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Objectives: Amid public health concern that rising pornography use may have a negative impact on young people's health and wellbeing, we report prevalence of pornography viewing and explore factors associated with viewing frequency and age at first viewing. Methods: Cross-sectional online survey in a convenience sample of Victorians aged 15 to 29 years recruited via social media. Results: Ever viewing pornography was reported by 815 of 941 (87%) participants. The median age at first pornography viewing was 13 years for men and 16 years for women. More frequent pornography viewing was associated with male gender, younger age, higher education, non-heterosexual identity, ever having anal intercourse and recent mental health problems. Younger age at first pornography viewing was associated with male gender, younger current age, higher education, non-heterosexual identity, younger age at first sexual contact and recent mental health problems. Conclusions: Pornography use is common and associated with some health and behavioural outcomes. Longitudinal research is needed to determine the causal impact of pornography on these factors. Implications for public health: Viewing pornography is common and frequent among young people from a young age and this needs to be considered in sexuality education.
2017 Online Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 1
© 2017 The Authors
Pornography use may be a public
health concern. The rapid growth of
the internet, smartphones and social
media among young Australians means
that pornography use is common and the
average age at rst pornography exposure
has declined in recent years.1 Reports from
the early and mid-2000s showed that
rates of lifetime exposure to pornography
were 73–93% for adolescent boys and
11–62% for adolescent girls in Australia.1,2
Qualitative research indicates that many
young Australians believe pornography use is
ubiquitous among their peers,3 despite laws
prohibiting people under 18 years of age
viewing pornography.4
A key public health concern regarding trends
in pornography exposure is that pornography
may aect the sexual socialisation of young
people by inuencing their understanding
of which sexual behaviours and attitudes
are normative, acceptable and rewarding.5
Although pornography use may be
viewed positively and oers an avenue for
exploration of one’s sexuality,6,7 pornography
often depicts behaviours that many adults
do not perceive as mainstream, nor consider
enjoyable, and/or are high risk in terms
of sexual health. For example, in online
pornography only 2–3 % of heterosexual
encounters involve condom use.8,9
There is a growing body of literature
describing the potential impact of
pornography on sexual health, sexual
behaviour and mental health.10 Young
people have reported using pornography
as a form of sexual education, such as
incorporating pornography-inspired practices
into their real life sexual experiences.11,12
For example, qualitative research indicates
that some young women feel pressured
to engage in anal intercourse, which is
depicted in 15–32% of pornographic
scenes with heterosexual encounters,8,9 and
many attribute this pressure to their male
partners’ pornography use.13 Internationally,
longitudinal research has found that early
exposure to pornography, and more frequent
exposure, are both associated with initiation
of sexual behaviours at younger age among
adolescents.14,15 A recent systematic review
showed an association between pornography
consumption and sexual risk behaviours
among adult consumers;16 evidence linking
pornography and sexual behaviours among
adolescents is mixed.17
To inform health policy and sexuality
education, it is important to understand
how young people use pornography and
to determine whether pornography use
has adverse eects on health and well-
being. Pornography research involving
adolescents transitioning into adulthood
in the smartphone era is limited, and there
Young Australians use of pornography and
associations with sexual risk behaviours
Megan S.C. Lim,1,2,3 Paul A. Agius,1,2,4 Elise R. Carrotte,1 Alyce M. Vella,1 Margaret E. Hellard1,2
1. Burnet Institute, Victoria
2. School of Population Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Victoria
3. Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Victoria
4. Judith Lumley Centre, La Trobe University, Victoria
Correspondence to: Dr Megan Lim, Burnet Institute, 85 Commercial Rd, Melbourne, Victoria 3004; e-mail:
Submitted: August 2016; Revision requested: January 2017; Accepted: March 2017
The authors have stated they have no conict of interest.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium,
provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modications or adaptations are made.
Aust NZ J Public Health. 2017; Online; doi: 10.1111/1753-6405.12678
Objectives: Amid public health concern that rising pornography use may have a negative
impact on young people’s health and wellbeing, we report prevalence of pornography viewing
and explore factors associated with viewing frequency and age at rst viewing.
Methods: Cross-sectional online survey in a convenience sample of Victorians aged 15 to 29
years recruited via social media.
Results: Ever viewing pornography was reported by 815 of 941 (87%) participants. The median
age at rst pornography viewing was 13 years for men and 16 years for women. More frequent
pornography viewing was associated with male gender, younger age, higher education,
non-heterosexual identity, ever having anal intercourse and recent mental health problems.
Younger age at rst pornography viewing was associated with male gender, younger current
age, higher education, non-heterosexual identity, younger age at rst sexual contact and
recent mental health problems.
Conclusions: Pornography use is common and associated with some health and behavioural
outcomes. Longitudinal research is needed to determine the causal impact of pornography on
these factors.
Implications for public health: Viewing pornography is common and frequent among young
people from a young age and this needs to be considered in sexuality education.
Key words: pornography, sexual health, young people, sexual media
2 Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 2017 Online
© 2017 The Authors
Lim et al.
have been no recent studies in the Australian
context. There is a paucity of recent data
available regarding age at exposure,
frequency of exposure and modes used by
young people to view pornography. This
study reports the prevalence of pornography
viewing in a convenience sample of young
Australians. It explores the factors associated
with pornography viewing frequency and
age at rst viewing and the extent to which
salient factors in pornography consumption
are moderated by gender. We hypothesise
that more frequent and younger age at rst
viewing pornography are associated with
sexual risk behaviour and that patterns and
correlates of pornography viewing may
dier by gender with young men being
more likely to watch pornography and watch
pornography more frequently.
Design and sampling
The study was a cross-sectional online survey
with a convenience sample of Victorians
aged 15–29 years, conducted in January
to March 2015. Eligibility was assessed
through self-reported month and year of
birth and postcode. Recruitment utilised
social media including paid advertisements
on Facebook, directed at Victorians aged
15–29, and advertisements shared through
the researchers’ professional and personal
networks. Advertisements did not mention
pornography, but described the survey
as being about sexual health. Participants
completed an online questionnaire that
covered the themes of demographics, sexual
health and behaviour, and other health
behaviours. The questionnaire was adapted
from the ‘Sex, Drugs, and Rock’n’Roll’ study
that has collected risk and health data from
young people since 2005.18 Participants
had the opportunity to win a gift voucher.
Approval was granted by the Alfred Hospital
Human Research Ethics Committee.
Demographics included gender (male,
female, transgender or other) and age, which
was computed from month and year of
birth. Participants reported the age at which
they rst experienced a range of sexual
behaviours, or indicated that they had never
engaged in that behaviour; these behaviours
included touching a partner’s genitals with
their hands, being touched on your genitals
by a partner’s hand, giving oral sex, receiving
oral sex, vaginal sex (penis in vagina), and
anal sex (penis in anus). Throughout this
paper, we use the term ‘sexual contact’ to refer
to any of these six behaviours, whereas ‘sexual
intercourse’ refers only to vaginal or anal sex.
Participants were asked four questions
relating to viewing pornography; (no specic
denition of pornography was provided in
the questionnaire):
• How old were you when you rst saw
pornography? (an option for never viewed
was provided)
• In the last 12 months, how often did you
view pornographic material? ‘never’, ‘less
than monthly ’, ‘monthly’, ‘weekly ’ or ‘daily/
almost daily’.
• How did you usually view this? ‘streamed/
downloaded on a mobile phone’,
‘streamed/downloaded on a computer’,
‘DVD’, ‘live webcam’, ‘magazines/books’ or
• With whom did you usually view this? ‘with
a partner’, ‘with friends’, or ‘on my own’
For analysis, ‘weekly’ and daily/almost daily’
were combined as ‘weekly or more’.
The following factors were included in
models, based on our hypotheses:
Early sexual experience – Those reporting rst
engaging in any of the sexual behaviours
(listed above) at 15 years or younger were
classied as having a young age at rst sexual
Anal sex – Ever experienced anal intercourse
was treated as a binary variable.
Sexual risk – Risk of sexually transmitted
infections (STI) was trichotomised to those
with no, low or high risk; participants
reporting sexual intercourse without using
condoms with any of: new partners, casual
partners or more than one partner in the past
12 months were classied as being at higher
risk; those who had had sexual intercourse
but always used condoms or only reported
one regular partner in the past year were
treated as low risk; participants not reporting
any experience of sexual intercourse were
considered not to be at risk. Those with no
experience of sexual intercourse were treated
as the reference in analyses.
Mental health – Participants were asked to
respond yes or no to “In the last six months
have you had any mental health problems?
This includes any issues that you haven’t
spoken to a health professional about.
Living situation – Participants indicated who
they lived with; this was dichotomised to
those who lived with their partner or did not
live with their partner.
Education – Participants indicated the highest
level of education they had completed. This
was dichotomised to any post-high school
education or not.
Sexual identity – Participants indicated their
sexual identity. This was dichotomised
to heterosexual or gay, lesbian, bisexual,
questioning, queer or other (GLBQQ+) sexual
Contingency table analyses were used
to provide estimates of prevalence for
demographic, health and sexual health-
related risk behaviours and pornography
viewing patterns.
Frequency of current pornography viewing
Correlates of current frequency of viewing
pornography were determined using
proportional odds logistic regression;
both bivariate and multivariate (including
all independent variables). To explore
whether the eects for specic factors were
moderated by gender, less constrained
models with interaction terms were estimated
in modelling. Where the proportional
odds assumption was not met for specic
factor eects in proposed models (i.e. the
independent eects of a factor varied across
levels of pornography viewing), generalised
linear and latent mixed modelling (gllamm)19
was used to specify covariate specic
threshold logit regression models in order to
relax the proportional odds constraint. Brant
tests20 and likelihood ratio tests between
nested gllamm models (less constrained
models relaxing the proportional odds
assumption for selected factors) were used
to provide statistical inference on whether
data met the proportional odds regression
Age at rst pornography viewing
Correlates of age at rst pornography viewing
were determined using Cox proportional
hazards regression,21 taking into account
the inherent censoring in the data due to
study participants who were yet to view
pornography at the time of the survey. In
addition to main eects, interaction terms
were also estimated in these survival models
2017 Online Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 3
© 2017 The Authors
Use of pornography and sexual risk behaviour
to explore the extent to which eects were
moderated by gender. Median age at rst
pornography viewing, sexual contact and
sexual intercourse were also determined
using this method.
A complete case approach was used in
analyses where participants with missing
data on any of the key exposure factors were
excluded from analyses. All analyses were
conducted using the Stata statistical package
version 13.1.
Among the 1,001 people surveyed, nine
identied as transgender or ‘other’ gender
but were not included in analyses due to the
small numbers in these groups. A further 26
participants did not respond to questions
about pornography and 25 exhibited
missing data on key covariates and were
Table 1: Sample socio-demographic, health and
sexual risk behaviour characteristics: Count (n) and
per cent (%) (n= 941).
n (%)
683 (73)
258 (27)
Age group
374 (40)
348 (37)
219 (23)
Currently live with partner
146 (16)
795 (84)
Post high school education
No post-high school education
635 (67)
306 (33)
Sexual identity
728 (77)
213 (23)
Ever had any sexual contact
804 (85)
137 (15)
Ever had sexual intercourse
710 (75)
231 (25)
Higher risk sexual behaviour
(among sexually active)
230 (32)
480 (68)
Ever had anal intercourse
277 (29)
664 (71)
Any mental health problem, past 6 months
509 (54)
432 (46)
Table 2: Pornography viewing characteristics by sex: Counts (n) and per cent (%).
Female n (%)
Male n (%)
Total n (%)
Ever viewed pornography 558 (82) 257 (100) 815 (87)
Among those who ever viewed pornography n=558 n=257 n=815
Age rst viewed
13 years or younger
14 years or older
129 (23)
429 (77)
176 (69)
81 (32)
305 (37)
510 (63)
Frequency of viewing in the 12 months prior to survey
Less than monthly
Not at all
23 (4)
105 (19)
139 (25)
198 (35)
93 (17)
99 (39)
117 (46)
25 (10)
14 (5)
2 (1)
122 (15)
222 (27)
164 (20)
212 (26)
95 (12)
Among those who viewed pornography in the past year N=465 N=255 N=720
Most common mode of viewing pornography
Stream/download on phone
Stream/download on computer
Other/not stated/missing
191 (41)
228 (49)
17 (4)
29 (6)
84 (33)
161 (63)
2 (1)
8 (3)
275 (38)
389 (54)
19 (3)
37 (5)
Who did they usually view with
With friends
With partner
Other/not stated/missing
386 (83)
13 (3)
63 (14)
3 (1)
243 (95)
1 (0)
11 (4)
0 (0)
629 (87)
14 (2)
74 (10)
3 (0)
excluded from analysis. Those missing key
covariate data did not signicantly dier from
those included in analysis on frequency of
pornography viewing (p=0.555) or age at rst
pornography viewing (p=0.729).
Of the 941 participants included, 73% were
female and the median age was 20 years (IQR
17-24) for women and 21 years (IQR 19-25)
for men. Table 1 shows characteristics of
respondents. Among 804 participants who
reported ever having had any sexual contact
with a partner, the median age at rst sexual
contact was 16 years (IQR 16-17) for women
and 16 years (IQR 16-16) for men. Among 710
participants who reported ever having had
sexual intercourse, the median age at rst
sexual intercourse was 17 years (IQR 17-18) for
women and 18 years (IQR 17-18) for men.
Ever viewing pornography was reported by
815 (87%) participants. Male participants
reported higher frequency of pornography
viewing than female participants (Table
2). Most participants (n=629, 87%) usually
watched pornography alone and most usually
streamed or downloaded pornography onto
a computer or phone. The median age at rst
pornography viewing was 13 years for male
participants (95%CI=12-13) and 16 years for
female participants (95%CI=16-16; p<0.001).
We compared participants’ age at rst
viewing pornography with their age at rst
sexual contact. Forty-four (5%) participants
reported never having viewed pornography
or experienced any sexual contact, 536 (57%)
had viewed pornography before any sexual
contact, 80 (9%) experienced both at the
same age, and 281 (30%) were younger at
their rst sexual contact compared to rst
pornography viewing.
Brant tests showed that the assumption
of proportional odds for the specied
model was not reasonable given the
data (χ2(20)=50.3; p<0.001). Sexual risk
(χ2(2)=11.8; p=0.003) and mental health
(χ2(2)=5.7; p=0.05) factors exhibited non-
proportional eects. This was supported
statistically by likelihood ratio testing from
gllamm modelling, which showed that a
proportional odds regression model with
partial relaxation of eect proportionality
(i.e. for sexual risk and mental health factors)
showed signicantly better t than the fully
constrained model (LR χ2(6)=31.5; p<0.001).
Hence, for sexual risk and mental health an
unconstrained model was used.
Table 3 shows correlates of pornography
viewing frequency using gllamm modelling.
Female participants were markedly less
likely to watch pornography frequently
compared to male participants (AOR=0.02;
95%CI=0.01-0.12). Analyses showed that
compared to heterosexual participants, those
who were GLBQQ+ were three times more
4 Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 2017 Online
© 2017 The Authors
likely to watch pornography more frequently
(AOR=3.04; 95%CI=2.20-4.21); and those
with post-secondary education were 48%
more likely (AOR=1.48; 95%CI=1.01-2.17)
to view pornography more frequently than
those with secondary education only. Those
reporting an experience of anal sex were
likely to watch pornography more frequently
(AOR=1.50; 95%CI=1.09-2.06); however,
estimation of an interaction between anal
sex and gender (AOR=2.47; 95%CI=1.03-
5.90; Wald χ2(1)=4.14; p=0.042) showed this
association was conned to women only
(men: AOR=0.70, 95%CI=0.33-1.45; women:
AOR=1.72, 95%CI=1.12-2.63). There was
no signicant interaction found between
gender and sexual identity (Wald χ2(1)=2.29;
p=0.13) or gender and living situation (Wald
χ2(1)=0.17; p=0.68).
Compared to those who had never
experienced sexual intercourse, sexually
active participants considered to be engaging
in low risk (AOR=1.91; 95%CI=1.23-2.98)
or high risk (AOR=2.45; 95%CI=1.44-4.16)
sexual behaviour were more likely to report
watching pornography less than monthly, but
there were no dierences in odds of viewing
pornography more frequently across these
groups. Similarly, there was heterogeneity
in eect of mental health problems across
levels of pornography-viewing frequency.
Compared to those with no reported history
of mental health problems in the past six
months, those reporting mental health
problems during this period were 65% more
likely to report watching pornography less
than monthly (AOR=1.65; 95%CI=1.18-2.31)
and 52% more likely to watch weekly or more
often (AOR=1.52; 95%CI=1.06-2.18).
Table 4 shows correlates of age at rst
viewing pornography. In multivariable Cox
regression, younger age at rst pornography
viewing was reported by participants who
were male, currently younger, currently lived
with a partner, had not completed high
school, had a younger age at rst sexual
contact, and who reported a recent mental
health problem. Those reporting GLBQQ+
sexual identity were also more likely to
watch pornography from a younger age
(AOR=1.25; 95%CI=1.05-1.48); however,
estimation of an interaction between sexual
identity and gender (AOR=2.08; 95%CI=1.43-
3.02; Wald χ2(1)=14.6; p<0.01)) showed this
association was conned to women only
(men: AHR=0.72, 95%CI=0.50-1.04; women:
AOR=1.63, 95%CI=1.34-1.99).
Viewing pornography was a common
practice among young people in our sample,
especially among young men. One hundred
per cent of young men and 82% of young
women had ever viewed pornography. The
median age at rst pornography viewing was
13 years for men and 16 years for women.
Eighty-four per cent of young men and 19%
of young women watched pornography
on a weekly or daily basis. The nationally
representative Second Australian Study
of Health and Relationships, conducted in
2012–2013, did not include frequency or age
of pornography viewing; however, it found
that a lower proportion of young people
had ever viewed pornography: 84% of men
aged 16–19; 89% of men aged 20–29; 28% of
women aged 16–19; and 57% of women aged
20–29.22 Other Australian studies suggest that
the number of people recently exposed to
pornography is increasing. In 2012–13, 63%
of men and 20% of women aged 16 years and
over had viewed pornographic material in the
past year.23 In comparison, in 2001–02, 17%
of men and 12% of women had visited a sex
website on the internet.24 The percentage of
Australians viewing pornography before age
16 increased from 37% in the 1950s to 79% in
the early 2000s.1
Women were less likely than men to watch
pornography, watched less frequently, and
rst watched at an older age. This nding is
consistent with US research that reported
men are more likely to be exposed to online
pornography at an earlier age than women.25
While men were much greater consumers of
pornography, it should be noted that among
the 82% of young women who reported
viewing pornography the majority (84%)
usually watched alone and 22% watched at
least weekly. This indicates that there are a
signicant number of young women who
watch pornography regularly. Past research
has shown that adolescent boys report more
positive attitudes towards pornography
than adolescent girls; however, girls have
increasingly positive attitudes as they grow
We found increased pornography viewing
among GLBTIQQ+ young people; this is
consistent with previous research.26,27 This
nding may reect a lack of information
in mainstream culture around non-
heteronormative sexual behaviour, resulting
in a need to access this information via
pornography.28 For example, in a qualitative
study of same-sex attracted adolescent boys,
Table 3: Factors associated with pornography viewing frequency: proportional odds regression analyses from generalised linear and latent mixed modelling showing
unadjusted (OR) and adjusted (AOR) odds ratios, 95% condence intervals (95% CI) and probability values (p-values) (n=941)†.
Proportional odds Unconstrained eects
< monthly monthly Weekly or >
OR (95% CI) p-value AOR (95% CI) p-value AOR (95% CI) p-value AOR (95% CI) p-value AOR (95% CI) p-value
Female 0.05 (0.04-0.07) <0.001 0.03 (0.02-.05) <0.001
Age in years 1.21 (1.01-1.07) 0.006 0.97 (0.92-1.02) 0.227
Living with partner 0.74 (0.55-1.00) 0.048 0.76 (0.51-1.12) 0.167
Post high school education 1.53 (1.20-1.95) 0.001 1.48 (1.01-2.17) 0.042
GLBQQ+ identity 2.10 (1.62-2.73) <0.001 3.04 (2.20-4.21) <0.001
First sexual contact <16 years 1.17 (0.93-1.48) 0.176 1.11 (0.84-1.49) 0.454
Ever had anal intercourse 1.78 (1.40-2.27) <0.001 1.50 (1.09-2.06) 0.013
Sexual risk behaviour
No risk - - - - ref -ref -ref -
Low risk - - - - 1.92(1.23-2.98) 0.004 1.12 (.73-1.71) 0.598 0.81 (0.51-1.29) 0.375
High risk - - - - 2.45 (1.44-4.16) 0.001 0.86 (0.53-1.42) 0.564 0.74 (0.43-1.28) 0.283
Mental health problem, past 6
- - - - 1.65 (1.18-2.31) 0.003 1.18 (0.86-1.62) 0.293 1.52 (1.06-2.18) 0.022
† Model cut-points - k1 = -3.49, k2 = -2.84, k3 = -1.80
Lim et al.
2017 Online Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 5
© 2017 The Authors
participants reported using pornography
to learn about sexual organs and function,
the mechanics of same-gender sex, to learn
about sexual performance and roles and to
understand how sex should feel in terms of
pleasure and pain.6
Among women, more frequent pornography
use was associated with ever having had
anal sex. Past research has found that
some women nd anal sex pleasurable;
however, women report nding anal sex
less pleasurable than men do overall.29 In
one qualitative study, women reported
being pressured or coerced into anal sex
by male partners who had seen anal sex
in pornography.13 It was interesting that
in our study, an association between anal
intercourse and pornography was found for
female participants but not male participants.
Possible explanations for this may be that
women who are more interested in learning
about dierent sexual practices or may be
curious about trying anal sex are more likely
to watch pornography; alternatively, women
who watch pornography might be more likely
to think that anal sex is expected of them by
their male partners.
A systematic review of studies involving adult
consumers found links between pornography
consumption and unsafe sexual practices and
higher numbers of sexual partners.16 Evidence
linking pornography and sexual behaviours
among adolescents is mixed.17 Some studies
of adolescents and young people have shown
associations between pornography and
more lifetime sexual partners.30,31 One study
found an association between pornography
and non-condom use for adolescent males,
but not for females, as well as no association
between pornography use and number of
sexual partners or younger age of sexual
debut.27 Other studies have found no
correlation between pornography use and
unprotected sex with casual partners.32 In
the current study, we found no correlation
between younger age at pornography
viewing and recent sexual risk behaviour. We
also found that compared to those who were
sexually inexperienced, those who engaged
in either low risk or high risk sexual behaviour
had greater odds of watching pornography
less than monthly compared to not viewing
at all. Watching pornography more frequently
(monthly, weekly or daily) was not associated
with dierences in sexual risk behaviour.
Other studies have not investigated the
correlation between sexual risk behaviour
and dierent frequencies of viewing
pornography, so further research is needed
to understand whether viewing pornography
less than monthly is an important threshold
level for correlation with sexual behaviour.
Discrepancies between studies may be due
to diering populations, research designs,
denitions, or inclusion of dierent measures
of sexual risk behaviours.17
Young age at rst sexual experience has
been shown to have negative associations
with ongoing sexual health.18,33 Younger age
at rst sexual experience was associated
with younger pornography viewing but
not current frequency of viewing. Several
cross-sectional studies support a relationship
between pornography use and initiation of
sexual behaviours at a younger age.22,34-36
International longitudinal research has found
that early exposure and frequent exposure
to pornography are both associated with
initiation of sexual behaviours at a younger
age.14,15 However, this relationship may not
be causal; it may be confounded by pubertal
status and sensation seeking.
A correlation between poor mental health
and frequent use of pornography has
been previously noted. In a Swedish study,
nearly 20% of daily pornography users had
depressive symptoms, signicantly more
than infrequent users (12.6%).11 Frequency
of pornography use has been associated
with negative aect,37 depression and
stress among young men,38 and depressive
symptoms in young women.39 Pornography
exposure in younger children has been
associated with short-term distress;40
however, to our knowledge this is the rst
study to demonstrate an association between
younger age of exposure and poor mental
health in later life.
Other correlates of more frequent and
younger initiation of pornography use
included higher education levels and not
living with a partner. People living with
their partner may view pornography less
frequently due to more frequent partnered
sex, or possibly from less opportunity to
privately view pornography.
Implications for public health
The ndings of this study have important
implications for designing sexuality
education. Results suggest that the majority
of young people have viewed pornography
and that almost all young men are frequently
accessing pornography. Therefore, it is vital
that pornography is addressed as part of
high school sexuality education programs.
Pornography is rst watched from a young
age, so age-appropriate educational
programs need to be implemented from
formative years of high school, if not
sooner. Such programs should not be
heteronormative, as our results show that
those identifying as GLBQQ+ watched
pornography more frequently and from a
younger age. It should also not presume
that young women will not watch or enjoy
pornography. Education programs should
address issues such as the prevalence and
practice of heterosexual anal sex in the
real world as opposed to in pornography.
While pornography education programs are
starting to emerge;41,42 there has yet to be any
research determining the eectiveness of this
Australian law prohibits people under 18
from viewing pornography;4 however, our
ndings demonstrate that current laws
and regulations are not preventing access
from a young age. Interventions such as
age verication software, internet ltering
software and parental monitoring may play a
role in reducing casual or accidental exposure
to pornography, particularly among younger
Table 4: Correlates of age of rst pornography viewing: Cox proportional hazards regression analyses showing
unadjusted (HR) and adjusted (AHR) hazard ratios, 95% condence intervals (95% CI) and probability values
HR (95% CI) p-value AHR (95% CI) p-value
Female 0.26 (0.22-0.31) <0.001 0.20 (0.17-0.24) <0.001
Age in years 0.94 (0.93-0.96) <0.001 0.92 (0.90-0.95) <0.001
Living with partner 0.84 (0.70-1.01) 0.060 1.29 (1.04-1.59) 0.019
Post high school education 0.66 (0.57-0.77) <0.001 0.78 (0.64-0.95) 0.015
GLBQQ+ identity 1.34 (1.15-1.57) <0.001 1.25 (1.05-1.48) 0.010
First sexual contact <16 years 1.64 (1.42-1.88) <0.001 1.55 (1.33-1.82) <0.001
Ever had anal intercourse 1.21 (1.05-1.40) 0.009 1.17 (0.98-1.38) 0.077
Low risk sexual behaviour 0.95 (0.80-1.14) 0.595 1.08 (0.87-1.33) 0.494
High risk sexual behaviour 1.11 (0.91-1.35) 0.312 1.16 (0.91-1.48) 0.226
Mental health problem, past 6 months 1.12 (0.97-1.28) 0.113 1.20 (1.04-1.40) 0.014
Use of pornography and sexual risk behaviour
6 Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 2017 Online
© 2017 The Authors
children. However, these methods are not
likely to be eective in stopping a motivated
young person from accessing pornography.2,43
The correlation between poor mental health
and pornography is also cause for concern.
It is unclear whether pornography is a causal
factor in poor mental health or if it is an
indicator of underlying problems. In either
case, those involved in treating young people
with mental health conditions may want to
consider whether pornography is a problem
for some clients.
Limitations in assessment of our outcome
variables include that questions did not
distinguish between deliberate and
accidental exposure to pornography and that
no explicit denition or contextualisation of
pornography was given. Further, no detail
was collected on motivations for viewing
or type of content viewed. Past research
has identied other potential correlates
of pornography that were not included in
our survey, including less satisfaction in
relationships and sexual encounters, sexual
aggression and having sexist attitudes toward
women.14 Other exposure measures did not
use validated scales, for example, mental
health problems were assessed using a single
item. The survey also did not include variables
relating to positive impacts of pornography
use. The survey relied on self-reported
information, which is subject to recall bias
and self-presentation bias. The cross-sectional
research design means that we cannot
attribute any causal relationship between
pornography and other factors. Finally, the
survey used a convenience sample that was
recruited online, which is not representative
of the general population.
This is the rst Australian study to examine
associations between frequency and age of
rst pornography use and sexual behaviour,
mental health, and other characteristics
among young people. Our study has
demonstrated that pornography viewing
is common and frequent among young
Australians from a young age. Pornography
use was associated with potentially harmful
outcomes, such as mental health problems,
sex at a younger age and anal intercourse.
To investigate the potential causal impact of
pornography on young people’s health and
behaviour, more specic longitudinal research
is needed. The ndings of this study highlight
the importance of including discussion of
pornography in sexuality education from a
young age.
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Lim et al.
... Recent research examining the link between time spent online and adolescent well-being is somewhat inconsistent, with results indicating positive, negative, and null associations (Odgers & Jensen, 2020;Orben, 2020;Orben & Przybylski, 2019). More specifically, pornography use has been linked to mental health problems in adolescents (Lim et al., 2017). Furthermore, research showed associations between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health, including heightened levels of depression (reviewed in Hamm et al., 2015), self-harm, suicidal behaviors (reviewed in John et al., 2018), and substance use (Díaz & Fite, 2019). ...
... Results presented here demonstrate that intentionally seeking exposure to sexual content online was retained as the third most important predictor, indicating a lower likelihood for the resilient versus the chronic PTSS trajectory. It has been shown that pornography use is associated with adolescent negative mental health and risky behavioral outcomes (Kohut & Štulhofer, 2018;Lim et al., 2017). Increased risky sexual behaviors, for example, but also sexually permissive attitudes and sexual solicitations (Brown et al., 2006;Collins et al., 2011;Helweg-Larsen et al., 2012;Lo & Wei, 2005) bear unique risks for online exploitations and subsequent offline revictimizations. ...
Heterogeneity in the course of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) following a major life trauma such as childhood sexual abuse (CSA) can be attributed to numerous contextual factors, psychosocial risk, and family/peer support. The present study investigates a comprehensive set of baseline psychosocial risk and protective factors including online behaviors predicting empirically derived PTSS trajectories over time. Females aged 12–16 years ( N = 440); 156 with substantiated CSA; 284 matched comparisons with various self-reported potentially traumatic events (PTEs) were assessed at baseline and then annually for 2 subsequent years. Latent growth mixture modeling (LGMM) was used to derive PTSS trajectories, and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) logistic regression was used to investigate psychosocial predictors including online behaviors of trajectories. LGMM revealed four PTSS trajectories: resilient (52.1%), emerging (9.3%), recovering (19.3%), and chronic (19.4%). Of the 23 predictors considered, nine were retained in the LASSO model discriminating resilient versus chronic trajectories including the absence of CSA and other PTEs, low incidences of exposure to sexual content online, minority ethnicity status, and the presence of additional psychosocial protective factors. Results provide insights into possible intervention targets to promote resilience in adolescence following PTEs.
... The prevalence of young people's encounters and engagement with IP is difficult to ascertain as it depends on cultural context and research design (Lim et al., 2017;Ybarra & Mitchell, 2005). In Aotearoa New Zealand, where the current research was conducted, a recent nationally representative government survey suggests that 67% of 14-17-year olds have seen IP (Office of Film and Literature Classification, 2018). ...
... Additionally, for many young people, particularly girls, first encounters were reported as unintentional (54.68%), often as a result of being shown by peers or pop-up links appearing while browsing the Internet. Consistent with previous findings, of those young people in the study who unintentionally came across IP, most (76.15%) did not tell anyone about their encounter (Braun-Courville & Rojas, 2009;Lim et al., 2017). ...
Full-text available
Youth encounters with Internet pornography (IP) have led to global concern regarding the healthy sexual socialisation of youth. A growing body of critical research recognises young people as agentic political actors in their sexual socialisation with legitimate knowledge of their own experiences, and seeks to understand their perspectives alongside those of influential adults in their lives. Grounded in social constructionist thinking, my research extends this emerging body of knowledge. I investigate how key stakeholders (16-18-year-olds, caregivers, and educators) account for and discursively construct youth engagement with IP, and explore their perspectives on porn literacy education. The central premise of this scholarship is to determine how such knowledge might translate positively for young people through sexuality education that recognises their lived realities. Key stakeholders were recruited from nine schools across the North Island of Aotearoa, New Zealand. A mixed-methods design was employed over sequential phases, comprising an online survey (N = 484), a Q-sort (N = 30), and semi-structured interviews (N = 24). Descriptive statistical analyses of the survey data provided a preliminary understanding of youth engagement with IP; a specialised software programme assisted with factor analysis for the Q-methodological study investigating perspectives towards porn literacy education; and interview data were analysed by means of a critical thematic analysis, drawing on a feminist discursive approach to sexual scripting theory. Key research findings are presented across four research articles and indicate that; (i) (gendered) youth engagement with IP is commonplace, and there are varied understandings between stakeholder groups and across genders as to why and how these encounters occur, (ii) youth take up agentic positions that suggest they are active, legitimate sexual citizens, and adults generally harbour concerns about recognising youth in this way, and (iii) the construction of childhood innocence dubiously positions youth as uncritical, ‘at risk’ viewers of IP. Accordingly, protectionist adult intervention is justified and conceptualised in accordance with this construction of youth. My research highlights dominant and alternative constructions about youth sexuality, and describes the synergies and discrepancies across key stakeholder perspectives about youth engagement with IP. Importantly, my findings suggest some youth engage with IP in a more nuanced manner than typically assumed. Through gaining a comprehensive understanding of stakeholders' perspectives, the findings of my research expand scholarly knowledge by providing practical inquiry into the potential of porn literacy as pedagogy.
... Differences between male and female population in OSAS were significant, with large effect size. This is in line with previous evidence for sex differences in problematic sexual activity and cybersex (Camilleri et al., 2021;Lim et al., 2017;Regnerus et al., 2015). In accordance with previous data in literature, higher scores were found on OSAS in bisexual and homosexual individuals (Lim et al., 2017;Studer et al., 2019) or highly (PhD) educated adults. ...
... This is in line with previous evidence for sex differences in problematic sexual activity and cybersex (Camilleri et al., 2021;Lim et al., 2017;Regnerus et al., 2015). In accordance with previous data in literature, higher scores were found on OSAS in bisexual and homosexual individuals (Lim et al., 2017;Studer et al., 2019) or highly (PhD) educated adults. In the literature, problematic sexual activity is associated with higher education (Studer et al., 2019). ...
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There is an ongoing scientific debate about the conceptualization of problematic online sexual activity (OSA). It is challenging to choose the proper instrument for assessing the phenomena. In this context, the newly developed Online Sexual Activity Scale (OSAS) might bring a new insight as it proposes to go beyond the nosological polemics. The OSAS elaborated in this compensatory framework incorporates criteria for conceptualizations of OSA as both addiction and compulsivity. A large sample of N = 5094 adults were recruited via convenience sampling on social networking platforms. Confirmatory factor analyses provided evidence for the one-factor structure of the OSAS with good fit indices and adequate reliability. The utility of the OSAS as a possible screening tool for identifying individuals with an elevated risk of problematic cybersex activity needs elucidation in future studies. The scale is available in English and Hungarian.
... The period of late adolescence to emerging adulthood (17-25 years) is a significant stage of development, often characterised by exploration in the areas of sexuality, romantic relationships, identity and values, as well increased participation in risky behaviours (Arnett, 2006;Sussman & Arnett, 2014). One aspect of sexual behaviour that has been less well explored is that of problematic Internet pornography (PIP) use, despite IP viewing being both widespread and increasingly normative (Brown et al., 2017;Carroll et al., 2008;Häggström-Nordin et al., 2005;Hald, 2006;Lim et al., 2017). In studies of self-perceived effects of pornography consumption, both men and women have reported small to moderate positive effects and few, if any negative effects (Hald & Malamuth, 2008;McKee, 2008;Miller et al., 2018). ...
... Even if an individual does not consider their IP viewing is problematic, it may nevertheless guide some of their sexual beliefs and behaviours. The likelihood and the manner in which IP may influence its viewers depend on many factors, including individual evaluations of the depicted conduct, personal beliefs about the acceptability of IP and partner approval, amongst others (Döring, 2009;Häggström-Nordin et al., 2006;Lim et al., 2017;Rissel et al., 2017). ...
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Introduction Characterised by both exploration and engagement in risky behaviours, late adolescence and emerging adulthood are periods of particular vulnerability to dysregulated behaviours. One such behaviour less well explored is that of problematic Internet pornography (IP) viewing, despite viewing explicit online material becoming increasingly pervasive and normative. Method In 2020, 385 (270 females, 110 males) Australian undergraduate students (aged 17–25 years) completed an online survey assessing exposure to IP, affective and cognitive responses to IP, IP-related sexual beliefs, self-assessed problematic IP viewing and key psychological vulnerability factors. Correlational and regression analyses were utilised to assess the relationships between variables. Results Most male (57.3%) and female (33.7%) respondents recalled their first exposure to IP as occurring between 12 and 14 years; however, 28.2% of males and 23.7% females recalled their exposure as occurring between 9 and 11 years, and a small proportion were exposed even earlier. Higher IP viewing frequency, positive affective responses to IP at current exposure, elevated sexual impulsivity and the endorsement of IP-related sexual beliefs were all found to be associated with self-assessed problematic IP viewing. Conclusions Findings suggest that both person and situational factors may contribute to problematic IP viewing patterns. IP viewing may also be shaping the sexual beliefs and behaviours of some viewers. Policy Implications There is little consensus on the factors that may lead IP viewing to become problematic, which limits the ability of clinicians to identify more susceptible individuals. These findings suggest that in addition to dysregulation factors such as sexual impulsivity, dissociation and depression, affective responses to IP and IP-related beliefs may also be important to consider when assessing for whom IP viewing may become problematic.
... In addition, several pieces of literature express its impact on mental health, such as the pressure experienced by women to engage in anal intercourse, which is shown in 15-32% of pornographic scenes (Lim et al., 2017). Like the clinical expression of anxiety (American Psychiatric Association, 2013), feelings of restlessness/frustration /irritation when unable to access pornography websites significantly predicted both anxiety and stress (Camilleri et al., 2020). ...
... 12 In addition, several literature express its impact on mental health, such as the pressure experienced by women to engage in anal intercourse, which is shown in 15% to 32% of pornographic scenes. 16 It is easy to get articles regarding how pornography is affecting lives but challenging to conclude whether pornography is good for sexual heath. ...
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Aim The topic of pornography use is controversial. It is important to understand how young people use pornography and determine whether pornography use has adverse effects on health and well-being. Methods A comprehensive systematic literature search was conducted in 4 electronic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, CINAHL plus, and Cochrane library) with appropriate MeSH terms “sexual health” and “pornography” and Boolean operators “AND” and “OR,” using SPIDER search strategy tools (sample, phenomenon of interest, design, evaluation, and research type). 11 articles were proceeded with systematic review after critical appraisal following PRISMA guidelines. Results The major findings of the study imply that traditional and unimaginative activities depicted in some pornography and sexualized media are harmful because they impose restricted and circumscribed concepts of sex and sexuality. As a result, sexism, sexual objectification, neoliberal sexual consumerism, and sexual variety are reproduced and reinforced rather than promoted. FPU is linked to better levels of sexual comfort and self-acceptance and reduced levels of anxiety, shame, and guilt over sexual behavior. Pornography consumption has also been linked to increased arousal and orgasm responses, a greater interest in sex, acceptance of various sexual acts, and more sexual experimentation. Conclusion Watching pornography may be a healthy phenomenon if it is occasional, not impairing the personal and social life; however, it can become pathological if watched excessively and impairs the individual’s functioning.
... In addition, several pieces of literature express its impact on mental health, such as the pressure experienced by women to engage in anal intercourse, which is shown in 15-32% of pornographic scenes (Lim et al., 2017). Like the clinical expression of anxiety (American Psychiatric Association, 2013), feelings of restlessness/frustration /irritation when unable to access pornography websites significantly predicted both anxiety and stress (Camilleri et al., 2020). ...
... In addition, several pieces of literature express its impact on mental health, such as the pressure experienced by women to engage in anal intercourse, which is shown in 15-32% of pornographic scenes (Lim et al., 2017). Like the clinical expression of anxiety (American Psychiatric Association, 2013), feelings of restlessness/frustration /irritation when unable to access pornography websites significantly predicted both anxiety and stress (Camilleri et al., 2020). ...
Past studies have demonstrated a link between pornography use and addiction to pornography, the underlying mechanism of the association is still unclear. This study intended to examine the mediating role of perceived realism of pornography in the association between pornography use and addiction among emerging adults in Malaysia. This study recruited 222 self-identified pornography users (M age = 21.05; SD Age = 1.68; 75.1% male respondents) via the purposive sampling method. The correlation results indicated positive associations among pornography use, addiction to pornography, and perceived realism of pornography. Further, the perceived realism of pornography significantly mediated the association between pornography use and addiction to pornography after controlling for gender. Thus, this study has provided a fundamental understanding on the perceived realism role of pornography in explaining the association between its use and addiction. Although it is unlikely to stop illegal pornography use, the results pointed out a need to guide emerging adults in pornography use via media literacy programmes.
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Pornography viewing is gradually becoming a part of life in many countries around the world, including India. However, the role of the extensive consumption of pornography among the Indian youths has not been given much attention by the society and government. Pornography is fuel for global sex trade industry. In the contemporary world due to advancement in ICT, they access to the porn is on the tip of finger which is causing Psycho-social health among youth. Main aim of the present study is to study the psycho-social effect of pornography among post-graduate students in Kolhapur city and check the effectiveness of the pornography preventive model on PG students. The survey and experimental method was adopted by the researcher. The data was collected with researcher-made questionnaire from N=325 PG students by convenient sampling method. The finding of the study are: More than 3/4 of respondents suffer from following psycho-social effects of pornography: Feeling live away from society, Masturbation, Feeling guiltiness, Mental stress, increase in aggressive behaviour, Staring at women/girls as a 'Sex object'. Developed Preventive model is helpful to overcome from pornography by the PG students.
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There are societal concerns that looking at pornography has adverse consequences among those exposed. However, looking at sexually explicit material could have educative and relationship benefits. This article identifies factors associated with looking at pornography ever or within the past 12 months for men and women in Australia, and the extent to which reporting an "addiction" to pornography is associated with reported bad effects. Data from the Second Australian Study of Health and Relationships (ASHR2) were used: computer-assisted telephone interviews (CASIs) completed by a representative sample of 9,963 men and 10,131 women aged 16 to 69 years from all Australian states and territories, with an overall participation rate of 66%. Most men (84%) and half of the women (54%) had ever looked at pornographic material. Three-quarters of these men (76%) and more than one-third of these women (41%) had looked at pornographic material in the past year. Very few respondents reported that they were addicted to pornography (men 4%, women 1%), and of those who said they were addicted about half also reported that using pornography had had a bad effect on them. Looking at pornographic material appears to be reasonably common in Australia, with adverse effects reported by a small minority.
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As Internet access and literacy increases, pornography has become highly accessible, cheap and diverse. Online pornography use is common in the USA, with nearly 9 out of 10 men and 1 out of 3 women aged 18–26 reporting accessing pornography online.1 In June 2013, legal pornographic websites received more UK-based traffic than social networks, shopping, news and media, email, finance, gaming and travel websites.2 For example, popular pornography website ‘pornhub’ received 79 billion video views in 2014.3 Increased access to pornography online has been accompanied by rising concerns that it negatively impacts health and well-being, particularly with regard to young people. These concerns include that viewing any sexually explicit material erodes morals and that specific types of pornography, such as that depicting violence against women, leads to increased violence against women in real life. Even in the case of non-violent pornography, there is anxiety that people view pornography as ‘real’ rather than fantasy and that this negatively influences attitudes and real-life sexual behaviour, particularly when people's sexual experience is limited such as in adolescence.4 Other concerns include the scarcity of condom use in pornography (both for diminishing condom use as a social norm and for the risks to the health of performers), impacts on body image (including trends in pubic hair removal and labiaplasty), and the harms of pornography addiction. Despite the myriad of fears about online pornography, questions remain over its actual harm. Do viewers really imitate pornography in their own lives and does this negatively influence their health and well-being? Does watching violence in pornography lead to misogyny and gender-based violence? Are young people at greater risk of the negative effects of viewing pornography (if they exist) than older adults? In this paper, we explore the most commonly cited concerns over online pornography by …
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Unlabelled: Background Young people's exposure to pornography has increased, as has the violent and sexist nature of mainstream porn. Contemporary content means young people are exposed to violent porn whether they like it or not, and it is no longer a question of whether they will be exposed, but rather when. Methods: Using purposive sampling, 33 in-depth interviews were conducted with young people aged 15-20 years in 2010-11, to explore the phenomenon of sexting. During initial interviews, participants raised the topic of pornography exposure as a secondary, unexpected finding. Discussions highlighted an important link between sexting and pornography. The inductive nature of the research meant this new and important area of inquiry was able to be explored. Results: Data was thematically coded and analysed using a grounded theory approach. Findings highlight that many young people are exposed to porn both intentionally and unintentionally. Furthermore, they are concerned about gendered norms that reinforce men's power and subordination over women. A link between porn exposure, young men's sexual expectations and young women's pressure to conform to what is being viewed, has been exposed. Conclusions: Results are significant given this is one of few recent qualitative Australian studies to explore the issue of pornography exposure from the perspective of young people. Important implications for educators, parents and health providers have been revealed, including the need to create opportunities for young people to challenge the messages expressed in porn, and for their views to be heard in academic and public debate.
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This study surveyed German heterosexual men's interest and engagement in a variety of dominant behaviors observed in recent analyses of pornography. Interest in watching popular pornographic movies or more frequent consumption of pornography was associated with men's desire to engage in or having already engaged in behaviors such as hair pulling, spanking a partner hard enough to leave a mark, facial ejaculation, confinement, double-penetration (i.e. penetrating a partner's anus or vagina simultaneously with another man), ass-to-mouth (i.e. anally penetrating a partner and then inserting the penis directly into her mouth), penile gagging, facial slapping, choking, and name-calling (e.g. “slut” or “whore”). Consistent with past experimental research on the effect of alcohol and pornography exposure on men's likelihood of sexual coercion, men who had engaged in the most dominant behaviors were those who frequently consumed pornography and regularly consumed alcohol before or during sex.
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Sexually explicit material (SEM) (including Internet, video, and print) may play a key role in the lives of Black same-sex sexually active youth by providing the only information to learn about sexual development. There is limited school- and/or family-based sex education to serve as models for sexual behaviors for Black youth. We describe the role SEM plays in the sexual development of a sample of Black same-sex attracted (SSA) young adolescent males ages 15-19. Adolescents recruited from clinics, social networking sites, and through snowball sampling were invited to participate in a 90-min, semi-structured qualitative interview. Most participants described using SEM prior to their first same-sex sexual experience. Participants described using SEM primarily for sexual development, including learning about sexual organs and function, the mechanics of same-gender sex, and to negotiate one's sexual identity. Secondary functions were to determine readiness for sex; to learn about sexual performance, including understanding sexual roles and responsibilities (e.g., "top" or "bottom"); to introduce sexual performance scripts; and to develop models for how sex should feel (e.g., pleasure and pain). Youth also described engaging in sexual behaviors (including condom non-use and/or swallowing ejaculate) that were modeled on SEM. Comprehensive sexuality education programs should be designed to address the unmet needs of young, Black SSA men, with explicit focus on sexual roles and behaviors that may be inaccurately portrayed and/or involve sexual risk-taking (such as unprotected anal intercourse and swallowing ejaculate) in SEM. This work also calls for development of Internet-based HIV/STI prevention strategies targeting young Black SSA men who may be accessing SEM.
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The purpose of this review was to determine whether an association exists between sexual risk behaviors and pornography consumption. Consumption of pornography is common, yet research examining its link with sexual risk behaviors is in its infancy. Indicators of sexual risk behavior, including unsafe sex practices and a higher number of sexual partners, have been linked to poor health outcomes. A systematic literature search was performed using Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge, Pubmed, and CINAHL. Studies were included if they assessed the association between pornography use and indicators of sexual risk behaviors in an adult population. A total of 17 were included in the review, and all were assessed for research standards using the Quality Index Scale. For both Internet pornography and general pornography, links with greater unsafe sex practices and number of sexual partners were identified. Limitations of the literature, including low external validity and poor study design, restrict the generalizability of the findings. Accordingly, replication and more rigorous methods are recommended for future research.
The goal of this review was to systematize empirical research that was published in peer-reviewed English-language journals between 1995 and 2015 on the prevalence, predictors, and implications of adolescents’ use of pornography. This research showed that adolescents use pornography, but prevalence rates varied greatly. Adolescents who used pornography more frequently were male, at a more advanced pubertal stage, sensation seekers, and had weak or troubled family relations. Pornography use was associated with more permissive sexual attitudes and tended to be linked with stronger gender-stereotypical sexual beliefs. It also seemed to be related to the occurrence of sexual intercourse, greater experience with casual sex behavior, and more sexual aggression, both in terms of perpetration and victimization. The findings of this review need to be seen against the background of various methodological and theoretical shortcomings, as well as several biases in the literature, which currently precludes internally valid causal conclusions about effects of pornography on adolescents.
In order to examine whether pornography consumption is associated with risky sexual behaviour among emerging adults, we examined two large samples of those who reported hooking up in the past 12 months (combined n = 1216). Pornography use was associated with a higher likelihood of having a penetrative hookup; a higher incidence of intoxication during hookups for men (but a lower incidence of intoxication during hookups for women); increasing levels of intoxication during hookups for men but decreasing levels of intoxication for women; and a higher likelihood of being in the riskiest category of having a penetrative hookup, without a condom, while intoxicated. For each of these outcomes, our point estimates for Study 2 fell within the 95% confidence intervals from Study 1. Controlling for trait self-control, binge drinking frequency, broader problematic patterns of alcohol use, openness to experience, and attitudes toward casual sex did not change the pattern of results. Implications for interventions to reduce sexual risk are discussed.