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Influence of 1960’s Hippie Counterculture in Contemporary Fashion


Abstract and Figures

In our fashion history hippies were the first ever culture who introduced both terms together. To create sustainable fashion for the wearer is a big issue for both fashion designer and industry. In recent years, many designer’s and industries are trying to develop the sustainable fashion but it is so expensive. Now a day’s many young designers are doing up cycling nevertheless its very few of the mass market. Maximum time’s people think that for becoming sustainable clothes a garment should be organic fiber made & it should be prepared from recyclable item. But they forget the other terms of sustainability like environmentally friendly, public acceptance & how does it survive in the mainstream modern society’s fashion. In this research, discuss about the impact on modern fashion trend from 1960’s hippie fashion culture. In the recent years many world renowned fashion designers like Dior, Alberta Feretti, Balmain, Emilio Pucci& Valentino got their inspiration from 1960’s hippie fashion. The main output of this research is the connection/relation between Sustainable fashion and Hippie fashion. After analysis from those term the author combined a collection by inspired from hippie fashion can be used as a sustainable fashion for ready to wear market.
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School of Fashion, Wuhan Textile University, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China
School of Management, Wuhan Textile University, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China
History is extremely involved with fashion. Each decade has witnessed many changes. The fashion of post-
World War 2 is still prevailing in our modern fashion. Hippie counterculture has introduced the modern fashion with
some popular terms, style & design. In our fashion history, hippies were the first ever culture who introduced the uses of
second hand clothes in contemporary fashion. Second hand clothes are a part of recycling & sustainability as well. In this
research, we discuss about the impact of modern fashion trends which inspired from 1960’s hippie fashion culture. In the
recent years, many world renowned fashion designers like Dior, Alberta Feretti, Balmain, EmilioPucci & Valentino got
their inspiration from 1960’s hippie fashion. And hippie attires are very prominent in readiness to wear fashion. The
main output of this research is the connection/relation between Sustainable fashion and Hippie fashion. After analysis,
the author created a fashion collection inspired from hippie fashion which can be used for ready to wear market.
KEYWORDS: Hippie Fashion, 1960’s Fashion, Contemporary Fashion, Ready to Wear Market
Received: Jun 10, 2017; Accepted: Jun 25, 2017; Published: Jul 01, 2017; Paper Id.: IJTFTAUG20172
In fashion history, every culture has its own identity and originality. Over the past decades, each country
is witnessed of different cultures and they gave birth to numerous cultures in different periods of time. Behind the
scene of this culture, mostly young people were playing a vital role & they made it popular in our mainstream
society & contemporary fashion. Among those cultures, hippie’s culture is one of them & it is very rich in its own
eminence. The hippies were against the mainstream culture & they created their own style by their own way of life.
Though they were against the mainstream fashion, but their established culture, style & fashion is still prevailing in
our contemporary fashion. Still, it has a huge impact in our modern fashion, especially to the young generation.
During the hippie era, they don’t only establish their specific originality they also established the freedom, free
love, sex & the power of youth through music, traveling & so on. In the recent years, the term sustainability or to
create a sustainable clothes for the wearer is arisen in our fashion industry. And many designers & organizations
around the world they already have started to work on it. But it is not enough to fulfill the mass demand. For
establishing the sustainable fashion, we should focus on all the elements of sustainability, which already exist in
our surroundings. For example, local handicrafts, handloom, garments wastage & second hand clothes.
Consequently, if we focus on all the elements those I mentioned before then it will be easy to create a sustainable
fashion market for the wearer & we can fulfill our mass market demand. Along with we can establish a sustainable
environment for our local craftsman In this research study is mainly based on the find out the term of sustainable
Original Article
International Journal of Textile and
Fashion Technology (IJTFT)
ISSN (P): 2250-2378; ISSN (E): 2319-4510
Vol. 7, Issue 4, Aug 2017, 11-20
© TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.
Abdullah Jaman Jony, Md. Asiqul Islam, Tanzila Tabassum
Mustary Akter Jhumu
& Md. Eanamul Haque Nizam
Impact Factor (JCC): 4.9864 NAAS Rating: 2.94
fashion in hippie fashion. Especially the main objective of this research study is to focus on the sustainable fashion &
hippie fashion & then show some sustainable design inspired by the hippie culture.
Background of the Research
There are few people who know little about hippie culture & their movement. There are also a few groups of
people who only know about the hippie people & who look like hippies. But most of the people are unknown about the
hippie culture & their lifestyle & how they established their opposite lifestyle in our mainstream society. Before I was also
one of them & I was only familiar with the term of hippie. When I have started to read about the hippies then I have found
that they have a strong relation to sustainable fashion. Then I have decided to run through with this topic & I have found
some detailed evidence about the hippie subculture. Worldwide the industry of textiles & clothing value is over $1 trillion
& ranked the second largest economic sector. This sector is becoming the causes of pollution, as well. Every year the
textile & garment factories wastage and old clothes are producing maximum filth and polluting our air, soil & water. The
garment wastage, including dyeing & finishing chemical, cutting edge fabrics are mainly damaging our whole
environmental system. But, we cannot stop producing the clothes. Clothes is one of those basic needs of a human being
without it, demographics can’t exist in this modern civilization. Mostly, fast fashion is responsible for regarding this issue
& it makes huge dumps. Though fast fashion is responsible for waste or pollution on the other hand, it also has a recycling
process & second hand use. By its recycling procedure & sustainability, it has a huge & positive support to our global
environment. Therefore, we can do less pollution if we do the recycling for the mass market. Only the recycling process of
second hand clothes it cannot be fulfilled the target market along with if we give more privilege to our local handicrafts &
craftsman then we can establish a sustainable market & we can make sustainable clothes for the wearer.
Significance of the Research
The significance of this research is to find out the term of sustainability from the hippie fashion. And then to make
some sustainable clothes inspired by hippie era. On the other hand, the main purpose of this research study is to introduce
the fashion history (1960’s Hippie Culture) along with present most discussed topics (Sustainable Fashion). In this
globalized world, it is really a big challenge to produce sustainable clothes for fulfilling the mass market demand. The
practice of making sustainable clothes has been started already. In the recent years, many world class designers already
showcased their sustainable design towards the world. In 2007 the world’s first green fashion week was held & designers
for example Versace, Calvin Klein & Yves Saint Laurent showcased their eco-friendly collections & set up the different
trends in contemporary fashion. Designer Stella McCartney introduced her first animal friendly concept in the year 2001.
Though these designers or brands are concerned about green or sustainable fashion, but their product is very expensive it’s
not affordable for mass people. On the other hand, some fast fashion brands such as H&M, SVILU & others are producing
a limited edition of sustainable clothes. Since 2006 the Japanese brand UNIQLO took an initiative that all product
recycling & they already have started to donate the reuse clothes to the refugee camps. The concept of recycling &
sustainable fashion got popularity during the 1960’s hippie era. The hippies were conscious about the reuse of second hand
clothes & handicrafts. So this paper is based on the fashion history & sustainability. And find also detailed information of
hippie era as well as to define the some example of sustainable fashion. The final goal of my thesis is to make some
fashionable clothes by using handicrafts, second hand denim & hippie inspired digital print fabric.
Influence of 1960’s Hippie Counterculture in Contemporary Fashion 13
History & Origins of 1960’s Hippie Counterculture Movement
Counterculture of 1960’s
The expression of the counterculture is to express the opposite reaction to the running cultural mores through the
different way of lifestyle. The 19th & 20th century is the witnessed of rise & fall of many cultures. During this period in
America & Europe many cultural groups were formed. Such as Romanticism, Bohemianism, Beat Generation & the 1960’s
Hippie movements are notable. These all were the counterculture. All countercultures were opposite of the main culture &
they were against of repression, but they had a widespread consensus in a certain point. And that was they all came out
from the majority culture, broke the all bumps of society & established their own way of living, art, literature, music,
religion belief & freedom in love & sex. Post World War 2 era the world witnessed the many changes than before. Such as;
environmental movement, women’s right, civil rights movement, liberation in love & sex, liberation from language &
overall liberation for alternative way of life. Among all of these vital countercultures of fashion history hippie was also a
most important counterculture of the 20th century. The first hippie counterculture emerged in Germany during the period
of 1896 to 1908. After that it was widely appeared in some cities of America in 1960’s & spread out all over the world very
rapidly also drew the attention of the young generation of that time. During that period America was involved in the
Vietnam War, Civil Rights Movement was occurred & ended by World War 2. Mainly these things were encouraged them
to be clamorous in America. When the hippies arose in America’s contemporary culture in 1960’s, they were disappointed
with the cultural mores that had settled in America after the World War 2. Then they removed them from the post-world
war culture of America. They were against the Vietnam War, clamorous about their civil rights, very generous about
sexuality (homosexuality & Tran sexuality upraised) & free in love. In the era of counterculture they had own towns where
they gathered & lived communally. So the hippie counterculture left the ownership identity for American’s that had
separated them from the other nations. During that period America went through many ups and downs of cultural as well as
social movements.
Figure 1: Some Example of 1960’s Hippie Fashion Trend
Figure 2: Saint Laurent Spring Summer 2015
This figure shows that the inspiration obviously related with hippie style. The fun and colorful prints on her dress
brought her entire outfit to life
Abdullah Jaman Jony, Md. Asiqul Islam, Tanzila Tabassum
Mustary Akter Jhumu
& Md. Eanamul Haque Nizam
Impact Factor (JCC): 4.9864 NAAS Rating: 2.94
Figure 3: Roberto Cavalli Spring Summer 2017 RTW
Flares, long drifty dresses, floral printed pants, neck scarves, and fringe in hem line these all brought a total hippie
Figure 4: Emilio Pucci S/S 15
A blend of 60’s with tie-dyed slip dress, fringed poncho, flared dress, braless & high knee suede shoes.
Figure 5: Alberta Ferretti S/S 2015 RTW
A total expression of feminism & romanticism. Flowy, bohemian chic dresses, fringe, sleeveless coats, slip
dresses, jumpsuit with floral embellishment, further details, sandals & moccasins gave a complete taste of hippie chic.
Influence of 1960’s Hippie Counterculture in Contemporary Fashion 15
At present in our fashion industry, the word of sustainability has been rising very strongly for many reasons.
Rapid growth of garment factories, huge demand of fast fashion, non-developed working environment, increasing amount
of garment wastage in addition to less use of crafts are some of the reasons. And the practice of sustainability in fashion
has already been started since 1980’s. Many fashion brands, designers & some organizations have come forward regarding
this issue. And the practice of sustainability in fashion has already been started since 1980’s. Among all of our basic needs
clothing is the second major requisite that indicates our personality & makes us fashionable. Now, it’s a matter of making
it sustainable. Mostly people think that sustainable fashion means reuse of second hand clothes or unused garments. But
the field of sustainability is elaborate. This process has been started since yarn production & design. The making process is
very important to be sustainable. So in this phase, we have to think about all process like good working environment,
proper waste management, maintain a proper distribution channel, use more renewable energy than natural resources, make
sure the re-use of second hand clothes or unused garment. Huge demand of fast fashion industry's aggression is increasing
day after day. On the other hand, recycling process of second hand clothes is very low, few numbers of green factory, more
usage of water & pesticides during cotton production. We should give more preference to our local crafts and craftsman.
Because crafts are the best example of sustainability. Its environment friendly & there is a very less usage of industrial
machine also usage of recycling.
Types of Sustainability Regarding the Sustainable Fashion
Up cycling
Sustainable fiber
Up cycling
In the recent years, the term up cycling has got huge popularity in the fashion industry through the designers.
There is little difference between up cycling & recycling. The meanings of both words are same. Both are carrying same
features when we make something new from unused, used or unwanted things. But up cycling is carried a little bit different
meaning than recycling. In the recycling process, there is a further use of energy & chemical, whereas up cycling has no
use of those procedures. It’s totally a green process. It reduces the garbage in addition to this procedure a product has got
rebirth. It’s also alleviated the sufferings of the huge number of manpower Up cycling is a stage of sustainable fashion. It is
a process of any product without degrading or destroying its existence & creates something beautiful, better quality &
useful product than before. Not only clothes it can be anything. For up cycling just need the creativity & a good design
sense. It’s also economical. In this process nothing is thrown away. After all the meaning of up cycling is, make something
different & useful than previous one or represent an old/used object like existing features but in a fashionable way.
Abdullah Jaman Jony, Md. Asiqul Islam, Tanzila Tabassum
Mustary Akter Jhumu
& Md. Eanamul Haque Nizam
Impact Factor (JCC): 4.9864 NAAS Rating: 2.94
Figure 6: Sustainable Design of Old Clothes By Up Cycling
Though the term first coined by Reiner Pilz in 1994. Later in the term has known widely by Michael Braungart &
William McDonough in their book Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things, in 2002. But this practice has
been started long before. During the World War 1 & 2 period many families repaired & mended their clothes & fit it for
family members. In Bangladesh our mom & grandparents, they make a hand stitched clothes from their used & old Sari
(Bangladeshi women’s traditional clothes). It’s called Katha. They do lots of hand stitched artwork onto it. It has a variety
of usage sometimes as a bed sheet, sometimes as a table clothes, but mostly used in sleeping time instead of rugs especially
in summer season. Katha is a traditional example of up cycling. At present, many designers & organizations have already
been started this practice. Now people can think otherwise before throwing their garments, shoes, accessories & other
household materials. The huge popularity of it is, now everyone can design. Housewives are turning their rags into floor
mat, table clothes & rugs instead of buying new ones. A short on cash students are turning their old pair of shoes, jeans &
other clothes into fashionable something by adding rips, extra pocket, few seams & other design detailing.
Figure 7: Bangladeshi Handicraft Nakshi Katha Made From Old Clothes
Though hippies were drug addicted or rejected contemporary culture, fashion, their established counterculture is
still prevailing in our current fashion trend. Recycling the old clothes is an important part of sustainable fashion The term
recycling got wide popularity during the 1960’s hippie era. When American society was going through many social,
cultural & political phenomenons, Hippies were against the urbanization & industrialization. They were economical. They
preferred to buy their clothes from flea market & they were comfortable in wearing the second hand clothes. Mostly they
sewed their own garments & mended it clumsily by themselves. Since, patchwork, hand stitch, second hand clothes & flea
market refer the sustainability, hippies were sustainable in fashion.
Influence of 1960’s Hippie Counterculture in Contemporary Fashion 17
The author tries to develop a new look of 1960’s hippie fashion. In this collection, the author tries to follow the
modern trend for the selection of fabric, color and ornaments.
Inspiration: 1960’s Hippie Fashion and Sustainable fashion.
Abdullah Jaman Jony, Md. Asiqul Islam, Tanzila Tabassum
Mustary Akter Jhumu
& Md. Eanamul Haque Nizam
Impact Factor (JCC): 4.9864 NAAS Rating: 2.94
Fabric Sample
Figure 12: Fabric Sample for Preparing the Dress
Here, most of the fabric had been selected according to WGSN fashion trend of SS 2017. Most of the fabric is
woven fabric.
Color Movement
Figure 13: According to WGSN Report for SS 2017
Figure 14: Accessories Is the Key Elements of Hippie Dresses
Influence of 1960’s Hippie Counterculture in Contemporary Fashion 19
Final Dress Sample
Figure 15: Final Dress Collection for Fashion Week-2017
Wuhan Textile University Post Graduate Fashion Show-2017
Figure 16: Post Graduate Fashion Show-2017at 31
may, 4.00 pm
Fashion is variable & it’s like a cycle. Fashion history is the great source of inspiration for new design & trend.
By analyzing the hippie culture we have found its positive & negative impact towards the fashion & current fashion trend
as well. From this study, we can differentiate the sustainability of hippie culture. As well as we have known that how to
create a sustainable fashion for the mass market, also we have got some important information why fast fashion is
unsustainable & its sustainability. The final result of this research will be designed some garments according to the hippie
chic & represent some sustainable clothes. The sustainable garments will be made from handicraft & unused clothes.
Abdullah Jaman Jony, Md. Asiqul Islam, Tanzila Tabassum
Mustary Akter Jhumu
& Md. Eanamul Haque Nizam
Impact Factor (JCC): 4.9864 NAAS Rating: 2.94
Therefore the research is based on the past & present of fashion.
The authors are very much grateful for school of Fashion, for the lab facility to prepare a full set of the dress for
graduation fashion show. Special thanks to Prof. Cheng Wei, School of Fashion & Wuhan Textile University, Hubei
Province, Wuhan, China-43200 for supporting us to complete this research.
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The aim of the present study was to produce a blend of bacterial cellulose (BC) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) from the combination of pure BC membranes and 30% PHB in acetic acid. Clove essential oil (CLO) was then added as an antimicrobial agent. BC membranes were produced from Gluconacetobacter hansenii in a modified Hestrin–Schramm medium containing corn steep liquor. The scanning electron microscopic analyses revealed a visible white lining on the BC surface due to the deposition of PHB. Other analyses such as oil permeability, flexibility, and water solubility, which showed no trace of oil permeation through the films, resistance to folding (more than 100 times), and hydrophobicity, respectively, demonstrated the improvement of the material due to the blend of the polymers. When compared with the pure PHB polymer membrane, the addition of the essential oil led to a substantial reduction of 65% in microbial growth and better mechanical and thermal properties, since the traction resistance value increased by 3.9 times while the maximum degradation rate was 10°C higher. The new material, composed of BC/PHB with the addition of CLO, has attractive properties for use as a biocompatible, biodegradable, active food packaging wrap.
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Fast fashion is the much talked issue in the fashion arena in fashion world. The clothing which are stylish, low cost and reproduce the present luxurious fashion trend, that reflect the desire of the young people are the elements of fast fashion. This paper attempts the marketing, recycling and environment issues of fast fashion as per the requirement of the globalised situation. As fast fashion changes fast by the fast response, it makes huge dumps in the market and to finds out the new products. The rate of disposability affects the second hand market for the recycling of the product by reuse of other group of people. On the other hand, disposability of fashion products and it recycling process has a positive impact for the global environment for its sustainability. Fast fashion has created a second hand fashion industry by its disposability, recycling and marketing where it has a huge yearly turnover for capital investment. In has a great contribution to the global economy as well. The research is on the basis of the thoroughly study with the reading materials from different sources, mainly academic literature, research articles, conference and seminar articles, Master's and Doctoral thesis, dissertations. A qualitative research method approach has been adopted for this research. For the convenience of the reader and future researchers, Analysis and Findings have done in the same time.
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The phrase “fast fashion” refers to low-cost clothing collections that mimic current luxury fashion trends. Fast fashion helps sate deeply held desires among young consumers in the industrialized world for luxury fashion, even as it embodies unsustainability. Trends run their course with lightning speed, with today’s latest styles swiftly trumping yesterday’s, which have already been consigned to the trash bin. This article addresses the inherent dissonance among fast fashion consumers, who often share a concern for environmental issues even as they indulge in consumer patterns antithetical to ecological best practices. Seemingly adept at compartmentalism, and free of conflicted guilt, such consumers see no contradiction in their Janus-faced desires. Can luxury fashion, with ostensibly an emphasis on authenticity, and its concomitant respect for artisans and the environment, foster values of both quality and sustainability? Since individual identity continually evolves, and requires a materially referential re-imagining of self to do so, we hypothesize that actual rather than faux luxury brands can, ironically, unite the ideals of fashion with those of environmental sustainability.
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The study identifies some milestones of the civilized environment in different societies (buildings, facades, lightings), by focusing on the aesthetic components of the civilized environment. The study offers innovative suggestions for fashion design by organizing the aesthetic components of the civilized environment. These are formed in constructive ways that are commensurate with the dimensions of structural design by using computer. The most important results include: First, demonstrate the ability to achieve new designs through the aesthetic components available in the civilized environment. Second, Show how enriched the civilized environment is with artistic aesthetics that have been utilized as a source of inspiration in the field of fashion design. Finally, Design a collection of new invented fashions by using computer; which lead to diversity in forms, colors, and re-organized civilization elements.
As the economy continues to develop and natural resource is reducing, the concept of green eco-design is deeply rooted. Because clothing is essential of human to survive, clothing recycling is the most useful expression of green design methods being used in the area of clothing. This paper has a study on the performance of clothing recycling techniques and innovative design combined with the concept of green design, also elaborates the significance and value of clothing recycling.
A Study of The Environment And The Creative Process of The Designer For Use in The Aesthetics of The Textile Painting
  • A Mohammed
Mohammed, A., A Study of The Environment And The Creative Process of The Designer For Use in The Aesthetics of The Textile Painting, Journal of Arts and Sciences, Vol.12 No.1 (2000) 66-67.
A Practical Guide to Sustainable Fashion, Fairchild Books, ISBN 9782940496143
  • A Gwilt
Gwilt, A.; A Practical Guide to Sustainable Fashion, Fairchild Books, ISBN 9782940496143, New York, (2014)
Fast Fashion, Sustainability, and the Ethical Appeal of Luxury Brands. Fashion Theory Mother and Daughter Styles 1960s fashion Opposition to the Vietnam War by the young and an age of social protest— led to new, radically different youthful clothing styles, Retrieved from https
  • John A F Joy
  • Sherry
  • Jr
  • Wang A Venkatesh
Joy. A, John F. Sherry, Jr, Venkatesh. A, Wang. J and Chan. R(2012). Fast Fashion, Sustainability, and the Ethical Appeal of Luxury Brands. Fashion Theory, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp. 273–296 DOI: 10.2752/175174112X13340749707123 11. 1950s, Mother and Daughter Styles 1960s fashion Opposition to the Vietnam War by the young and an age of social protest— led to new, radically different youthful clothing styles, Retrieved from 12. A passion for fashion Popular clothing styles over time, Retrieved from 13. Hopkins (1968).