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Freudian Dream Interpretation

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Freudian Dream Interpretation
Brigitte Boothe
Psychotherapeutische Praxis Bellevue, Zurich,
Switzerland
Definition
The psychoanalysts and the dreaming persons
cooperative work of interpreting the dream leads
to wishes and to infantile sources of dream-
construction. During the dream, the transforma-
tional and disguising dream-worktakes place.
In order to decipher the dream, it is necessary to
link the report of the dream (the manifest
dream) to its hallucinatory wish-fulllment (the
latent content of the dream).
Introduction
The dream updates and elaborates memories
containing impressions of the recent past,
so-called day residues, and links them to uncon-
scious wishes, fears, and defense strategies, which
can be traced back to early childhood. During
sleep, memory traces are reorganized with respect
to wish-fulllment. The dream is constructed akin
to a hallucinatory series of visual, auditory,
and more rarely other kinds of sensory impres-
sions. The hallucinatory nature of the dream is the
result of a retrogressive course, which transforms
mental processes into sensory impressions during
sleep with the help of accessible memory contents
(Freud 1900, pp. 425430).
Dreams are mental activities directed towards
regression. They operate as a psychophysiological
counterbalance. The subjects of dream reports are
hallucinatory events, occurring in a state of mental
and physical regression and under the suspension
of orientation functions. Nightly dreaming fullls
functions in the regressive state of sleep. There is
an ongoing debate about how these regulatory
functions must be understood (Kramer 2007).
The controversial discussion ranges from the
wish-fullling regulation of well-being (Solms
2000a,b), across prospective problem-solving
and exercise functions (Fiss 1993; Greenberg
and Pearlman 1993; Revonsuo 2000) and the crit-
ical position of Domhoff (2003), up to mental
reorganization (Coutts 2008) or brain reorganiza-
tion (Hobson 2005). Following Koukkou and
Lehmann (1983), dreaming can be conceptualized
as a manifestation of mental activity both regres-
sive and targeted at regression. Solms (2000b)
provides the neuroscientic basis for the Freudian
claim (1900) that this regression-targeted mental
activity benets sleep continuity. According to
Freud, the hallucinatory impressions during
sleep are a product of psychodynamic compro-
mise and defense mechanisms. En route to being
remembered, this product is subject to additional
Translated from German by Patricia Kunstenaar, MA
Psychoanalyst and translator.
#Springer International Publishing AG 2017
V. Zeigler-Hill, T.K. Shackelford (eds.), Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences,
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_1379-1
psychodynamically motivated modications; fur-
thermore, the oral or written representation of a
dream is irreducibly interwoven with processes of
articulation, which Freud calls secondary revi-
sion(Jacobs 2002).
Wish-Fulfillment
Rening his concept of wish-fulllment, Freud
identied it as the ability to temporarily reduce
physiological and psychophysiological distress
by countering unpleasant tensions on the mental
level, or in other words, by evoking a positive,
opposing, mental act, representing a state in which
the wish is fullled. However, this solution is
merely short-term and transitory. The regulative
function, which allows for the discharge of
unpleasant drive tension through hallucinatory
wish-fulllment also occurs when a state of exci-
tation threatens to disturb sleep. Wish-fullling
imagining leads to transitory relaxation and thus
enables the dream to become effective as the
guardian of sleep (Boothe and Stojkovic 2013).
From a psychoanalytical view, wish-fullling
imaginings chiey occur in the context of
imposed passivity, such as in dreams. But they
may also promote the tendency to escape from
everyday life, to remain passive when facing its
demands, for example, if extensive day-dreaming
results in an impairment of the individuals dispo-
sition to act, as well as of his relation to reality.
Wish-fullling imaginings may operate on an
unconscious level and may not necessarily reach
consciousness. The concept of distortion of wish-
fullling imaginings by way of repression is one
of the postulates of psychoanalysis that plays an
important role in dreams and their interpretation.
Freud also pointed out exceptions from his rule,
specically emphasizing traumatic dreams
(Freud 1920): Dreams repetitively reproducing
traumatic experiences occur under the inuence
of an impairment of ego integration. Dreams pro-
moted by unconscious guilt feelings have a pow-
erful tendency to become repetitive, as well,
putting the dream-ego at risk of disintegration. In
this case, the wish-fullling tendency has failed
or, to put it differently: According to Freuds
revised theory of dreaming (1920)and as in
the case of traumatic dreams an older mental
function, namely, the repetition compulsion,
becomes effective.
Dream Interpretation
Proceeding to interpret dreams, Freud sets out by
asking the dreaming person to report what spon-
taneously comes to mind with respect to day res-
idues, that is, what is linked to occurrences of the
previous day, as well as inviting him or her to free
associate to the elements of the dream. The psy-
choanalysts and the dreaming persons coopera-
tive work of interpreting the dream leads to the
psychodynamics of the latter, to wishes, and to
infantile sources of dream-construction. It is nec-
essary to distinguish between the actual dream
and its report. What occurred during sleep must
be understood as the psychophysiological regula-
tion of tension, while what the dreaming person
reports is the result of the dreams subsequent
verbal shaping. Dream reports concern static,
often elusive impressions or story-like sequences.
Upon waking, individuals frequently remember
what appear to be fragments or offcuts of a longer
dream. The relater tends to employ subsequent
sequencing and narrativization, thus creating a
narrative construction site a collage of
reminiscences.
Supercially seen, the majority of dream
reports are not recognizable as depictions of
wish-fulllment. Only after having taken into
account the associations, such as day-residues
and the psychological exploration of the dream
material, it becomes possible to deduce the actual
motives of wish-fulllment, as well as anxiety-
evoking ideas and conicts.
During the dream, the transformational and
disguising dream-work,that is, condensation,
displacement,”“regard for representability,and
secondary revision,takes place (Freud, 1900);
in other words, operations which, in contrast to the
subject- and fact-related reasoning of the second-
ary revision,form a part of the primary revi-
sion.In order to decipher the dream, it is
necessary to link the report of the dream (the
2 Freudian Dream Interpretation
manifest dream) to its hallucinatory wish-
fulllment, the latent content of the dream).
While attempting to disclose the motive for the
dream, we are faced with resistances resulting
from (a) communication-related and (b) self-
related interests. Communication-related interests
concern the relationship between the psychoana-
lyst and the analysand, allowing for the analy-
sands willingness and ability to deal with the
suggested self-disclosure. The self-related interest
is linked to the quality, the extent, and the inten-
sity of the analysands willingness to afrm, to
stand in for, and to deal with self-disclosure. The
process of deciphering has a crucial goal: Based
on the ego-dystonic (ego alien) dream report, in
which the dream is represented as phenomenon,
the psychoanalyst and his analysand must reach
an understanding aimed at reversing the
ego-dystonic nature of the dream. What is meant
by ego-dystonic (ego alien)? As reporters of their
own dreams, dream tellers create emotional dis-
tance, the distance of astonishment. People take
on an attitude of naïve distance when they report
their dreams. The speaker refrains from taking a
position of understanding. He simply shows the
dream, as it were. What is rst experienced as
something strange must give way to a feeling of
familiarity, thus replacing indifference with
involvement.
Reporting a Dream
The way in which persons report their dreams
clearly signies how they understand the phenom-
enon of the dream and how they conceive of the
dream event (Boothe and Stojkovic 2015).
Claim of privacy: In reporting a dream, the person
makes clear that the dream is a private experi-
ence, representing an event in his or her inner
life, and not an experience that can be shared
intersubjectively.
Privacy in a passive-receptive mode: In reporting
a dream, the person makes clear that s/he is the
recipient, and not the stage director, of the
emerging event.
Passive-receptive mode and naı¨ve ignorance: In
reporting a dream, the person makes clear that
it concerns events that, so far, defy understand-
ing and categorization. The dreaming person
imparts this quite innocently, as from an
amazed distance; this seems to be an important
distinction from accounts of psychotic
experiences.
Privacy and the inadequacy of remembering: In
reporting a dream, the person makes clear that
the event in the dream originates from his or
her inner life, has occurred in the past thus can
only be grasped retrospectively and with
limited conviction.
Claim of privacy due to being affected: The
reporters of dreams profess marvel-stricken
amazement; thus, the person makes clear that
the dream has become subjectively relevant
and has left an impression.
Claim of privacy due to the difculties of
reporting: In reporting a dream, the person
makes clear that it contains elements from his
or her inner life, which are difcult to report
(Gülich 2005). Reporting a dream is difcult
because (a) it is a representation of experiences
that cannot be shared intersubjectively, for
which a common basis of understanding does
not exist (privacy problem); (b) because the
dream promptly evaporates from memory
(elusiveness); (c) because remembering cannot
be validated (validation problem); and
(d) because the event itself is enigmatic, that
is, its meaning cannot be immediately grasped
and categorized (need for interpretation). Psy-
chotic experiences, on the other hand, are
(known to be) articulated in a
convinced that is, delusional manner, and
do not represent difculties of reporting.
Request for interpretation: In reporting a dream,
the person emphasizes the obscure, puzzling
nature of the experience and indicates that the
message of the dream is not, in and on itself,
sufcient but requires supplementing. This
implies a request for interpretation that gives
reason to and contextualizes the occurrences,
in order to derive a benet for everyday life
practice.
Freudian Dream Interpretation 3
Dream communication is a special case of
reporting: The subject of the dream report is
elusive, fragile, enigmatic, and inaccessible to
others. Reporters of a dream may say: I had
such a bizarre dreamor that was a frighten-
ing dream,or as one female dreamer once
announced: I dreamt such magnicent crap
last night(Boothe 2006).
One of the most interesting features of dream
reports concerns their oscillation between dis-
tance and appropriation. The dream report, as a
specic and noninterchangeable form of commu-
nication, possesses a rhetorical repertoire, which
allows for the articulation of irreducible uncer-
tainty, the fragmentary nature and the
enigmaticity of its subject. Reporting a dream
means using unsaturated speech: The dream
report is not self-sufcient; rather, it is part of a
competitive commenting process. Dream dis-
course is a dialogical journey from self-alienation
to selective self-appropriation. The oscillation
between distance and appropriation, the back
and forth between points of reference outside the
individual psyche, as well as strategies of mental
processing (primary and secondary process) are
central elements of dream communication.
In sleep, these hallucinated impressions are
experienced as real. They transform reality. The
strategy of dream analysis, as suggested in Freuds
(1900) pioneering discoveries, is based on pre-
cisely this tension between transformation of the
world as motivated appropriation and the
reporting of observations and impressions. The
material of nightly dreams consists of impressions
from waking life. Going along with the idea that
dream work is the work of mental appropriation,
these impressions are subjected to a regime of
self-centered wish regulation, thus made suitable
for the presentation of a wish-fear-defense-
scenario.
Wish-Fulfillment: The Cornerstone of
Dream-Production
The ability to develop wish-fullling imaginings
functions as a hedonic counterbalance with regard
to self-calming and relaxation. Freud (1900,
p. 571) conceived the competence of imaginative
wish-fulllment as a mental surrogate with
respect to voluntary and involuntary deferral of
satisfaction. If the condition of deciency is not
too severe and not exceedingly chronic, the men-
tal surrogate may provide a genuinely satisfying
experience (in the case of the infant, we might be
dealing with the evocation of appetitive sensory
stimuli); from a psychoanalytic perspective, it
might provide a hedonic counterbalance, because
it facilitates tolerating deferral and tension.
According to this comprehension, wish-fullling
imaginings are functional where effective activity
stands no chance; they are dysfunctional where
effective activity might prove to be successful, but
is replaced by withdrawal into a passive state of
daydreaming. During all their life, individuals
must rely on their ability to temporary eliminate
or alleviate negative excitation and unpleasurable
tension by hedonic cross-fading.
For Freud, the cross-fading technique involved
in what he called hallucinatory wish-fulllment
was the cornerstone of dream production. The
slackening of muscular tension and the loss of
orientation occurring in the state of sleep temporar-
ily deprives us of the efcient techniques we have
learned to use in dealing with internal and external
disruptive stimuli. Thus, while sleeping, we cross-
fade disruptive stimuli by evoking a hedonic state,
in other words, by what appears to be real grati-
cation, satiation, and well-being. However, the
manner in which this occurs is concealed and
thus, in recalling the dream, s/he remains oblivious
to its wish-fullling characteristics. Nevertheless,
the wish-fullling nature of dreams is not always
concealed. In this case, Freud (1900, pp. 136137)
speaks of dreams of convenience, in which a bodily
urge is satised (such as thirst being quenched with
a pleasing drink), thus that the dreamer does
not awake for a short span of time. Often, childrens
dreams are overtly wish-fullling as well. Indivi-
duals, experiencing deprivation or facing situations
4 Freudian Dream Interpretation
without reasonable chances, compensate for their
misery by dreaming; for this, Freud provided
evidence on the basis of dream reports from mem-
bers of an Antarctic expedition (see Köhler 2007,
p. 36). Weiss (1993, p. 154) points out how Amer-
ican soldiers who were held captive in Japanese
prisoner-of-war camps reported blissful dreams,
notably under circumstances in which they had no
prospect whatsoever of altering their predicament.
The soldiers resigned themselves to their fate and
tried not to lose all hope. Some reported the conso-
lation derived from dreaming: The power of these
dreams to help the dreamer derives from their hav-
ing the quality of real experience. For example, the
captured soldiers who dreamed that they were pow-
erful and gratied reacted to the dreams as though
they were in fact powerful and gratied. After such
dreams, they felt less helpless and more hopeful.
Before producing the blissful dreams, the soldiers
had tried to cheer themselves up in waking life by
telling themselves that someday they would be free
to gratify themselves, but they derived little com-
fort from the waking, wishful thoughts compared to
the comfort they derived from the dreams.Vivid-
ness, intensity, and powerful imagery rendered the
dreams especially valuable. The universal validity
of dream theory based on the dynamics of the wish
has been controversial from the outset.
From Distanced Dream Reporting to
Personal Appropriation
Freuds interpretation of dreams involves reveal-
ing the strategies of transformational imagining as
a response to the facts of life. Finding our way
from distanced dream reporting to personal appro-
priation implies the following:
Establishing a link to the reporting individual,
Retrospectively sounding out the dream report
with respect to the reporting persons system of
relevance and preference,
Creating a motivational connection, that is,
contextualizing the dream from the perspective
of the life conditions or the therapeutic
relationship.
The following dream analysis, the Uncle
dream,taken from FreudsInterpretation of
Dreams,provides us with an illustration of the
strategies mentioned above. This dream is espe-
cially interesting because Freud rst wanted to
discard it as nonsensical,and because the path
from the manifest dream image to the latent dream
thought, which Freud shares with his readers, is
particularly artful. The fashion in which dream-
work rearranges and applies the dreaming per-
sons recollection and transforms and alienates
his or her experience is impressive. Dream
reporters may articulate emphatically the process
of retroactive remembering elusive dream frag-
ments. Emphatically accentuated affectionateness
can be added to dream impressions and neverthe-
less remain distant and enigmatic. The search
process can become especially apparent when
dreams are commented upon with regard to their
clarity, strangeness, or continuity. Grammatical
particles such as somewhator somehoware
very common. The frequently used term sud-
denlymarks the abruptness of transition. The
comparative as thoughcreates the impression
of an event which is hard to grasp. The above-
mentioned articulation of the search process fur-
ther emphasizes the enigmatic distance. In this
case, the reporting person comments on the rep-
resentation of dream events with respect to their
level of clarity/opacity, familiarity/strangeness,
and continuity/discontinuity.
Memories can be shaped by emphasis, insis-
tence, and emotional charging, as in the Uncle
Dream.The dream reads as follows:
(1) ... My friend R. was my uncle. I had a great
feeling of affection for him. (2) I saw before me his
face, somewhat changed. It was as though it had
been drawn out lengthwise. A yellow beard that
surrounded it stood out especially clearly (Freud
1900, p. 137).
This example illustrates the process of remem-
bering from the point of view of the recipient,
who, at rst, remains unable to make sense of
the message presented to him. As the dream
occurred to me in the course of the forenoon,
I laughed outright and said: The dream is non-
sense.But I could not get it out of my mind, and
the whole day it pursued me, until, at last, in the
Freudian Dream Interpretation 5
evening I reproached myself with the words: If in
the course of dream interpretation one of your
patients had nothing better to say than That is
nonsense, you would reprove him, and would
suspect that behind the dream there was hidden
some disagreeable affair, the exposure of which he
wanted to spare himself. Apply the same thing in
your own case; your opinion that the dream is
nonsense probably signies merely an inner resis-
tance to its interpretation. Do not let yourself be
deterred.I then proceeded to the interpretation
(Freud 1900,1913, section 14).
With the example of the Uncle Dream,Freud
demonstrates (1) that this concerns a dream in
which precarious realities of life are corrected by
transforming them into something desirable,
(2) that the dream intentionally captures a
disturbing daytime occurrence and elaborates it,
(3) that the dream applies strategies of disguising
and distorting.
Ad (1) Correction of disagreeable experiential
contents by transforming them into something
desirable: The reporter of the dream rst mentions
emotional stirrings concerning a dream gure, the
friendin the guise of the uncle, which are
followed by the image: I saw before me his
face, somewhat changed.Initially, the dreaming
person cannot make sense of this dream recall,
until proceeding to pursue what occurs to him
with regard to the various elements of the
dream his free associations and links them
with the details of the dream image. He then
combines as follows: The gure in the dream is
(in fact) a colleague and a long-standing friend.
The altered face is a condensation in which the
colleagues facial features are merged with the
uncles, creating a new physiognomy from both
persons features. Thus, the dream equalizes the
colleague and the uncle. When Freud was a child,
this very uncle had committed a crime and had
gone to prison, causing great grief to Freuds
father. My father, who thereupon became grey
from grief in a few days, always used to say that
Uncle Joseph was never a wicked man, but that
indeed he was a simpleton; so he expressed him-
self. If, then, friend R. is my uncle Joseph, that is
equivalent to saying: R. is a simpleton’” (Freud
1900,1913, section 15). According to the author,
the fact that the uncle and the friend are made
equal in the dream implies that this friend is a
simpleton. This equalization also applies to
another colleague with whom Freud is on friendly
terms, and he associates this with his wishful
thought that in fact he is a criminal.
In real life, the relationship between Freud and
both colleagues is amicable and respectful, and
Freud by no means has ulterior motives. The
depiction of these two friends as a simpleton or,
respectively, a criminal, is motivated by a wish.
The dream succeeds in fullling this wish by
equalizing to persons my friend is my uncle
and by depicting a composite gure (the physiog-
nomy accommodates several traits
simultaneously).
Ad (2) The dream responds to a specic/par-
ticular disturbance: If it is articulated, the hedonic
corrective of undesirable facts of life becomes
intelligible. In this case, we are dealing with a
specic situation of rejected promotion. Freud
had heard from an initiative of two university
professors suggesting his promotion to Professor
Extraordinarius. While rejoicing over this, he nev-
ertheless felt strongly admonished to remain
resignedly skeptical, on the one hand because of
his experience from years back, on the other hand
because of recent encounters with the above-
mentioned colleagues and friends who played a
role in his dream. This fact became determinative
for the reication of the dream images. Both
colleagues like Freud were still waiting for
their promotion to tenured professorship, both
were Jews again like Freud and both had up
to now been waiting in vain. The simpletonhad
told Freud about a visit to the Ministry upon
which he had been informed that at present,
Jews were not likely to be promoted; the second
had impacted a legal complaint by a woman,
which, though it was subsequently withdrawn,
nevertheless proved to be impedimental with
respect to promotion, because the shadow of
doubt concerning his irreproachability could eas-
ily mask an anti-Semitic attitude.
Both conversations, which had taken place
recently, made clear to Freud that the anti-Jewish
stance and its masking strategies would destroy
any prospect of building their career. Being
6 Freudian Dream Interpretation
disregarded was a hurtful experience. Preoccupa-
tion with such an injury threatened to disturb
sleep. In the dream, this was countered by a
hedonic corrective, that is, by having one col-
league to come out a simpleton and the other a
criminal. Hence, all would be well. Freud was
different from the rst because he was the oppo-
site of a simpleton; he was different from the
second because he had never been guilty of seri-
ous misconduct. If according to the diktat of the
wish X was a simpleton and Y a criminal, then,
of course, they could not be nominated for tenure.
Their promotion would fail to materialize because
of lack of intellectual and moral merits, and not
because they were Jews like Freud.
Ad (3) The dream makes use of strategies of
disguising and distortion, and its text does not
refer to promotions, disregard, anti-Semitic pol-
icy, and collegial exchange. This fact is based on
the art of censorship.
The unrecognizability of the dream as a wish
fulllment is essentially due to the workings of
censorship. According to Freud, censorship is the
entirety of measures employed in order to disguise
what is obnoxious. In the example of the uncle
dream, it is obnoxious to forfeit two highly esti-
mated colleagues.
Let us hold on to the following: Though
abandoning oneself to the evocation of a wish-
fullling mental creation may be pleasant, it does
not benet vanity and self-love. On the one hand,
censorship succeeds in safeguarding relaxation,
but on the other hand, it facilitates the activation
of maneuvers of distortion with regard to self-
respect, thus preventing the manifestation of
what is obnoxious in the memory of the dream.
In the above-mentioned example, it is obnoxious
to bring two estimated colleagues and friends in
contempt in order to revel in notions of success.
What is obnoxious is disguised by the next part of
the dream: I had a great feeling of affection for
him.The act of devaluating his friend by follow-
ing the wishs compelling him to be a simpleton
is disguised by the displacement of what is emo-
tional, which in this case is asserted by empha-
sized affection.
Conclusion
In conclusion, psychoanalysis laid the foundation
for a theory of memory-work employed by the
dreamer in order to transform everyday life into
dream reality, against the background of a wish-
driven mentality. FreudsThe Interpretation of
Dreams,down to the present day, has encour-
aged multifaceted practices of dream interpreta-
tion (Hill 2004). Freuds ingenious study of the
language of the dream report and the linguistic
strategies of representation of the remembered
nds did not only enrich the practice of dream
interpretation it proved to be prolic for text-
and literary sciences as well (Kilroe 2000). The
dream narrative is the prototypical form of
unreliable communication in everyday life
(Boothe and Stojkovic 2015). First of all, its ref-
erentiality is unreliable; secondly, the report is
rarely transparent and hardly comprehensible;
third, the articulation of the dream is not self-
sufcient, rather it is a form of unsaturated speech:
Dream reports require commenting. Dialogical
dream communication is the enactment of an
everyday crisis of self-reference: Communicating
ones dream means emphasizing the fact that one
is not master in ones own houseand means
stressing ones reliance on the responsive and
commenting other in terms of obtaining self-
knowledge. Reporting a dream is a procedure of
articulation on the unstable terrain of a eeting
memory, thus communicating the limits of
understanding.
The universal validity of a wish-dynamic
dream theory was controversial from the outset.
Neuroscientic dream research remained success-
ful for decades by assuming the motivational-
neutral nature of dreams, under the prominent
leadership of Hobson and McCarley (1977) and
Crick and Mitchison (1983, 1995). One might
favor an integrative view: The dream is an event
that occurs in a state of mental and bodily regres-
sion, when human orientation-functions are
suspended.
According to Koukkou and Lehmann (1983), it
is possible to conceive dream events as expres-
sions of regressive mental activity and its orienta-
tion towards regression. Following Solms (2000),
Freudian Dream Interpretation 7
we can further assume that mental activity aimed
at regression promotes the continuity of sleep.
This assumption alludes to everyday psychology,
handed down through the ages, to which Freud
(1900) refers by characterizing the dream as the
guardian of sleep.
The Interpretation of Dreamsis among the
most outstanding of Freuds works. The relevance
of this Opus magnum is attributable both to its
theoretical, clinical, and interpretative literary
innovation and its cultural aspect: Dream-work
is conceived of as an experimental stage for anar-
chic thinking in accordance with the diktat of the
pleasure principle. The unity of the person disin-
tegrates, the dynamic unconscious remains oper-
ative during life-time, thinking is more than
rationality. Nevertheless, as conveyed by the
Interpretation of Dreams,elucidating compre-
hension is possible. While sleeping, a person
believes in the reality of his/her dream world.
Upon waking up, this unequivocal connection
disintegrates. The work of reconstruction and
exploration takes place in a relationship, which
values the dream and deepens self-knowledge.
In this sense, the dialogue of the dream is truly
avia regia:
By way of personalization, because the analy-
sis of the dream does not schematize; rather, it
is made to suit the patients individuality
By way of remaining receptive to difference,
because the enigmatic nature of the dreams
requires acceptance of difference, as well as
willingness to appreciate and to render fruitful
what is neither evident nor familiar in a per-
sons biography
By way of historicization, because for the
parties involved the relationship is irreproduc-
ible and thus is remembered and acknowl-
edged as a historical event, thus allowing the
dream events to become part of a historical
series
By being future-oriented, because the relation-
ship is comprised both of a history and a
dimension of development and transformation;
this also applies to the dimension of develop-
ment and transformation of dreams
By tolerating opacity, because working with
dreams is an ideal challenge regarding the
approval of inscrutable aspects of human
means of expression and depiction.
Cross-References
Dreams
Latent Dream Content
Manifest Dream Content
Pleasure Principle
Psychoanalysis
Psychodynamic Perspective
Psychodynamic Processes
Unconscious
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"Though the phenomenon known as “unreliable narration” or “narrative unreliability” has received a lot of attention during the last two decades, narratological research has mainly focused on its manifestations in narrative fiction, particularly in homodiegetic or first-person narration. Except for film, forms and functions of unreliable narration in other genres, media and disciplines have so far been relatively neglected. The present volume redresses the balance by directing scholarly attention to disciplines and domains that narratology has so far largely ignored. It aims at initiating an interdisciplinary approach to, and debate on, narrative unreliability, exploring unreliable narration in a broad range of literary genres, other media and non-fictional text-types, contexts and disciplines beyond literary studies. Crossing the boundaries between genres, media, and disciplines, the volume acknowledges that the question of whether or not to believe or trust a narrator transcends the field of literature: The issues of (un)reliability and (un)trustworthiness play a crucial role in many areas of human life as well as a wide spectrum of academic fields ranging from law to history, and from psychology to the study of culture." (http://www.degruyter.com/view/product/448866)
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Thomas Köhler eröffnet kompakt und strukturiert einen Zugang zum Werk Sigmund Freuds, wie er sonst nur über das mühevolle Studium der sich im Laufe von Freuds Leben verändernden Originalschriften gelingt. Mit einer anschaulichen Darstellung der Person Freuds und seiner Auffassung von Wissenschaft macht Köhler die Entstehung des Freud’schen Theoriegebäudes verständlich. Davon ausgehend gliedert er in klare Themenbereiche und liefert die jeweils wichtigsten Ausschnitte der maßgeblichen Freud-Texte. So entsteht ein Überblick über Freuds Psychoanalyse ohne spätere Verwässerungen: vom Unbewussten, der Verdrängung und der Rolle von Kindheit und Sexualität bis zu den Thesen zur Entstehung von Kultur, Gesellschaft und Religion.
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The Dream Experience provides the mental health professional with a systematic scientific basis for understanding the dream as a psychological event. Milton Kramer's extensive research, along with the findings of others, establishes that dreams are structured, not random, and linked meaningfully to conscious events in daily life and past memories. The book explores this link between dreams and consciousness, providing a review of information about normative dreaming, typical or repetitive dreams, and nightmares, while also showing how mental health professionals can use dream content in therapy with clients. Kramer's book is an illuminating description of dreaming for dreamers, therapists and neuroscientists.