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Abstract and Figures

Investigations were carried out to study the effect of treated pineapple leaf fibre (PALF) on the mechanical properties and water absorption behaviour of reinforced polyester composites. PALF was extracted from pineapple plant using wet retting method. Chemical treatment was carried out on it to hinder water content and enhances good adhesion between fibre and matrix. Both the matrix and the fibre were compounded using hand lay-up method at room temperature. The samples were prepared for tensile test, flexural test, hardness test and water absorption test. It was observed that as the fibre content increases within the matrix, there is corresponding increase in the ultimate tensile strength and modulus of elasticity while there was decrease in the elongation at break. Flexural strength, flexural modulus and hardness properties of the developed composites increase linearly from 10 wt% to 30 wt% fibre loading and begin to decrease from 40 wt% fibre loading. The results of the water absorption test showed that the amount of water absorbed by the composite increased with increase in fibre loading. Keywords Adhesion, Composites; Mechanical behaviour; Fibre; Miscibility; Hand lay-up method
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Leonardo Journal of Sciences
ISSN 1583-0233
Issue 30, January-July 2017
p. 15-30
15
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Mechanical properties and water absorption behaviour of treated pineapple
leaf fibre reinforced polyester matrix composites
Oluyemi Ojo DARAMOLA1*, Adesoji ADEDIRAN2, Benjamin Omotayo ADEWUYI1, and
Olamigoke ADEWOLE1
1Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of
Technology, PMB 704, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria
2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Landmark University, Omu-Aran,
Kwara State
E-mails: *ojaythompsoms@yahoo.com, dladesoji@yahoo.com,
tayo_adewuyi@yahoo.com, adewoleolamigoke@gmail.com
*Corresponding Author phone: +2348166814002
Abstract
Investigations were carried out to study the effect of treated pineapple leaf
fibre (PALF) on the mechanical properties and water absorption behaviour of
reinforced polyester composites. PALF was extracted from pineapple plant
using wet retting method. Chemical treatment was carried out on it to hinder
water content and enhances good adhesion between fibre and matrix. Both the
matrix and the fibre were compounded using hand lay-up method at room
temperature. The samples were prepared for tensile test, flexural test, hardness
test and water absorption test. It was observed that as the fibre content
increases within the matrix, there is corresponding increase in the ultimate
tensile strength and modulus of elasticity while there was decrease in the
elongation at break. Flexural strength, flexural modulus and hardness
properties of the developed composites increase linearly from 10 wt% to 30
wt% fibre loading and begin to decrease from 40 wt% fibre loading. The
results of the water absorption test showed that the amount of water absorbed
by the composite increased with increase in fibre loading.
Mechanical Properties and Water Absorption Behaviour of Treated Pineapple Leaf Fibre Reinforced
Polyester Matrix Composites
Oluyemi Ojo DARAMOLA, Adesoji ADEDIRAN, Benjamin O. ADEWUYI, and Olamigoke ADEWOLE
16
Keywords
Adhesion, Composites; Mechanical behaviour; Fibre; Miscibility; Hand lay-
up method
Introduction
Natural fibres are produced from renewable resources, they are biodegradable and
relatively inexpensive compared to the traditionally used synthetic fibres [1]. Fibres of this
type are beginning to find their way into commercial applications such as in automotive
industries and household applications, for example, hemp and flax, are successfully used as
packaging material, interior panels in vehicles, and building components, among others. In
addition, natural fibres like banana, sisal, hemp and flax, jute, coconut, local fibres and oil
palm have attracted technologist and scientist in consumer goods, low costs housing and other
civil structures [2]. There are many plant fibres available which has potential to be applied in
industries as raw materials such as pineapple leaf fibre, kenaf, coir, abaca, sisal, cotton, jute,
bamboo, banana, Palmyra, talipot, hemp, and flex [3].
Pineapple leaf fibre (PALF) is one of the waste materials in agriculture sector. After
banana and citrus, pineapple (Ananas comosus) is one of the most essential tropical fruits in
the world [4]. Commercially pineapple fruits are very important and leaves are considered as
waste materials of fruit that is being used for producing natural fibres. The chemical
composition of PALF constitutes holocellulose (7082%), lignin (512%), and ash (1.1%).
Pineapple (PALF) has tremendous mechanical properties and can be applied in making of
reinforced polymer composites [5], low density polyethylene (LDPE) composites, and
biodegradable plastic composites. Physical and mechanical properties of composites like
viscoelastic behaviour processing, tensile strength, flexural strength, and impact are
dependent on length of fibre, matrix ratio, and fibre arrangement [6].
The main drawback PALF is hydrophilic nature; it does not make good bonding with
hydrophobic matrix, particularly at high temperatures [7]. Interfacial quality between PALF
and polymer could be enhanced by using chemical treatments like dewaxing, treatment with
NaOH, cyanoethylation, and grafting of acrylonitrile monomer onto dewaxed PALF [8].
Moreover, the surface modification by chemicals like sodium hydroxide (NaOH), 2,4-
dinitrochlorobenzene, benzoyl peroxide (BPO), and BPO/acetylation can minimize water
Leonardo Journal of Sciences
ISSN 1583-0233
Issue 30, January-July 2017
p. 15-30
17
absorption and improves the mechanical properties [9]. The moisture absorption of
chemically modified PALF-reinforced LDPE composites shows considerably less moisture
content [10]. Bonding agent resorcinol (reso), hexamethylenetetramine (Hexa), and silica
have good affinity for PALF-natural rubber (NR) and exhibits better adhesion [11].
An automotive component using natural fibres was designed and have proved to be
effective reinforcement as simple fillers in thermoplastic and thermoset matrix composites for
automotive sectors [12]. A number of investigations have been conducted thereafter on
several types of natural fibres such as kenaf, hemp, flax, bamboo, and jute to study the effect
of these fibres on the mechanical properties of composite materials [13].
Extensive research has been carried out on the mechanical behaviour of polypropylene
composite reinforces with pineapple leaf fibre [14]. The research shows that the fibre lacks
compatibility with hydrophobic matrix, the fibre surface was therefore treated with alkaline
solution to increase it adherent property with the matrix. Their result shows an increase in the
strength of the composites.
Chicken fibre and cow hair was also used to reinforce high density polyethylene and it
was found that the impact properties of the chicken feather fibre reinforced composites are
significantly better in terms of strength than the control [15]. His result shows that as the fibre
content in the composites increases, the flexural strength of the composite reduces.
Chicken feather and quail was also used to reinforce polyester and vinyl ester and it
was found that the impact properties of the chicken feather fibre composite increases as the
feather content of the polymer increases [16].
Polyester is a synthetic fibre derived from coal, air, water, and petroleum. It is used in
the manufacture of many products, clothing, home furnishings, industrial fabrics, computer
and recording tapes, automobile bumpers and electrical insulation. Polyester has several
advantages over traditional fabrics such as cotton. It does not absorb moisture, but does
absorb oil; this quality makes polyester the perfect fabric for the application of water-, soil-,
and fire-resistant finishes [17].
However, Polyester have some limitations which includes; high thermal expansion,
poor weathering resistance, subject to stress cracking, difficult to bond and poor temperature
capability, low tensile strength, brittle. These limitations can be improved on by adding
natural fibre to its product during production. This will enhance its properties such as impact
strength, flexural strength, tensile strength and hardness and water adsorption property [18].
Mechanical Properties and Water Absorption Behaviour of Treated Pineapple Leaf Fibre Reinforced
Polyester Matrix Composites
Oluyemi Ojo DARAMOLA, Adesoji ADEDIRAN, Benjamin O. ADEWUYI, and Olamigoke ADEWOLE
18
The use of natural fibres such as sisal, coir, jute, ramie, pineapple leaf and banana leaf
fibre have been emphasised to be used as replacement for glass or other traditional
reinforcement material in composite. The use of natural fibre is attractive because of its
environmental friendly characteristics such as abundance, low cost, low density,
biodegrability, flexibility during process, minimal health hazard, readily available and
flexural high modulus [19].
The aim of the research was to study the mechanical and water absorption behaviour
of Pineapple leaf reinforced Polyester Matrix composite.
Material and method
The materials used for this work are: unsaturated polyester resin, ethyl ketone
peroxide and cobalt napthalate supplied by Pascal integrated limited at Akure, Ondo, State,
Nigeria, and urea and sodium hydroxide also supplied by Pascal Integrated Limited and
pineapple leaf fibre extracted form pineapple leaf.
Extraction of pineapple leaf fibre
The fibre was extracted from pineapple leaf using wet retting method. The pineapple
leaf was scratched in other to remove the waxy layer from its surface. The scratched
pineapple leaf was immersed in urea solution for seven days. The urea solution was prepared
by dissolving 20 g of urea into 1000 ml of distilled water. The pineapple leaf was removed
after the seventh day of immersion. The fibre was removed from the pineapple leaf with
finger, washed and dried in the sun for 24 hours.
Chemical treatment of pineapple leaf fibre
Prior to composite preparation, the fibre was treated with sodium hydroxide solution
in other to improve the surface property of the pineapple leaf fibre. Sodium hydroxide (2M)
was dissolved in distilled water and pineapple leaf was immersed for 2 hours at 70°C in water
shaker bath. The fibre is further dried in an air blast oven at a temperature of 60°C and stored
in a dry environment for composite preparation.
Production of polyester/pineapple leaf fibre composites
The composite was prepared by hand lay-up method. 1g of accelerator and hardener
Leonardo Journal of Sciences
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Issue 30, January-July 2017
p. 15-30
19
was added to 200 g of polyester resin (mixed ratio 200:1:1). They are mixed thoroughly to
form gel. For tensile specimen, half portion of the tensile mould was filled with the polyester
gel and pre-determined proportion of chopped pineapple leaf fibres were arranged
continuously on the gel, then, the remaining gel was poured to fill up the mould; for flexural
specimen, predetermined proportion of the chopped fibres were mixed thoroughly with the
gel and poured into the mould. The casts were allowed to cure for 20 mins at room
temperature before being stripped from the mould and further curing for 14 days before
testing. Several samples with varying fibre content (0, 10 wt%, 20 wt%, 30 wt%, and 40 wt%)
were prepared as shown in Table 1.
Table 1. Composite samples formulation table
Sample
Designation
Fibre
length
(mm)
Weight of
Fibre
(wt.%)
Weight of
Catalyst
(g)
Weight of
Accelerator
(g)
A (0 wt.% PALF)
-
-
-
-
B (10 wt.% PALF)
186
10
1
1
C (20 wt.% PALF)
186
20
1
1
D (30 wt.% PALF)
186
30
1
1
E (40 wt.% PALF)
186
40
1
1
Mechanical test
The composites cast samples were prepared for tensile test, flexural test and micro
hardness test
Tensile test
Tensile tests were performed on Instron 1195 at a cross head speed of 10mm/min. the
samples were prepared for this test according to ASTM D638 and tensile strength of neat
polyester and PALF/Polyester composite samples were determined. At the beginning of the
tensile test, the specimen elongates and the resistance of the specimen increases which was
detected by a load cell. This value was recorded until a rupture of the specimen occurred. The
tensile strength, percentage elongation and young modulus of elasticity were calculated using
equations 1-3 respectively.
)thicknessoriginal)(wigthoriginal( breakatload
strenghtTensile
(1)
Mechanical Properties and Water Absorption Behaviour of Treated Pineapple Leaf Fibre Reinforced
Polyester Matrix Composites
Oluyemi Ojo DARAMOLA, Adesoji ADEDIRAN, Benjamin O. ADEWUYI, and Olamigoke ADEWOLE
20
100
lengthgaugeinitial ruptureatelongation
elongation%
(2)
lengthgaugeinitial genttanonintpoatelongation )thicknessoriginal)(widthoriginal( breakatload
ulusmodYoung
(3)
Flexural test
Flexural strength is the combination of tensile strength and compressive strength. The
tests were done on a universal testing machine. The specimens were prepared according to
ASTM D790 with dimension 127mm × 13mm × 4mm. the specimens were tested flatwise on
a support span resulting span to depth ratio of 16. This means the span is 16 times greater than
the thickness of the specimen. The specimen was then placed on two support spans fixed at
100mm.
Hardness test
The hardness of the neat polyester and PALF/polyester composites were measured
with the aid Brinell hardness tester (INDENTEC, 2007 model) with ASTM D2240. The
samples were indented following the various fibre compositions in the composites. The
reading on the machine was noted and recorded.
Water absorption test
Water absorption tests were carried out following the recommendations specified in
ASTM D5229M-12. Samples of each composite grade were oven dried before weighing in
accordance with ASTM D5229M-12. The weight recorded was reported as the initial weight
of the composites. The samples were then placed in rain water maintained at room
temperature (25 °C) and at a time interval of 24 hours, the samples were removed from water,
dried and weighed. The weight measurement was taken periodically for 336 days which was
after water saturation in all the composites had been noticed. The amount of water absorbed
by the composites (in percentage) was calculated using equation 4.
100
WWW
W%
o
ot
(4)
Leonardo Journal of Sciences
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Issue 30, January-July 2017
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where W is percent water absorption, Wo and Wt are the oven dried weight, and the weight of
the specimen after time t, respectively.
Graphical plots of weight gained-immersion time and percent water absorption-
immersion time for all the composites were produced and utilized to study the water
absorption behaviour.
Results and discussion
The results of the stress-strain curve, variation of ultimate tensile strength, variation of
modulus of elasticity, variation of percentage elongation at break, variation of flexural
strength, variation of flexural modulus, variation of hardness, water absorption curve, and
variation of water absorption behaviour of neat polyester and PALF/polyester composites
were plotted using excel and kaleida software and are shown in Figures 1-9 respectively.
Tensile properties of neat polyester and the developed composite
Figure 1 revealed the stress- strain curve of PALF/Polyester Composites tested at a
cross head speed of 50mm/min. It was observed from the curve that the tensile strength of the
composites increases with increase in the PALF weight fraction.
Figure 2 shows the variation of the ultimate tensile strength for neat Polyester and
PALF/Polyester composites. The ultimate tensile strength of the neat polyester is 5.11 MPa. It
was observed from the results that the strength of composites increases linearly from 10 wt.%
PALF/Polyester composite to 40 wt. % PALF/Polyester composite where the optimum value
of 29.19 MPa was observed. The incorporation of treated PALFs into polyester matix at
weight fraction of 40 wt.% produced the increase in ultimate tensile strength by about 471%.
The general improvement in the ultimate tensile strength of the treated PALF/ Polyester
composites is attributed to the enhancement of fibre-matrix interaction and more effective
transfer of stress [20].
Mechanical Properties and Water Absorption Behaviour of Treated Pineapple Leaf Fibre Reinforced
Polyester Matrix Composites
Oluyemi Ojo DARAMOLA, Adesoji ADEDIRAN, Benjamin O. ADEWUYI, and Olamigoke ADEWOLE
22
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
0 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05
Stress (MPa)
Strain (mm/mm)
Neat Polyester
10 wt.%PALF/Polyester
20 wt.%PALF/Polyester
30 wt.%PALF/Polyester
40 wt.%PALF/Polyester
Figure 1. Stress- strain curve of neat polyester and PALF/Polyester composites
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
010 20 30 40
Ultimate Tensile Strength (MPa)
PALF wt.%
Figure 2. Variation of ultimate tensile strength of neat polyester and PALF/Polyester
composites
Young’s Modulus of Elasticity for Neat Polyester and PALF/Polyester Composites
and illustrated in figure 3. The neat polyester have Young’s Modulus of Elasticity of
464.55MPa; on increasing the PALFs the modulus values also increases linearly from 10 wt%
PAFL weight fraction to 40 wt.% PALF weight fraction. Addition of 40 wt.% PALF
enhanced the modulus of elasticity of the composite to 766.92 MPa which is about 65 %
increase when compared with the neat polyester matrix. The increase in the Young’s Modulus
can be attributed to the fibre surface treatment, which allowed strongest adhesion at the fibre-
matrix interface; the alkanization of PALF increases the fibre strength by the enhancement of
the orientation in the cellulose chain [21].
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0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
010 20 30 40
Young Modulus of Elasticity (MPa)
PALF wt.%
Figure 3. Variation of modulus of elasticity of neat polyester and PALF/Polyester composites
Percentage elongation at break values denotes the maximum extension of the samples
while in tension. The elongation at break values depends on the fibre/matrix interaction.
Figure 4 revealed the variation of the percentage elongation of neat Polyester and PALF/
Polyester composites is 65.37%. From engineering point of view, percentage elongation at
break is an important parameter describing the rupture behaviour of the composite materials.
The addition of PALF to polyester matrix reduces its percentage elongation from 65.37% at
0 wt.% PALF weight fraction to 9.09 % at 40 wt.% PALF weight fraction. This can be
attributed to the stiff fibre that was introduced to the polyester matrix which interrupted the
polyester segment mobility and thus turning the thermoset to be more brittle.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
010 20 30 40
Elongation at Break (%)
PALF wt.%
Figure 4. Variation of percentage elongation at break of neat polyester and PALF/Polyester
composites
Mechanical Properties and Water Absorption Behaviour of Treated Pineapple Leaf Fibre Reinforced
Polyester Matrix Composites
Oluyemi Ojo DARAMOLA, Adesoji ADEDIRAN, Benjamin O. ADEWUYI, and Olamigoke ADEWOLE
24
Flexural properties of neat polyester and the developed composites
Flexural strength is the ability of the material to withstand the bending forces applied
perpendicular to its longitudinal axis. Figure 5 presents the variations of flexural strength of
neat polyester and PALF/Polyester composites. The flexural strength of the neat polyester is
25.11 MPa; it was observed from the plot that the flexural strengths of PALF/Polyester
composites increase with increase in PALFs loading upto 20 wt.% fibre loading and begin to
decrease gradually from 30 wt.% - 40 wt.% PALF loading. At 20 wt.% fibre loading, the
flexural strength of the composite is 31.19 MPa which about 24% increase when compared
with the flexural strength of neat polyester matrix. Generally, in the case of composites, the
resistance to interlaminar failure controls the flexural properties. Therefore, high flexural
strengths of composite are due to better interfacial adhesion of at the fibre-matrix interface,
which is a result of the chemical treatment of the PALF that enhanced the fibre-matrix
interaction and thereby increased the interfacial bond strength and allowed strongest adhesion
at the interface [21]. The decrease in the flexural strength at higher fibre loading ( 20 wt.% in
this case) is as a result of non-uniform stress transfer due to PALFs touching each other
within the matrix. Similar report was made for jute reinforced polyester amide fibres [22].
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
010 20 30 40
Flexural Strength (MPa)
PALF wt.%
Figure 5. Variation of the flexural strength of neat polyester and PALF/Polyester composites
Figure 6 shows the variation of the flexural modulus of neat Polyester and
PALF/Polyester composites. Flexural modulus is used as an indication of a material’s
stiffness when flexed. It is well known that the improvement in the modulus depends on the
morphology of composites [23]. From the plot, the flexural modulus of the neat polyester
matrix is 500.55 MPa. The flexural modulus of the composites follows the same trend with
Leonardo Journal of Sciences
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Issue 30, January-July 2017
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25
the flexural strength, there was gradual increase in the modulus from 10 wt.% - 20 wt.% fibre
loading and begin to decrease as from 30 wt.% - 40 wt.%. The optimum value for
PALF/Polyester composite is 704.59 MPa which is about 40.76% obtained at 20 wt.% fibre
loading. The reduction in the flexural modulus at higher fibre loading is a result the fibres
touching each other which resulted into stress concentration at the tips of PALFs within the
matrix.
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
010 20 30 40
Flexural Modulus (MPa)
PALF wt.%
Figure 6. Variation of flexural modulus of neat polyester and PALF/Polyester composites
Hardness properties of neat polyester and the developed composites
Hardness is the resistance of a material to surface indentation. Figure 7 revealed the
hardness of the neat polyester and PALF/Polyester composites. It was observed that the
addition of fibre to polyester increases the hardness property up to 30 wt% after which there is
reduction in the hardness at higher fibre loading (40 wt%). At the point where there is high
proportion of fibre reinforcement loading with respect to the matrix, the fibres begin to touch
each other which resulted into stress concentration at the tips of the fibres thereby reducing
the hardness of the developed composites. This result correlates with [15]; in their research,
they studied the mechanical properties of chicken feather and cow hair fibre reinforced high
density polyethylene composites and observed that there was reduction in the mechanical
properties of the composites developed at higher weight fraction of the chicken feather and
cow hair fibre.
Mechanical Properties and Water Absorption Behaviour of Treated Pineapple Leaf Fibre Reinforced
Polyester Matrix Composites
Oluyemi Ojo DARAMOLA, Adesoji ADEDIRAN, Benjamin O. ADEWUYI, and Olamigoke ADEWOLE
26
82
84
86
88
90
92
94
96
98
100
010 20 30 40
Hardness (HB)
PALF wt.%
Figure 7. Variations of the hardness of neat polyester and PALF/Polyester composites
Water absorption behaviour of neat polyester and the developed composites
Composites were immersed in distilled water at room temperature for about 336 hours.
The weight gains curves and the bar-chart as a function of time and water absorption curve
are shown in Figures 8-9. Each point on the curve is an average of three samples of each
specimen composition of the composite. It was observed from the graph that the water
absorption by the composite increases with immersion time although the rate of absorption
decrease with increased time. It was also observed that the composite attains equilibrium after
336 hours. The amount of water absorbed increases with fibre content. The water absorption
property of PMCs reinforced with natural fibres and their derivatives is dependent on the
amount of the fibre, fibre orientation, immersion temperature, area of the exposed surface to
water; also the permeability of fibres, void content, and hydrophilicity of the individual
components (in this case the PALF and the polyester matrix) [24]. In the case of the
composites produced, exposure to water makes the hydrophilic PALF to swell. As a result of
fibre swelling, micro cracking of the polyester occurs particularly along the fibre/matrix
interface which gives room for further water penetration. The the swelling stresses that
develop under these circumstances can result in composite failure [25]. The 40 wt.%
composition of the fibre has the highest maximum water absorbed. The fibre content
contributes to its absorptivity rate. At the beginning, it absorbs water at an increased rate
before it attains the maximum, the rate drops drastically until reaches saturation point. The 40
wt.% of the fibre attains saturation earlier than the rest specimen.
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-0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
050 100 150 200 250
Weight gained (g)
Time (hrs.)
0 wt.% PALF/ Polyester
10 wt.% PALF/ Polyester
20 wt.% PALF/ Polyester
30 wt.% PALF/ Polyester
40 wt.% PALF/ Polyester
Figure 8. Water absorption curve for neat polyester and PALF/ Polyester composites
0
0,05
0,1
0,15
0,2
0,25
0,3
0,35
010 20 30 40
Water Absorption (%)
PALF wt.%
Figure 9. Variations of water absorption behaviour of neat polyester and
PALF/Polyester composites
A flowchart showing the extraction and development of polyester/PALF composites is
presented in Figure 10.
Conclusion
The results of this study showed that a useful composite with good properties could be
successfully developed using treated pineapple leaf fibre as reinforcing agent for polyester
matrix. The following conclusions can be drawn:
1. The ultimate tensile strength and the young’s modulus of elasticity of PALF/Polyester
composites increase linearly with increase in the fibre weight fraction.
Mechanical Properties and Water Absorption Behaviour of Treated Pineapple Leaf Fibre Reinforced
Polyester Matrix Composites
Oluyemi Ojo DARAMOLA, Adesoji ADEDIRAN, Benjamin O. ADEWUYI, and Olamigoke ADEWOLE
28
Pineapple leaf
(PAL)
Removal of Fibre from
PAL
Immersion of PAL in
Urea for seven days
Washing and
drying of PALF
for 24 hrs.
Chemical treatment
of PALF with
NaOH solution
Chopping of fibres into
equal length
Oven drying of
treated PALF
Cooling of
PALF at room
temperature
Composites Testing
(Mechanical and water
absorption tests)
Polester/PALF
Composite production
by hand layup
technique
Scratching of
PAL
Figure 10. Flowchart showing the extraction of PALF and development of Polyester/PALF
Composites
2. There was reduction in the percentage elongation of PALF/Polyester composites and the
fibre weight fraction increases
3. The optimum flexural strength and flexural modulus were obtained at 20 wt.% PALF
while the optimum hardness value was obtained at 30 wt.% PALF.
4. The amount of water absorbed by the composites increases with increase in the PALF
weight fraction.
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Mechanical Properties and Water Absorption Behaviour of Treated Pineapple Leaf Fibre Reinforced
Polyester Matrix Composites
Oluyemi Ojo DARAMOLA, Adesoji ADEDIRAN, Benjamin O. ADEWUYI, and Olamigoke ADEWOLE
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... However, there is a level over which increase in fibre fraction decreases the strength due to poor bonding (Madueke & Bolasodun, 2017;Njoku et al., 2011;Tezara et al., 2016). From the literature, the internal bond strength of neat cured polyester is 5.11 MPa (Daramola et al., 2017), but when compared with composite reinforced with particles, the strength decreased (Rodrigues et al., 2011). Similar results were obtained in this study. ...
... From raw material values, the moisture content of waste papers was much lower than those of leather shavings; thus, this could also have contributed to poor bonding in the case of leather wastes. This is in agreement with a study by Daramola et al. (2017). When paper was mixed with leather shavings, 75:25 paper to leather ratio exhibited the highest tensile strength and could be attributed to high bonding sites with the polyester resin as leather particles were in low levels. ...
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The demand for particleboard has been increasing over the years. Currently, most particleboards are produced from wood which may not be sustainable in the long term. Therefore, there is need of exploring alternative materials such as making particleboards from waste materials. This study investigated the mechanical properties of particleboard consisting of waste leather shavings and waste papers blended together by unsaturated polyester. A single-layered particleboards were manufactured using compression method. Different resin contents (60%, 70%, 80%, and 90%) and leather/paper ratios (100:0, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25) were used to determine the effects on the mechanical properties (internal bond, bending strength, compression, and impact strength) of fabricated boards. From the results of this study, it was found that leather shavings and waste papers can be used as alternative raw materials for particleboard production and that mechanical properties were depended on the resin content and the blend ratio. Also, mechanical properties were reduced with resin content increment, except for impact strength, and improved by high paper blend ratio. It could be concluded that the produced particle panels could be used for indoor application or interior equipping. Additionally, it is recommended that further studies can be done on morphological analysis to establish the bonding between the particles and matrix.
... Researchers have also suggested that coir can be used for many structural and non-structural uses as a possible reinforcement tool. Daramola et al. [14] mechanical properties and absorption of water of the natural composites. They observed that as the fiber content increases inside the lattice, there is an increase in the definitive rigidity and modulus of flexibility. ...
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Natural fiber-reinforced composites are getting progressively predominant because of low-cost and high specific characteristics fiber. These are non-abrasive and biodegradable materials. The composites of natural fibers have unique properties compared with traditional composites of fiber. The main objective of the present study is the utilization of jute and coir fibers if reinforcement material for the fabrication of natural composites. To characterize the composites and develop a better understanding of these composites, the physical and mechanical properties of these composites are evaluated to find hardness, flexural and tensile properties of the jute/coconut coir reinforced polymer matrix composite. It is found that the composite with the composition of 85% jute and 15% coconut provides higher tensile strength because of the higher wt % of the jute fiber. The composite with a composition of 50% jute and 50% coconut coir fiber behaves like semi brittle and ductile as it contains 50/50% jute and coconut fiber. Hence, from this study, it was concluded that composite specimens are fundamentally more durable than pure coir specimens.
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Pineapple (Ananas comosus) leaf fibers (PALF), as a by-product of one of the largest productive systems in the agro-industrial field, appear as very promising for use in composites and for prospective applications in a number of fields, such as building and automotive. Despite these perspectives, the practical uses have been quite limited so far. This work investigates on this mismatch between the proposals and the concrete realization, suggesting that a number of options have been explored, yet limitations to industrialization are substantial at the moment. Considerations for overcoming this issue will include the disposition of fibers in the composite, the development of new matrices, the formation of hybrids and the interest of high added-value industrial and applicative sectors.
Chapter
Agro-waste fibres (AWFs) are of very reasonable economic value and have attracted a lot of research interest globally. AWFs have significant potential in composites due to low cost, high strength, environmental benign nature, availability, and sustainability. Nevertheless, dozens of the investigations have failed to give the desired attention of the fire behaviour of AWF composite materials when exposed to heat atmosphere. In this chapter, a detailed account of AWF composite material combustion process was discussed to understand the reason for the high heat release rates (HRR) caused by cellulosic content. HRR is a critical component of the flammability properties of AWF composite materials as the fire behaviour largely depends on it. The prospective examination of AWF composite material fire behaviour gives the required direction about the limits of their utilization and developmental trends for future industrial applications in Nigeria.
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Natural fibers are preferably used as a raw material in wood-plastic composites (WPC) due to their availability and low cost. However natural fibers composite need to be treated to enhance the properties before being used in the production of the composites. In this research, alkaline treatment was applied to the seaweed fibres. It is expected by alkaline treatment will improve the physical and mechanical properties of the seaweed/polypropylene (SW/PP) blend composites. The techniques used for making this composite are using extrusion and hot-pressing techniques. The results show that SW/PP composite after undergoing alkaline treatment has a low percentage of water absorption of the composites compared to untreated SW/PP composite. The greater value of melt flow resistance (MRF) in untreated SW/ PP composites shows the presence of waxy and cellulose elements and makes the composites easier to flow in the melt indexer. The tensile strength of composites is measured greater with a value 0.1944 MPa in treated SW/ PP composites compared to 0.1311 MPa in untreated SW/PP composites. Besides, the impact strength of the untreated SW/ PP composites measured low energy of 28.9910 J/m in contrast with the treated SW/PP composites that achieved a greater value of the energy 59.5800 J/m. The analysis of these data shows that alkaline treatment improves the properties of natural fibers in the composite.
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This study reviews the various techniques used in the preparation and processing of waste-wood fibre/particle reinforced polymer matrix composite with special interests on mechanical and structural applications. Polymer composite materials are being used in a wide range of structural applications such as construction, safety wears, aerospace and automotive industries owing to their lightweight, high specific stiffness and strength. A number of materials are being used ranging from lower performance of glass fibre/polyester used in small sail boats and domestic products to high performance of carbon fibre/epoxy systems used in military aircraft and spacecraft. In recent years, many studies have been dedicated to utilize organic fillers such as coconut shell, coir, wood, pineapple leaf, cow bone, palm kernel shell, rice husk. As fillers in order to replace synthetic fillers through utilization of natural fillers or reinforcement in thermoplastic and thermoset polymer composites in an attempt to minimize the cost, manage waste-wood, increase productivity and enhance mechanical properties of composites. Waste-wood as reinforcing fillers in plastics, in place of the previously used inorganic substances and synthetic fibres, offer a major benefit in terms of environmental protection. The benefits offered by waste-wood over synthetic fibres are low densities, non-abrasive, non-toxic, high stiffness and specific properties.
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Nowadays, eco-friendly, renewable, and biodegradable biocomposites are among the most intensely sought materials of choice. Biocomposites have been widely used as substitutes for plastics due to their biodegradability. However, biocomposite materials absorb water and ultimately loss mechanical properties that affect service life. In this work, a biocomposite material with superhydrophobic surface was prepared by reinforcing waste polypropylene with sisal (Agave sisalana) fibers. The biocomposite was prepared by mixing waste polypropylene and sisal fiber with 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% fiber loading. Based on characterization results, the composite with 15% fiber content is considered as optimum ratio. Physicochemical properties of composites were evaluated using standard American Society of Testing Materials including biodegradability test and chemical resistance test. The biodegradability of the composite before surface modification was determined by calculating weight loss and found to be 0.11%, 4.62%, 7.15%, and 10.97% for 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% fiber loadings, and their tensile strength was 10.25±0.05, 14.47±0.02, 14.48±0.02, and 19.90±0.09 MPa for 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% fiber content, respectively. The surface of the composite was modified for hydrophobicity by etching the surface with chromic acid followed by treating with stearic acid. The FTIR and the SEM images of unmodified and modified (superhydrophobic) surface of composites clearly state the significant difference in chemical composition and surface structure, respectively. The superhydrophobicity of the surface-modified biocomposite was defined by its self-cleaning and low wet ability properties.
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In claim of developing ecologically-friendly and low cost polymeric materials, some polymer scientists and engineers have focused on improving the properties of polymer composites with natural fibers. One typical example of these natural fibers currently used as reinforcements in low load-bearing polymer composites is bovine fiber which is traditionally a waste from slaughterhouse. However, nature has designed natural fibers with anisotropic properties which may not augur well for the development of polymer composites with guaranteed field-proven reliability. Nonetheless, unlike vegetal fibers, most animal fibers can be alternatively exploited for keratinous applications. In the present study, the tensile properties, crude protein contents and variations in elemental distribution of hair fibers obtained from three breeds of bovine found in Nigeria were investigated. The hair fibers were characterized by ultimate testing machine, proximate analysis and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Superlative Young's modulus and tensile strength among the fibers were found to be 0.98989 GPa and 0.56158 MPa, respectively. The determined crude protein contents of the fibers ranged between 35% and 40%. Also, single hair fibers from each bovine breed showed significant variations in elemental distribution along their longitudinal sections which translates to anisotropic chemical and mechanical properties. However, the mean spectral values of the principal elements that constitute amino acids in the fibers are in the same range with that of human hair fibers with a successful record of keratinous applications.
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The effect of extraction by soil retting and chemical treatment on the mechanical properties of sisal fibre reinforced polyester composites was investigated. The sisal fibre was extracted by soil retting method followed by chemical treatments. Treatments were carried out on the fibre at an elevated temperature of 70°C for 2 hours with 2 molar solutions each of NaOH, KOH, H2O2 and Ethanol. Both treated and untreated fibres were used to develop the sisal fibre reinforced polyester composites in predetermined proportions after which they were tested for mechanical properties. From the results, it was observed that, KOH treated fibre reinforced polyester composite followed by Ethanol treated fibre samples gave the best results. KOH treatment was observed to enhance the tensile and hardness properties of the polyester composites than other treatments.
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Natural fibre based composites are under intensive study due to their eco-friendly nature and peculiar properties. The advantage of natural fibres is their continuous supply, easy and safe handling and biodegradable nature. Although natural fibres exhibit admirable physical and mechanical properties, it varies with the plant source, species, geography etc. Pineapple leave fibre (PALF) is one of the abundantly available wastes materials of Malaysia, has not been studied yet as it is required. A detailed study of chemical, physical and mechanical properties will bring out a logical and reasonable utilization of PALF for various applications. From the socio-economic prospective, PALF can be a new source of raw material to the industries and can be potential replacement of the expensive and non-renewable synthetic fibre. However, few study on PALF have been done describing the interfacial adhesion between fibres and reinforcement compatibility of fibre but a detail study on PALF properties is not available. In this review, author covered the basic information of PALF and compared the chemical, physical, and mechanical properties with other natural fibres. Furthermore, it summarizes the recent work reported on physical, mechanical and thermal properties of PALF reinforced polymer composites with its potential applications.
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This work was carried out to study comparatively the reinforcement efficiency of cow bone and cow bone ash particles in polyester matrix composites in order to consider the suitability of the materials as biomaterial. Cow bone was procured from an abattoir, washed with water and sun dried for 4 weeks and a portion was burnt. The bone ashes and un-burnt bone portions were pulverized separately using the ball mill. Sieve analysis was carried out on the pulverized bone ash and bone particles into particle sizes of 75μm, 106μm and 300μm. Composite materials were developed by casting into tensile and flexural tests moulds using pre-determined proportions of 2, 4, 6, and 8 wt % for both the cow bone and cow bone ash. The samples after curing were striped from the moulds and were allowed to further cure at room temperature for 3 weeks before tensile and flexural tests were performed on them. The tensile test results showed that bone particles reinforced composites have the best tensile properties except in Modulus of elasticity where bone ash particles reinforced composite samples have higher values while the flexural test showed that bone ash particle reinforced samples has the best flexural properties. Keywords: cow bone and ash, polyester, composites, mechanical properties, biomedical
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Purpose: The objective of this study is to utilise and evaluate the mechanical properties of the chicken feather quill and fibre reinforced vinylester and polyester composites. Design/methodology/approach: Prior to production of the composites, the chicken feather fibres (CFF) were cleaned, tested and analyzed in terms of physical properties; linear density and tensile behaviour. The unidirectional CFF reinforced composites were produced with vinylester and polyester resins with three fibre reinforcement loadings (2.5, 6, 10wt%). Following experiments were conducted to determine physical properties of the control (0%) and CFF reinforced composites; tensile, flexural and Charpy impact testing. Findings: It was found that the impact properties of the CFF reinforced composites are significantly better than the control composites however both the tensile and the flexural properties of the CFF reinforced composites have poorer values compared to the control composites. For the 10% CFF reinforced vinylester composite, Charpy impact value was 4.42 kgj/mm 2 which was 25% higher than the control vinylester composites (3.31 kgj/mm 2) and also for the 10% CFF reinforced polyester (4.56 kgj/mm 2) composite had three times better impact resistance than the control composite (1.85 kgj/mm 2). Practical implications: The CFF reinforced composite have potential applications due to its improved impact behaviour. Originality/value: If the poultry waste can be utilised and used any engineering applications they will be preferred due to low-cost and superior characteristics and the most importantly they will not cause ecological and health problems.
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Silica containing immobilized nanosilver (Ag-SiO2) or nanocopper (Cu-SiO2) was used as a filler for high-density polyethylene (HDPE). The HDPE/Ag-SiO2 and HDPE/Cu-SiO2 composites were prepared by melt blending and injection molding. The microstructure of the composites was examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystallization behavior and thermal properties were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TGA). The mechanical properties were characterized by tensile, flexural, and impact tests as well as dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The ability of silica to give antimicrobial activity to HDPE was also investigated and discussed. The TEM images indicate that Ag-SiO2 show lower degree of agglomeration than Cu-SiO2 nanoparticles. The crystallization temperature increased, whereas crystallinity decreased in the composites. The thermal stability of the composites was significantly better compared to HDPE. Improved stiffness indicating very good interfacial adhesion was observed. Excellent activity against different kinds of bacteria was found.
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A literature review of the development, mechanical properties and uses of pineapple leaf fibre (PALF) reinforced polymer composites is presented in this paper. The mechanical properties of PALF composites as determined by various researchers are discussed, together with chemical, thermal and physical properties. Both thermosetting and thermoplastic resins have been used as matrices for PALF composites. Most of the work surveyed used short PALF. Manufacturing methods such as injection moulding, hand lay up and compression moulding were usually employed for making composite samples.
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In this paper we report chemical modifications such as alkali treatment, diazocoupling with aniline, crosslinking with formaldehyde, p-phenylene diamine and combined crosslinking cyanoethylation imparted onto an agrowaste, "pineapple leaf fiber" (PALF). The parent and chemically modified PALF have been characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. The per cent moisture regain, mechanical strength and behavior to common chemical reagents have also been tested. The modified fibers showed significant hydrophobicity, improved mechanical strength and good chemical resistance.
Article
Effects of water absorption on the flexural properties of kenaf-unsaturated polyester composites and kenaf/recycled jute-unsaturated polyester composites were investigated. In the hybrid composites, the total fiber content was fixed to 20 wt%. In this 20 wt%, the addition of jute fiber varied from 0 to 75%, with increment of 25%. The result demonstrates the water absorption and the thickness swelling increased with increase in immersion time. Effects of water absorption on flexural properties of kenaf fiber composites can be reduced significantly with incorporation of recycled jute in composites formulation. The process of absorption of water was found to approach Fickian diffusion behavior for both kenaf composites and hybrid composites.
Article
This paper is an attempt to examine the commercial signficance of an agro-waste “Pineapple Leaf Fibre” (PALF) which is rich in cellulose, relatively inexpensive and has the potential for polymer reinforcement. The quality enhancement of PALF has been tried through different surface modifications like dewaxing, alkali treatment, cyanoethylation and grafting of AN onto dewaxed PALF. The present study investigated the mechanical propeties like tensile, flexural and impact behavior of PALF-reinforced polyester composites as a function of fibre loading and fibre surface modification. The mechanical properties are optimum at a fibre loading of 30 wt%. Among all modifications, 10% AN grafted PALF composite exhibited maximum tensile strength (48.36 MPa) whereas cyanoethylated PALF composite exhibited better flexural and impact strength, i.e., 41% and 27% more than the control (detergent washed composite) respectively. Scanning electron microscopic studies were carried out to understand the fibre-matrix adhesion.