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Analysis of recipes of home-prepared diets for dogs and cats published in Portuguese

Authors:

Abstract

The present study evaluated recipes of home-prepared diets for dogs and cats published in Portuguese. A total of 106 diets were evaluated: eighty for dogs, twenty-four for cats and two intended for both species. A commercial software package was used to analyse the diets, and an ingredient chemical composition database was built based on the Brazilian Tables of Food Composition and United States Department of Agriculture Nutrient Database. The estimated chemical composition of each recipe was compared with the Nutritional Guidelines for Complete and Complementary Pet Food for Cats and Dogs (Fédération Européenne de L'industrie des Aliments Pour Animaux Familiers; FEDIAF, 2014) recommendations for maintenance (as units/MJ). Most recipes (48 %) had no precise determination of ingredients and quantities. All diets had at least one nutrient below the recommendations, and all investigated nutrients were deficient in at least one diet. The most frequent nutrients below recommendation were: Fe (68·3 % of the recipes for dogs; 100 % of the recipes for cats); vitamin E (82·9 % of the dog recipes; 84·6 % of the cat recipes); Zn (75·6 % for dogs; 88·4 % for cats); Ca (73·2 % for dogs; 73 % for cats); Cu (85·4 % for dogs; 69·2 % for cats); choline (85·4 % for dogs; 69·2 % for cats); riboflavin (65·8 % for dogs; 11·5 % for cats); thiamine (39 % for dogs; 80·7 % for cats); and vitamin B 12 (61 % for dogs; 34·6 % for cats). These recipes may potentially expose animals to nutritional deficiencies, and it is important to inform the owners of the risks of providing home-prepared diets. Better training of professionals that intend to prescribe home-prepared diets is advisable.
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Analysis of recipes of home-prepared diets for dogs and cats published in
Portuguese
Vivian Pedrinelli
1
, Márcia de O. S. Gomes
2
and Aulus C. Carcio
1
*
1
Department of Veterinary Clinic and Surgery, College of Agrarian and Veterinarian Sciences, UNESP Sao Paulo State University, Via de
Acesso Prof. Paulo Donato Castellane, Jaboticabal, SP, 14884-900, Brazil
2
Department of Internal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Sao Paulo (USP) São Paulo, Av. Prof. Dr.
Orlando Marques de Paiva, 87, São Paulo, SP, 13690-970, Brazil
(Received 14 November 2016 Final revision received 16 February 2017 Accepted 26 May 2017)
Journal of Nutritional Science (2017), vol. 6, e33, page 1 of 5 doi:10.1017/jns.2017.31
Abstract
The present study evaluated recipes of home-prepared diets for dogs and cats published in Portuguese. A total of 106 diets were evaluated: eighty for dogs,
twenty-four for cats and two intended for both species. A commercial software package was used to analyse the diets, and an ingredient chemical com-
position database was built based on the Brazilian Tables of Food Composition and United States Department of Agriculture Nutrient Database. The
estimated chemical composition of each recipe was compared with the Nutritional Guidelines for Complete and Complementary Pet Food for Cats
and Dogs (Fédération Européenne de Lindustrie des Aliments Pour Animaux Familiers; FEDIAF, 2014) recommendations for maintenance (as
units/MJ). Most recipes (48 %) had no precise determination of ingredients and quantities. All diets had at least one nutrient below the recommendations,
and all investigated nutrients were decient in at least one diet. The most frequent nutrients below recommendation were: Fe (68·3 % of the recipes for
dogs; 100 % of the recipes for cats); vitamin E (82·9 % of the dog recipes; 84·6 % of the cat recipes); Zn (75·6 % for dogs; 88·4 % for cats); Ca (73·2 % for
dogs; 73 % for cats); Cu (85·4 % for dogs; 69·2 % for cats); choline (85·4 % for dogs; 69·2 % for cats); riboavin (65·8 % for dogs; 11·5 % for cats);
thiamine (39 % for dogs; 80·7 % for cats); and vitamin B
12
(61 % for dogs; 34·6 % for cats). These recipes may potentially expose animals to nutritional
deciencies, and it is important to inform the owners of the risks of providing home-prepared diets. Better training of professionals that intend to prescribe
home-prepared diets is advisable.
Key words: Home-made diets: Dog nutrition: Cat nutrition: Nutritional deciency
To provide a nutritionally adequate diet is part of daily pet
care, essential to maintaining good health and increasing
longevity. In 2011 the World Small Animal Veterinary
Association
(1)
published guidelines for nutritional evaluation
and considered nutrition the fth vital sign, along with tem-
perature, pulse, respiration and pain assessment. In these
guidelines, there is a list of potential risk factors related to
nutrition, and one of them is feeding unconventional diets
(raw, home-prepared or vegetarian diets).
Recently there has been a trend to use home-prepared diets
in Brazil. A diverse range of reasons may explain this tendency,
and can be summarised as: inability to comprehend pet food
labels; concern with the presence of preservatives, food col-
ouring, or bad-quality ingredients in extruded diets; and desire
to cook for their pets to increase the humananimal bond
(24)
.
Some owners, however, are not aware that home-prepared
diets are sometimes higher in cost, need a complex prepar-
ation, specic ingredients and supplements, and must be for-
mulated by a veterinarian or other trained professional with a
nutrition background
(4,5)
. Dog and cat owners may search for
diet recipes in books, magazines or websites, which can display
different diets not properly formulated, exposing their pets to
Abbreviations: BW, body weight; FEDIAF, Fédération Européenne de Lindustrie des Aliments Pour Animaux Familiers; ME, metabolisable energy.
*Corresponding author: A. C. Carcio, email aulus.carcio@gmail.com
© The Author(s) 2017. This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creative-
commons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is
properly cited.
JNS
JOURNAL OF NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE
1
potential nutritional deciencies
(68)
. Several studies can be
found in the scientic literature, highlighting an important
range of unproperly balanced diets, with relevant frequency
of nutritional deciencies, including diets for growth, mainten-
ance and also specic diseases
(6,810)
.
Due to this, the present study evaluated the nutritional
adequacy, using computer software, of recipes of home-
prepared diets available in Portuguese in different media,
including books, websites and scientic articles.
Experimental methods
The recipes were obtained by simple Internet browser search,
search for books in bookstores and in the universitys library,
as well as veterinary published articles. Search terms for
Internet, article and book searches were home-made dietor
home-prepared dietor home-cooked dietor recipefol-
lowed by dogor cat. Websites were found using the
Google browser and the scientic articles were found using
the Scopus and PubMed databases. Books were located within
the catalogues of two major bookstore chains located in the
city of Sao Paulo, and included the search terms above. The
search included home-prepared diets, with cooked and/or
raw ingredients for healthy adults, and was conducted from
June 2014 until September 2015.
A commercial software package (Optimal Formula 2000
®
;
Optimal) was used to analyse the estimated chemical compos-
ition of the diets. An ingredient and chemical composition
database was built based on the Brazilian Tables of Food
Composition (TACO)
(11)
, and when the nutrient content was
not available, the United States Department of Agriculture
Nutrient Database
(12)
was used. When the recipe did not spe-
cify the brand of supplement prescribed, a commonly used
veterinary multivitamin and multimineral supplement in
Brazil was considered, and if the amount of supplement was
not specied, the recommended dosage of the manufacturer
was considered.
The estimated chemical composition of each recipe was
compared with the recommendation guidelines of the
Nutritional Guidelines for Complete and Complementary Pet Food for
Cats and Dogs (Fédération Européenne de Lindustrie des
Aliments Pour Animaux Familiers; FEDIAF)
(13)
for dog or
cat maintenance. The nutrient values per MJ of metabolisable
energy (ME) were considered. The nutrient recommendations
for animals with low energy intake were arbitrarily considered
for both dogs (397·5 kJ ME/kg body weight (BW)
0·75
per d or
95 kcal ME/kg BW
0·75
per d) and cats (418·4 kJ ME/kg
BW
0·67
per d or 100 kcal ME/kg BW
0·67
per d), to be as
close to housed pet estimated requirements as possible
(14,15)
.
The ME content of the diets was estimated based on their
chemical composition, and the equations for unprocessed
foods or human foods of the Nutrient Requirements of Dogs
and Cats, by the National Research Council
(16)
, were used to
determine the ME of the diets. Only thirty-ve of the forty-
ve nutrients recommended by the FEDIAF
(13)
were evalu-
ated, because ten of the nutrients (EPA, DHA, arachidonic
acid, α-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, taurine, biotin, vitamin K,
Cl, I and folic acid) were not available in all the ingredients
chemical composition tables consulted to build the software
database. The diets with nutrient content below FEDIAF
(13)
were additionally evaluated regarding the median percentage
(minimummaximum) of nutrient supply, in comparison
with the standard recommendation of the FEDIAF
(13)
.
Results
A total of 106 recipes were evaluated, eighty intended for dogs,
twenty-four for cats and two for both dogs and cats, all with
open access to the public. Most recipes (48 %) had no precise
determination of the ingredients and their quantities. The most
common protein sources in the diets were chicken breast,
bovine heart, bovine bottom round steak and chicken thigh.
Among the starch sources, white rice, brown rice, potato
and sweet potato were the most used. Vegetables appeared
in ninety-three diets (87·7 %) of the diets, including carrots,
zucchini, squash and kale as the most common. The amount
of fat source added was described in g or ml in seventy-one
(67 %) of the recipes, and soyabean oil, rapeseed oil, axseed
oil and sunower-seed oil were the most commonly pre-
scribed. Of all the diets, fty-eight (53·7 %) did not contain
any vitaminmineral supplement, nor a single vitamin or min-
eral inclusion. For the seventeen diets that included supple-
ments, fteen (88·2 %) did not specify the brand and/or the
amount to be supplemented. Eleven recipes (10·2 %) included
in their composition ingredients with toxic potential, such as
onion and garlic.
Lack of information on how much to feed the animal was
observed in seventy-seven diets (71·3 %). Of all the diets for
dogs and cats, eighteen (16·7 %) informed the amount to be
fed per range of BW or breed size and eleven (10·2 %) pre-
sented the recommended feeding amount as a percentage of
BW. Only two diets (1·8 %) recommended calculating energy
requirement using the Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats
(14)
formulas to establish the amount to be fed.
None of the analysed diets was complete, presenting one or
more nutrient below the recommended level as presented in
Tables 1 (dogs) and 2(cats). Similarly, for all analysed nutrients
at least one diet did not meet the recommendations. Among
the nutrient deciencies, the most commonly presented
were: Fe (68·3 % of the recipes for dogs; 100 % of the recipes
for cats); vitamin E (82·9 % of the dog recipes; 84·6 % of the
cat recipes); Zn (75·6 % for dogs; 88·4 % for cats); Ca (73·2%
for dogs; 73 % for cats); Cu (85·4 % for dogs; 69·2 % for
cats); choline (85·4 % for dogs; 69·2 % for cats); riboavin
(65·8 % for dogs; 11·5 % for cats); thiamine (39 % for dogs;
80·7 % for cats); and vitamin B
12
(61 % for dogs; 34·6%
for cats). Among the recipes with nutrients below the
FEDIAF recommendations
(13)
, the nutrients that presented
lower median concentration in relation to the recommended
amounts for dogs were vitamin A (12 % of the recommenda-
tion), vitamin D (4·4 % of the recommendation), Ca (19·7%
of the recommendation), cobalamin (22·2 % of the recom-
mendation), vitamin E (33·6 % of the recommendation), Cu
(35 % of the recommendation) and Zn (36 % of the recom-
mendation). For cats the nutrients with lower median amounts
were vitamin A (15·1 % of the recommendation), leucine (18
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% of the recommendation), histidine (24·7 % of the recom-
mendation), isoleucine (25·5 % of the recommendation), vita-
min E (26·7 % of the recommendation) and vitamin D (28 %
of the recommendation). Furthermore, some of the diets
intended for dogs presented, along with deciencies, nutrient
levels above the safe upper limit: three of Ca (3·6 %) and
two of vitamin A (2·4 %), when compared with the
FEDIAF guidelines
(13)
. For cats, three diets (11·5 %) had vita-
min A levels beyond the FEDIAF
(13)
safe upper limit,
although the vitamin A content of ingredients was not speci-
ed between retinol or carotenes.
Great variation in macronutrient composition of diets was
observed: the protein content ranged from 2·1to35·6 g/MJ
of ME (median 19·4 g/MJ) for dogs, and 7·2to46·3 g/MJ
of ME (median 28·9 g/MJ) for cats. The fat content varied
from 0·3to17·8 g/MJ of ME (median 6·95 g/MJ) for dogs
and from 2·1to18·2 g/MJ of ME (median 7·75 g/MJ) for
cats. Thus, the ME on a DM basis also presented a wide
range, from 15·48 to 23·84 kJ (3·7to5·7 kcal) of ME/g of
DM for dogs, median 18·8 kJ/g DM (4·5 kcal/g DM), and
from 14·2to26·8 kJ/g DM (3·4to6·4 kcal/g DM), median
19·6 kJ/g DM (4·7 kcal/g DM) in diets for cats.
Discussion
A large percentage of nutritional imbalances was veried in the
recipes investigated in the present study, exposing dogs and
cats fed them to nutritional problems, compromising health
and longevity. The median nutrient supply of the diets
below FEDIAF recommendations
(13)
was very low for some
vitamins, minerals, or even amino acids, really exposing the
animals fed them to risk of nutrient deciencies. For Ca, for
example, 73·2 % of the diets for dogs had less than the recom-
mendations and these diets presented only 19·7 % of the
recommended amount. For cats, 80·7 % of the diets had
less thiamine than the recommendation, and among them sup-
plied only 58·5 % of the nutrient.
In comparison with a previous study
(8)
performed in the
USA, the deciencies found in our study are more than
three times more frequent. This can also be, at least partially,
due to the nutrient recommendations adopted, as previous
studies used National Research Council guidelines
(8,9,10,16)
,
which recommend lower nutrient concentration than the
FEDIAF recommendations
(13)
. Recently, the FEDIAF
(13)
established their nutrient standards based on energy intake,
Table 1. Chemical composition and number of diets with estimated nutrient content below the Fédération Européenne de Lindustrie des Aliments Pour
Animaux Familiers (FEDIAF)
(13)
recommendation for dog maintenance (n82 diets)
(Medians and ranges; numbers and percentages)
Concentration (units/MJ) Below FEDIAF
Supplied by the diets
below FEDIAF*
Item FEDIAF (units/MJ) Median Range Number % Median Range
Protein (g) 12·519·42·135·61720·785·31796·7
Arginine (g) 0·36 1·02 0·2233·665·96289·7
Phenylalanine (g) 0·37 0·70·141·33 11 13·481·339·895·5
Histidine (g) 0·16 0·45 0·071·05 5 6·191·944·5594
Isoleucine (g) 0·32 0·74 0·121·76 8 9·781·337·496·3
Leucine (g) 0·57 1·20·22·5 9 11 89·440·999
Lysine (g) 0·29 1·10·11·433·677·634·695·4
Methionine (g) 0·28 0·38 0·071·4 23287023·698·2
Threonine (g) 0·36 0·64 0·11·41720·778 2896·8
Tryptophan (g) 0·12 0·20·030·67 27 32·974·530·499·1
Valine (g) 0·41 0·80·11·61012·286 32·992·2
Fat (g) 3·29 6·90·317·8 9 11 85·29·796
Ca (g) 0·35 0·15 0·014·66073·219·73·399·8
P (g) 0·28 0·24 0·030·9273371·87012·1
K (g) 0·35 0·30·070·94858·573·621·799·5
Na (g) 0·07 0·10·0050·73340·266 098·3
Zn (mg) 4·98 2·15 0·29·76275·635·94·197·1
Mg (g) 0·04 0·04 0·013·54757·364·122·396·1
Cu (mg) 0·50·20·0447085·435 8·795·3
Se (μg) 21 18·91·286·64656·169·85·796·7
Fe (mg) 2·49 1·90·419 56 68·361·716·499·8
Mn (mg) 0·40·45 0·013·13542·769·72·699·8
Vitamin A (μg) 125·7 108·60·356428·21923·212 096·2
Thiamine (mg) 0·15 0·16 0·05159 32 39 66·234·599·8
Riboflavin (mg) 0·42 0·25 0·021·35567·139 5·699·5
Niacin (mg) 1·13 4·40·1621·356·137 14·586·1
Pantothenic acid (mg) 0·98 1 0·023·84048·866 2·498·4
Pyridoxine (mg) 0·10·30·020·922·555·823·788
Vitamin B
12
(μg) 2·31 1·15 0·0426·2506122·2092·8
Vitamin D (μg) 0·955 0·2011 61 74·414·4096·1
Vitamin E (mg) 2·49 1·10·114·26882·933·63·791·5
Choline (mg) 113 54·70·0114·27085·442·80·0185·8
* Calculated as a percentage (minimummaximum) of the FEDIAF recommendation.
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increasing the recommended nutrient concentration on the
diets for inactive pets, criteria also adopted in the present
study. The National Research Council
(16)
recommendations
are based on high energy intake of laboratory animals, but
this cannot be assumed for housed pets that require less
energy
(14,15)
. Taking this into consideration, in addition to
the variations of ingredient selection, preparation method,
storage time, intake of individual ingredients, lack of digestibil-
ity data for most vegetables, among other reasons, the authors
adopted for the present study the FEDIAF
(13)
guidelines.
A lack of precision in recipe description was noticed, as a
large proportion of diets do not describe objectively the
exact amount of each ingredient to be fed, but express the
amount in units of determined ingredient or even suggest a
range of intake. To overcome this problem, in some recipes
the mean intake of a suggested ingredient was used to evaluate
the diets, making it possible that the nutritional deciencies
may be even more common than presented. It is very import-
ant to inform the owner precisely about how to prepare and
feed the diet, otherwise a good recipe can be poorly prepared,
ending up unbalanced. Even when properly informed, owners
may change the recipes over time, based on their beliefs,
compromising the nutrient status of the recipe, as previously
described in a study conducted in Brazil
(17)
.
Most diets did not inform the amount or which mineral
vitamin supplement to use. Considering the low concentration
of some nutrients present in most of the ingredients included,
such as Ca, Zn and thiamine, it becomes clear that the authors
responsible did not evaluate properly their nutrient content,
and that an unbalanced diet can lead to symptoms and dis-
eases
(16,18)
. Many case reports describe clinical signs of nutri-
ent deciency or excess in dogs or cats fed home-prepared
or commercial diets
(1922)
, highlighting the importance of a
complete and balanced diet for the health of dogs and cats.
Furthermore, many diets (71·3 %) did not inform the
amount to be fed. This fact may lead to an excess or decient
intake of nutrients and energy, despite the diet being nutrition-
ally adequate. The offer of more food than the pet needs may
also lead to selection of some ingredients and not eating the
diet in the proportion intended.
In conclusion, it is evident that the use of the recipes found
in the present study expose animals to nutritional deciencies,
denoting how important it is to inform pet owners about the
risks involved in providing a home-prepared diet. Considering
Table 2. Chemical composition and number of diets with estimated nutrient content below the Fédération Européenne de Lindustrie des Aliments Pour
Animaux Familiers (FEDIAF)
(13)
recommendation for cat maintenance (n26 diets)
(Medians and ranges; numbers and percentages)
Concentration (units/MJ) Below FEDIAF
Supplied by the diets
below FEDIAF*
Item FEDIAF (units/MJ) Median Range Number % Median Range
Protein (g) 14·94 28·97·246·3519·286·44899·9
Arginine (g) 0·61·30·12·427·757·215·660·8
Phenylalanine (g) 0·24 0·90·071·713·829·9
Histidine (g) 0·16 0·60·031·213·824·7
Isoleucine (g) 0·26 0·90·071·95 1 3·825·5
Leucine (g) 0·61 1·60·13·113·818
Lysine (g) 0·27 1·60·13·413·843·2
Methionine (g) 0·10·50·021·1311·589·221·499·2
Threonine (g) 0·31 0·80·11·713·828·3
Tryptophan (g) 0·08 0·20·010·45 5 19·289·420·995·7
Valine (g) 0·31 1·05 0·072·05 3 11·596·82797·9
Fat (g) 5·38 7·75 218·16 6 23·194·338·795·7
Ca (g) 0·35 0·15 0·020·65 19 73·137·8797·8
P (g) 0·30·24 0·10·81765·469·829·695
K (g) 0·36 0·40·012·1934·662·134·197·3
Na (g) 0·05 0·12 0·020·4311·556·145·893·1
Zn (mg) 4·48 2·70·76·22388·547·815·792·6
Mg (g) 0·02 0·04 0·010·14 6 23·171·844·578·1
Cu (mg) 0·30·20·034·91869·235·212·288·7
Se (μg) 17·9270·753 8 30·750·53·794·5
Fe (mg) 4·78 2·50·654·2 26 100 52·513·788·8
Mn (mg) 0·30·18 0·041·61869·250·41599·2
Vitamin A (μg) 59·67 665 018023 4 15·415·1097·7
Thiamine (mg) 0·26 0·16 0·040·92180·758·523·399
Riboflavin (mg) 0·19 0·52 0·031·3311·557·117·285·6
Niacin (mg) 1·91 5·60·414·7519·275·824·288·2
Pantothenic acid (mg) 0·34 1 0·253·827·783·474
·292·6
Pyridoxine (mg) 0·15 0·30·11·3415·483 69·297·5
Vitamin B
12
(μg) 1·05 1·7030 9 34·646·8077·2
Vitamin D (μg) 0·50·402·4135028091·3
Vitamin E (mg) 2·30·70·00713 22 84·626·73·575·2
Choline (mg) 143 102·76·8262 18 69·242 7·893·8
* Calculated as a percentage (minimummaximum) of the FEDIAF recommendation.
4
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that diets are formulated according to the nutrient recommen-
dations of the FEDIAF
(13)
, these foods are more adequate in
supplying essential nutrients to promote dog and cat health.
The study also exemplies the importance of having a diet pre-
scribed by professionals with technical knowledge and training,
and the necessity for proper training of the professionals that
intend to prescribe home-prepared diets.
Acknowledgements
We would like to thank Guabi PetCare, for supporting the
Laboratory of Research in Nutrition and Nutritional Disease
of Dogs and Cats and the Clinical Nutrition Service of the
Teaching Veterinary Hospital of Jaboticabal, Sao Paulo State
University (UNESP), and PremieR pet for the residency schol-
arship of the rst author (V. P.).
This research received no specic grant from any funding
agency, commercial or non-prot sectors.
Study design was performed by V. P. and A. C. C. All
authors participated in the manuscript writing and review pro-
cess. Data acquisition and analysis were performed by V. P.
There are no conicts of interest.
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... Therefore, it is not mandatory that they meet the minimum recommended vitamin and mineral requirement. However, some published studies [4,[8][9][10] show that most homemade diet recipes for dogs and cats present on websites and books [37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46] have at least one nutritional deficiency when compared to the recommendations of guidelines like NRC [47] and FEDIAF [48]. Thus, it would be safer if the recommended dose on the label of these supplements reached the minimum requirements of these guidelines, bringing greater security to owners who are interested in providing this type of diet to their animals. ...
... These studies reinforce the importance of vitamin-mineral supplements with adequate calcium concentrations to guarantee the minimum recommendations, because most of the common ingredients have very low calcium concentrations and inadequate calcium:phosphorus ratio. Even in studies that analyzed the nutritional adequacy of homemade diet recipes published in books and websites, calcium was one of the nutrients most frequently below the recommendations of FEDIAF or NRC, ranging from 35.0 to 82.7% of the recipes for dogs with insufficient calcium concentrations [4,8,9] and 37.2 to 73.1% of recipes for cats [4,8,10]. It is worth mentioning that 5/6 VMS indicated for dogs and analyzed in the present study did not guarantee the minimum calcium recommendation of FEDIAF [48]. ...
... These studies reinforce the importance of vitamin-mineral supplements with adequate calcium concentrations to guarantee the minimum recommendations, because most of the common ingredients have very low calcium concentrations and inadequate calcium:phosphorus ratio. Even in studies that analyzed the nutritional adequacy of homemade diet recipes published in books and websites, calcium was one of the nutrients most frequently below the recommendations of FEDIAF or NRC, ranging from 35.0 to 82.7% of the recipes for dogs with insufficient calcium concentrations [4,8,9] and 37.2 to 73.1% of recipes for cats [4,8,10]. It is worth mentioning that 5/6 VMS indicated for dogs and analyzed in the present study did not guarantee the minimum calcium recommendation of FEDIAF [48]. ...
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Given the importance of using the vitamin-mineral supplements to guarantee the minimum nutritional recommendations for pets in homemade foods, and hypothesizing that these products may contribute to toxic metals contamination, the present study aimed to determine the concentrations of essential minerals and toxic metals in vitamin-mineral supplements available in the Brazilian market and calculate if the amount recommended by the manufacturer guarantees the minimum recommendations of NRC (2006) and FEDIAF (2020), as well as calculating the amount of toxic metals that animals would consume, according to the amounts recommended by the manufacturer. Seven vitamin-mineral supplements were analyzed. The determination of essential minerals and toxic metals was performed using ICP-OES. Comparisons were made with the minimum recommendations for essential minerals, and with the maximum tolerated levels of toxic metals established by the FDA (2011), descriptively. Most of the vitamin-mineral supplements, in the quantities recommended by the manufacturers, do not guarantee the minimum recommendations of NCR (2006) and FEDIAF (2020) for the following elements: calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus, selenium, and zinc. Only one supplement had detectable selenium concentrations. Three supplements provided more than 0.02mg of mercury/kg of body weight, the safe upper limit used to establish the maximum tolerated level of this element. It is concluded that most vitamin-mineral supplements do not meet the minimum recommendations for most essential minerals and, if formulated by untrained professionals, even with supplementation, homemade foods may still be nutritionally deficient. Furthermore, some vitamin-mineral supplements analyzed may imply risks of mercury poisoning in pets.
... According to the Guidelines for The Nutrition of Pet Food for Cats and Dogs issued by the European Pet Food Industry Federation (FEDIAF), the standard of nutrition for the healthy growth of dogs requires that each beagle's daily energy intake is not <397.5 kJ/kg BW (22,23). The basic diet formula and nutrient composition ( Table 1) were analyzed by Zhejiang Guozheng Inspection Technology Co., LTD. ...
... In this study, we investigated the antioxidative and immunomodulatory effects of SeHLan in weaned puppies during a vaccination period. Serum Se concentration is sensitive to changes in diet supplemented with extra Se source and can be used as a biomarker of Se concentration in dogs (22,23). In this study, the daily intake of the basal diet was increased based on the age and weight of puppies in the control and immunization groups. ...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary Selenohomolanthionine (SeHLan) on antioxidant status and immune response in canine parvovirus (CPV) vaccinated puppies. In this study, 30 weaned puppies were randomly divided into six groups: control group (–Se/–Vacc), immunization group (–Se/+Vacc), supplementation of sodium selenite group (SS/+Vacc, 0.35 mg/kg DM), low-dose SeHLan group (SeHLan-L/+Vacc, 0.35 mg/kg DM), mid-dose SeHLan group (SeHLan-M/+Vacc, 1.0 mg/kg DM), and high-dose SeHLan group (SeHLan-H/+Vacc, 2.0 mg/kg DM). The puppies were fed for 42 days and vaccinated with Vanguard Plus 5 on day 0 and day 21. Blood samples were collected on 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42 days post-immunization (PI) for determination of antioxidant indicators, lymphocyte proliferation index, serum cytokine concentration (IL-2, IL-4), canine polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) phagocytic function, and the level of CPV antibody titers. The results showed that SeHLan supplementation raised the serum Se concentration and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in a dose-dependent manner ( P < 0.05 ). It also increased the activity of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and decreased serum malondialdehyde (MDA) content, especially in SeHLan-M/+Vacc group (1.0 mg/kg DM) ( P < 0.01 ). SeHLan supplementation significantly increased lymphocyte proliferation, IL-2, and IL-4 levels in canine serum, and enhanced phagocytosis of PMN in vaccinated puppies ( P < 0.05 ). Moreover, SeHLan supplementation shortened the CPV antibody production time and increased the CPV antibody titers ( P < 0.05 ). Of note, the beneficial effects of SeHLan were superior to those of SS. In conclusion, dietary SeHLan supplementation improved antioxidant activity, increased CPV antibody titers, and enhanced immune function in puppies after weaning. An appropriate dosage of SeHLan (1~2 mg/kg DM) may confer nutritional benefits in puppies.
... Voor 26 en 94 recepten van zelf-te-bereiden voeders voor katten waren de berekende gehalten 1,7 en 6,1 μg vitamine B12/MJ voor de mediaan en 0-30 en 0,1-83 μg/MJ voor het bereik (23,24). Ongeveer 30 van de 120 recepten hadden een B12-gehalte dat lager is dan de behoeftenorm. ...
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Vitamine B12 voor de kat Vitamine B12 (cobalamine) is een essentiële voedingsstof voor de kat. Tekort leidt tot groeivertraging en daling van de B12-concentratie in het bloed. De aanbevolen hoeveelheid vitamine B12 in kattenvoeding is niet solide vanwege gebrek aan dosis-respons onderzoek bij het doeldier. Voor de huiskat zijn voedingsgerelateerde B12-deficiëntie en-intoxicatie niet gerapporteerd. In 1924 lieten Minot en Murphy zien dat de symptomen van humane, pernicieuze anemie, oftewel kwaadaardige bloedarmoede als gevolg van chronische maagslijmvliesontsteking, verdwenen na dagelijkse toevoeging van runderlever aan een gevarieerde voeding (1, Noot 1). Ruim 20 jaar later werd uit leverconcentraten een rode, kristallijne stof geïsoleerd, die werkzaam was ter behandeling van pernicieuze anemie, maar ook fungeerde als bacteriële groeifactor, die vitamine B12 was genoemd (2, 3). In 1975 beschreven Keesling en Morris voedingsgeïnduceerde vitamine B12-deficiëntie bij de kat (4). De publicatie in abstractvorm meldt dat de groei van kittens op een semisynthetisch voeder zonder toegevoegd vitamine B12 stil viel, terwijl dit niet optrad bij verstrekking van hetzelfde voeder met B12-aanvulling. Door parenterale toediening van B12 werd de groeiremming hersteld. De hoeveelheden B12 die werden toegevoegd aan het controlevoeder en toegediend per injectie zijn onvermeld. Structuur en functie Het uiterst complexe B12-molekuul (cobalamine) wordt gevormd door een cobaltatoom, een ringstructuur met vier pyrrooleenheden en een nucleotide (Noot 2). De pyrroolonderdelen hebben korte koolstofketens, die eindstandig een keto-en aminogroep hebben. Het cobaltatoom, dat de ruimtelijke structuur van B12 stabiliseert en positioneert, kan gekoppeld zijn aan een cyanide-, deoxyadenosyl-, hydroxy-of methylgroep, zodat B12 vier chemische vormen heeft (5). Als co-factor is vitamine B12 vereist voor de aktiviteit van twee enzymen. Methionine synthase katalyseert de synthese van het aminozuur methionine, dat essentieel is als methyldonor in de stofwisseling. Methylmalonyl-CoA mutase is betrokken bij de omzetting van propionaat in glucose. Bij een B12-deficiëntie wordt methylmalonaat niet of in mindere mate omgezet en stijgt de concentratie ervan in bloed en urine (Noot 3). Absorptie Bij de mens zijn drie transporteiwitten betrokken bij de opname van vitamine B12 uit de voeding (5, 6). Het betreffende eiwit in speeksel bindt B12 in de mond. Tijdens de eiwitvertering in de maag en dunne darm wordt B12 overgedragen aan de intrinsic factor, dat beladen de darmwand passeert en vervolgens B12 overdraagt aan een transporteiwit in het bloed. Pernicieuze anemie is een type van vitamine B12-deficiëntie, die wordt toegeschreven aan onvoldoende intrinsic factor. De maag van de kat produceert geen intrinsic factor (7, 8), maar de pancreas doet dat wel (9). Via de alvleesgang bereikt de factor het eerste deel van de dunne darm en kan daar de opname van B12
... These changes in feeding practices are raising concerns about microbiological risks regarding owners and dogs when raw products are involved [19]. Furthermore, analysis of these recipes frequently showed several nutrients below recommendations [17] which can be extremely dangerous for some pets (Kitten, puppy, senior animals, cardiac dogs). Recently grain free diets has been linked to cardiac disease [1]. ...
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Background: Nowadays, more people are treating dogs as family members. This reflects their increased attention towards their nutrition, with renewed interest for non-conventional diets such as Biologically Appropriate Raw Food/ Bones and Raw Food in United States (BARF) or homemade. In previous studies, owners feeding their dog non-conventional diets reported lower levels of trust in veterinary advice. The aim of the study was to identify differences in lifestyle between owners feeding dogs non-conventional diets and those feeding conventional diets (i.e., dry/wet pet food) to give further insight for improving communication between veterinarians and owners. Results: A total of 426 surveys were usable. Fifteen percent of the participants lived in the metropole of Paris and had more than one dog (mean 1.72 dogs). Thirty-eight percent of the survey respondents stated that their dogs were fed exclusively with non-conventional diets, while 55% declared using conventional diets alone (not considering treats). The study canine population was for the most part neutered (63%) and purebred (68%). Amongst owners feeding conventional diets exclusively, 47% determined how much food to feed by consulting the feeding guidelines on the packaging, and only 28% said that the amount of food was prescribed by their veterinarian or veterinary nurse. Out of the participants feeding non-conventional diets, 65% declared that the information for formulating the recipes was gathered on the internet or in non-veterinary books. When compared with owners feeding exclusively conventional diets, those feeding non-conventional diets were living more frequently outside the metropole of Paris, had fewer children (0.23 ± 0.57 vs 0.37 ± 0.78; p = 0.03) and had more frequently other animals. They also dewormed less often their pets, walked their dog more each day (91 vs 78%; p < 0.001) and without leash for more than 6 h per week (46 vs 31%; p = 0.003). Conclusions: This survey described differences in the habits of owners feeding dogs non-conventional diets in comparison with those feeding conventional diets. Data suggest that owners using non-conventional diets may be more attentive to the ethological needs of their dog which could be a starting point for practitioners for achieving better client-veterinarian communication.
... Zn) leading to an increased absorption of Pb (Wismer 2013). According to Pedrinelli et al. (2017Pedrinelli et al. ( , 2019) micronutrient deficiency is commonly seen in home-cooked diets for dogs. Another possible explanation, considering that Pb accumulates in bone tissue (Fox 1987), is a higher intake of bone and bonemeal in mixed diet fed dogs. ...
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Obtaining correct amounts of essential elements, and avoiding toxic metals are key factors in dog health. Through analyzing major and trace elements in hair and blood of 50 healthy companion dogs using ICP-MS, we study their associations with dog characteristics and diet, hypothesizing that eating the same diet long-term results in strong correlations between hair and blood element concentrations, and that dog characteristics and diet affect element status. The correlation between hair and blood was significant for Hg (R = 0.601, p = 0.000) and Pb (R = 0.384, p = 0.010). The following associations were significant (p < 0.05): Dark hair had higher Ca and Mg compared to light hair. Females had higher hair Zn, blood Mn, and blood As compared to males. Blood Mn and Se increased, while blood Pb decreased with age. Raw diet fed dogs had higher hair Zn and Se compared to dry or mixed diet fed dogs, and lower blood Mn compared to dry diet fed dogs. Dry and mixed diet fed dogs had higher blood Cd compared to raw diet fed dogs. Mixed diet fed dogs had higher hair Ca and Mg compared to raw or dry diet fed dogs, and higher hair Pb compared to dry diet fed dogs. Wild game consumption was associated with higher blood Pb, and rice consumption with higher blood As. In conclusion, hair provides an alternative for assessing Hg and Pb exposure, and major and trace elements status is affected by hair color, sex, age, and diet.
... Noot 7. Voor 26 recepten van zelf-te-bereiden voeders voor katten waren de berekende vitamin Agehalten 109 μg retinol/MJ voor de mediaan en 0,4 tot 6.428 μg retinol/MJ voor het bereik (19). Negentien recepten leverden een vitamine A-gehalte dat lager was dan 126 μg/MJ. ...
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De kat en vitamine A Vitamine A is een essentiële voedingsstof voor de kat. Zowel een tekort als overmaat, gedurende langere tijd, veroorzaakt ernstige aandoeningen. Als zuivere stof is vitamine A zeer oxidatiegevoelig. Derhalve worden bij de productie van kattenvoeders gestabiliseerde preparaten gebruikt. In 1957, 35 jaar na de ontdekking van vitamine A in onderzoek bij ratten (1), werd door Gerschoff et al. (2) gepubliceerd dat het vitamine ook voor de kat een essentiële voedingsstof is. Twee tot drie maanden na verstrekking van een semisynthetisch voeder (Noot 1) zonder vitamine A, hadden jonge katten gewichtsverlies, licht roze tot rode uitvloeiing rond de oogleden en spierzwakte in de achterpoten. Tijdens een congres in 1964 sprak Sumner-Smith, dierenarts te Bristol, over voedingsgerelateerde problemen bij katten (3). Hij zei onder meer dat zijn voedingsadvies voor een kat vaak werd weggewuifd door de eigenaar met de reactie dat haar/zijn kat niets anders wil eten dan lever. In 1965 lieten Seawright et al. (4) zien dat een destijds bekende botaandoening bij katten, die veel runderlever aten, werd veroorzaakt door intoxicatie met vitamine A. Vitamines A en D Na een periode van 10 tot 17 weken op een voeder met varkensvet als enige vetbron stopte de groei van jonge ratten (5, Noot 2). De publicatie uit 1913 toont dat vervanging van varkensvet door een etherextract van boter, eieren of eidooier de groei herstelde, terwijl een etherextract van olijfolie dat niet deed. De groeifactor in boter en eieren werd later vetoplosbaar A genoemd, ter onderscheiding van wateroplosbaar B (cf. 6). Bij ratten beschermde groeifactor A behalve tegen groeivertraging ook tegen gebrekkige calciumafzetting in het bot (rachitis) en uitdroging van het oogbindvlies (xeroftalmie). In 1922 bleek dat de groeifactor uit twee vitamines bestaat (1, Noot 3). Na doorborrelen van groeifactor A met lucht trad groeivertraging en xeroftalmie op, maar geen rachitis. De oxidatiegevoelige en-ongevoelige component zouden als vitamines A en D bekend worden. Vitamine A en caroteen In 1932 werd de structuur van vitamine A opgehelderd (7). Retinol, de belangrijkste vorm van vitamine A in de voeding, bestaat uit 20 koolstofatomen met een ringstructuur aan één uiteinde en een hydroxylgroep aan het andere. Het retinolmolekuul bevat vijf onverzadigde bindingen waardoor het zeer oxidatiegevoelig is. Dit verklaart dat de retinolcomponent van groeifactor A werd geïnactiveerd door lucht. De opname van vitamine A bij de kat leek efficiënter op een vetrijk in plaats van vetarm voeder (2). Deze bevinding wordt verteringsfysiologisch ondersteund. De opname van het vetoplosbare retinol door de darm lift mee met de vertering en absorptie van voedingsvetten.
... De voorziening met vitamine D is berekend voor diverse typen van zelf-te-bereiden voeders voor honden (20)(21)(22)(23)(24). Voor 388 recepten waren het gemiddelde en bereik 0,46 en 0 -14 μg cholecalciferol/MJ. ...
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De kat en vitamine E. Vitamine E is een essentiële voedingsstof voor de kat. De basale behoefte wordt verhoogd door verrijking van de voeding met meervoudig onverzadigde vetzuren, in het bijzonder die van visolie. Een tekort aan vitamine E leidt tot steatitis: een ontsteking van onderhuids vetweefsel, gepaard gaande met verkleuring en verharding. In 1953 beschreven Cordy en Stillinger (1, Noot 1) "yellow fat disease" (steatitis of pansteatitis) bij twee, zes-maanden oude Siamese kittens van verschillende eigenaren. Vanaf spenen kregen ze blikvoeder en paardenvlees. De dieren waren anorectisch en sloom. Het onderhuids vetweefsel was opzichtig en stevig. De kittens stierven uiteindelijk in gedehydrateerde en uitgeputte staat. Bij autopsie bleek het vetweefsel van de kittens zeer stug en diepgeel tot oranje van kleur. Microscopisch onderzoek toonde infiltratie van witte bloedcellen (neutrofielen), wijzend op ontstekingsprocessen (1). Gezien de overeenkomst met reeds bekende steatitis bij nertsen, suggereerden de onderzoekers dat de kittens vitamine E-deficiëntie hadden, al dan niet versterkt door een mogelijke, hoge opname van meervoudig onverzadigde vetzuren (MOV). Vervolg op ziektegeval Een jaar later publiceerde Cordy (2) dat het verdachte blikvoeder onder gecontroleerde condities bij kittens steatitis veroorzaakte (Noot 2). Het commerciële voeder was dus de oorzaak. Cordy was ook in staat om subklinische, microscopisch-waarneembare steatitis te voorkómen door verrijking van het voeder uit blik met een vitamine E-preparaat (Noot 3). Na de eerste casuïstische mededeling in 1953 (1) zijn nog minstens 11 berichten verschenen over accidentele, voedingsgerelateerde steatitis bij katten (3-13). Het betrof steeds visrijk voedsel, als industrieel geproduceerd blikvoeder of samengesteld door de eigenaar. De eerste ziektegevallen waren geassocieerd met tonijnhoudend blikvoeder. Één kat werd gevoerd met varkenshersenen. De meest recent beschreven feliene steatitis, in relatie tot commercieel voeder, dateert van 2003 (13). Gecontroleerd onderzoek In vervolg op de voedertesten van Cordy (2) publiceerden Gershoff en Norkin in 1962 (14) eveneens over het anti-steatitis effect van vitamine E, maar gebruikmakend van semisynthetische voeders en met nadruk op de dosis-respons relatie in interactie met visolie. Het kleinschalige onderzoek vormt de basis voor de behoeftenormen aangaande de vitamine E-voorziening van de kat. Kittens van drie tot zes maanden kregen een vitamine E-vrij voeder, zonder of met tonijnolie en verschillende hoeveelheden vitamine E (14). Het basisvoeder bevatte 32% caseine, 20% varkensvet (vitamine E-vrij), 42,7% sucrose, 4% zouten, 1% kabeljauwleverolie en 0,3% choline.
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Choline in cat food It has been traditional to include choline with the B vitamins when it concerns cat nutrition (1). Choline is considered to be a conditionally required nutrient. Cats can synthesize choline, but the rate is thought to fall short under some, but undefined conditions (1). The cat's body needs choline, which is a component of phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) and acetylcholine. These two choline-containing compounds, respectively, are crucial for cell-membrane and nerve function. The recommended allowance of choline for both kittens and adult cats has been set (1) at 2550 mg per kg dry food (= 16.736 MJ metabolizable energy), or 152 mg/MJ. With the regular ingredients of industrially produced foods, the recommended choline allowance generally cannot be met. The various ingredient combinations do not provide the recommended amount. The same holds for home-made cat foods. To secure choline supply in the light of the allowance, most commercial cat foods are supplemented with choline chloride, as is shown by their ingredient lists. In essence, the recommended choline allowance of both kittens and adult cats is based on a small-scale study with young, growing cats. In that study, the growth response to different amounts of dietary choline was equivocal. It cannot be excluded that the choline allowance is overestimated, with its repercussion for choline supplementation of commercial cat foods. There is no evidence that the customary, supplemental amounts endanger feline health, but they may be excessive. Function and synthesis Mammalian cells need choline (2-hydroxy-ethyl trimethyl ammonium, C5H14NO +). The cat acquires choline from its diet and via de-novo biosynthesis. Choline of both exogenous and endogenous origin ends up in phosphatidyl choline (PC), which represents almost the entire body-choline pool. PC is a major lipid component of cell membranes. Some cellular choline occurs in phospholipids other than PC, in free form and in acetylcholine. Choline is synthesized by the liver through methylation of the ethanolamine moiety of phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE). The reaction yields PC and is catalysed by phosphatidyl ethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT), which is present in cats (2). Choline can be released from PC via the action of phospholipases. Another metabolic route of PC production uses free choline, either of metabolic or dietary origin (3). The PEMT reaction, or de-novo choline biosynthesis, utilizes methyl groups from S-adenosyl methionine (AdoMet). Availability of AdoMet is determined by dietary supply of methionine and its recovery from homocysteine, or methionine remethylation within the methionine-homocysteine cycle. That enzymatic methionine-recovery process requires vitamin B12 and folic acid for the methyl transfers. Thus, inadequate intake of either methionine, folic acid or vitamin B12 impairs de-novo choline biosynthesis, causing choline deficiency when dietary-choline supply is insufficient. Allowance and supply In 2006, the US National Research Council (1) has put the minimal requirement and recommended allowance of choline for growth of kittens after weaning and for maintenance of adult cats at 122 and 152 mg choline/MJ metabolizable energy. The amounts correspond with 2,040 and 2,550 mg
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Choline in dog food In 1933, some 70 years after the identification of choline (Note 1), Best and co-workers asserted that addition of choline to the diet prevented and cured accumulation of fat in the liver of insulin-treated dogs with experimentally-induced diabetes. The observation indicates that dietary choline can affect lipid metabolism, but is no proof that choline is an essential nutrient for dogs (Note 2). In fact, it is still uncertain whether choline is indispensable in the canine diet (cf. Note 2). For the mammalian body, choline is vital since it is a component of phosphatidylcholine and acetylcholine. Phosphatidylcholine, or lecithin, is a phospholipid and a major constituent of cell membranes and lung surfactant. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter: it is released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells, including brain, muscle and gland cells. In relation to dog nutrition, choline is traditionally included with the B vitamins (1). Choline is seen as a conditionally required nutrient. Dogs can synthesize choline, but the rate is thought to fall short under some, but undefined conditions (1). The recommended allowance of choline for both puppies and adult dogs has been set (1) at 1,524 mg per kg dry food (= 15 MJ metabolizable energy). Only selected petfood ingredients are high in choline. To secure choline supply, compared to the recommended allowance, most commercial dog foods are supplemented with choline chloride as is shown by their ingredient lists. The recommended choline allowance for dogs has a weak basis. The allowance is inferred from three, small-scale studies with growing dogs. The studies were carried out in the early 1940s. The purified diets used in those studies possibly did not facilitate optimum bodily choline synthesis, thus inflating the dietary choline requirement. In two experiments it was quite clear that addition of choline to the diet did not respond to the dogs' growth potential, pointing to some kind of nutritional inadequacy. More than half of 282 home-made diets for dogs had a calculated choline content that was considerably lower than the recommended choline allowance. A recipe for a home-made ration to raise puppies and maintain working dogs also had a much lower calculated choline content than the recommended allowance (Note 3). The recipe, which was published in 1942, had been tested and was selected as giving the best results. There are no indications that choline supply within its range of amounts in commercial and home-made dog foods have the potential to cause health problems (but see Note 4). On the other hand, the ideal level of choline supplementation is uncertain, including its necessity. Research that revisits the requirement of dietary choline in dogs would be of both practical and scientific use. Function and synthesis Choline (2-hydroxy-ethyl trimethyl ammonium, C5H14NO +) is absolutely necessary for mammalian cells. The dog acquires choline from its diet and via de-novo biosynthesis. Both exogenous and endogenous choline ends up in phosphatidyl choline (PC), which accounts for almost the entire body-choline pool. PC is a major lipid component of cell membranes. Some cellular choline occurs in phospholipids other than PC, in free form and in acetylcholine.
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Many dog owners see homemade diets as a way of increasing the bond with their pets, even though they may not have the convenience of commercial diets. Modifications of ingredients, quality and proportion might change the nutritional composition of the diet, generating nutritional imbalances. The present study evaluated how dog owners use and adhere to homemade diets prescribed by veterinary nutritionists over an extended period of time. Forty-six owners of dogs fed a homemade diet for at least 6 months were selected for the present study. Owners were invited to answer questions by first reading all possible answers and then selecting the one that best indicated their opinion. The results were evaluated through descriptive statistics. Thirty-five owners (76·1 %) found that the diets are easy to prepare. Fourteen owners (30·4 %) admitted to modifying the diets, 40 % did not adequately control the amount of provided ingredients, 73·9 % did not use the recommended amounts of soyabean oil and salt, and 34·8 % did not correctly use the vitamin, mineral or amino acid supplements. Twenty-six owners (56·5 %) reported that their dogs refused to eat at least one food item. All of these alterations make the nutritional composition of the diets unpredictable and likely nutritionally imbalanced. Although homemade diets could be a useful tool for the nutritional management of dogs with certain diseases, not all owners are able to appropriately use this type of diet and adhere to it for an extended period of time and this limitation needs to be considered when recommending the use of homemade diets.
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The goal of this article was to provide veterinary practitioners with an overview of the types of alternative dietary options available to pet owners and a practical method by which to evaluate the nutritional adequacy of these various options. Our approach to categorizing the alternative dietary options is based on the nutritional adequacy of these dietary options, because patients will be at risk for nutrition-related diseases if fed a nutritionally incomplete or improperly balanced diet long term.
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To quantify the impact on skeletal development of mistakes in the feeding regime of puppies, 90 cases from the last 3.5 years of the authors' nutrition consultation practice were reviewed. Symptoms of disorders of skeletal development were found in 79% of the puppies. The complete nutritional history was established to check and evaluate the food rations. A possible overfeeding with energy was proved by comparing the actual growth rate with the recommendation for each breed and age. The results demonstrate that an excessive growth rate is the most common problem in afflicted puppies (66%), followed by a distinct over supplementation with calcium (61%), a calcium supply below the recommendations was observed in 20% of the cases.
Book
Applied Veterinary Clinical Nutrition provides current, clinically relevant nutritional advice intended for use in daily canine and feline practice. Highly practical, the book emphasizes solutions for integrating nutrition into clinical practice, with introductory chapters covering the foundation and science behind the recommendations and extensive references for further reading. Written by a group of leading veterinary nutritionists, Applied Veterinary Clinical Nutrition is a valuable resource on the principles of animal nutrition and feeding practices in healthy or diseased dogs and cats. The book begins with an overview of basic nutrition, energy requirements, and the basics of product guides, pet foods, home-prepared diets and dietary supplements. Subsequent chapters delve into feeding the healthy dog and cat, nutrition for weight management, and nutritional principles for a variety of diseases, with the final chapters covering enteral and parenteral nutrition. Applied Veterinary Clinical Nutrition is a daily reference for veterinary practitioners, students, and residents seeking authoritative information on feeding animals. © 2012 by Andrea J. Fascetti and Sean J. Delaney, Illustrations by Catherine A. Outerbridge.
Article
A post hoc analysis of the metabolizable energy (ME) intake of privately owned pet dogs from the authors' nutrition consultation practice (Years 2007-2011) was carried out to identify if current ME recommendations are suitable for pet dogs. Data on 586 adult dogs were available (median age 5.5, median deviation from ideal weight 0.0), 55 of them were healthy; the others had various diseases. For ration calculation, a standardized questionnaire and the software diet-check Munich(™) was used. ME was predicted according to NRC (2006). Data were evaluated for the factors disease, breed, size, age, gender and type of feeding. The mean ME intake of all adult dogs amounted to 0.410 ± 0.121 MJ/kg metabolic body weight (BW(0.75) ) (n = 586). There was no effect of size and disease. Overweight dogs ate 0.360 ± 0.121 MJ/kg BW(0.75) , and underweight dogs ate 0.494 ± 0.159 MJ/kg BW(0.75) . Older dogs (>7 years, n = 149, 0.389 ± 0.105 MJ/kg BW(0.75) ) had a lower ME intake than younger ones (n = 313, 0.419 ± 0.121 MJ/kg BW(0.75) ), and intact males had a higher ME intake than the others (p < 0.001). Some breeds were above average: Jack Russell Terrier, Dalmatian, small Munsterlander and Magyar Viszla, Bearded Collies, Sight Hounds, German Boxers, English foxhounds, Rhodesian Ridgebacks and Flat-Coated Retrievers with a mean ME intake of 0.473 ± 0.121 MJ/kg BW(0.75) . The following breeds were below average: Dachshunds, Bichons, West highland White Terrier, Collies except Bearded Collies, Airedale Terriers, American Staffordshire terriers and Golden Retrievers with a mean ME intake of 0.343 ± 0.096 MJ/kg BW(0.75) . The mean maintenance energy requirements of pet dogs are similar to that of kennel dogs which do not exercise very much. These results suggest that opportunity and stimulus to exercise provided for pet dogs are lower than for kennel dogs. Lower activity in pet dogs may reduce part of potential effects of breed, medical history and age groups.
Article
A retrospective analysis of the metabolizable energy (ME) intake of privately owned pet cats from the authors' nutrition consultation practice (years 2007-2011) was carried out to test whether current recommendations are suitable for pet cats. Data of 80 adult cats (median age: 9.0 years, median deviation from ideal weight: +22.5%, majority neutered) at maintenance were available. Six percentage of the cats were healthy and the others were affected by various chronic diseases. A standardized questionnaire was used, cat owners weighed cat and food. For ration calculation, the software Diet Check Munich(™) was used (ME prediction according to National Research Council, 2006: Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats. National Academy Press, Washington, DC). Data were analysed for the factors deviation from ideal weight, breed, age, gender, disease and type of feeding [prepared food (dry, wet) vs. home-made]. Over- or underweight were defined as ≥15% deviation from ideal body weight (BW) according to Kienzle and Moik (British Journal of Nutrition 2011, 106, Suppl 1: S113). Cat owner's estimation of ideal BW was higher than literature data from Kienzle and Moik (2011). Based on literature data, 26.3% of the pet cats were normal weight, 63.7% overweight and 10% underweight. The mean ME intake of all adult cats amounted to 0.40 ± 0.14 MJ/kg actual BW(0.67) (n = 80). When the data were analysed according to normal, over- and underweight, there was a significant effect with normal weight cats eating 0.46 MJ/kg BW(0.67) . Underweight cats ate even more (0.49 MJ/kg BW(0.67) ), whereas overweight cats ate considerably less (0.36 MJ/kg BW(0.67) ). The other factors had no influence on ME intake of adult cats.
Article
To evaluate recipes of diets recommended for animals with chronic kidney disease (CKD), compare nutritional profiles for those recipes to requirements for adult dogs and cats, and assess their appropriateness for the management of CKD. Evaluation study. Recipes of 67 home-prepared diets promoted for use in dogs (n = 39 recipes) and cats (28) with CKD. Recipes were analyzed with computer software to determine calories, macronutrient calorie distribution, and micronutrient concentrations and were assessed for appropriateness for the management of CKD. Assumptions were required for the analysis of every recipe, and no recipe met all National Research Council nutrient recommended allowances (RA) for adult animals. Compared with RAs, concentrations of crude protein or at least 1 amino acid were low in 30 of 39 (76.9%) canine recipes and 12 of 28 (42.9%) feline recipes. Choline was most commonly below the RA in both canine (37/39 [94.9%]) and feline (23/28 [82.1%]) recipes; selenium (34/39 [87.2%] canine and 9/28 [32.1 %] feline recipes), zinc (24/39 [61.5%] canine and 19/28 [67.9%] feline recipes), and calcium (22/39 [56.4%] canine and 7/28 [25.0%] feline recipes) concentrations were also frequently below recommendations. The median phosphorus concentration in canine and feline recipes was 0.58 and 0.69 g/1,000 kcal, respectively. Many problems with nutritional adequacy were detected, and use of the recipes could result in highly variable and often inappropriate diets. Many recipes would not meet nutritional and clinical needs of individual patients and should be used cautiously for long-term feeding.