, evaluación de textos
... However, academic language proficiency is not only linked with reading comprehension, but also with other school subjects such as math or science, where academic texts are plentiful (Snow & Uccelli, 2009). Moreover, having difficulties for mastering academic language entails barriers for accessing higher education and a wide range of opportunities outside school, such as health, political and civic information, as society increasingly demands complex communication skills (Fang et al., 2006;Meneses et al., 2017). As Fang, Schleppegrell & Cox (2006) point out, although acquiring academic language and literacy skills does not automatically provide students with future professional success, a lack of such skills does limit their opportunities and access to future professional and social success. ...
... Indeed, 58 out of the 167 student interactions analyzed in this study either contain a judgement, value, or argument. Observations of the DLGs show the emergence of the following school-relevant language Uccelli et al., 2015Snow & Uccelli, 2009Fang et al., 2006Meneses et al., 2017 Nominlization X X X X Connectives X X X Derived words X X Referential links X X ...
Article
Full-text available
Research in the field of educational linguistics has found that low levels of academic language development negatively affect children’s language, reading and writing skills and, therefore, academic achievements. This is more noticeable in students from low SES backgrounds, who traditionally have a lower exposure to academic language. Nevertheless, dialogic learning environments such as Dialogic Literary Gatherings (DLGs), a worldwide educational practice where participants read and debate literary classics in an egalitarian dialogue, contribute to the appearance of school-relevant language and literacy skills. Although multiple studies on DLGs have shown their impact in different levels, including improving vocabulary and reading skills, the emergence of such skills has not been studied in depth yet. This exploratory study aims to analyze the emergence of academic language and literacy skills in 19 students between the ages of 11 and 13 studying in a school in Spain with over 90% immigrant students. Results show that the egalitarian dialogue in which DLGs are based favors the emergence of school-relevant language and literacy skills, such as judgements and arguments, referential links, or connectives.
... It includes "vocabulary, complex structures, logical connectives, and stance markers." (Meneses et al., 2018) Meneses et al., 2018Nagy & Townsend, 2012b;Schleppegrell, 2004b;Truckenmiller & Petscher, 2019 Academic vocabulary Variously defined in the literature (e.g., Nagy & Townsend, 2012b;Scarcella, 2003), but definitions have a common thread of meaning: Academic vocabulary references words used more frequently in academic domain discussion, essays, articles, and books than in fiction or informal conversations/ texts. Baker et al., 2014;Baumann & Graves, 2010;Coxhead, 2000;Logan & Kieffer, 2018;Nagy & Townsend, 2012b;Scarcella, 2003 Domain (sometimes used interchangeably with discipline) ...
... It includes "vocabulary, complex structures, logical connectives, and stance markers." (Meneses et al., 2018) Meneses et al., 2018Nagy & Townsend, 2012b;Schleppegrell, 2004b;Truckenmiller & Petscher, 2019 Academic vocabulary Variously defined in the literature (e.g., Nagy & Townsend, 2012b;Scarcella, 2003), but definitions have a common thread of meaning: Academic vocabulary references words used more frequently in academic domain discussion, essays, articles, and books than in fiction or informal conversations/ texts. Baker et al., 2014;Baumann & Graves, 2010;Coxhead, 2000;Logan & Kieffer, 2018;Nagy & Townsend, 2012b;Scarcella, 2003 Domain (sometimes used interchangeably with discipline) ...
Article
Full-text available
Academic vocabulary networks were examined in three elementary grades textbook programs (first through fifth grade) in three domains—science, mathematics, and social studies. Within each program, a given network consisted of a focal domain-specific academic word and the collection of words from all grades that overlapped in meaning with the focal word. Academic words and the networks for each domain-specific academic word were computationally determined. For each network, the time at which the first network word appeared represented the inception of the network. The network’s expansion across the grades was tracked as additional words appeared. The main research questions were: Did network growth patterns across grades vary according to domain; and within domain, did network patterns vary according to two focal domain-specific academic word characteristics. The two focal word characteristics were the age at which the focal word’s meaning was typically known and the timing of the introduction of the focal word. Multilevel growth model analyses were conducted. The dependent variable was number of words, called nodes, in a network at each time point across the grades. Main conclusions were the following. 1. Network patterns varied across domains, with social studies networks most different from those in the other two domains. 2. Network growth pattern varied according to selected focal word characteristics, and the focal word characteristic effect varied by domain.
... En el contexto latinoamericano, y en particular en el mexicano, el desarrollo de las habilidades que configuran la competencia discursiva académica no es ni homogéneo ni suficiente para garantizar el éxito de las nuevas generaciones a la hora de ingresar a y permanecer en el nivel superior. Además de los resultados de exámenes de carácter nacional o regional aplicados al término del bachillerato 1 , la investigación sistemática de interés pedagógico en el campo de las habilidades académicas pone el foco sobre la necesidad de continuar contribuyendo a la identificación de barreras de aprendizaje y al diseño de propuestas de solución para afrontar las carencias que colocan a una gran proporción de los jóvenes preuniversitarios en situación de desventaja frente a quienes poseen las destrezas lingüístico-discursivas exigidas por la universidad (Carlino, 2012;Cisneros, 2006;Cisneros y Muñoz, 2014;Meneses et al., 2017;Uccelli, Barr, Phillips Galloway y Meneses, 2015;Uccelli et al., 2015, entre otros). ...
... Podemos inferir que el léxico especializado parece ser accesible para estos escritores noveles quizá debido a que este tipo de palabras tiene referentes más precisos que, por ejemplo, los conceptos abstractos (Bello, 2016;Halliday y Martin, 1993). Aunque, por supuesto, la adopción de un vocabulario especializado no es la única habilidad favorecida por la escolarización, como queda claro gracias a investigaciones recientes de largo alcance en diversas lenguas y registros (Meneses et al., 2017;Uccelli et al., 2015aUccelli et al., , 2015b, entre otros), sí abre una ventana a la exploración de posibilidades didácticas que la promuevan como parte no desdeñable de las competencias académicas. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
El presente trabajo da sustento a la premisa de que el empleo de léxico espe- cializado en los textos ofrece información sobre la competencia discursiva académica de quienes los produjeron, por cuanto, entre las habilidades aca- démicas, se incluye el conocimiento y el uso de vocabulario relacionado con alguna disciplina particular para comunicarse e interactuar con otros sobre un tema específico. El propósito del estudio fue identificar el repertorio y el uso de términos especializados empleados por un grupo de estudiantes, mediante el examen de los sustantivos en sus textos, para luego relacionar estas características con las calificaciones otorgadas por jueces expertos; ello, con el objeto de analizar si el uso de léxico especializado es valorado como expresión de la competencia discursiva académica. Para este fin, se analizaron 120 ensayos producidos por estudiantes de un bachillerato privado del centro de México en su clase de español y literatura, y una muestra fue sometida a análisis de varianza para buscar diferencias en el repertorio y su uso, según su promedio de calificaciones. Los resultados permitieron observar que, en efecto, la materia curricular en que se llevó a cabo la tarea de escritura provee un input léxico especializado que es adoptado por los estudiantes en sus textos y que mientras mayor es ese repertorio y más se usa, estos son mejor valorados por los jueces calificadores. Estos hallazgos abren una ventana a la exploración de posibilidades didácticas que promue- van la adquisición de vocabulario disciplinar como parte importante de las competencias académicas. Palabras clave: competencia discursiva, discurso académico, escritura académica, léxico especializado, evaluación de textos
... Over the past few years, several studies have shown that students' general academic language proficiency is more closely related to academic achievement than more basic language skills and that academic language predicts student performance, even when controlling for general vocabulary or sentence comprehension (e.g., Schuth et al., 2017;Volodina et al., 2021b). These relational patterns have been shown across countries and for different age groups and domains (e.g., Meneses et al., 2018;Volodina et al., 2021b). The findings thus confirm academic language proficiency as a crucial precondition for school success and therefore emphasize its importance as an outcome variable when examining social inequalities in student achievement. ...
Article
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The present study investigates the incremental validity of the traditional books-at-home measure and selected extensions (i.e., number of children’s books and number of ebooks) for explaining students’ academic achievement as measured by their academic language comprehension. Using multiple linear regressions, we additionally explore the role of the source of information (i.e., whether information is given by parents or children). Based on cross-sectional data of a German sample of 2353 elementary school children from Grades 2 through 4, we found that parents’ information on the number of books and children’s books contributed to students’ academic language comprehension over and above parental occupation and education. Children’s information on the number of books did not further increase the amount of explained variance, and the effects were smaller than those for parents’ information. Yet, when investigated separately, both parents’ and children’s information on the number of books and children’s books at home predicted students’ academic language comprehension and mediated the relationship between more distal structural features of socioeconomic status (i.e., parents’ occupational status and education) and the outcome variable. No effect emerged for the number of ebooks. Our findings point to the robustness of the traditional books-at-home measure when used in parent questionnaires.
... B. Hypotenuse, kondensieren). Während die Bedeutung des allgemeinen bildungssprachlichen Wortschatzes zur Erklärung schulischer Leistungen mittlerweile in einer Reihe von nationalen (Schuth, Köhne & Weinert, 2017) und internationalen Studien (Meneses et al., 2017;Townsend, Filippini, Collins & Biancarosa, 2012) nachgewiesen werden konnte, liegen für die Rolle des Fachwortschatzes vergleichsweise wenige Befunde vor (z. B. Paetsch, Felbrich & Stanat, 2015). ...
Technical Report
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Das Ziel des Forschungs- und Entwicklungsvorhabens „Professionalisierung zur bedeutungs-fokussierten Sprachförderung im Sachunterricht der Grundschule“ (ProSach) bestand darin, einen Sprachförderansatz, der für Kinder mit nicht-deutscher Herkunftssprache im additiven Fachunterricht entwickelt und erprobt wurde (Darsow et al., 2012a; Rösch & Stanat, 2011), für eine integrierte Anwendung im Sachunterricht der dritten Klassenstufe weiterzuentwi-ckeln und auf seine Wirksamkeit im Rahmen einer längsschnittlich angelegten feldexperimen-tellen Studie zu überprüfen. Um dieses Ziel zu erreichen, wurden in dem interdisziplinären Projekt erziehungswissenschaftliche, linguistische, psychologisch-diagnostische und fachdi-daktische Perspektiven in zwei Teilprojekten miteinander verschränkt. Im Folgenden werden zunächst die Zielsetzungen des Projekts und die organisatorischen Rahmenbedingungen beschrieben sowie ein Überblick über das Fortbildungskonzept gegeben. Anschließend werden zentrale Ergebnisse dargestellt.
... Las investigaciones educativas sobre el aprendizaje a partir de la lectura de textos escolares documentan que los alumnos no reciben las ayudas necesarias para enfrentar con éxito este tipo de desafío (Aisenberg, 2007;Bortoni-Ricardo, 2008;Moss, 2006Moss, , 2009Moss, et al., 2013;Natale, 2009;Pereira, 2007). A lo largo de la escolaridad, la falta de comprensión y apropiación del discurso expositivo, informativo y científico propio del lenguaje académico crea barreras para acceder al conocimiento disciplinar (Halliday, 1998) y se ha revelado como un factor asociado con los niveles de desempeño en tareas de comprensión de lectura y producción escrita (Meneses et al., 2018;Phillips Galloway & Uccelli, 2019a, 2019bUccelli, Galloway, Barr, Meneses & Dobbs, 2015). ...
Article
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Aprender a estudiar textos es un programa de innovación educativa que busca mejorar la enseñanza y el aprendizaje de contenidos disciplinares a partir de propuestas didácticas basadas en el análisis y el comentario del lenguaje de los textos. Este artículo presenta las bases del programa y un estudio piloto realizado con dos profesoras de 4º año de primaria que implementaron durante cuatro meses las propuestas del programa en clases de Historia. Los análisis incluyeron la comparación de las prácticas docentes en torno de la lectura de textos escolares de historia antes y después de conocer Aprender a estudiar textos y también la descripción del modo en que fueron cambiando las prácticas a lo largo de la intervención. Los resultados indican que, con la incorporación de las propuestas del programa, las profesoras pasaron a ofrecer más oportunidades a los alumnos para atender, recuperar, comentar y analizar el contenido informativo de los textos. La principal contribución del estudio consistió en ofrecer insumos para el diseño de un programa de formación permanente de docentes.
... These results differs from the findings of Olinghouse and Wilson (2013), who did not found any variability in the use of academic vocabulary, although this may be explained by the age of the participants, as the instrument was administered to 5th graders. With regard to S-CALS's domain, the results are similar to those found by Meneses et al. (2017), if we compare the performance of the students of 8th grade. ...
Article
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Writing is a task that entails high cognitive and linguistic efforts, especially when producing academic texts. Academic language might be one of the factors influencing the quality of written texts, given that prior research has shown its impact on reading comprehension. The purpose of this study is to examine the contribution of Spanish Core Academic Language Skills (S-CALS) and academic vocabulary to the quality of written argumentation and explanation. For this study, 126 Chilean 8th grade students produced an argumentative text and an explanatory text about the same topic. In addition, their academic vocabulary was assessed with the S-AVoc-T test and their CALS with the S-CALS-I test. Results show that both CALS and academic vocabulary are significantly and positively correlated with both writing tasks. Even though these instruments make different contributions to the predictive models in each discursive genre, a Principal Component Analysis revealed that the model that best explains writing quality are those which combine both language variables, namely Spanish Core Academic Language and Vocabulary Skills (S-CALVS). In argumentation, the S-CALVS model explains 29% of the variance, after controlling by gender. In contrast, in explanation, S-CALVS explains 35% of the variance. It is concluded that it is relevant to develop situated writing in each discursive genre and, upon that basis, to work with both CALS and academic vocabulary, because they have a specific impact on academic texts writing.
... They also reported that in general, students in lower grade levels, from lower SES environments, or with an English Learner (EL) designation scored significantly lower than students in higher grade levels, from higher SES environments, or without an EL designation, respectively. Similar findings were replicated with monolingual Spanish-speaking students (e.g., Meneses et al., 2017). ...
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Academic language is a kind of social language for the purpose of schooling. It is central to disciplinary learning, thinking, and communication. This study examined adolescents’ use of academic language in informational writing, a genre highly valued in school, workplace, and society. Ninety-three seventh and ninth grade students from a U.S. public school were asked to write a science report based on a “wordless” picture book about a familiar class of animals called crocodylia. The student writing corpus was coded for presence of a constellation of academic language features. Statistical analyses of these data showed that (a) the adolescents made limited use of academic language features in their writing, (b) there were no significant differences between the two grade levels in academic language use, (c) there was a significant relationship between reading ability and academic language use, and (d) academic language use was a significant predictor of writing quality. These findings highlight both the importance of and the need for more explicit attention to academic language in secondary literacy instruction.
... Although the English CALS construct and instrument guided the design of these measures, each assessment was developed and validated in partnership with local teams in Latin America. To date, these studies have shown that CALS are also predictive of midadolescents' text comprehension in Spanish (Meneses et al., 2018) and Portuguese (Uccelli, Barrera-Osorio, et al., 2020). ...
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Merging evidence from psychological models of reading comprehension, ethnographic research on language and literacy, and textual linguistics lines of research, the authors take the position that psychological models of reading comprehension often overlook written language comprehension and production as context‐embedded, sociocultural processes. Using the example of academic language comprehension by middle grade learners, the authors present a series of studies that have informed the science of reading by making visible a precise set of high‐utility academic language skills that support informational text comprehension during middle childhood (ages 9–14). Studies have suggested that these skills develop gradually throughout adolescence and significantly contribute to reading comprehension. Drawing on this research with the goal of informing the science of reading, the authors suggest that academic language comprehension involves for the reader (a) familiarity with a set of academic language forms commonly found in school texts, (b) experience with the sociocultural practices of understanding and using the academic language of text within a particular sociocultural community, and (c) aligning with or resisting the reader identities implied by the language of a text. The authors suggest that innovative research and pedagogical approaches are needed to broaden the conceptualization of language and reading comprehension relations from purely cognitive into one that embraces the reader’s interaction with a text as a sociocultural phenomenon.
... En este sentido, desarrollar habilidades lingüísticas y discursivas implica atender a cuestiones más complejas de la lengua. Por otro lado, el tipo de palabras en las que los estudiantes demuestran tener más confusión corresponde a léxico propio del lenguaje académico, que se diferencia sustantivamente del lenguaje coloquial (Figueroa, Meneses & Chandía, 2019;Meneses, Uccelli, Santelices, Ruiz, Acevedo & Figueroa, 2018). Este resultado suma evidencia a la afirmación de varios autores (Cummins, 2000;Proctor, Silverman, Harring, Jones & Hartranft, 2019) de que las habilidades básicas de lenguaje (BICS: basic interpersonal communicative skills) no bastan para desarrollar las habilidades de lenguaje académico (CALP cognitive academic language proficiency), necesarias para garantizar el aprendizaje y éxito escolar. ...
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Many immigrants have joined the Chilean school system. An important group, of Haitian origin, has Spanish as a second language (L2). This study aims to characterize the written performance of students of Haitian origin in 5th grade, in order to provide evidence to inform pedagogical practices and policies for teaching writing, from a perspective of justice and inclusion. Forty-two students participated and produced brochures on environmental issues present in the science curriculum. The texts were double-coded according to a code book of emerging linguistic phenomena. Mainly transcription problems, syntax phenomena and lexical phenomena were identified. In addition, the texts were rated along with the full sample of each course, through a holistic rubric focusing on higher order skills. The results show an array of performances. Correlations suggest that those who perform better in the communicative aspects are those who manage to overcome the difficulty of transcription. This highlights the need to intervene with explicit teaching so that students can automate the transcription processes and grammatical elements of Spanish. The article concludes with teaching guidelines that address the phenomena described with a linguistically sensitive perspective and with a socio-cultural approach, moving away from the deficit perspective. Challenges are pointed out to value the use of the L1 and bilingual resources and identities in the classroom.
... Por estos motivos, enseñar de manera explícita a leer y escribir en cada área del conocimiento es útil no sólo para democratizar el acceso al conocimiento y mejorar el rendimiento académico, sino también para ejercitar las diversas formas con las que cada disciplina crea ese conocimiento (Navarro y Revel, 2013). Meneses et al. (2017) han identificado las características que diferentes autores han definido como usos académicos del lenguaje y las han operacionalizado como conjunto de habilidades claves de lenguaje académico (HCLA) en español con niños chilenos de entre 4o. y 6o. ...
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El texto escolar es objeto de promoción en políticas públicas educativas porque operacionaliza el currículum escolar. Sin embargo, predominan actividades expositivas y reproductivas con escasa atención al potencial epistémico de la lectura y la escritura para promover aprendizajes en las disciplinas. Siguiendo la perspectiva de Escribir para aprender y Aprender a escribir, el propósito de este artículo es presentar una propuesta didáctica fundamentada, sistemática y replicable de enseñanza de la lectura y la escritura en Matemáticas, Ciencias Naturales y Ciencias Sociales de educación básica, materializada en 107 cápsulas didácticas que se incluyeron en 24 libros de texto chilenos entre 2015 y 2017. Se identifica la riqueza y diversidad de géneros discursivos a través del currículum, se seleccionan actividades situadas de libros de texto que incluyan leer o escribir esos géneros, y se construyen secuencias didácticas con socialización de expectativas, modelamiento de proceso y facilitación de recursos y procedimientos lingüísticos.
... The third gap is work on academic language proficiency for primary grade children. Academic language proficiency has been widely examined for preadolescents or adolescents, which is reasonable given the increased language demands in texts in upper elementary and secondary school grades (Meneses et al., 2018;Schleppegrell, 2001Schleppegrell, , 2004Snow & Uccelli, 2009;. If academic language proficiency is considered an important skill that can be measured and that contributes to reading skills for adolescents, a crucial corollary is its measurement and relation to reading comprehension for younger children. ...
Article
Resumen. Este estudio explora el efecto de dos propuestas de enseñanza explícita del lenguaje académico para la producción de explicaciones. Participaron 179 estudiantes chilenos de 4º grado y cuatro profesoras. La diferencia entre ambas propuestas de enseñanza radica en la integración o no de los recursos léxico-gramaticales característicos del registro académico en las fases discursivas configuradoras de la explicación científica. Cada estudiante produjo una explicación inicial y una final para cada unidad. Los resultados muestran que existen más recursos con diferencias significativas al realizar las comparaciones entre las explicaciones en la unidad integrada que en la no integrada así como un mayor número de correlaciones positivas. Esta investigación destaca la relevancia de una enseñanza a través de la cual se enseñan explícitamente y de manera integrada recursos de lenguaje académico relevantes para la producción de géneros escolares. Abstract.This study explores the explicit academic language teaching effect on written scientific explanation. Two proposals for science unit intervention focusing on written scientific explanation was applied to four different fourth grade Chilean classrooms, one of them including explicit teaching of academic language resources integration at lexico-grammatical level in the different organizational phases of the written scientific explanation. 179 students wrote a scientific explanation at the beginning and at the end of each unit. A significant larger number of academic language resources as well as of significant correlations in the students' productions after the explicit teaching of embedded resources intervention was found. This study gives preliminary evidence of the relevance of the explicit teaching of academic language to help student master written academic genres.
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The purpose of the study was to assess the volume of academic vocabulary in elementary grades disciplinary textbooks. Academic vocabulary was examined in a corpus of best-selling elementary grades textbooks in three disciplinary areas-science, mathematics, and social studies. Academic words in texts were determined through automated procedures involving statistical modeling. Four academic vocabulary variables were created: Total Academic Words; Discipline-Match Academic Words (science domain-specific academic words in science textbooks, and so on); High Challenge Total Academic Words; and High Challenge Discipline-Match Academic Words. Longitudinal multi-level Poisson regression was conducted for selected research issues. Main conclusions were: (a) The estimated overall elementary grades volume of academic vocabulary in disciplinary textbooks was relatively high. Summed across all grades and disciplines, 31% of all of the estimated unique word types in the textbooks were academic word types. By the end of elementary school, children who read or listened to disciplinary textbooks like the ones in the present study corpus would have been exposed to approximately one academic word type for every three unique word types encountered. (b) Moreover, approximately one or two of every four or five academic word types was estimated to be a word that would present challenge to typically developing and struggling students. (c) For all three disciplines, with minor exception, the estimated volume of newly-appearing academic words in a grade increased through the earliest grades, tended to peak in third or fourth grade, and then decelerated slightly thereafter.
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Learning to Study Texts is an innovative program that seeks to improve teaching and learning of disciplinary content by using teaching proposals based on analyzing and commenting on the language used in texts. This paper presents the bases of the program and a pilot study conducted with two teachers working in the fourth grade of elementary school who implemented the program proposals in History classes for four months. This analysis included the comparison of teaching practices involved in reading History texts before and after following the Learning to Study Texts program. It also included the description of how they changed their practices throughout the intervention. The results indicate that, with the incorporation of the program proposals, the teachers began to provide more opportunities to the students to listen, retrieve, comment on and analyze the information content of the texts. The main contribution of this study is to offer inputs for the design of a continuous teacher training program.
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Classrooms are not always linguistically permeable, and instruction focused on bolstering English reading comprehension too often neglects students’ additional linguistic resources in languages other than English. However, to the task of comprehending English text, multilingual readers bring a host of communicative resources across multiple languages. Indeed, recent studies have found that students educated concurrently in Spanish and English within bilingual schools possess positively correlated Spanish and English academic register resources, with academic register knowledge in each language making unique contributions toward explaining variability in these dual-language learners’ English reading comprehension. This recent research offers the tantalizing insight that teaching students to notice overlaps in communicative expectations and linguistic patterns—or register overlaps—across Spanish and English academic registers should receive greater focus. Here, to speak to classroom application, we offer suggestions for how educators might use equivalent Spanish and English metalanguages—or language to talk about language—to highlight register overlaps in Spanish and English academic text. We contend that this purposeful noticing of register overlaps can deepen students’ awareness of the linguistic resources available to them for comprehending academic texts and support them in developing critical metalinguistic awareness, or the skills and habits of mind needed to critically consider how registers have been naturalized and are subject to change. This article supports educators to enact one aspect of translingual pedagogy that builds on students’ observations about the language of school in order to increase linguistic flexibility, awareness, and criticality.
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Recent literacy research calls for pedagogical approaches that multiply students’ opportunities to discuss texts and ideas that matter. We argue that understanding mid-adolescents’ language needs can further inform discussion-based approaches. Our assessment research reveals that substantial differences in Core Academic Language Skills (CALS)– high-utility school-relevant language skills– help explain why comprehending school texts can be challenging for many adolescents. Our research with Latinx dual language learners’ and their teachers documents how leveraging heritage languages and identities contributes to academic success. Integrating insights from our teacher-researcher collaborations, we call for practices and dispositions that amplify language resources and awareness and affirm students’ voices by engaging teachers and students in reflecting about language, context, and power while scaffolding CALS across content areas and grades. Affirming while amplifying students’ voices entails expanding students’ and teachers’ critical rhetorical flexibility, the ability to use language critically and flexibly for particular contexts and purposes.
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eer textos académicos es una experiencia altamente demandante, ya que exige no solo comprender lo que se lee, sino también aprender de ello. Esta exigencia se vuelve cada vez más común desde los cursos intermedios de la enseñanza primaria. Consecuentemente, los estudiantes deben adquirir nuevos recursos estratégicos, que consisten en llevar a cabo acciones mentales guiadas por una meta explícita (por ejemplo, seleccionar solo la información que cumpla con un criterio determinado) ante la presencia de ciertas claves (por ejemplo, una expresión textual como “la primera causa es…”). La adquisición de estos recursos representa un reto que debemos entender bien para proporcionar el apoyo instruccional necesario. Por esa razón, este artículo busca identificar algunas de las necesidades que experimentan los estudiantes en el uso de estas estrategias de lectura, con base en algunos de nuestros estudios previos. Básicamente, mostramos que los estudiantes presentan más dificultades para procesar las claves textuales que guían sus acciones estratégicas que para llevarlas a cabo: es decir, hay una disociación entre la sensibilidad a las claves y la capacidad para ejecutar el curso de acción ligado a ellas. Además, presentan dificultades para recordar las metas de lectura cuando deben seleccionar la información de acuerdo con ellas. Estas evidencias nos llevarán a diferenciar dos planteamientos instruccionales: el primero pretende ayudar a los estudiantes, durante la lectura, a comprender el texto que están leyendo; el segundo está destinado a enseñarles cómo comprender cualquier texto. Finalmente, clarificamos cuándo y por qué ayudar a comprender podría ser especialmente útil.
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Academic language skills support mid‐adolescents’ comprehension of the language of school texts. To date, scarce research has explored associations between dual academic language skills and reading comprehension among mid‐adolescent dual language immersion (DLI) students. This study examined individual differences in Spanish and English academic language skills and their contribution to English reading comprehension in a cross‐sectional sample of DLI students in Grades 4–6 (N = 101). Taking advantage of a recently proposed construct, the core academic language skills (CALS), and the CALS instruments available in Spanish and English, dual academic language skills were examined as predictors of English reading comprehension. Results revealed that Spanish and English CALS were both significant predictors of English reading comprehension even after accounting for students’ sociodemographic background, English proficiency designation, and English word reading fluency. Findings underscore the cross‐linguistic contribution of Spanish academic language skills to English reading comprehension and highlight the importance of promoting these skills in both languages to support mid‐adolescent DLI students’ biliteracy development.
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Investigaciones previas han encontrado que las habilidades del lenguaje académico predicen positivamente los resultados de comprensión de lectura en español de los adolescentes hispanohablantes más allá del conocimiento del vocabulario académico. Este estudio examina la contribución específica del vocabulario académico y de las habilidades de lenguaje académico a la comprensión lectora de estudiantes de primaria y secundaria en el noreste de México. Participaron en el estudio un total de 1103 estudiantes de escuelas públicas de 5º y 6º de primaria (n=671) y de 1º y 2º de secundaria (n=432). Los participantes fueron evaluados en vocabulario académico, otras habilidades de lenguaje académico y comprensión lectora. Asimismo, se obtuvieron datos demográficos y de nivel socioeconómico. En convergencia con investigaciones anteriores realizadas con hablantes del inglés en EE.UU. y hablantes de español en Chile, los hallazgos revelaron que tanto el conocimiento del vocabulario académico como las habilidades del lenguaje académico son cruciales para la comprensión lectora. Nuestro estudio se suma a la creciente evidencia de las habilidades del lenguaje académico y de vocabulario académico como predictores clave de la comprensión lectora de los adolescentes hispanohablantes en América Latina y amplía la muestra a estudiantes mexicanos.
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The purpose of the present study was to examine possible shifts in the presence of academic vocabulary across the past six decades for a continually best-selling first-grade core reading program. Seven program years dating from 1962 to 2013 were examined. Four categories of academic vocabulary (science, mathematics, social studies, and general academic) were computationally determined in each program. The primary research question was: Did the volume of academic words in a program year rise with advancing years? A secondary supplementary question was: Did the propensity toward academic affinity of a program considered as a whole rise with advancing years? Two types of academic word measures were employed: (a) a word was deemed to be academic or not, and if it was academic, it was assigned to one of the four academic categories, and then academic words were counted; and (b) a novel measure, academic affinity, was a continuous measure of the probability that a word was academic (in each of the four academic vocabulary categories). Poisson regression modeling and Hierarchical Generalized Linear Modeling were conducted. The main conclusions were: Later first-grade core reading program years included a moderately higher volume of science, social studies, and total academic words as compared to earlier years. The science, social studies, and general academic affinity of the program as a whole was statistically higher in later years, but in practical terms the change was not remarkable.
Chapter
Science is intrinsically multimodal due to the limitations of verbal language and the need for different ways of explaining scientific processes. Images, mathematical formulas, and academic discourse work interdependently in science explanatory texts making them more challenging to understand than narrative texts for elementary students. Previous research has shown that readers’ prior knowledge and language proficiency mediate reading comprehension, but it is unclear how to include facilitating mechanisms for comprehending science text that involve students’ prior knowledge and academic language skills. This chapter explores how animated multimodal science texts with different types of mediations can scaffold scientific understanding for Chilean fifth graders. Eighty-four students with low comprehension skills were selected from an initial sample of 326 attending medium-low SES Chilean schools. They were divided into three groups, and each group was assigned to a different version of the science text: one without animation, a second with animations that scaffolded scientific concepts, and a third with animations that scaffolded academic language. Academic vocabulary, reading comprehension and science learning were assessed. The group assigned to the non-animated version underperformed significantly compared to both animated versions, but there was no statistically significant difference between the groups with animated versions. Evidence of how the different types of scaffolding helped the student and suggestions on how improve them is presented. Finally, the pedagogical implications of this work for text designers and teachers are discussed, and new lines of research are suggested.
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The comprehension of connectives, which still develops across primary school age, is an important facet of academic language proficiency. We investigated relations between the comprehension of connectives and school performance in primary school. Drawing on two cohorts with a total of 294 students and two measurement points either in Grades 2 and 3 (Cohort 1; n = 139) or in Grades 3 and 4 (Cohort 2; n = 155), we found positive effects of children's performance on a newly developed test on the comprehension of connectives on reading comprehension and mathematics one year later while considering, amongst others, the families' socioeconomic status, children's nonverbal cognitive abilities, and receptive grammar. Overall, data showed even more pronounced effects of the comprehension of connectives on test scores compared to school grades. Results are discussed with respect to the specific importance of the comprehension of connectives for school performance in primary school.
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El propósito de esta investigación es explorar cuáles son los perfiles de escritores respecto a la calidad de las producciones argumentativas, así como establecer relaciones de estos perfiles con los recursos de lenguaje académico (RLA) que los estudiantes despliegan. 126 estudiantes chilenos de 8º básico de tres establecimientos educacionales escribieron un ensayo sobre el uso del tablet en la sala de clases. Para evaluar la calidad se validó una rúbrica y se utilizó el programa CHILDES para codificar diversos RLA. Para determinar los perfiles se realizó un análisis de clases latentes. Un 69% de los estudiantes se clasificaron en el perfil denominado emergente. El resto de los estudiantes pertenece al segundo perfil, denominado en desarrollo. En estos dos perfiles se analizó el uso de RLA. En el perfil emergente se observan dos clases de estudiantes que se diferencian sustancialmente en el uso (por presencia y/o ausencia) de nominalizaciones y vocabulario transdisciplinar. El perfil en desarrollo también presenta dos clases: una tiene mayor frecuencia, para quienes el uso de recursos es homogéneo. En cambio, el segundo grupo se caracteriza por el despliegue de vocabulario transdisciplinar, nominalizaciones y marcadores deónticos. Se concluye que los estudiantes necesitan más oportunidades para aprender a construir argumentaciones y desplegar recursos de lenguaje académico con el objetivo de potenciar sus puntos de vistas.
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Oral and written language are constantly interrelated in literate communities. In this paper, we examined the repercussions of teaching argumentative oral discourse on the development of argumentative writing and vice versa. The participants were seventh-grade students, who were randomly assigned to one of three groups: the Oral-1 group, which received an oral language intervention first, followed by a written language intervention; the Esc-1 group, which received the written language intervention first, followed by the oral intervention, and the control group, who attended regular Spanish Language and Literature classes. We assessed measures of both oral and written argumentative discourse at pretest, posttest-1, and posttest-2 to determine the development of both intramodality and intermodality skills. The results showed that intramodality effects were larger for the written than for the oral language intervention. Both interventions produced intermodality effects. We concluded that the teaching of argumentative discourse should incorporate the bidirectional influences between the oral and written modalities.
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Academic language has been shown to significantly contribute to success across school subjects. However, to date, there are no empirical studies addressing its development across primary school age. The present study investigated the growth of academic vocabulary and influential conditions from Grades 2 to 4 based on a newly developed and validated test instrument. Drawing on a German sample of 472 children (N = 281 language minority learners) we found evidence of a Matthew effect with the group of language minority learners showing both lower initial level and lower growth rates compared to their monolingual peers. In addition, results of simple and full conditional growth curve models underline the significant impact of family background (parental education, books at home) and of children's nonverbal cognitive abilities on the intercept as well as the growth of academic vocabulary, thereby supporting the assumption of an additional Matthew effect according to family background, particularly in monolingual majority language children. Our results indicate the need for an early promotion of the register of academic language in monolingual as well as language minority students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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This study examines whether children's decontextualized talk—talk about nonpresent events, explanations, or pretend—at 30 months predicts seventh-grade academic language proficiency (age 12). Academic language (AL) refers to the language of school texts. AL proficiency has been identified as an important predictor of adolescent text comprehension. Yet research on precursors to AL proficiency is scarce. Child decontextualized talk is known to be a predictor of early discourse development, but its relation to later language outcomes remains unclear. Forty-two children and their caregivers participated in this study. The proportion of child talk that was decontextualized emerged as a significant predictor of seventh-grade AL proficiency, even after controlling for socioeconomic status, parent decontextualized talk, child total words, child vocabulary, and child syntactic comprehension.
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Reading comprehension is a complex skill, which involves different cognitive processes such as monitoring, working memory, interference suppression and resolution inferences. The aim of this work is to evaluate the discriminative ability of these processes, to differentiate levels of reading comprehension, in children between 8 and 9 years of age (N = 89) of public, and private, schools, in the city of Mar del Plata, Argentina. For this, specific tests were administered to each of these processes. The results distinguished two discriminant functions; the first one was the only that distinguished between individuals with good or bad comprehension abilities. A good level of reading comprehension implied to be efficient in the use of language skills (monitoring, inference, vocabulary), and, also, having abilities of processing (working memory). In contrast, the failure in general processing skills, such as phonological working memory or deficit in the ability to relate concepts (vocabulary), appeared to be characteristic of individuals with bad comprehension skills.
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Many studies have demonstrated the facilitating role of rhetorical devices in text comprehension, but there are also studies where rhetorical devices have not shown such effect. The present study sets out to explore whether readers’ knowledge of rhetorical devices (that is, rhetorical competence) moderates their effectiveness beyond general comprehension skills and, consequently, whether rhetorical competence may be considered a component skill of reading comprehension. 192 sixth- to seventh-grade students were assessed on rhetorical competence and were required to read a difficult marked text with specific rhetorical devices (a refutation, an objective, and four organizational signals) or the same text without them. After reading, students produced a summary in order to obtain three dependent variables: main ideas (as a measure of participants’ ability to select relevant information from the text), causal links between them (as an indicator of participants’ ability to grasp the logical structure of the text and to organize its ideas), and the combination of main ideas plus causal links (as an indicator of participants’ global comprehension of the text). Analyses controlling for general comprehension skills and other important variables (working memory, prior knowledge, decoding) demonstrated that: (a) readers of the marked text scored higher in terms of all dependent variables, and (b) rhetorical competence level moderated the effect of rhetorical devices on the composite measure (main ideas plus causal links) and on the organization of the summary by means of causal links.
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This special issue of JREE features studies from three of the teams (Barnes, Stuebing, Fletcher, Barth, & Francis; Language and Reading Research Consortium, Arthur, & Davis; LaRusso et al.) supported by the Institute of Education Sciences—Reading for Understanding Research (RFU) Initiative. Each study examined the importance of comprehension-related variables (i.e., academic language, perspective taking, complex reasoning skill, suppression, and response to instructional dosage) in developing readers. In this commentary we apply Perfetti and Adlof's (2012)17. Perfetti, C. A., & Adlof, S. M. (2012). Reading comprehension: A conceptual framework from word meaning to text meaning. In J. Sabatini & E. Albro (Eds.), Assessing reading in the 21st century: Aligning and applying advances in the reading and measurement sciences. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Education.View all references concept of comprehension-related pressure points to help us assess whether the size of relation between the comprehension-related variables and reading comprehension skill are large enough to be of practical significance for assessment and intervention. In general, we conclude that none of the comprehension-related variables investigated in the special issue meet the criteria for inclusion as a pressure point. However, we caution that decontextualized assessments of potentially important comprehension-related skills applied as predictors to generic passage variance without concern for important reader-by-text interactions may result in underestimates of the importance of reader characteristics in certain texts.
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This special issue is devoted to the study of reading and writing in Spanish focusing on their particularities from the perspective of its orthographic depth. Research has exposed the role characteristics from different orthographic systems play, explaining how reading and writing are learned and the cognitive processes involved in those learning processes. Through their research and reflection the various Latin American authors — and a special contribution by a Finnish author — describe the differences in reading processes in transparent orthographic systems as well as the future direction the study of reading may take from the perspective of their orthographic qualities.ResumenEste número monográfico está dedicado al estudio de la lecto-escritura en español matizando sus particularidades desde la perspectiva de su profundidad ortográfica. Investigaciones han demostrado el papel de las características de los distintos sistemas ortográficos para explicar su aprendizaje y los procesos cognitivos envueltos en ella. Se presentan diversos autores Iberoamericanos y un aporte especial finlandes, los cuales a través de sus investigaciones y reflexiones, dan cuenta de las diferencias en los procesos lectores en sistemas ortográficos transparentes, así como de las direcciones que en un futuro pudiera tomar el estudio de la lectura desde la perspectiva de sus cualidades ortográficas.
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This article explores the difficulties for understanding expository texts in a non-probability convenience sample of Spanish-speaking primary school children (N = 317) attending grades 2 (aged 7.77 on average), 3 (9.01), and 4 (10.03) at 2 primary schools in Córdoba, Argentina (154 females and 163 males). Its aim was to identify difficulties for understanding texts, considering the cognitive processes and the textual factors involved. Five texts with different characteristics (structure and vocabulary familiarity) were selected, about which literal and inferential questions were asked. Students were required to read each text and answer the questionnaire orally. The results were analyzed quantitatively (ANOVA and Student’s t test) and qualitatively (categorical analysis). Differences were observed among groups in literal and inferential questions as well as in total scores. Grade 4 students scored higher than those in grades 2 and 3. Nevertheless, in general, difficulties related with inferential processes were observed, specifically with inferential questions requiring students to explain causes or consequences and link textual information with prior knowledge. Even though students performed better in literal questions, they had difficulties extracting textually explicit concepts.
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The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between letter naming, isolated word recognition, word reading in text, and reading comprehension, which are all considered critical variables for reading fluency. The analysis of the variation of this relationship in the earliest years of primary school was undertaken. It may be assumed that, if comprehension is evaluated with a complex text, the accurate and rapid word reading might not be enough for comprehension because this process requires other kinds of operation and knowledge that children could not possess. In order to explore the relationships between text features and decoding abilities, Spanish speaking children in second, third, and fourth grades were tested. They were assessed in letter naming, isolated word reading, word reading in texts and comprehension of narrative and expository texts. The results of this study show a difference among groups in all the variables: children´s performance increased throughout the school years. In fourth grade, children reached the highest scores in word reading in texts. The performance of 2nd and 3rd grade groups in decoding task was lower, between 40% and 60% of the total score. Although there were no differences in the number of words read in one minute between narrative and expository texts, there were differences in comprehension: even though the performance is generally low, it was higher in narrative texts than it was in expository texts. These findings could indicate that both accurate and rapid word recognition skills could only explain part of the variation in reading comprehension which might be affected by text variables.
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1. Registers, genres, and styles: fundamental varieties of language Part I. Analytical Framework: 2. Describing the situational characteristics of registers and genres 3. Analysing linguistic features and their functions Part II. Detailed Descriptions of Register, Genre and Style: 4. Interpersonal spoken registers 5. Written registers, genres and styles 6. Historical evolution of registers, genres and styles 7. Registers and genres in electronic communication Part III. Larger Theoretical Issues: 8. Multidimensional patterns of register variation 9. Register studies in context Appendix A. Annotation of major register/genre studies Appendix B. Activity texts References.
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The simple view of reading describes reading comprehension as the product of decoding and listening comprehension and the relative contribution of each to reading comprehension across development. We present a cross-sectional analysis of first, second, and third graders (N = 123–125 in each grade) to assess the adequacy of the basic model. Participants completed multiple measures to inform latent constructs of word reading accuracy, word reading fluency, listening comprehension, reading comprehension, and vocabulary. In line with previous research, structural equation models confirmed that the influence of decoding skill decreased with increasing grade and that the influence of listening comprehension increased. However, several additional findings indicate that reading development is not that simple and support an elaboration of the basic model: A strong influence of listening comprehension on reading comprehension was apparent by grade 2, decoding skill was best measured by word and nonword reading accuracy in the early grades and word reading fluency in grade 3, and vocabulary skills indirectly affected reading comprehension through both decoding skill and listening comprehension. This new elaborated model, which provides a more comprehensive view of critical influences on reading in the early grades, has diagnostic and instructional ramifications for improving reading pedagogy. 阅读的简单观念描述阅读理解为单词解码和聆听理解这两个成分的相乘组合,而每个成分对阅读理解的相对贡献跨越发展阶段。为评估这基本模型的适当性,本文作者提供一个对小学一、二和三年级学生(各级人数为123-125名)的横向研究分析报告。研究参与者完成了多项测验,以厘定单词朗读准确性、单词朗读流畅度、聆听理解、阅读理解和词汇等五个潜在构念的变数。结果与先前研究相一致,结构方程式模型证实字词解码的影响力随年级晋升而减少,聆听理解的影响力则随之而增加。但本研究的另外几个结果亦显示,阅读发展并不是这样简单,因而支持一个较详细阐述的基本模型:就二年级学生而言,聆听理解对阅读理解的强烈影响是明显的;就低年级学生而言,有意义和无意义单词阅读准确性是测定单词解码的最佳方法;就三年级学生而言,单词朗读流畅度却是测定单词解码的最佳方法;词汇是通过单词解码和聆听理解而间接影响阅读理解。这个新的而经详细阐述的基本模型,对研究低年级阅读能力的关键影响提供一个较全面的观点,并在改进阅读教学方面具有诊断方法和教学方法的影响力。 La perspectiva simple de la lectura describe la comprensión lectora como producto del desciframiento y la comprensión auditiva y la contribución relativa de cada uno a la comprensión lectora a través de su evolución. Primero presentamos un análisis representativo de primer, segundo y tercer grados (N = 123-125 en cada grupo) para evaluar lo apropiado del modelo básico. Los participantes completaron múltiples medidas para informar constructos latentes de la precisión lectora de las palabras, la fluidez de la lectura de la palabra, la comprensión oral, la comprensión lectora, y el vocabulario. Al igual que en investigaciones previas, los modelos de ecuaciones estructurales confirmaron que la influencia de la habilidad de descifrar se reducía a medida que subían de grado y que la influencia de la comprensión oral incrementaba. Sin embargo, varios resultados adicionales indican que el desarrollo de la lectura no es tan simple y apoyan una elaboración del modelo básico: Una influencia grande por parte de la comprensión oral en la comprensión lectora era aparente ya en el segundo grado, la habilidad de descifrar se podía medir mejor por medio de la precisión lectora de palabras y hápax en los grados menores y la fluidez lectora en el tercer grado, y la habilidad de aprender vocabulario afectaba indirectamente la comprensión lectora tanto por medio de la habilidad de descifrar como de la comprensión oral. Este nuevo modelo elaborado, el cual provee una perspectiva más amplia de influencias importantes en la lectura en los primeros grados, tiene ramificaciones diagnósticas y didácticas para el mejoramiento de la pedagogía de la lectura. إن النظرة البسيطة للقراءة تصف استيعاب القراة منتجاً لحل الرموز واستيعاب الاستماع والمساهمة النسبية لكليهما في استيعاب القراءة عبر التنمية. ونقدم ها هنا تحليلاً مقطعياً للطلاب في الصف الأول والثاني والثالث (عددهم = 123-125 في كل صف) كي نقيم صلاحية النموذج الأساسي. لقد أخذ المشتركون عدة امتحانات للإفادة بتراكيب باطنة في دقة قراءة الكلام وطلاقة قراءة الكلام واستيعاب الاستماع واستيعاب القراءة والمفردات. وتماشياً مع أبحاث سابقة، أكدت نماذج معادلة هيكلية أن تأثير مهارة حل الرمول تناقص مع التقدم في الصفوف وأن تأثير استيعاب الاستماع ازداد. بيد أن بضع نتائج إضافية تشير إلى أن تنمية القراءة ليست سهلة إلى هذه الدرجة وتدعو لتوسيع النموذج الأساسي: اتضح تأثير قوي لاستيعاب الاستماع على استيعاب القراءة عند الصف الثاني، ويتم أفضل تقييم لحل الرموز في دقة قراءة الكلام الحقيقي والكلام الوهمي في الصفوف المبكرة وطلاقة قراءة الكلام في الصف الثالث، ومهارات المفردات أثرت على استيعاب القراءة تأثيراً غير مباشر في مهارة حل الرموز واستيعاب الاستماع. وهذا النموذج الموسع الذي يوفر نظرة أكثر شمولاً لتأثيرات نقدية على القراءة في الصفوف المبكرة له نتائج تشخيصية وتعليمية من أجل تحسين تعليم القراءة. Пpocтoe пpeдcтaвлeниe o чтeнии oпиcывaeт пoнимaниe пpoчитaннoгo кaк пpoдyкт yмeния дeкoдиpoвaть и вocпpинимaть тeкcт нa cлyx. Cчитaeтcя, чтo имeннo coвoкyпнocть этиx yмeний и cocтaвляeт ocнoвy для пoнимaния пpoчитaннoгo. Для oцeнки aдeквaтнocти тaкoгo пoдxoдa в cтaтьe пpeдcтaвлeны peзyльтaты пepeкpecтнoгo aнaлизa чтeния cpeди yчaщиxcя пepвыx, втopыx и тpeтьиx клaccoв (N = 123-125 в кaждoй вoзpacтнoй гpyппe). Учacтники тecтиpoвaния выпoлнили мнoгoчиcлeнныe зaдaния нa тoчнocть и бeглocть чтeния cлoв, вocпpиятиe нa cлyx, пoнимaниe пpoчитaннoгo и oцeнкy cлoвapнoгo зaпaca. Пoдтвepдилиcь вывoды paнee пpoвeдeнныx иccлeдoвaний: влияниe нaвыкoв дeкoдиpoвaния нa пoнимaниe пpoчитaннoгo c вoзpacтoм yмeньшaeтcя, a влияниe нaвыкoв вocпpиятия нa cлyx pacтeт. Oднaкo дoпoлнитeльныe peзyльтaты, пoлyчeнныe в xoдe иccлeдoвaния, пoдcкaзывaют, чтo нe вce тaк oднoзнaчнo и пoнимaниe пpoчитaннoгo тpeбyeт дaльнeйшeгo изyчeния, пocкoлькy cильнoe влияниe пoнимaния нa cлyx выявляeтcя кo втopoмy клaccy, нaвык дeкoдиpoвaния лyчшe вceгo зaмepяeтcя тoчнocтью чтeния cлoв и нe-cлoв y пepвoклaccникoв, бeглocть чтeния cлoв – в тpeтьeм клacce, a cлoвapный зaпac кocвeннo влияeт нa пoнимaниe пpoчитaннoгo чepeз дeкoдиpoвaниe и пoнимaниe нa cлyx. Этa нeдaвнo paзpaбoтaннaя мoдeль oбecпeчивaeт бoлee вcecтopoннee пpeдcтaвлeниe o фaктopax, кoтopыe влияют нa чтeниe млaдшиx шкoльникoв, и имeeт диaгнocтичecкoe и мeтoдичecкoe знaчeниe для coвepшeнcтвoвaния oбyчeния чтeнию. La conception simple de la lecture comme produit du décodage et de la compréhension orale, avec une contribution variable de chacune d'elles selon le moment du développement. Nous présentons ici une analyse transversale d’élèves de première, seconde, et troisième année de scolarité (N = 123-125 à chaque niveau) afin d’évaluer la pertinence de ce modèle de base. Les participants ont répondu à plusieurs évaluations afin de savoir ce que sont les constructs sous-jacents de la lecture exacte de mots, de la lecture courante de mots, de la compréhension orale, de la compréhension en lecture, et du vocabulaire. Dans le prolongement des recherche antérieures, les modèles d’équation structurale confirment que l'influence da la compétence à decoder diminue quand le niveau scolaire augmente et que l'influence de la compréhension en lecture augmente. Cependant plusieurs résultats supplémentaires indiquent que le développement de la lecture n'est pas si simple et plaident en faveur d'une révision du modèle de base: en 2e année, on observe un important effet de la compréhension orale sur la comprehension de la lecture; on évalue mieux la compétence à décoder par l'exactitude dans la lecture de mots et de non-mots dans les premières classes et par la lecture courante en 3e année, et les compétences en vocabulaire jouent indirectement un rôle dans la compréhension de la lecture par le biais à la fois de la compétence en décodage et de la comprehension orale. Le nouveau modèle élaboré, qui fournit une conception plus intelligente de ce qui influe sur la lecture pendant les premières années, a des ramifications pour l’évaluation et l'enseignement en vue de développer la pédagogie de la lecture.
Article
There is strong empirical evidence on the universal development of phonological awareness from large to small units. However, comparatively little research has been conducted to determine whether the predictive weight of these units differs according to the language in which the child is learning to read. While rhyme is a unit that carries significant predictive power in English, there is little evidence of its relevance in Spanish. The purpose of the present study is to determine the predictive weight of consonant rhyme on reading accuracy, reading speed and reading comprehension from kindergarten to first grade. Ninety-four Chilean Spanish-speaking non-reader kindergarten children (49 girls and 45 boys) from low SES were tested. The results indicated that consonant rhyme has no predictive power on any of the reading skills measured. The transparency of Spanish and the main reading strategies used by children in this language are analysed as explanatory elements of the results found.ResumenExiste contundente evidencia empírica sobre patrón de desarrollo universal de la conciencia fonológica desde unidades grandes a las pequeñas. Sin embargo, comparativamente menos investigación se ha realizado para determinar si el peso predictivo de estas unidades difiere según la lengua en la cual el niño está aprendiendo a leer. Mientras la rima es una unidad con un significativo poder predictivo en inglés, existe poca evidencia de su relevancia en español. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar el peso predictivo de la rima consonante en la lectura de palabras, no palabras, velocidad y comprensión lectora desde kinder a primer año básico. Noventa y cuatro niños de kinder no lectores Hispanoparlantes Chilenos de NSE bajo fueron testeados (49 niñas y 45 niños). Los resultados indican que no existe poder predictivo de la rima consonante sobre ninguna de las habilidades lectoras medidas. La transparencia del español y las principales estrategias de lectura utilizadas por los niños en esta lengua son analizadas como elementos explicativos de los resultados encontrados.
Article
This paper will present a theoretical analysis of research on metalinguistic understanding, illustrating how current research does not yet adequately address metalinguistic development in writing. Existing research on metalinguistic understanding has focused more on language acquisition, oral development and bilingual learners. Research on metalinguistic understanding in writing has tended to look more closely at young learners developing writing skills in spelling, transcription and orthography. Thus, theoretical accounts of metalinguistic understanding are currently insufficient to explain developing metalinguistic mastery of composing text and the relationships between declarative and procedural metalinguistic knowledge in writing. If we are to understand better the nature of metalinguistic understanding in relation to writing in learners in the later phases of compulsory education, it is important to develop theoretical clarity about the key concepts involved in order to frame empirical studies which are both conceptually and methodologically rigorous and educationally relevant.ResumenEste artículo presenta un análisis teórico de un número de estudios sobre la competencia metalingüística del que se desprende que la investigación actual en este campo no logra abordar de un modo adecuado el desarrollo metalingüístico en la escritura. Los estudios realizados hasta la fecha sobre la competencia metalingüística se han centrado en la adquisición del lenguaje, el desarrollo del lenguaje oral y el aprendizaje bilingüe. La investigación de la competencia metalingüística en la escritura ha tendido a observar en mayor detalle el desarrollo de las habilidades en la escritura de estudiantes jóvenes, su ortografía y transcripción. Por ello, los estudios teóricos de que disponemos en la actualidad sobre la competencia metalingüística son insuficientes para explicar el desarrollo de las capacidades metalingüísticas en la escritura. Si queremos comprender mejor la naturaleza de la competencia metalingüística en la escritura de los estudiantes en los últimos años de educación secundaria obligatoria, es importante desarrollar un marco teórico claro sobre los conceptos clave para enmarcar estudios empíricos que sean tanto conceptualmente como metodológicamente rigurosos y relevantes desde el punto de vista educativo.
Article
How we choose to use a term depends on what we want to do with it. If validity is to be used to support a score interpretation, validation would require an analysis of the plausibility of that interpretation. If validity is to be used to support score uses, validation would require an analysis of the appropriateness of the proposed uses, and therefore, would require an analysis of the consequences of the uses. In each case, the evidence need for validation would depend on the specific claims being made.
Article
En este artículo se define y se caracteriza el discurso académico producido por los estudiantes de secundaria en la exposición de conocimientos. Como muestra representativa de este género discursivo se analizan los textos escritos que constituyen el Corpus 92, formado por un total de 630 pruebas de acceso a la universidad de junio de 1992, correspondientes a las materias no lingüísticas. Se delimita el discurso académico a través de cuatro ejes: situación de comunicación y objetivo pragmático; secuencias discursivas de los componentes del texto; valor que adquieren los significados en el texto, y tradición lingüística y retórica que domina en cada disciplina temática. Los rasgos analizados se centran en tres aspectos concretos: cuestiones de ortografía y presentación; tratamiento de la información en los textos académicos expositivos, y cuestiones de sintaxi. Este análisis permite identificar las dificultades en la producción del texto académico expositivo. Linguistic and discursive features of academic texts This article defines and characterises academic discourse produced by secondary students when setting out their knowledge. As a representative sample of this genre, we analysed the written texts that constitute Corpus 92, made up of 630 university entrance tests from June 1992, corresponding to non-linguistic subjects. Academic discourse was marked out by four areas: communication situation and pragmatic goals, discursive sequences of text components, the value acquired by meanings in the text, and the dominant linguistic tradition and rhetoric in each subject. The features analysed centred on three specific aspects: issues of spelling and presentation; processing information in the academic texts looked at, and questions of syntax. This analysis makes it possible to identify difficulties in producing the academic text looked at.
Article
El presente articulo presenta dos aspectos de entre los principales resultados del proyecto de investigacion “Competencia definicional del escolar costarricense”, inscrito en el Instituto de Investigaciones Linguisticas; se estudian 2.160 definiciones infantiles, producidas por ninos de primero a sexto grado escolar, a partir de los parametros de analisis: a) contenido idiosincrasico frente a contenido convencional y b) autonomia contextual y situacional del significado.
Article
Despite a long- standing awareness of academic language as a pedagogically relevant research area, the construct of academic- language proficiency, understood as a more comprehensive set of skills than just academic vocabulary, has remained vaguely specified. In this study, we explore a more inclusive operationalization of an academic- language proficiency construct, core academic- language skills ( CALS ). CALS refers to a constellation of highutility language skills hypothesized to support reading comprehension across school content areas. Using the Core Academic Language Skills Instrument ( CALS - I), a theoretically grounded and psychometrically robust innovative tool, we first examined the variability in students' CALS by grade, Englishproficiency designation, and socioeconomic status ( SES ). Then, we examined the contribution of CALS to reading comprehension using academic vocabulary knowledge, word reading fluency, and sociodemographic factors as covariates. A linguistically and socioeconomically diverse cross- sectional sample of 218 students (grades 4-6) participated in four assessments: the CALS - I, a standardized reading comprehension assessment (Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test), an academic vocabulary test (Vocabulary Association Test), and a word reading fluency test (Test of Silent Word Reading Fluency). General linear model analysis of variance revealed that CALS differed significantly by grade, English- proficiency designation, and SES , with students in higher grades, English- proficient students, and those from higher SES backgrounds displaying higher scores, on average. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses identified CALS as an independent predictor of reading comprehension, even after controlling for academic vocabulary knowledge, word reading fluency, and sociodemographic factors. By specifying a set of language skills associated with reading comprehension, this study advances our understanding of school- relevant language skills, making them more visible for researchers and educators.
Article
Resumen El texto da cuenta de una investigación exploratoria surgida en el marco de un taller de producción oral y escrita para primer año del secundario, en la que se desmontan los procedimien-tos implícitos en la nominalización, operación léxico gramatical o metáfora gramatical compleja. El marco teórico lo provee el enfoque semiótico del lenguaje. El material empírico está cons-tituido por textos de Biología usados en el taller. La selección no es arbitraria, son los materiales de uso real en el aula, disponi-bles en la biblioteca escolar en varios ejemplares. Inicialmente se ofrece una descripción del procedimiento en general, con ejemplos tomados de textos de Biología. Poste-riormente, se presenta cómo se trató un caso concreto de com-prensión del discurso de esta asignatura, sin pretensiones de universalización, para realizar algunas recomendaciones a los profesores, dado que se advierte que al proponer textos éstos no se colocan en el lugar del lector que debe desentrañar infor-mación altamente condensada. Introducción E ste trabajo es el resultado de una investigación exploratoria, casi praxiológica por su vocación por las recomendaciones para la prác-tica, surgida en el contexto ofrecido por el Taller de comunicación oral y escrita 1 que se desarrolla en un centro de nivel medio, en Catriel, Provincia de Río Negro. De la variedad de textos usados en ese ámbito concitó la atención el discurso de la Biología —asignatura con alto fra-caso— en el que se constató la frecuente presencia de nominalizacio-nes las que, sumadas a la alta densidad de información presente en el mismo, operan obturando la comprensión.
Article
This article describes the development and evaluation of a new academic word list (Coxhead, 1998), which was compiled from a corpus of 3.5 million running words of written academic text by examining the range and frequency of words outside the first 2,000 most frequently occurring words of English, as described by West (1953). The AWL contains 570 word families that account for approximately 10.0% of the total words (tokens) in academic texts but only 1.4% of the total words in a fiction collection of the same size. This difference in coverage provides evidence that the list contains predominantly academic words. By highlighting the words that university students meet in a wide range of academic texts, the AWL shows learners with academic goals which words are most worth studying. The list also provides a useful basis for further research into the nature of academic vocabulary.
Article
This paper presents an empirical analysis of the socioeconomic status (SES) school segregation in Chile, whose educational system is regarded as an extreme case of a market-oriented education. The study estimated the magnitude and evolution of the SES segregation of schools at both national and local levels, and it studied the relationship between some local educational market dynamics and the observed magnitude of SES school segregation at municipal level. The main findings were: first, the magnitude of the SES segregation of both low-SES and high-SES students in Chile was very high (Duncan Index ranged from 0.50 to 0.60 in 2008); second, during the last decade, SES school segregation tended to slightly increase in Chile, especially in high schools (both public and private schools); third, private schools – including voucher schools – were more segregated than public schools for both low-SES and high-SES students; and finally, some market dynamics operating in the Chilean education (like privatization, school choice, and fee-paying) accounted for a relevant proportion of the observed variation in SES school segregation at municipal level. These findings are analyzed from an educational policy perspective in which the link between SES school segregation and market-oriented mechanisms in education plays a fundamental role.
Article
Given, on the one hand, the poor results obtained by Peruvian children in the national and international reading assessments. And on the other hand, the increased investment in technology for schools in the country, this study aimed to develop and test an online tool to improve reading comprehension. In order to do this, the reading comprehension strategies and vocabulary activities from the research-based digital environment ICON were adapted to design the platform LEO. A total of 88 fifth graders from urban middle-to-low-income private schools from Lima participated in this quasi-experimental study, which involved a control group and a treatment group that participated in a 12-week teacher-mediated digital intervention. All participants were administered reading and vocabulary assessments pre and post intervention. Results revealed that students who participated in the intervention achieved higher comprehension scores for narrative texts and higher vocabulary scores than those of the control group.
Book
Constructing Measures introduces a way to understand the advantages and disadvantages of measurement instruments, how to use such instruments, and how to apply these methods to develop new instruments or adapt old ones. The book is organized around the steps taken while constructing an instrument. It opens with a summary of the constructive steps involved. Each step is then expanded on in the next four chapters. These chapters develop the "building blocks" that make up an instrument--the construct map, the design plan for the items, the outcome space, and the statistical measurement model. The next three chapters focus on quality control. They rely heavily on the calibrated construct map and review how to check if scores are operating consistently and how to evaluate the reliability and validity evidence. The book introduces a variety of item formats, including multiple-choice, open-ended, and performance items; projects; portfolios; Likert and Guttman items; behavioral observations; and interview protocols. Each chapter includes an overview of the key concepts, related resources for further investigation and exercises and activities. Some chapters feature appendices that describe parts of the instrument development process in more detail, numerical manipulations used in the text, and/or data results. A variety of examples from the behavioral and social sciences and education including achievement and performance testing; attitude measures; health measures, and general sociological scales, demonstrate the application of the material. An accompanying CD features control files, output, and a data set to allow readers to compute the text's exercises and create new analyses and case archives based on the book's examples so the reader can work through the entire development of an instrument. Constructing Measures is an ideal text or supplement in courses on item, test, or instrument development, measurement, item response theory, or rasch analysis taught in a variety of departments including education and psychology. The book also appeals to those who develop instruments, including industrial/organizational, educational, and school psychologists, health outcomes researchers, program evaluators, and sociological measurers. Knowledge of basic descriptive statistics and elementary regression is recommended. © 2005 by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. All rights reserved.