Article

Sharing beyond Slacktivism: the effect of socially observable prosocial media sharing on subsequent offline helping behavior

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Abstract

New forms of youth social and political participation have been termed ‘Slacktivism’ – low-cost online forms of social engagement that decrease subsequent offline participation. Previous experimental work has provided support for a ‘Slacktivism effect,’ but it is unclear if this theoretical model applies to youth media sharing on social networking sites. This study uses a novel sharing simulation paradigm to test the effect of publicly vs. anonymously sharing a social cause video on subsequent willingness to engage in offline helping behavior. Results show that publicly (as compared to anonymously) sharing a selected video on one’s own Facebook wall led to a greater willingness to volunteer for an issue-related cause. Participants’ existing use of social media for engagement in social issues/causes moderated the effect, such that only participants low in use of social media for social engagement were susceptible to the sharing manipulation. Implications for reconceptualizing media sharing as a unique form of online participation beyond ‘Slacktivism’ are discussed.

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... Despite these operational developments, the research regarding exactly what social media and social data analysis offers humanitarianism and other charitable and community services remains contradictory (Jones, 2017;Lane & Dal Cin, 2018). Partnering with Australian Red Cross, this paper develops an innovative approach to using social media datasets to better understand everyday humanitarian action in specific urban contexts. ...
... The role of social media in facilitating crisis response, information circulation and collective action in times of crisis and disaster is well researched (Lane & Dal Cin, 2018;McCosker, 2013;Meier, 2015;Palen & Hughes, 2018). In this field, crisis has served as a model for how we understand the distributive, reactive, and generative logic of social media in relation to disasters or 'Twitter revolutions'. ...
... While in the context of crisis mapping there have been success stories such as Ushahidi and uses of OpenStreetMap, bespoke mapping platforms work best when they are put to use in times and locations of acute crisis (Burns, 2015). However, despite criticisms of 'clicktivism' or 'slacktivism' that is said to be drawing younger people away from traditional forms of volunteering and donation (Lane & Dal Cin, 2018), there is a sense that the prosocial actions of 'the crowd' are multiplying and becoming more independent of incumbent aid and charitable organisations or traditional forms of action (Ihm, 2017). Similarly, use of social media analysis and big data to inform aid efforts have been prominent during crisis, but a gap remains in developing practical research methods for connecting the everyday prosocial actions and experiences of people in a specified area with their purposes, situations and locationsthe what, why and how of everyday humanitarian action. ...
Article
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As an image and location sharing platform, Instagram offers intimate visual access to events, experiences and situations in a manner that is mobile and contextual. Partnering with Australian Red Cross, this paper develops a mixed methodology for using Instagram data to identify and understand individuals’ everyday humanitarian activity in a major urban centre (Melbourne, Australia) outside of the temporal frame of crisis. The research integrates hashtag data collection with thematic analysis in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to use visualise the links between types of humanitarian action, their motivations and contextual situations to precise urban locations. These attributes of Instagram posting practices offer a base layer of information about disparate prosocial action taking place in an urban context. We see this as informing and sustaining a new hybrid mode of promotional and humanitarian communication, evidencing social good ‘place making’ and enabling new forms of visible humanitarian participation.
... Lane and Dal Cin [25] found that sharing online on Facebook walls leads to engaging in offline helping behaviors (e.g. volunteering for an issue-related cause). ...
... Past research shows mixed findings for predictability between online and offline behavior. There are studies that found that offline behavior and online behavior are consistent and each can be an indicator for political behavior of the other [25], [11], [38]; others found the opposite [39]. We are in the process of looking at critical incidents that took place offline during the election and linking them with online activities, i.e. particular posts or unusual activity with comments. ...
Conference Paper
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Social media platforms are valuable tools for political campaigns. In this study, we analyze a dataset representing over 22 thousand Facebook posts by candidates and over 48 million comments to understand the nature of online discourse. Specifically, we study the interaction between political candidates and the public during the 2016 presidential elections in the United States. We outline a novel method to classify commentators into four groups: strong supporters, supporters, dissenters, and strong dissenters. Comments by each group on policy-related topics are analyzed using sentiment analysis. Finally, we discuss avenues for future research to study the dynamics of social media platforms and political campaigns
... Interestingly, a number of experiments studying slacktivism showed evidence of an increase in subsequent behavioral engagement after an act of support, especially when the subsequent action is related to the first cause (Lee and Hsieh, 2013;Kwak et al., 2018;Lane and Dal Cin, 2018). In fact, the prediction that an initial act of support should reduce the likelihood of a subsequent act is at odds with predictions raised by the commitment theory, which we will delve into in the next section. ...
... to the slacktivism effect, have already been highlighted in previous studies (Lee and Hsieh, 2013;Kristofferson et al., 2014;Schumann and Klein, 2015;Lane and Dal Cin, 2018). One possibility for these predictions of opposite effects is that both slacktivism and commitment effects appear concomitantly. ...
Article
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Increase or decrease in subsequent action following a low-cost act of support for a cause can be predicted from both commitment theory and the slacktivism effect. In this paper, we report on three studies that tested type of motivation (prosocial vs. impression management) as a moderator of the effect of an initial act of support [wearing a badge (S1) and writing a slogan (S2 and 3)] has on support for blood donation. Small-scale meta-analysis performed on data from the three studies shows that activating prosocial motivation generally leads to greater support for the cause after an initial act of support compared to the control condition, while the effect from impression-management motivation can either be negative or null.
... Lazarsfeld and Merton (1948) warned of the "narcotizing dysfunction" of the mass media, in which increased media consumption leads to a withdrawal from civic and political life. Despite the emergence of Slacktivism as the newest iteration of this longstanding fear, there is ample evidence that low-threshold political participation on social media can "spill-over" into higher-threshold offline engagement (Boulianne, 2015;Lane & Dal Cin, 2017;Vaccari et al., 2015). Ultimately, perceiving social media use as an impactful or easy way to engage in politics may influence offline political behavior, but not in the way that the Slacktivism hypothesis suggests. ...
... Some studies have found that engagement in lowthreshold participation (e.g., signing an online petition) can decrease willingness to engage in high-threshold participation (e.g., volunteering for an organization) (Kristofferson, White, & Peloza, 2014). However, an abundance of research has challenged the notion of "Slacktivism" and instead shown that political expression online and on social media can encourage offline participation (Boulianne, 2015;Lane & Dal Cin, 2017;Vaccari et al., 2015;Yamamoto, Kushin, & Dalisay, 2015). ...
Article
Americans’ views of political activity on social media range from exuberant to exasperated. But do perceptions of social media actually influence citizens’ online and offline political behaviors as suggested by the so-called “Slacktivism hypothesis?” In the present study, we undertake a more careful examination of this question by testing a theoretical model in which perceiving participation on social media as an easy or impactful means of engaging in politics encourages political expression on social media, which in turn increases offline political participation. Using panel survey data collected during the 2016 U.S. presidential election, we show that positive perceptions of social media indirectly increase offline political participation, through the influence of political expression on social media. However, we find no such positive indirect effects for those with politically diverse networks or for younger people. Implications for reconceptualizing the relationship between perceptions of social media and political participation are discussed.
... Primary screening and secondary reviewing and discussion excluded in total 276 articles. Thus, 19 articles (Coyne et al., 2014;Prot et al., 2014;Loparev, 2016;Lu et al., 2016;Ranney, 2016;Wartberg et al., 2016;Erreygers et al., 2017Erreygers et al., , 2018bErreygers et al., , 2019Jin and Li, 2017;Lee et al., 2017;Greer, 2018;Guo et al., 2018;Lane and Dal Cin, 2018;Machackova et al., 2018;Meeus et al., 2018;Wang and Xing, 2018;Parlangeli et al., 2019;Lee, 2020) were assessed for eligibility based on full texts based on the original literature search. Seventeen articles were evaluated as not fulfilling the inclusion criteria due to measuring offline prosocial behavior instead of OPB (Coyne et al., 2014;Prot et al., 2014;Wartberg et al., 2016;Jin and Li, 2017;Lee et al., 2017;Greer, 2018;Lane and Dal Cin, 2018;Meeus et al., 2018;Wang and Xing, 2018;Lee, 2020), not containing measurements of SoMe use (Loparev, 2016;Lu et al., 2016;Erreygers et al., 2018b;Guo et al., 2018;Machackova et al., 2018) or not reporting any analyses or descriptive statistics on the relationship between SoMe use and OPB (Ranney, 2016;Parlangeli et al., 2019). ...
... Thus, 19 articles (Coyne et al., 2014;Prot et al., 2014;Loparev, 2016;Lu et al., 2016;Ranney, 2016;Wartberg et al., 2016;Erreygers et al., 2017Erreygers et al., , 2018bErreygers et al., , 2019Jin and Li, 2017;Lee et al., 2017;Greer, 2018;Guo et al., 2018;Lane and Dal Cin, 2018;Machackova et al., 2018;Meeus et al., 2018;Wang and Xing, 2018;Parlangeli et al., 2019;Lee, 2020) were assessed for eligibility based on full texts based on the original literature search. Seventeen articles were evaluated as not fulfilling the inclusion criteria due to measuring offline prosocial behavior instead of OPB (Coyne et al., 2014;Prot et al., 2014;Wartberg et al., 2016;Jin and Li, 2017;Lee et al., 2017;Greer, 2018;Lane and Dal Cin, 2018;Meeus et al., 2018;Wang and Xing, 2018;Lee, 2020), not containing measurements of SoMe use (Loparev, 2016;Lu et al., 2016;Erreygers et al., 2018b;Guo et al., 2018;Machackova et al., 2018) or not reporting any analyses or descriptive statistics on the relationship between SoMe use and OPB (Ranney, 2016;Parlangeli et al., 2019). To be clear, two of the excluded articles were retained for assessment. ...
Article
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Social media (SoMe) activity constitutes a large part of the lives of adolescents. Even though the behavior on SoMe is complex, the research on SoMe has mostly focused on negative effects, bad content, and online antisocial behavior (OAB). Less research has been conducted on online prosocial behavior (OPB), and to what extent OPBs are widespread is relatively unknown. A review was conducted to investigate to what extent OPB is related to SoMe use among adolescents based on studies published from 2014 to May 2021. To be included, the studies had to be quantitative, non-experimental, have participants aged 13–18, include measures of SoMe and OPB, and be published in peer-reviewed journals with full text available in English, Swedish, Danish or Norwegian. A research was conducted in databases PsychINFO, Ovid MEDLINE(R), EMBASE, COCHRANE Database of Systematic Reviews, Web of Science, Sociological Abstracts, Sociological Services Abstracts, and Eric. Two studies met the eligibility criteria. Both studies found an association between OPB and SoMe use. Methodological issues, however, were identified through a quality assessment using an adapted version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for cross-sectional studies, and the small samples in the studies prevent us from drawing any firm conclusions. Possible reasons for the scarcity of eligible studies and directions for future research are discussed. Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO; ID CRD42020162161 and CRISTIN; ID 2038994.
... There is, however, evidence of online activism's potential benefits. Lane and Dal Cin (2018) found that observable online activist behaviors, such as publicly sharing a social cause video (e.g., a video about animal welfare), increased participants' willingness to engage in activism offline among those with low tendency to engage with social causes online. They suggested that the novelty of engaging with social issues online motivated individuals to maintain consistency in their offline lives. ...
... Do women's common gestures on social media influence other people's thoughts and behaviors and how such women are perceived? Previous research suggests social media activism is not slacktivism, as it is positively related to real-world prosocial behaviors (Lane & Dal Cin, 2018;Penney, 2015), but less is known about whether women's pictivism is sufficiently persuasive to influence other people's attitudes and behaviors. We found little support that women's pictivist behaviors greatly change other people's attitudes or motivate others to participate in prosocial behaviors (e.g., donations). ...
Article
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Facebook’s rainbow profile filter represents a popular display of activism (“pictivism”) commonly used by women, yet little is known of pictivism’s potential for creating social change. We tested whether women’s group status (belonging to a dominant vs. marginalized group) and filter use influenced viewers’ perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors. We conducted a series of 2 (target sexual orientation: queer or heterosexual) × 2 (filter use: filter or no filter) experiments with heterosexual ( N 1 = 198, N 2 = 186) and LGBTQ ( N 3 = 290) participants. Participants rated women who used rainbow filters as more activist than women who did not engage in pictivism. Although neither target sexual orientation nor filter use influenced participants’ ally behavior (donations), heterosexual people who viewed a woman using a filter reported greater closeness to LGBTQ people and greater intentions of supporting LGBTQ people when the woman was queer than heterosexual. Exposure to rainbow filters caused LGBTQ participants to express greater online and societal belonging than when filters were absent. Taken together, women’s pictivism and the online visibility of queer women yielded some psychological benefits for heterosexual and LGBTQ viewers. If the goal of pictivism is to enhance marginalized groups’ feelings of support, it works as intended. We thus recommend that both heterosexual and LGBTQ people who care about LGBTQ rights and seek to affirm LGBTQ individuals’ sense of belonging embrace opportunities on social media, specifically through profile picture filters, to communicate their support. Additional online materials for this article are available on PWQ ’s website at http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/suppl/10.1177/0361684320930566
... One "like" often leads to another-and in rare cases even to hundreds of thousandswhich can have serious political consequences (Margetts et al., 2016). Experiments showed that sharing a video increases people's willingness to engage in offline helping behavior (Lane & Dal Cin, 2017) and that value alignment between the supporter and the cause and a strong connection to the organization combat slacktivism (Kristofferson, White, & Peloza, 2014). ...
Article
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Politicians have been criticized for not exploiting the deliberative potential of social media platforms. We complement previous definitions of politicians’ success on social media through the lens of network media logic: Despite the lack of deliberation, some succeed in building large digital followerships, which spread their messages via reactions through the network. Analyzing a data set of personal, structural, and social media characteristics of Swiss politicians, we used path analysis to determine which predict their success on Facebook (n = 63) and Twitter (n = 108). Politicians, who are active in parliament, represent urban regions and receive substantial amounts of traditional media coverage also have larger digital followerships on both platforms. Digital followership in turn influences the average number of digital reactions on Facebook, but not on Twitter. Thus, politicians’ success on social media depends on their personal background, political activity, and media coverage, and also their followership and the platform.
... En 2017, creció un 35,41% respecto al año anterior; mientras que Twitter sólo ascendió un 8,8% y Facebook descendió en un 4,16% de usuarios. Además, es la red favorita de los millenials (Dalziell & Kim, 2015;Lane & Dal Cin, 2017). El 65% de sus usuarios tiene menos de 39 años y son un 54% de mujeres y un 46% de hombres (The Social Media Family, 2018). ...
... The possibility of a soft form of engagement translating into a difficult offline political action has also been noted in social media contexts. The recent study by Lane and Dal Cin (2017) proposed the concept of reverse slacktivism effect, suggesting that political activities on social media are often translated into more difficult offline actions (e.g. protest activities). ...
Article
This study sheds light on the recent use of social media for protests, with the 2016 South Korean candle light vigils as the case study. An extensive amount of literature has explored social media’s potential for informing and mobilizing the public to engage in protest activities. Previous research has mainly focused on the direct effect of social media on protest engagement. Moving beyond the direct effect, this paper sought a better understanding of social media’s role in the democratic process by examining how social media affects political knowledge and protest participation, depending on an individual’s political interest level. To test these relationships, this study used survey data collected in South Korea during the mass candlelight vigils in South Korea in 2016 (N = 922). Findings suggest that the knowledge gap narrowed amongst those with high social media use, mainly due to a greater knowledge drop for those with high political interest. On the other hand, when it comes to participation, the participation gap widened amongst those with high social media use, largely due to a greater increase in participation for those with high political interest. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
... In 2017, it grew 35.41% compared to the previous year; while Twitter only grew 8.8% and the number of Facebook users fell by 4.16%. In addition, it is the favourite network of millennials (Dalziell and Kim 2015;Lane and Dal Cin 2017). Some 65% of its users are under 39 years old, 54% are women, and 46% are men (The Social Media Family 2018). ...
... One "like" often leads to anotherand in rare cases even to hundreds of thousandswhich can have serious political consequences (Margetts et al., 2016). Experiments showed that sharing a video increases people's willingness to engage in offline helping behavior (Lane & Dal Cin, 2017) and that value alignment between the supporter and the cause as well as a strong connection to the organization combat slacktivism (Kristofferson, White, & Peloza, 2014). ...
... of the causes and consequences of young people's political expression on social media. Expressive acts on social media sites can help young people exert voice and influence and in some cases lead to deeper engagement in the political process (Allen and Light, 2015;Lane and Dal, 2018;Zuckerman, 2014). ...
Article
Previous research has examined how political expression on social media can affect young people’s engagement in political life. Yet a focus on dominant platforms (i.e. Facebook) and a lack of experimental studies have impeded theoretical understanding of how different features and affordances shape youth political expression. This study used a novel experimental paradigm to test how the design of social media sites can influence young people’s political expression. Participants (18–24 years) interacted with a fictional social media app that was manipulated in terms of identifiability and geo-boundedness. Users in anonymous (vs identifiable) environments reported less political self-presentation concern and were more likely to express their political opinions. In addition, unbounded (non-local) environments were perceived as better places to exert political voice and influence than bounded (local) environments. This study offers a promising starting point for studying and designing social media in which youth political expression can flourish.
... The advent of the digital economy and an increasingly digitally connected society has produced a spectrum of new sharing relationships. These range from food sharing [11], to crowdfunding [12], mass digital fundraising [13] and slacktivism [14,15]. Some of these activities are characterised as 'digital philanthropy': the process of donating various types and forms of data by companies for public good [16,17]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Advances in digital technology have led to large amounts of personal data being recorded and retained by industry, constituting an invaluable asset to private organizations. The implementation of the General Data Protection Regulation in the EU, including the UK, fundamentally reshaped how data is handled across every sector. It enables the general public to access data collected about them by organisations, opening up the possibility of this data being used for research that benefits the public themselves; for example, to uncover lifestyle causes of poor health outcomes. A significant barrier for using this commercial data for academic research, however, is the lack of publicly acceptable research frameworks. Data donation—the act of an individual actively consenting to donate their personal data for research—could enable the use of commercial data for the benefit of society. However, it is not clear which motives, if any, would drive people to donate their personal data for this purpose. In this paper we present the results of a large-scale survey (N = 1,300) that studied intentions and reasons to donate personal data. We found that over half of individuals are willing to donate their personal data for research that could benefit the wider general public. We identified three distinct reasons to donate personal data: an opportunity to achieve self-benefit, social duty, and the need to understand the purpose of data donation. We developed a questionnaire to measure those three reasons and provided further evidence on the validity of the scales. Our results demonstrate that these reasons predict people’s intentions to donate personal data over and above generic altruistic motives. We show that a social duty is the strongest predictor of the intention to donate personal data, while understanding the purpose of data donation also positively predicts the intentions to donate personal data. In contrast, self-serving motives show a negative association with intentions to donate personal data. The findings presented here examine people’s reasons for data donation to help inform the ethical use of commercially collected personal data for academic research for public good.
... Publicly sharing messages is captured in CP as public commitment that will then impact subsequent behaviour. In the context of social media, an example of such behaviour is volunteering for an issue-related cause after publicly sharing social cause videos (Lane and Dal Cin, 2018). In the case of online games, a gamer's behaviour is publicly observable by all the other gamers. ...
Article
Online games are popular electronic commerce applications that have a business model of selling gaming items to gamers. Such a business model helps gamers attain gaming goals while cultivating their gaming habits. Gaming habits can lead gamers to play games automatically, indicating their impact on gamers. However, little is known about how gaming habits affect gamers’ perceptions of the prices of the gaming items, goal-attaining motivation, and online gamer loyalty. Grounded in the consistency principle, we construct a framework to explain how gaming habits impact motivation to attain gaming goals, perceived price fairness, and online gamer loyalty. We collected 5,144 responses from online gamers and used structural equation modelling to test the research model. We found that gaming habits are positively related to motivation to attain gaming goals and perceived price fairness, which are further positively related to online gamer loyalty. Ours is the first study using the perspective of the consistency principle to examine the mechanism underlying the impact of gaming habits on online gamer loyalty. Our findings provide novel insights for electronic commerce managers that they could focus on enhancing perceived price fairness and motivation to attain gaming goals, thus establishing a loyal user base. Such findings could also apply to interactive hedonic systems, indicating their potential academic impact.
... According to this study, young people can be encouraged and trained to use social media for civic engagement practices. Similarly, other studies discuss the possibilities of social media networks to increase collaborative production (Benkler 2005;Papacharissi 2010;Raby et al. 2018), to afford crowdsourced participation possibilities in civic practices, and to provide participatory peer-to-peer networks for community building and/or support and mobilization activities ( Jenkins et al., 2016;Lane and Dal Cin 2018). The simple discursive choices young people make on social media, such as clicking links, liking posts, and retweeting, shape their public voice. ...
... A study conducted by Ibrahim et al. demonstrated that information sharing could be a way of obtaining new information and comfort [26]. Moreover, Lane and Dal Cin proved that publicly sharing a selected video on one's Facebook wall can increase willingness to volunteer for offline issue-related activities [27]. These findings are consistent with the studies of Myrick, which suggested that having shared information with others predicted prosocial cancer-related behaviors [28]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Information sharing is critical in risk communication and management during the COVID-19 epidemic, and information sharing has been a part of individual prevention and particular lifestyles under the “New Normal” of COVID-19. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore influencing factors and mechanisms in public and private information sharing intention among people under the regular risk situation. This study investigated an information sharing mechanism based on a cross-sectional design. We collected 780 valid responses through a sample database of an online questionnaire platform and utilized partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) to further analyze the data. To explore the difference caused by news frames, we divided respondents into two groups according to the news frame (action frame vs. reassurance frame) and proceeded with the multi-group analysis. The results showed that four types of outcome expectations (information seeking, emotion regulation, altruism and public engagement) and habit had impacts on public and private information sharing intention. Two paths influencing information sharing proposed in this study were supported. The results showed that outcome expectations were positively related to habit, which implies that the cognitive mechanism was positively relevant to the formation of habit. The results proved that habit played a mediating role between outcome expectations and information sharing. This research found that emotion regulation and public engagement outcome expectations only affected two types of information sharing intention mediated by habit. Regarding the role of the news frame, this study found no significant difference between the group exposed to action-framed news and the group exposed to reassurance-framed news. By exploring influencing factors and the mechanism of information sharing under the “New Normal”, these findings contribute to understanding of information sharing and have implications on risk management. The proposed mechanism classifying public and private information sharing complements risk information flowing by considering online risk incubation.
... However, contemporary data indicates the opposite-that there is "a significant positive effect of public sharing on willingness to volunteer" and engage in other prosocial behaviors. 13 Margetts et al. further assert the value of social media to grassroots movements is its ability to "alter the costs and benefits of political actions, reducing the transaction costs of getting involved," resulting in "micro-donations" of time and money which are cumulatively impactful. 14 ...
... According to this view, social medial capital has disparate behavioral implications from the consequences of social capital created in offline settings (Ellison et al., 2011;Saxton & Guo, 2020). Scholars who hold this view describe young people's online social action as "slacktivism" or "clicktivism," arguing that online social engagement satisfies young people's moral and psychological needs for community engagement, thereby excusing them from participating in other forms of civic participation which typically requires higher levels of efforts (Lane & Cin, 2018). These scholars argue that low-cost online engagement activities, such as signing petitions or joining Facebook groups, are token displays of support and impression management behaviors, which accompany lack of willingness to devote significant effort to other meaningful engagement behaviors beyond the virtual world (Kristofferson et al., 2014). ...
Article
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This study examines the relationship between a person’s social media capital and civic engagement, focusing on the networks formed via two social network sites (SNSs) of Facebook and Twitter. The analysis of the survey data on young people’s social media use and civic engagement in the U.S. shows that, although all three types of online social ties (Facebook Friends, Twitter followers, and people one follows on Twitter) are positively associated with civic engagement, there are differences across the different types of connections. The findings reveal that Twitter social capital is more strongly associated with participation in political organizations while Facebook social capital is more strongly associated with participation in non-political charitable organizations. Between Twitter followers and following, the number of people one follows is more strongly associated with participation in both types of organizations than the number of one’s followers. These findings suggest that nonprofit managers take a platform-specific approach when using social media for marketing and stakeholder involvement.
... J. Choi (2016a) found that news posting (but not news endorsing) positively predicted political participation in a sample of 1, 052 US Americans. An experimental study with 185 US students by Lane and Dal Cin (2018) indicated that posting prosocial news content on Facebook can increase cause-related prosocial behavior. In their study, participants who posted a promotional video of a non-profit organization on their timeline (vs. ...
Thesis
Social networking sites have become an online realm where users are exposed to news about current affairs. People mainly encounter news incidentally because they are re-distributed by users whom they befriended or follow on social media platforms. In my dissertation project, I draw on shared reality theory in order to examine the question of how the relationship to the news endorser, the person who shares news content, determines social influence on opinion formation about shared news. The shared reality theory posits that people strive to achieve socially shared beliefs about any object and topic because of the fundamental epistemic need to establish what is real. Social verification of beliefs in interpersonal communication renders uncertain and ambiguous individual perceptions as valid and objectively true. However, reliable social verification may be provided only by others who are regarded as epistemic authority, in other words as someone whose judgment one can trust. People assign epistemic authority particularly to socially close others, such as friends and family, or to members of their in-group. I inferred from this that people should be influenced by the view of a socially close news endorser when forming an opinion about shared news content but not by the view of a socially distant news endorser. In Study 1, a laboratory experiment (N = 226), I manipulated a female news endorser’s social closeness by presenting her as an in-group or out-group member. Participants’ opinion and memory of a news article were not affected by the news endorser’s opinion in either of the conditions. I concluded that the news article did not elicit motivation to strive for shared reality because participants were confident about their own judgment. Therefore, they did not rely on the news endorser’s view when forming an opinion about the news topic. Moreover, the results revealed that participants had stronger trust in the news endorser when she expressed a positive (vs. negative) opinion about the news topic, while social closeness to the news endorser did not predict trust. On the one hand, this is in line with the social norm of sharing positive thoughts and experiences on social networking sites: adherence to the positivity norm results in more favorable social ratings. On the other hand, my findings indicate that participants generally had a positive opinion about the topic of the stimulus article and thus had more trust in news endorsers who expressed a similar opinion. In Study 2, an online experiment (N = 1, 116), I exposed participants to a news post by a relational close vs. relational distant news endorser by having them name a close or distant actual Facebook friend. There was a small influence of the news endorser’s opinion on participants’ thought and opinion valence irrespective of whether the news endorser was a close or distant friend. The finding was surprising, particularly because participants reported stronger trust in the view of the close friend than in the view of a distant friend. I concluded that in light of an ambiguity eliciting news article, people may even rely on the views of less trustworthy news endorsers in order to establish a socially shared and, therefore, valid opinion about a news topic. Drawing on shared reality theory, I hypothesized that social influence on opinion formation is mediated by news endorser congruent responses to a news post. The results indicated a tendency for the proposed indirect relation however, the effect size was small and the sample in Study 2 was not large enough to provide the necessary statistical power to detect the mediation. In conclusion, the results of my empirical studies provide first insights regarding the conditions under which a single news endorser influences opinion formation about news shared on social networking sites. I found limited support for shared reality creation as underlying mechanism of such social influence. Thus, my work contributes to the understanding of social influence on news perception happening in social networking sites and proposes theoretical refinements to shared reality theory. I suggest that future research should focus on the role of social and affiliative motivation for social influences on opinion formation about news shared on social networking sites.
... According to this study, young people can be encouraged and trained to use social media for civic engagement practices. Similarly, other studies discuss the possibilities of social media networks to increase collaborative production (Benkler 2005;Papacharissi 2010;Raby et al. 2018), to afford crowdsourced participation possibilities in civic practices, and to provide participatory peer-to-peer networks for community building and/or support and mobilization activities ( Jenkins et al., 2016;Lane and Dal Cin 2018). The simple discursive choices young people make on social media, such as clicking links, liking posts, and retweeting, shape their public voice. ...
Chapter
In this chapter, we argue that young people use their social media spaces to participate in and interact with globally oriented and culturally diverse peer groups in meaningful ways. Young people should be equipped with civic engagement skills required to harness opportunities of public gainfulness from their social media platforms. To illustrate how educators can leverage the potential of social media to expand access to opportunities for transcultural civic engagement and learning among young people, we have designed a theoretical media literacy framework based on the existing canon of theories and practices. While online civic engagement practices have global potential, they are also informed by the local experiences and lived realities of young people. In order to examine this phenomenon, we have introduced the term transcultural citizenship.
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The rise of social media has coincided with the emergence of an expressive citizenship model that emphasizes the role of expression in networked environments centering on personal interests. Yet relatively little is known about how civic participation might develop from daily, general social media use. Drawing on communication infrastructure theory, this study uses two-wave survey data from Taiwan to investigate which types of Facebook users are more likely to become civic action takers and how. Results show that high public expressers—those who manifest higher levels of public expression (e.g., updating status)—have more integrated connectedness to the civic information sharing network, which in turn facilitates civic participation. This pathway to civic participation is relatively open to users with diverse levels of political interest. Overall, these findings help to explain how general social media users become civic action takers, presenting important implications for addressing inequalities in civic participation.
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Addresses the centrality of the self-efficacy mechanism (SEM) in human agency. SEM precepts influence thought patterns, actions, and emotional arousal. In causal tests, the higher the level of induced self-efficacy, the higher the performance accomplishments and the lower the emotional arousal. The different lines of research reviewed show that the SEM may have wide explanatory power. Perceived self-efficacy helps to account for such diverse phenomena as changes in coping behavior produced by different modes of influence, level of physiological stress reactions, self-regulation of refractory behavior, resignation and despondency to failure experiences, self-debilitating effects of proxy control and illusory inefficaciousness, achievement strivings, growth of intrinsic interest, and career pursuits. The influential role of perceived collective efficacy in social change and the social conditions conducive to development of collective inefficacy are analyzed. (21/2 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). © 1982 American Psychological Association.
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A longitudinal analysis of panel data from users of a popular online social network site, Facebook, investigated the relationship between intensity of Facebook use, measures of psychological well-being, and bridging social capital. Two surveys conducted a year apart at a large U.S. university, complemented with in-depth interviews with 18 Facebook users, provide the study data. Intensity of Facebook use in year one strongly predicted bridging social capital outcomes in year two, even after controlling for measures of self-esteem and satisfaction with life. These latter psychological variables were also strongly associated with social capital outcomes. Self-esteem served to moderate the relationship between Facebook usage intensity and bridging social capital: those with lower self-esteem gained more from their use of Facebook in terms of bridging social capital than higher self-esteem participants. We suggest that Facebook affordances help reduce barriers that lower self-esteem students might experience in forming the kinds of large, heterogeneous networks that are sources of bridging social capital.
Article
Past good deeds can liberate individuals to engage in behaviors that are immoral, unethical, or otherwise problematic, behaviors that they would otherwise avoid for fear of feeling or appearing immoral. We review research on this moral self-licensing effect in the domains of political correctness, prosocial behavior, and consumer choice. We also discuss remaining theoretical tensions in the literature: Do good deeds reframe bad deeds (moral credentials) or merely balance them out (moral credits)? When does past behavior liberate and when does it constrain? Is self-licensing primarily for others’ benefit (self-presentational) or is it also a way for people to reassure themselves that they are moral people? Finally, we propose avenues for future research that could begin to address these unanswered questions.
Conference Paper
Mobile phones equipped with cameras have become popular among consumers, and this has fuelled an increase in mobile media sharing. The present research investigates the sharing of mobile media by conducting a diary study to specifically understand the type of media captured and shared, and the motivations behind these activities. Participants maintained a month-long diary, documenting their media sharing activities. Post-study interviews were also conducted to elicit additional information not captured in the diary. Results suggest a range of motivational factors, and that social and emotional influences played an important role in media sharing behavior. Participants were also more inclined to share photos that any other media due to cost and transmission time considerations. Implications of our work are also discussed.
Article
This paper introduces a theoretical framework that describes the importance of affect in guiding judgments and decisions. As used here, “affect” means the specific quality of “goodness” or “badness” (i) experienced as a feeling state (with or without consciousness) and (ii) demarcating a positive or negative quality of a stimulus. Affective responses occur rapidly and automatically—note how quickly you sense the feelings associated with the stimulus word “treasure” or the word “hate”. We argue that reliance on such feelings can be characterized as “the affect heuristic”. In this paper we trace the development of the affect heuristic across a variety of research paths followed by ourselves and many others. We also discuss some of the important practical implications resulting from ways that this heuristic impacts our daily lives.
Conference Paper
Video-based media spaces are designed to support casual interaction between intimate collaborators. Yet transmitting video is fraught with privacy concerns. Some researchers suggest that the video stream be filtered to mask out potentially sensitive ...
Article
Recent events indicate that sharing news in social media has become a phenomenon of increasing social, economic and political importance because individuals can now participate in news production and diffusion in large global virtual communities. Yet, knowledge about factors influencing news sharing in social media remains limited. Drawing from the uses and gratifications (U&G) and social cognitive theories (SCT), this study explored the influences of information seeking, socializing, entertainment, status seeking and prior social media sharing experience on news sharing intention. A survey was designed and administered to 203 students in a large local university. Results from structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis revealed that respondents who were driven by gratifications of information seeking, socializing, and status seeking were more likely to share news in social media platforms. Prior experience with social media was also a significant determinant of news sharing intention. Implications and directions for future work are discussed.
Article
This study investigates the utility of personality traits and secondary goals as predictors of self‐presentation tactics employed by Facebook users. A structural equation model of self‐presentation tactics on Facebook was proposed and tested. Although fit of the initial model was good, the final model, eliminating three paths and adding two others, yielded a significantly better fitting model. Findings show that personality traits predicted concern for secondary goals (N = 477) and that secondary goals predicted the use of various self‐presentation tactics used on Facebook. Results indicated that these personality traits and secondary goals are both theoretically and empirically sound components for the conceptualization of online impression management.
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Today's activists are highly plugged into social media, mobile apps, and other digital tools. But does this make a difference where it matters most?
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Electronic networks of practice are computer-mediated discussion forums focused on problems of practice that enable individuals to exchange advice and ideas with others based on common interests. However, why individuals help strangers in these electronic networks is not well understood: there is no immediate benefit to the contributor, and free-riders are able to acquire the same knowledge as everyone else. To understand this paradox, we apply theories of collective action to examine how individual motivations and social capital influence knowledge contribution in electronic networks. This study reports on the activities of one electronic network supporting a professional legal association. Using archival, network, survey, and content analysis data, we empirically test a model of knowledge contribution. We find that people contribute their knowledge when they perceive that it enhances their professional reputations, when they have the experience to share, and when they are structurally embedded in the network. Surprisingly, contributions occur without regard to expectations of reciprocity from others or high levels of commitment to the network.
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Obra que estudia cómo las nuevas tecnologías de comunicación y las redes sociales que a través de ellas se han generado dan soporte a una nueva forma de establecer relaciones entre las personas y, por lo tanto, de nuevas formas de soledad.
Article
Prosocial behavior consists of behaviors regarded as beneficial to others, including helping, sharing, comforting, guiding, rescuing, and defending others. Although women and men are similar in engaging in extensive prosocial behavior, they are different in their emphasis on particular classes of these behaviors. The specialty of women is prosocial behaviors that are more communal and relational, and that of men is behaviors that are more agentic and collectively oriented as well as strength intensive. These sex differences, which appear in research in various settings, match widely shared gender role beliefs. The origins of these beliefs lie in the division of labor, which reflects a biosocial interaction between male and female physical attributes and the social structure. The effects of gender roles on behavior are mediated by hormonal processes, social expectations, and individual dispositions.
Article
2 experiments were conducted to test the proposition that once someone has agreed to a small request he is more likely to comply with a larger request. Exp. I demonstrated this effect when the same person made both requests; Exp. II extended this to the situation in which different people made the 2 requests. Several experimental groups were run in an effort to explain these results, and possible explanations are discussed.
Chloe's wedding day -little girl diagnosed with brain tumor on Christmas Eve
  • Arnoldpalmerhospital
ArnoldPalmerHospital. (2012, December 3). Chloe's wedding day -little girl diagnosed with brain tumor on Christmas Eve [video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= t4WwcGq91VQ