Article
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Dialogic approaches to feedback have been highlighted as important in re-conceptualizing the notion of feedback in higher education. However, this kind of claims has rarely been explored conceptually, and we know little about how dialogic feedback takes place when learners engage in feedback practices. The object of this study is two-fold; first we derive four dialogic dimensions from dialogic theory, and second we use these dimensions as an analytical framework to investigate feedback dialogues between a teacher and his students. For the purpose of in-depth investigation of the learning potential in dialogic feedback, we use interaction analysis. Based on the four theoretical dimensions merged with findings from our empirical case, we suggest an analytical model for the purpose of conceptualizing the distinctive features of dialogic feedback. The model holds four potentialities for student learning from dialogic feedback, which are; (a) emotional and relational support, (b) maintenance of the feedback dialogue, (c) opportunities for students to express themselves, and (d) the other's contribution to individual growth. We propose this model as an analytical tool for researchers in further investigation of learning potential in dialogic feedback in higher education contexts.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... What other patterns of interaction that might emerge in collaborative writing activities if the course instructor was the mentor and facilitator of such collaborative writing tasks? Research on teacher's involvement in interaction in collaborative writing highlights contradictory views; while a few researchers support the involvement of the teacher in interaction in peer work since it provides learners the opportunity to seek support not only from peers through learner-learner interaction, but also from teacher through teacher-learner and learner-teacher interactions [28,29], a few other researchers argue that this might minimize learners' engagement in collaborative writing [30], perhaps due to learners' perceived imbalance in teacher-learner interactions [28,31]. This suggests further investigation of the patterns of interaction in collaborative writing tasks mentored and facilitated by the course instructor through a combination of different technologies. ...
... In other words, peer dialogue allows learners to mutually responds to and give feedback on each other [40,41]. Some socioconstructivist studies also highlight the role of teacher-learner interactions in developing learners' awareness of audience, clarifications of ideas, and revisions [28], as well as understanding of their writing [29] and exchanging feedback [42]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The sudden transition to online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic has been challenging for many learners and teachers due to the fact that most universities suddenly shifted to online learning without providing adequate time for preparing and training teachers and learners in using interactive educational technologies. Such challenges are even more pronounced for language instructors in cultivating and sustaining interactions among learners, especially in writing courses that demand active engagement and interactions. Therefore, this study focused on what and how a writing instructor did through technology in creating an interactive writing environment for KSA learners joining five online writing courses and how learners perceived interactions and identifies the major factors affecting their perceptions. The data were collected from multiple sources: WhatsApp chats, Google Docs chats and comments, screencast recorded discussions, students’ texts, and their responses to an electronic (e-) survey as well as follow-up interviews. The study revealed that in connecting Google Docs to the Blackboard Collaborate Ultra, the instructor engaged learners in multidirectional and multimodal interactions and text writing and revising. The WhatsApp group was also used for individual learner-learner and learner-teacher interaction illustrating support and consultation-seeking behaviors of learners beyond the online classroom time. The learners’ perceptions of technology-mediated interactions (overall, learner-learner and learner-teacher) in the online writing courses were at high levels, though such perceptions varied according to several factors, including socio-demographic characteristics. The study concludes by offering useful pedagogical and research implications.
... Yet, these two studies did not take into account the oral feedback mode. Recently, researchers have argued that oral dialogic feedback is effective in engaging learners in negotiation and comprehension of teacher feedback (Adie et al.,2018;Merkel, 2018;Nicol, 2010;Steen-Utheim & Wittek, 2017). ...
... In this study, the same above finding on error-detecting/noticing is applicable to the oral dialogic feedback as FTF teacher-learner dialogues encourage learners to detect the errors in their texts as they need to reply to teacher's questions in the conversations. Teacher dialogic feedback promotes learners' responses to feedback and engages them in spontaneous conversational exchanges through which they can clarify their errors and understand teacher feedback (Adie et al., 2018;Merkel, 2018;Steen-Utheim & Wittek, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
As one of the more challenging language skills in EFL, teachers' feedback for learners' writing holds great significance. However, as significant as the immediacy and relevance of the feedback is the mode of its communication to ensure that the learners are able to make optimum use of it in improving their weaknesses. This makes it imperative to seek an investigation of learners' needs and preferences of feedback mode to ensure efficacy of feedback in writing. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore and evaluate four modes of feedback: oral, electronic (e-) written, audio and screencast used in a writing course at Qassim University. To understand the effectiveness of these four modes from learners' perspectives, the data was collected from an e-survey of 28 students and a follow-up group interview of 16 students. Results showed that students' preferences for feedback modes vary according to certain affordances and limitations of each feedback mode. Their perception of the effectiveness of feedback modes was found to be shaped by comprehensibility, multimodality, interactivity and specificity of feedback as well as other factors such as, revision settings, devices to access the feedback, internet connection, learners' knowledge of genre and errors, previous experience as well as individual differences in learning styles. The study provides useful implications for combining different modes in enhancing teacher feedback delivery and its effectiveness in writing courses, the application of which in turn, can ensure greater learning satisfaction leading to better learning outcomes.
... Therefore, gamified quizzing in the present study is accompanied by an instructional wrap-around reflective intervention that is referred to as RCF to foster students' cognitive engagement. Current research on feedback affirmed that feedback is more effective when students are actively engaged as reflective thinkers in the feedback process (Rodgers, 2006;Sutton, 2009;Merry, Price, Carless, & Taras, 2013;Carless, 2016a;Brookhart, 2017;Steen-Utheim and Wittek, 2017). In the present study, RCF takes the form of a guided class discussion intended to engage students in reflection on their responses to the items of the mobile gamified quizzes. ...
... It is also crucial to note that the interplay of reflection and dialogue in RCF fosters students' cognitive processing and subsequently increases their academic performance. This conclusion aligns with the literature that advocates the role of reflection and dialogue in the effectiveness of feedback (Rodgers, 2006;Sutton, 2009;Merry et al., 2013;Van der Schaaf, Baartman, Prins, Oosterbaan, & Schaap, 2013;Carless, 2016b;Brookhart, 2017;Steen-Utheim and Wittek, 2017). Remarkably, the reasoning of this body of literature and the one that shapes RCF in the current study meet across the social constructivist argument that emphasizes the role of interaction and dialogue in facilitating knowledge construction and scaffolding learners to move across and beyond the ZPD (Vygotsky;1980). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated whether reflective class feedback (RCF) boosts the effectiveness of mobile gamified quizzing in enhancing active learning in higher education. A quasi-experimental non-equivalent group design was adopted in this study to measure the effect of mobile gamified quizzing with and without RCF on students’ achievement. Two intact groups of EFL first-year undergraduates in a Grammar course at Ibn Zohr university, Faculty of Letters and Human Sciences, participated in this study. One group played the mobile gamified quizzes with RCF, while the other played the same mobile gamified quizzes without RCF. The findings showed that the students who played the mobile gamified quizzes with RCF scored significantly higher than those who played the same gamified quizzes without RCF. These findings yielded a number of theoretical and practical implications for the effective use of mobile gamified quizzing.
... Traditionally, teacher feedback has been conceptualised as information provided by a teacher to learners in a monologic manner. However, recent research has emphasised the need for dialogic/interactive feedback (Adie, van der Kleij and Cumming 2018;Ajjawi and Boud 2017;Boud and Molloy 2013;Merkel 2018;Sepehrinia and Mehdizadeh 2018;Steen-Utheim and Wittek 2017). This is based on the argument that understanding teacher feedback as 'telling' students what to do, or as something 'given' to learners to revise their writing, restricts the role of learners to merely passive receivers of information and does not encourage them to seek to understand feedback and its intention. ...
... Theoretical perspective 'Dialogic feedback' is an interactive process in which teachers and learners share their interpretations of the intended messages of teacher feedback, negotiate meanings and clarify their intentions (Steen-Utheim and Wittek 2017). This approach to feedback is based on sociocultural theory and the interactionist view of second language (L2) learning (Lantolf 2000;Long 1996;Vygotsky 1978) that both emphasise expert-novice interaction in mediating learners' cognitive development through instructional scaffolding and facilitating the dual process of exchanging information and negotiating meanings (Adie et al. 2018;Merkel 2018;Mehrabi-Yazdi 2018;Nassaji 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Teacher feedback has been reported to be challenging for learners to understand and use productively in revising their writing, especially when it is provided in a monologic manner. There have thus been calls for teachers to ensure feedback is more ‘dialogic’ or ‘interactive’, encouraging students to become active respondents to feedback rather than mere receivers of it. However, teacher dialogic/interactive feedback in face-to-face settings may be time-consuming and demanding for teachers. This motivated us to think of how electronic (e-)feedback practices could be made more interactive through the use of technological tools. This study, based on the instructor’s written feedback on 10 undergraduates’ L2 academic writing for a course in language and linguistics in a Malaysian public university, identifies several factors clustered under three dimensions: teacher-related, task-related and learner-related factors that promote teacher–learner interactions in teacher e-feedback in Google Docs. Interactive feedback also contributed to students’ discussion of issues in their writing, engagement in accurate text revisions and negotiation of feedback. The study discusses pedagogical implications for instructors in promoting interactive feedback practices in writing courses.
... Feedback during the learning process is important if feedback should serve the purpose of enhancing learning (Hattie & Timperley, 2007;Nicol & Macfarlane-Dick, 2006), although a sole focus on providing more feedback might not be the answer. Given the importance of dialogic feedback and feedback interactions in learning processes (Steen-Utheim & Wittek, 2017), it is puzzling that dialogic feedback practices seem not to be widely applied in higher education. Learning from dialogic feedback interactions have been reported by students as useful, but a rarely exercised teaching practice found in classroom studies (e.g. ...
... The students expressed that dialogic feedback interactions encouraged them to become active participants in their own learning. A wish for feedback as a dialogue agrees with literature that has Feedback engagement and assessment experiences emphasised that allowing students to express themselves to one another and the teacher is an important dialogic move (Steen-Utheim & Wittek, 2017;Vattøy & Smith, 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined students’ feedback engagement and assessment experiences in a higher education teacher programme with the Assessment Experience Questionnaire (n = 182) and individual interviews (n = 14). The results suggested that quantity of effort and feedback quality were the most important predictors of variance in students’ use of feedback. Feedback quality was a stronger predictor for female students’ use of feedback compared to male students. Feedback quantity partially mediated the relationship between use of feedback and feedback quality for all students. The interviewed students emphasised that feedback had to be comprehensible, process-oriented, and dialogic to be used. On the contrary, feedback barriers were considered to occur when feedback was negative, incomprehensible, contradictory, or lacked relevance. Maladaptive feedback agency was reported to be exercised by students when teacher-student relationships were affected by mistrust, negativity, or disagreements. The results indicated a summative assessment culture with some formative traits.
... However, the way dialogic feedback is implemented with instructors may not work in the same way when students are in charge. Maintaining a productive dialogue around feedback can be challenging even for instructors (Steen-Utheim & Wittek, 2017). Unsurprisingly, students may face obstacles during dialogic peer feedback without a systematic guidance and structure. ...
... This focus might be motivated by the fact that today's higher education practices are highly instructor-centred (Wright, 2011). Accordingly, targeting the instructors, the research has generated guidelines to sustain and enhance feedback dialogue (Ajjawi & Boud, 2017;Steen-Utheim & Wittek, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Feedback has a powerful influence on learning. However, feedback practices in higher education often fail to produce the expected impact on learning. This is mainly because of its implementation as a one-way transmission of diagnostic information where students play a passive role as the information receivers. Dialogue around feedback can enhance students’ sense making from feedback and capacities to act on it. Yet, dialogic feedback has been mostly implemented as an instructor-led activity, which is hardly affordable in large classrooms. Dialogic peer feedback can offer a scalable solution; however, current practices lack a systematic design, resulting in low learning gains. Attending to this gap, this paper presents a theoretical framework that structures dialogic feedback as a three-phase collaborative activity, involving different levels of regulation: first, planning and coordination of feedback activities (involving socially shared regulation), second, feedback discussion to support its uptake (involving co-regulation), and last, translation of feedback into task engagement and progress (involving self-regulation). Based on the framework, design guidelines are provided to help practitioners shape their feedback practices. The application of the principles is illustrated through an example scenario. The framework holds great potential to promote student-centred approaches to feedback practices in higher education.
... We apply the four categories, as presented in Table 21.1, as our analytical framework to investigate learning potentials as collectively constituted within the ALGs. For our investigation for empirical indications of the four dimensions in the video data, we operationalised the four potentialities as follows (based on Steen-Utheim and Wittek, 2017 : 22): ...
... In this study, which is part of a larger research project, we will examine whether the use of ComunicARTE improves language skills, particularly oral skills and intrinsic motivation on task [21,22]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this article is to analyse the potential of ComunicARTE, an innovative Spanish Language teaching/learning program that uses project-based learning to develop dialogic spaces which promote the communicative competence of Spanish students, together with social, emotional and motivational outcomes. Two schools have been observed with this in mind: an experimental one using this program and a control one. This is a longitudinal study with pre-and post-test data which analyses 170 children at the beginning of their fifth year and the end of their sixth year in primary school. Quantitative tests have been used to assess their communicative competence and motivational orientation in the classroom. The results obtained are discussed.
... These approaches may go some way to reconceptualising feedback as a dialogic process, following the model of Steen-Utheim and Wittek (2017). As staff are committed to supporting students, these additions would potentially add to the impetus to provide formative assessment and feedback. ...
Chapter
Formative assessment is a valuable part of the learning process, and, when used well, has been found to enhance the student experience, reduce attrition rates and improve overall student outcomes. A wide range of formative assessment types and feedback mechanisms are detailed in the literature and used within educational practice. At City, University of London, we wanted to showcase the range of options being used within the School of Health Sciences to assist academic staff in developing opportunities to enhance student participation, engagement with feedback and final outcomes. Hence, a toolkit was developed, highlighting a range of options currently used by academic staff across a variety of health disciplines. Videos, talking heads, blogs and other resources were developed, and an online resource produced. Initial evaluation of the toolkit took place during a workshop at the institutional teaching and learning conference. This paper is based on the authors’ reflections from that workshop. The toolkit was attractive even to staff with considerable experience of formative assessment. However, in common with findings across the sector, there were concerns about finding time to implement new ideas. There were mixed views about the best structure for the toolkit, and the modality of the case studies, which will inform future development. Nevertheless, the toolkit will be invaluable as staff negotiate the changes in education provision in the current climate.
... However, the alignment in perspectives across a substantial number of students and educators across multiple sites indicate that these practices are relatively stable. The model also appeared to establish trust and moderate the power imbalance between feedback participants, which are key facilitators of successful feedback relationships (Steen-Utheim & Wittek, 2017). Social factors including ethnicity, class and gender may still play a part in these relationships. ...
Article
Signature pedagogies have been identified for medicine and nursing, however are not yet resolved for allied health. This paper explores feedback as part of the signature pedagogy for health professions clinical placements. It adopts a Theory of Practice Architectures perspective to understand feedback practices, within the context of placements which involved student mentoring. Two dominant practices were found to characterise feedback: creating a comfortable learning environment through feedback, and achieving feedback for learning. Analysis of the arrangements revealed the impact of educators’ caseloads in enabling, and more often, constraining feedback practices. Student mentors ensured that feedback occurred, suggesting that students can recognise and contribute to feedback as part of a signature pedagogy. Further, similarity across the two professions in this study supports the contention that there is a common signature pedagogy for clinical placements. This has implications for educator development and the role of students within workplace learning.
... Взаимодействие стратегий межличностной регуляции эмоций с негативными ожиданиями регуляции настроения при проявлении тревоги и депрессии изучали А. Алтан-Аталай (Altan-Atalay A.), Д. Саритас-Аталар (Saritas-Atalar D.) [22]. [37]. Гендерные стратегии управления конфликтами изучали Афзалур М. Рахим (Rahim, M. Afzalur), Джефри П. Кац (Katz, Jeffrey P.) [35]. ...
... Previous research indicates how peer feedback mainly leads to deep learning when it takes place in the form of a dialogue, i.e. when the recipient responds to the feedback provided. This creates the dialogue between the students, leading them to critical thinking and deep learning (Geitz, Brinke and Kirschner, 2015;Steen-Utheim and Wittek, 2017). Learning through dialogues gives students a widened thinking to contrasting ideas which in turn deepen their understanding. ...
Chapter
When we talk about open and online education, scalability is often an emerging topic. With globalisation of education, higher education institutes should be prepared to deliver education to a worldwide audience and not just to the selection of students who live in the proximity of the institute. This calls for a completely different approach to education. In this chapter, we explore the teaching methodologies of online education, primarily focusing on SPOCs – Small Private Online Courses. We show that this form of online education captures the many positive aspects of face-to-face education, such as the strengthening of social cohesion and personal commitment. We also show how SPOCs can become even more interesting for higher education when they make better use of the lessons learned in the field of scalability that MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) offer. The teaching methods presented will lead to four tips with hands-on advice for teachers on how to design and deliver online education aiming for deep learning, this being the end goal of higher education.
... What the sessions always have in common is that the feedback is dialogic (e.g. Bakhtin, 1981;Linell, 2009;Steen-Utheim & Wittek, 2017). That is, the students discuss the texts and provide spoken feedback rather than handing over written feedback. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article describes different feedback designs that have been developed at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden. These feedback activities are part of courses and programmes that faculty at the Department of Communication and Learning in Science, Division for Language and Communication, are involved in. The feedback setup has evolved from many years of designing and delivering writing instruction within STEM education, grounded in the challenge to make feedback a meaningful learning experience for all students and improve students’ understanding of disciplinary academic writing. The feedback designs described are based on dialogue to provide feedback and as a means for students to verbalize their own understanding of text, textual features and how discipline specific content is communicated. Examples of setups are large class active feedback lectures, scaffolded peer response sessions, and guided feedback workshops. These feedback activities are explored, and we argue for how they, potentially, result in more (useful) feedback and feedforward compared to traditional written teacher-student feedback.
... Providing feedback is a practice that has been described as not only central in learning, but also as complicated, multi-layered, and disputable (Boud & Molloy, 2013;Steen-Utheim & Wittek, 2017;Winstone & Carless, 2019). Feedback may produce many positive effects, such as improving student performance and enhancing learning by offering students information on their tasks, processing the tasks, self-regulation, and progress as a person to advance their performances (Hattie & Timperley, 2007). ...
Article
The centrality of feedback is undeniable in education. However, not all feedback effectively encourages learning or improves performance due to predicaments in feedback delivery and receptivity. Several studies suggest other ways where feedback is offered in a dialogic fashion instead of a monologic one. Nevertheless, few papers do so in the context of medical education, especially when the learning processes involve marginalized people such as disaster-affected patients. This paper draws on autoethnographic experiences of providing dialogic feedback for medical students using Paolo Freire's dialogue concepts. This feedback was given during reflective sessions in community-based medical education at post-disaster areas in Aceh, Indonesia. The findings show that Freire's dialogue concepts help assess dialogic feedback quality and offer insights into power relations between teachers and students. To achieve the aim of providing dialogic feedback --obtaining new understandings-- educators need to establish a more equal position in teacher-student relationships. In sum, the findings highlight the applicability of Freire's concept of dialogue in offering feedback for students especially when the training takes place in a context of marginalized people.
... That being said, the teacher needs to minimise their power to control the classroom interaction. The absent of such feedback from the interaction in the Indonesian classroom was not surprising as previous studies found its occurrence was quite scarce during the classroom interaction (Arrafii & Kasyfurrahman, 2015) There has been plenty of studies suggesting the importance of dialogue in the feedback process as it brings a lot of benefits for students (Ajjawi & Boud, 2017;Hawe & Dixon, 2017;Steen-Utheim & Wittek, 2017;Sutton, 2009;Yang & Carless, 2013). Feedback dialogue has been argued to have a potential to enhance student learning. ...
Article
This study investigated the role of the teachers’ F move in the English as a foreign language (EFL) classrooms and how it affected teacher-student interaction in the classroom. The F move, also known as feedback, is considered an important part of the classroom interaction as it serves two primary roles: evaluative and discoursal. This study used secondary data of classroom interaction during English lesson in two senior high schools in Indonesia. The data were then analysed using the Conversation Analysis (CA) approach. The findings of the current study showed that the teachers used the F move mostly served its evaluative role and there was no evidence of the F move serving its discoursal role. This study suggested the need for teachers to re-evaluate the current teaching practice, especially the way they provided feedback or used the F move as a response to students’ answers.
... That is, these studies, rooted in the socioconstructivist theory of learning, rely on students as active learners who co-construct knowledge from feedback through dialogue. However, considering that maintaining a meaningful dialogue is difficult even for instructors (Steen-Utheim & Wittek, 2017), students may easily fail to build a productive dialogue with their peers, which may lead to misinterpretation and disapproval of feedback. Thus, we argue that for using dialogic peer feedback to foster productive student learning, there is a need for a systematic design approach to help structure and organize students' collaborative interactions and efforts. ...
Article
Full-text available
Although dialogue can augment the impact of feedback on student learning, dialogic feedback is unaffordable by instructors teaching large classes. In this regard, peer feedback can offer a scalable and effective solution. However, the existing practices optimistically rely on students’ discussion about feedback and lack a systematic design approach. In this paper, we propose a theoretical framework of collaborative peer feedback which structures feedback dialogue into three distinct phases and outlines the learning processes involved in each of them. Then, we present a web-based platform, called Synergy, which is designed to facilitate collaborative peer feedback as conceptualised in the theoretical framework. To enable instructor support and facilitation during the feedback practice, we propose a learning analytics support integrated into Synergy. The consolidated model of learning analytics, which concerns three critical pieces for creating impactful learning analytics practices, theory, design and data science, was employed to build the analytics support. The learning analytics support aims to guide instructors’ class-wide actions toward improving students’ learning experiences during the three phases of peer feedback. The actionable insights that the learning analytics support offers are discussed with examples.
... Dialogue is particularly important in the learning-focused feedback paradigm (Nicol 2010;Steen-Utheim and Wittek 2017). Dialogic feed-forward is an interactive exchange about the quality of student work. ...
Article
Full-text available
A key debate in higher education is how assessment and feedback can be constructed to maximize opportunities for meaningful student learning. In this paper, we explore how a learning-focused model of feedback, teacher-student dialogic feed-forward, is enacted in practice, exposing many affordances but also some challenges. Adopting a small-scale intensive approach, we trace the learning journeys of four students through a second-year undergraduate unit at a British university and on into their third and final year of study, accessing verbal testimony, teacher written comments on draft and final summative coursework, and student performance within and beyond the unit. We present in-depth student responses, understanding, behaviours, and achievement with respect to the feed-forward dialogue, revealing the subtleties of their reactions. Our findings evidence the transformative power of assessment dialogue on student learning for a range of achievers. Dialogic feed-forward can act as a pivotal moment in learning, where students reflect on their work, judge their standards against criteria, and co-create positive actions for improvement. Students develop cognitively, meta-cognitively, and affectively, becoming more comfortable with challenge and more productive in their learning. We conclude by widening our frame of reference to problematize dialogic feed-forward within current debates about higher education pedagogy.
... Through dialogic WCF, students are expected to actively negotiate areas for further improvement with their instructors. As discussed by Han and Xu (2020) the practice can nurture empathic communication skills, such as seeking clarification and negotiating alternatives that are useful when students are working through uncertainty caused by open-ended or vague feedback (Steen-Utheim & Wittek, 2017). For writing instructors, the ability of students to work through WCF can offer insights into the challenges that they encounter in writing. ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the growing movement to embrace sociomaterial approaches to feedback practices (e.g. Gravett, 2020), dialogicity remains the prominent and dominant approach, especially in the teaching of introductory or compulsory writing courses at the tertiary level. To examine this in our own practice, we reflected on and compared our written corrective feedback (WCF) provided to our students. Based on our WCF practices, we contend that feedback practices may range from dialogic to sociomaterial. The former aims to ensure students’ learning of expected academic skills or objectives of a module, while the latter promotes students’ pursuit of content knowledge. These observations are noteworthy for other higher education instructors, whether subject experts or academic literacy instructors. In particular, we recommend that instructors need to carefully identify temporal and spatial contexts where either or both dialogic and sociomaterial feedback practices can be utilized to enhance students’ learning experiences.
... The relational side of feedback is important because critical or negative comments can easily be discouraging or act as a threat to self-esteem. A learning environment that is underpinned by emotional and relational support is a pre-requisite for opening oneself to critique and revealing vulnerability (Steen-Utheim & Wittek, 2017). When feedback exchanges are imbued with trust, honesty and sincerity, there is more potential for productive learning to occur. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Feedback is a powerful tool for improvement of student learning, yet complex to implement effectively. Feedback involves processes in which learners make use of performance-related inputs to enhance their work or learning strategies. New paradigm feedback practices place learners at the centre of feedback processes and emphasize student generation of insights to inform their work. To harness these insights productively, learners need feedback literacy: the capacities to make the most of feedback opportunities. New paradigm feedback practices are discussed within five interrelated themes: feedback literacy partnerships; feedback seeking strategies; peer feedback; digitally-enabled feedback; and feedback in online learning environments.
... de la materia ha tenido una amplia aceptación por parte del alumnado, con niveles de implicación medios-elevados incluso en las tareas voluntarias. Todo ello podría denotar altos niveles de motivación intrínseca, los cuales se ven potenciados por la variabilidad cognitivas y habilidades, a la vez que pondrá en juego diversidad de competencias y destrezas, logrando un proceso de aprendizaje más rico y holístico(Boni y Calabuig, 2017;Steen-Utheim y Wittek, 2017). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
La forma de impartir la docencia está en continuo cambio, adaptando los sistemas educativos a las necesidades de los estudiantes desde varias perspectivas. La situación Covid-19 ha impuesto un cambio drástico en el modelo metodológico, obligando a dirigirnos hacia entornos virtuales o apoyarnos ahora más que nunca en los mismos, lo cual se ha estado integrando progresivamente y de manera sistematizada en las aulas. El desarrollo de diferentes metodologías, dinámicas y actividades interactivas, que facilitan la comunicación y el desarrollo de habilidades sociales, a partir de las relaciones que surgen entre el alumnado y profesorado mediante la realización de tareas multiformato, son la propuesta que fundamentan este trabajo para apoyar la práctica docente. Analizamos los resultados obtenidos en la implementación de las mismas como evaluación de su eficacia en las diferentes modalidades, tanto presenciales, como semipresenciales o en línea.
... The instructor acts as facilitator who guides students to answer questions about where they are, how they got there, where they should go next, and how to get there. Researchers believe that involving students as active participants in generating feedback supports thinking and develops performance since providing feedback is more cognitively engaging than receiving it (Carless, 2013(Carless, , 2016Merry et al., 2013;Steen-Utheim & Wittek, 2017). Involving students in the process of feedback can be very difficult if there is no motivating classroom atmosphere where students can feel free and safe to express themselves and take risks. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
With the advent of smartphones and tablets and the enormous opportunities they offer to access wireless networks and HTMLS, new web-based Students Response Systems (like Socrative, Quizlet, Quizizz, and Kahoot) have appeared. Despite their differences in features and design, these new Students Response Systems meet across one point: they all digitize and gamify quizzes and provide them in a technologically-enhanced game ̶ like environment. The growing interest among instructors in employing these Digital Game-based Quizzes (DGBQs) as formative assessment to motivate their students and improve learning in their classroom calls for investigating their implementation and effectiveness. Based on a sound literature on digital game-based learning and formative assessment, this chapter raises concerns about the implementation of DGBQs as formative assessment and highlights the importance of placing them within a reflective framework.
... It should also be noted that peer assessment as a formative practice has been found to be effective across a wide range of contexts (Double et al., 2020). However, although various models of formative feedback have been suggested across disciplines, none have been specifically proposed in a digital educational context (Steen-Utheim and Wittek, 2017;Tripodi et al., 2020). Besides in-person feedback, digital education offers unique opportunities for instant feedback by integrating it into the software. ...
Article
Introduction: the problem studied in this article is important for the professional education system, since the successful work of a modern organization depends on effective and well-coordinated work of employees with maximum participations of each team member and his/her high motivation. However, changes in the higher education system during the transition to distance learning in order to prevent the threat of potential infection with a new coronavirus have made some corrections in the process of the future specialist's communicative readiness forming, which is associated with person’s socio-psychological adaptation to the new conditions of existence. Materials and methods: to achieve this goal, complementary theoretical research methods are used: analysis of philosophical, sociological, psychological, pedagogical, social, engineering literature on the problem under consideration; analysis of documentation on the organization of the educational process in higher education for the theoretical justification of the essence, functions, indicators of communicative readiness, analysis, synthesis and systematization of the main approaches. On the basis of theoretical analysis of future engineers’ socio-psychological qualities scientific conclusions and recommendations were received that improve the efficiency of the process of future engineers’ communicative readiness formation in the university. Results: the reliability and validity of scientific results obtained in the course of the study is based on the implementation of a set of mutually verifying and complementary methods, which are determined by the clarity of methodological principles; the repre-sentativeness of empirical results; experimental verification of the hypothesis. To con-firm the effectiveness of the developed system for forming the future engineers’ com-municative readiness, using the acmeological approach, the results of ascertaining and forming experiments were compared. It was found that in the experimental group there were significant positive changes in the redistribution of levels future engineers’ communicative readiness formation. It is noted that the incentive of the considered readiness formation is an acmeological approach that contributes to the productive solution of the proposed research problem. Discussion and Conclusions: the results of the study make it possible to monitor the positive dynamics of the levels of future engineers’ communicative readiness formation by means of acmeological analysis of the experimental group: the average and high lev-els have significantly increased. The argument of the effectiveness of the experimental work was carried out using mathematical expectation methods. The author analyzes the reliability of differences and personal characteristics of students in the experimental group according to the following indicators: personal adaptive potential, behavior strategy, personal anxiety, ability to solve conflicts, general level of creativity, readiness to solve complex problems and communicative activity.
Article
Full-text available
Feedback processes are difficult to manage, and the accumulated frustrations of teachers and students inhibit the learning potential of feedback. In this conceptual paper, challenges to the development of effective feedback processes are reviewed and a new framework for teacher feedback literacy is proposed. The framework comprises three dimensions: a design dimension focuses on designing feedback processes for student uptake and enabling student evaluative judgment; a relational dimension represents the interpersonal side of feedback exchanges; and a pragmatic dimension addresses how teachers manage the compromises inherent in disciplinary and institutional feedback practices. Implications discuss the need for partnership approaches to feedback predicated on shared responsibilities between teachers and students, and the interplay between teacher and student feedback literacy. Key recommendations for practice are suggested within the design, relational and pragmatic dimensions. Avenues for further research are proposed, including how teacher and student feedback literacy might be developed in tandem.
Chapter
This chapter draws on research which focuses on the everyday challenges in academic learning and argues that academic buoyancy (Martin & Marsh, 2009) is a key factor in academic success as it helps students cope with setbacks such as receiving a disappointing grade. The chapter will discuss the idea that assessment feedback offers an opportunity to contribute to student academic buoyancy. To scaffold students learning and thus to effectively support academic buoyancy, an argument will be posited that there is a need for a better understanding of (i) what students find most and least useful in their assessment feedback; (ii) how students use feedback to approach future assessments and; (iii) how students respond to feedback in terms of what they think, feel and do. 5 Key indicators of academically buoyant behaviour (which arose from the research under discussion) are suggested to increase the academic buoyancy of students and also the need for tutor/student relationships and opportunity for dialogue. Finally, using the DIMoR (ahmed Shafi et al., 2020) as a framework for analysis, the chapter will argue that individual events such as assessment feedback, need to be considered more holistically taking account of the effect they can have on other stakeholders and other interacting and surrounding systems.
Article
Feedback remains a fundamental and challenging aspect of higher education policy and practice. Increasingly research has sought to understand how to more effectively develop students’ feedback literacy in order to improve individuals’ engagement with assessment feedback. To date, work within this area has been underpinned by cognitive and affective conceptions of feedback literacy, and feedback is commonly conceptualised as a binary, dialogic, relationship between feedback giver and recipient, within a humanist perspective. Drawing upon a rich literature that foregrounds the value of social, materialist, and posthuman perspectives in order to look again at educational contexts and practices, this article explores a wider re-conceptualisation of feedback literacy and of learning and teaching interactions. Moving forward from both a transmission-focused depiction of feedback, and a student as proactive recipient conception, I suggest that students’ engagement with feedback is a sociomaterial practice, and that students’ agency is complicated by factors that exist beyond a human to human interaction. As such, this article offers a new and alternative viewpoint that deviates from mainstream discussions of feedback literacy, and ends with a consideration of what a sociomaterial perspective can offer researchers and practitioners in order to progress work within this key area.
Article
Leaning on a holistic supervising doctoral writing framework, this study sets out to conceptualise and unpack the dialogic feedback experiences sustained within a PhD candidate’s research article writing process. A juxtaposition of multiple data sources uncovers that effective employment of supervision approaches to feedback essentially varies across time and space, which is interlaced with student response dynamics, voices of academic community, supervisor professional experience, and dialogic mediums. The single interwoven narrative affords a nuanced understanding of the decision-making mechanism, practices, and relationship elements constituting supervisory feedback dialogues. It highlights the historically and socio-relationally shaped nature of personal agency through which individuals enact and interpret situation-specific feedback discourses.
Article
This research reports on the second phase of a project exploring the effectiveness of tutor to student assessment feedback. It highlights the dynamic interaction of interpersonal and intrapersonal contexts in effective feedback processes. It proposes a holistic conceptualisation of feedback that considers the academic buoyancy and attributes of the recipient, and the relationships and opportunities for dialogue with the provider and the ramifications for practice. To explore the impact of the implementation of changes to practice suggested from phase one of the research, qualitative data were collected and analysed from student focus groups and individual interviews within a UK undergraduate education course. Links from this phase between feedback processes, affect, tutor input and the ‘Key 5’ indicators of academic buoyancy emerge, revealing the importance of reciprocal relationships and dialogic interactions. This demonstrates the need to acknowledge the individuals involved and the nature of the relationships between them.
Article
A pesar de que la interacción en los procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje es un fenómeno muy investigado, en el ámbito universitario no existen instrumentos para medirla. Teniendo esto en cuenta, este artículo tiene como objetivo validar el cuestionario "Instrumento de Medición de la Interacción en la Educación Superior (cuestionario IMIES)", que consta de 35 ítems tipo Likert. La validación se ha realizado con una muestra de 2.170 estudiantes universitarios de diferentes Grados y Másteres Oficiales de todos los cursos académicos en una Universidad del norte de España Según nuestros resultados, el cuestionario ha mostrado buenas propiedades y buenas medidas de fiabilidad en siete factores clave. Se puede concluir que el IMIES es una herramienta que contribuye a iniciar y mejorar la evaluación de los procesos de interacción en la enseñanza universitaria. Consideramos que es un instrumento útil tanto para el profesorado, como herramienta de autoevaluación, como para las universidades en su conjunto como herramienta de diagnóstico general para fomentar la interacción en sus aulas.
Article
Despite the importance of feedback uptake in higher education, there is still much to be learned about supporting it. Recent perspectives hold that guiding learners through feedback uptake-oriented activities may also help them to develop feedback literacy. However, due to the acceleration of digitisation trends in higher education, there is an increasing need to explore feedback uptake and literacy development exploiting opportunities offered by digital environments. This need constitutes a significant gap that is of immediate importance to practitioners teaching online and will also be crucial in the post-COVID-19 context in which the use of blended and online learning is only expected to increase. This conceptual article draws on a synthesis of existing feedback uptake, formative assessment and technology literature to offer a technology-mediated dialogic model of feedback uptake and literacy. Focused on how technological mediation can enrich opportunities for co-regulation of the processes involved in feedback uptake, the model is intended for use in designing classroom feedback practices that can be embedded in standard curricula. The model serves to inform the discussion of feedback uptake and the nascent discussion of teacher feedback literacy in the digital settings in which feedback practices in higher education now frequently take place.
Article
Over the past three decades, a body of research has highlighted the benefits and challenges of what might collectively be referred to as critical pedagogical approaches to Health and Physical Education Teacher Education (HPETE). This research shows that praxis facilitated through critical pedagogies can challenge dominant accountability regimes in HPETE, by animating the discourse of democracy and interrogating and denaturalizing the conditions of oppression. The aim of this study was to explore the (im)possibilities of praxis when the lead author attempted to transition to online teaching. Theoretically, we are guided by the work of bell hooks, and specifically her 'engaged pedagogy'. Participatory action research framed this study. Participants included the lead author (a teacher educator), a critical friend, and two additional teacher educators. Data collected included: (a) lead researcher observations; (b) collaborative group meetings between the lead author and the two other teacher educators; (c) meetings between the lead author and the critical friend; (d) teacher educator focus group; and (e) artefacts. Findings are discussed under two themes. First, building relationships as a foundation to cultivating a learning community; this theme relates to the challenges and facilitators to getting to know our 'faceless students' and building an interactive relationship with them in an online environment. The second theme constructed from the data was commitment to a process of self-actualization that promotes teachers' and students'
Article
Whether and how feedback when provided in different modes affects students' text revisions continue to be important questions for research. Therefore, the present study investigates the quantity and quality of students' integration of teacher feedback in relation to its modes and features. The feedback was given through the oral/spoken mode in a face-to-face (FTF) classroom environment and in three digital modes: text, recorded audio and audio-visual modes. Feedback was classified into imperative, correction, question, suggestion, statement and combination. Data collected from the instructor's four modes of feedback and essays of 30 learners in a Saudi university were coded and analyzed. Findings show that students took up 83.52% of the teacher feedback provided to them with quality of integration measured at 68.46%. The quantity and quality of students' integration of teacher feedback varied across the four modes with the audio-visual feedback being most integrated in text revisions while the text feedback was least integrated. Results also show feedback features, including suggestions, questions and imperatives, were more integrated by students than others. Based on the findings, useful pedagogical and research implications are offered.
Article
Research indicates that effective learner-centred feedback requires learner agency, impact and sensemaking. While scholars are focusing on supporting agency and impact, limited research has addressed sensemaking. This is problematic, because if learners fail to understand feedback, impact is likely to be reduced. In response, this study examines (non) alignment between teacher intent and student sensemaking of authentic feedback comments. The sample included four teachers and eighteen students from two Australian universities. Data were collected via stimulated recall interviews and a feedback coding task. The results suggest that sensemaking of strength-based comments, critiques and actionable information was aided when the comments were clear and specific. On the other hand, sensemaking was limited when comments were designed to mitigate against negative affect, overloaded with multiple intentions, or overly brief. This study informs theory around learner-centred feedback design which, in turn, improves the likelihood that teacher comments will be interpreted accurately by learners.
Chapter
The exponential growth of publications on educational robotics (ER) in the last 10 years, undoubtedly, in many ways, is due to the introduction and the ubiquitous application of such platforms as Arduino, micro:bit, Raspberry Pi, and others. These instruments offer a variety of ways for STEM curricula introduction. Being centered on technological and engineering issues, the ER methodology offers an excellent opportunity for students of different ages. By lowering the entry-level effort, the platforms significantly simplify the first steps in the field. Nevertheless, as every simplification presumes, a significant part of “underlying machinery” remains hidden. Indeed, the character of in-school ER projects barely holds enough space for a detailed treatment of the concepts. Nevertheless, the chapter illustrates the importance of exposing students to the currently available instruments and providing in-depth conceptual insight. To support the thesis, several examples, unifying multi-perspective and multi-scale approaches, are provided.
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the proactive roles of receivers in peer feedback processes is crucial because proactive recipience carries great potential in enhancing the effectiveness of feedback and supporting self-regulated (SRL) and co-regulated learning (CoRL). However, receiver's proactivity has been insufficiently explored and the field lacks a clear understanding of how peer feedback receivers could aid academic self-regulation and co-regulation. This study unpacks the black box through examining different receiver roles in peer feedback dialogue and receiver-triggered SRL and CoRL behaviours in an undergraduate writing course for first-year English majors in China. Data were collected through audio-taped peer feedback dialogue, stimulated recall interviews and journals. Findings revealed a variety of increasingly active receiver roles: respondent, verifier, explicator, negotiator, seeker and generator. Assuming these roles, receivers not only regulated their own learning by self-monitoring works, evaluating the quality of received comments and co-producing feedback but also improved feedback providers' writing and evaluative skills. The study challenges the stereotypical image of passive receivers and argues that receiver proactivity could turn peer feedback into a mutually beneficial learning activity for receivers and providers. Implications for developing receiver proactivity are discussed.
Article
Despite contemporary research calls for promoting learners’ feedback dialogue, how feedback dialogue occurs and contributes to learners’ uptake has been little addressed. This study on 28 pairs of EFL undergraduates attempts to explore the process of feedback dialogue, its potential and the main factors affecting it. The data collected from learners’ screencast records of feedback dialogue archived in Blackboard Collaborate Ultra, first and final essay drafts in Google Docs, notes on students’ screencast dialogue and follow-up interviews were analyzed. Findings illustrate that learners engaged in multidirectional (writer-writer, writer-non-writer and writer-teacher) and bimodal (oral/voice and written) dialogue and negotiations. The observed and perceived potential of feedback dialogue is realized through learners’ understanding of feedback, revising and enhancing their writing and learning how to give feedback as well as reducing instructor’s time in giving feedback. Yet, learners’ engagement in dialogue varied among the pairs from high to moderate/partial and low. Factors behind this variation are learner-related, teacher feedback formulation-related, learner-pairing and grouping-related as well as technical issue-related.
Article
A pesar de una apuesta firme por la implantación de una evaluación continua y formativa en el contexto universitario, en la práctica, este tipo de evaluación todavía hoy no es una realidad. En este marco de evaluación, los procesos de feedback toman una relevancia clave como facilitadores del aprendizaje. Sin embargo, los resultados de las investigaciones que se han llevado a cabo en los últimos años sobre el feedback concluyen que los estudiantes no lo utilizan, es decir, no lo aprovechan para mejorar su aprendizaje. El objetivo del presente artículo es aportar evidencias sobre cómo la estrategia basada en la reelaboración del trabajo académico puede promover la implicación de los estudiantes con el feedback en entornos virtuales o híbridos. Para dar respuesta a este objetivo se diseñó un cuasi-experimento con medidas pre-post. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 76 estudiantes que recibieron la intervención (reelaboración del trabajo a partir del feedback recibido y entrega final) y 60 del grupo control. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto que la reelaboración del trabajo va asociada a niveles más altos de implicación con el feedback. La discusión sitúa la relevancia de los resultados en contextos virtuales o con un uso intensivo de la tecnología y su potencialidad para transferirlos a la práctica educativa, por su impacto en la regulación y en el diseño de prácticas realmente formativas que contribuyan al aprendizaje.
Article
Full-text available
La movilidad estudiantil, como parte de los esfuerzos de internacionalización, es una de las actividades que ha tenido efectos positivos tanto en estudiantes como en las instituciones de educación superior. Sin embargo, el análisis sobre la gestión de este tipo de programas en México es todavía limitado, particularmente el que se basa en la perspectiva de los estudiantes. Con base en resultados obtenidos de una encuesta con representatividad estatal, aplicada a estudiantes de Guanajuato, se presentan diversos hallazgos con respecto a factores que inhiben la movilidad estudiantil, entre los que destacan las restricciones derivadas del contexto socioe- conómico de alumnos y sus familias. Esto resalta la necesidad de diseñar políticas de promoción de movilidad académica que consideren dichos factores, a efecto de reducir la posibilidad de generar nuevas brechas de desigualdad. Student mobility, as part of the efforts of internationalization, is an activity that has had positive effects on both the students and institutions of higher education. The analysis of program implementation in Mexico, however, is still limited, and particularly in terms of student perspectives. Based on results obtained from a state survey of students in Guanajuato, this article points to factors that inhibit student mobility, underlining restrictions derived from the socioeconomic context of students and their families. Findings emphasize the need to design policies that consider such factors in promoting student mobility, in order to reduce the possibility of generating new inequality gaps.
Book
Full-text available
Informed by theory, research, and classroom practice, the volume provides a systematic overview of critical L2 writing issues. Additionally, with the aim to support instruction across all levels of education for Chinese speakers, this book introduces pre-service and in-service teachers to new teaching ideas, techniques, and practice.
Article
Full-text available
Writing a synthesis based on reading various texts is a complex task. Difficulties may arise in the processes of selecting, integrating, and organizing the information. In this case study, we analyze the impact of an intervention program for secondary students (13-14 years old), aimed at improving their strategies for writing a synthesis. Students with varying levels of reading comprehension were asked to produce a synthesis based on complementary historical texts. The results indicate significant improvement among the students with average and high reading comprehension levels, in their selection, integration, and organization of information for writing syntheses, while students with low reading comprehension improved only in their selection processes.
Article
Participatory approaches are receiving renewed attention in the ‘students as partners’ (SaP) and ‘feedback’ discourse communities, respectively. SaP scholars tend to focus on pedagogy (pedagogical partnerships) and curriculum (co-creation). Assessment and feedback, as connective and relational practices that bridge these two domains, receive less empirical and conceptual attention as partnership praxis. Both share commitments to participatory forms of democratic education and critical pedagogy. This conceptual article transgresses artificial boundaries often constructed between discourse communities through bringing into conversation established scholars from both. In doing so, we illuminate two points of intersection: dialogue and trust. First, speaking back to the SaP community, we urge greater recognition of feedback practices as partnership praxis entangled with both pedagogical and curricular praxis. Second, speaking back to the feedback community, we advocate for a foregrounding and richer theorisations of learner-teacher power dynamics in feedback praxis. We conclude by considering the implications for both discourse communities.
Article
Full-text available
Las universidades públicas en la Zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de México aceptan a menos de la mitad de sus solicitantes a realizar estudios de licenciatura. En la Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana (UAM), menos de una quinta parte de los candidatos ingresa. Existe escasa información y atención a las características de los solicitantes a las instituciones de educación superior. El presente artículo aporta algunos rasgos sociodemográficos y escolares de aspirantes de ingreso entre 2004 y 2018 a la UAM, comparando entre no admitidos y aceptados. La información proviene de las bases de datos de la Dirección de Sistemas Escolares de la Universidad, a partir de un cuestionario que los solicitantes responden en cada ciclo de ingreso: Primavera y Otoño. Las características de las subpoblaciones están afectadas por estos periodos de ingreso, especialmente las de progreso escolar.
Article
Full-text available
Students’ engagement with feedback is a major determinant of feedback effectiveness. There is evidence, however, that not all students engage with feedback well because the transmission, teacher-centred approach overlooks students’ role in feedback processes. This study explores how learner-centred feedback processes could be designed to enhance students’ engagement. Embedded in two-stage assignments, the first step of this design involved peer feedback on a mid-term assignment. The second step included students producing an audio file to self-assess performance, followed by their teacher’s audio response to their self-assessment prior to the submission of a related, final assignment. Data analysis on an open-ended survey, interviews with 35 taught postgraduates and selected feedback vignettes indicated that this learner-centred design could promote students’ engagement by increasing their feedback responsibility, evaluative judgement and psychological safety. The significance of this paper lies in discussing learner-centred feedback design principles and the wider application of the learner-centred practice.
Article
Full-text available
Esta comunicación revisa el concepto de retroalimentación, las percepciones de estudiantes y docentes sobre este proceso, así como actividades que lo fomentan con el objetivo de proponer un modelo de retroalimentación para el aprendizaje. Para desarrollar esta propuesta se utilizaron los criterios de calidad de revisión de literatura de Boote y Beile. Se revisaron investigaciones desde 2008 a 2018 correspondientes a Reino Unido, Australia y China. Los resultados describen la retroalimentación como un acto dialógico y sostenible, donde es fundamental alinear las percepciones de docentes y estudiantes al respecto, considerando la retroalimentación de pares como actividades que fomentan la autorregulación. Finalmente se plantea un modelo que recoge diversas consideraciones al momento de implementar una retroalimentación para el aprendizaje. Abstract: This article reviews the concept of feedback, student and teacher perceptions of the feedback process, and activities that encourage feedback, with the objective of proposing a feedback model for learning. To develop this proposal, the Boote and Beile quality criteria for literature reviews were employed. Research from 2008 to 2018 was reviewed, from the United Kingdom, Australia, and China. The results describe feedback as an act of sustainable dialogue, in which the alignment of student and teacher perceptions is fundamental; peer feedback is viewed as an activity for promoting self-regulation. To conclude, a proposed model includes various considerations for implementing feedback for learning. Palabras clave: educación superior; retroalimentación; interacción entre pares; estrategias de aprendizaje.
Thesis
Full-text available
Feedback in higher education (HE) is an important determinant of student success despite its variable impacts. Assessment and feedback have also been highlighted as one of the least satisfactory aspects of the learning experience. However, more scholarship has focussed on what constitutes ‘good feedback’ than about the factors that influence how it is perceived, engaged with, and used by students. This study aims to redress this imbalance by investigating what measures can be taken by teachers to support feedback engagement processes. It explores how the existing literature on dialogism, technology, can be synthesised into a new model of feedback engagement. Principles from the resulting USM model were employed in the design of dialogic technology-mediated feedback practices used over a semester with 14 South Korean undergraduates on an academic writing course. Utilising a qualitative approach, data from reflections, questionnaires (N=14) and the main method, in-depth semi-structured interviews (N=13), were analysed to understand perceptions of the relationship between navigating the feedback activities and feedback engagement and use. The data was also used to consider how the model could be empirically enhanced. The findings were analysed inductively, and the practices reportedly contributed to feedback engagement in four ways. Dialogism supported understanding of peer/teacher feedback, facilitated group knowledge co-construction, and motivated feedback engagement. Open access to peers’ work helped participants to make comparisons and understand how their work could be improved. Screencast feedback was perceived to be more thorough, usable, and affectively supportive. After initial disappointment with feedback, participants reportedly engaged with the feedback by employing certain pre-introduced concepts related to learning from feedback. Overall, the practices were demonstrated to support the development of feedback receptivity. The data supported contributed to the refinement of the USM model; thus, contributions to both theory and practice were made.
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT This article addresses writing in higher education with the primary aim of conceptualizing writing as a mediational tool. The conceptual framework consists of three concepts: learning trajectories, mediation, and recontextualization. The article describes how writing can work as a mediational tool and suggests possible implications for higher education. An empirical study from the context of initial teacher education in Norway is used for the purpose of illustration. Writing activities can mediate learning in important ways. However, design elements that make students explore, contrast, and compare different meaning potentials and position themselves within disciplinary or professional discourse are crucial when considering the potential of writing as a mediational tool in higher education.
Article
Full-text available
This paper develops a dialogic theory of thinking and of learning to think that has implications for education. The theory is offered as a contrast to theories that are based on both Piaget and Vygotsky. The paper proceeds by unpacking and interweaving three key concepts: dialogue, thinking and learning in order to argue that learning to think can be understood as a shift in self-identification towards becoming dialogue. This theory is then applied to the context of primary classrooms through the analysis of three short episodes of interaction. These analyses offer evidence that a dialogic theory of learning to think can offer new and valuable insights into classroom interaction with the potential to inform pedagogy.
Article
Full-text available
The preceding articles in this issue describe a diverse range of projects which had in common the aim of implementing or improving the practice of formative assessment, and thereby to secure some of the benefits attributed to it. This article attempts to set up a framework within which each of the different studies may be located and inter-related. There are three main sections. The first deals with the roles of assessment, both formative and summative, within a comprehensive model of pedagogy. The second considers the specific ways in which the different practices of assessment feedback help to develop the capacity of each student to become a thoughtful and independent learner. The third reviews the ways in which new assessment practices present problems to teachers in challenging them to re-think their role and similarly to students, when for both groups, new practices affect their ways of coping in the classroom.
Article
Full-text available
This article explores some of the main barriers to the enhancement of feedback processes and proposes a framework for using dialogic feedback to foster productive student learning in the discipline. The framework suggests a feedback triangle focused on the content of feedback (cognitive dimension), the interpersonal negotiation of feedback (social-affective dimension) and the organisation of feedback provision (structural dimension). The interplay between these three elements is central to prospects for the enhancement of feedback processes. Derived from the framework is a set of six key features of optimal feedback practice which we represent as building blocks of an architecture of dialogic feedback. The paper concludes with a research agenda which suggests issues to be further explored in the cognitive, social-affective and structural dimensions.
Article
Full-text available
Feedback is central to the development of student learning, but within the constraints of modularized learning in higher education it is increasingly difficult to handle effectively. This article makes a case for sustainable feedback as a contribution to the reconceptualization of feedback processes. The data derive from the Student Assessment and Feedback Enhancement project, involving in‐depth semi‐structured interviews with a purposive sample of award‐winning teachers. The findings focus on those reported practices consistent with a framework for sustainable feedback, and particularly highlight the importance of student self‐regulation. The article concludes by setting out some possibilities and challenges for staff and student uptake of sustainable feedback.
Article
Full-text available
The paper addresses the way in which participants in a qualitative study drew upon accounts of relationships and emotions in sharing their perceptions of assessment. By first exploring ideas about emotions and relationships in learning and assessment through the literature and subsequently discussing an interpretation of participant narratives, the author suggests that emotions and relationships surrounding past learning and assessment contexts can influence current perceptions of assessment and learning in powerful ways. The study also reveals how students value opportunities to express their beliefs, feelings and emotions during the assessment process. They also expect teachers to balance objectivity in assessment with empathy for those parts of themselves shared in the process. The conclusion is drawn that there are important implications for learning in the emotional response of students to assessment and in the nature of teaching and learning relationships that are worthy of further investigation.
Article
Full-text available
The paper presents research findings on students’ experiences of the provision both of guidance and feedback, and with respect to examinations as well as coursework assignments. A first‐ and a final‐year bioscience course unit were surveyed in each of three contrasting university departments. The resulting dataset comprised 782 completed student questionnaires and 23 group interviews with a total of 69 students. Although the questionnaire data provided a robust overall picture of the students’ perceptions of guidance and feedback across the six units, the interview data made possible a much finer‐grained analysis of their experiences. At the core of this analysis was a guidance and feedback loop, within which six interrelated steps have been picked out, beginning with the students’ prior experiences of cognate assessments and closing with the potential of what has been learned from a given task to feed forward into subsequent work. By pinpointing potential troublespots, the framework can serve as a valuable diagnostic as well as analytical tool.
Article
Full-text available
In recent years there has been an increasing emphasis in higher education on the explicit articulation of assessment standards and requirements, whether this emanates from calls for public accountability or is based on ideas of good educational practice (Ecclestone, 2001). We argue in this article that a single‐minded focus on explicit articulation, whilst currently the dominant logic of higher education, will inevitably fall short of providing students and staff with meaningful knowledge of standards and criteria. Inherent difficulties in the explicit verbal description of standards and criteria make a compelling argument for the consideration of the role of structured processes that support the effective transfer of both explicit and tacit assessment knowledge. With reference to both empirical evidence and the literature, we propose a conceptual framework for the transfer of knowledge of assessment criteria and standards that encompasses a spectrum of tacit and explicit processes, which has proven to be effective in practice in improving student performance.
Book
Full-text available
Dialogic Education and Technology is about using new technology to draw people into the kind of dialogues which take them beyond themselves into learning, thinking and creativity. The program of research reported in this book reveals key characteristics of learning dialogues and demonstrates ways in which computers and networks can deepen, enrich and expand such dialogues. A dialogic perspective is developed drawing upon recent work in communications theory, psychology, computer science and philosophy. This perspective foregrounds the creative space opened up by authentic dialogues. Whereas studies of computer-supported collaborative learning have tended to see dialogue as a means to the end of knowledge construction the dialogic perspective taken by this book sees dialogue as an end in itself - in fact moving learners into the space of dialogue is described as the core aim of education. The central argument of the book is that there is a convergence between this dialogic perspective in education and the affordances of new information and communications technology. A genuinely dialogic perspective is relatively new to the field of educational technology and there is a considerable amount of interest in this topic amongst researchers who wish to see what extra insights, if any, a dialogical approach can offer them. "This is an exciting book that synthesizes, clarifies and extends mounting discussions of dialogical thinking related to computer-supported education [...]. It is not only a delightful personal statement, but provokes thought on central issues of CSCL and enters into challenging dialog with the relevant alternative approaches. As a result of reading this book, I am convinced that we urgently need to open new online spaces for people to understandingly interact with different perspectives and creatively generate new insight and respect for difference." -Gerry Stahl Executive Editor of the International Journal of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning This book offers a set of lenses which give deep insight into education and the use of technologies for learning. The moves between empirical studies, theoretical reflections and discussion of the design of learning environments make the book very thought provoking. Ideas are not just treated as ideas but they become transformed into principles for design. Wegerif is convincing that the use of technology for the creation, maintaining and development of dialogical spaces has the potential for transforming and expanding educational experiences in a way which offers a needed vision of learning for the future. -Sten Ludvigsen Director of the InterMedia Centre for design, communication and learning University of Oslo
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Assessment practices in higher education institutions tend not to equip students well for the processes of effective learning in a learning society. The purposes of assessment should be extended to include the preparation of students for sustainable assessment. Sustainable assessment encompasses,the abilities required to undertake activities that necessarily accompany,learning throughout life in formal and informal settings. Characteristics of effective formative assessment identified by recent research are used to illustrate features of sustainable assessment. Acts of assessment need both to meet the specific and immediate goals of a course as well as establishing a basis for students to undertake their own assessment activities in the future. To draw attention to the importance of this, the idea that assessment always has to do double duty is introduced.
Article
Full-text available
Student surveys across the world have highlighted that students are dissatisfied with the feedback they receive on their assignments and many institutions have been putting plans in place to address this issue. Much of this work has focused on improving the quality of written comments. This paper takes a different perspective. It argues that the many diverse expressions of dissatisfaction with written feedback, both from students and teachers, are all symptoms of impoverished dialogue. Mass higher education is squeezing out dialogue with the result that written feedback, which is essentially a one‐way communication, often has to carry almost all the burden of teacher–student interaction. The paper suggests ways in which the nature and quality of feedback dialogue can be enhanced when student numbers are large without necessarily increasing demands on academic staff. It concludes with a conceptual discussion of the merits of taking a dialogical approach when designing feedback.
Article
Full-text available
This article reports the findings of research into the student experience of assessment in school/college and higher education, and the impact of transition upon student perceptions of feedback quality. It involved a qualitative study of 23 staff and 145 students in six schools/colleges and three English universities across three disciplines. Results show that students experience a radically different culture of feedback in schools/colleges and higher education, with the former providing extensive formative feedback and guidance, while the latter focuses upon independent learning judged summatively. Students perceived quality feedback as part of a dialogic guidance process rather than a summative event. A model is proposed, the Dialogic Feedback Cycle, to describe student experiences at school/college, and suggestions are made as to how it can be used as a tool to scaffold the development of independent learning throughout the first year of university study.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to describe assessment practices as these were experienced by tutors and students in one higher education establishment. Eighty members of faculty staff (80% return) and 130 3rd-year undergraduates (100% return) completed a 40-item questionnaire on their experiences of assessment. The questionnaire included items on the purpose of assessment, the nature and demand level of the tasks which were assessed, the timing of assessment and the procedures for marking and reporting. Statistical analyses of the data showed that there was a significant difference of perception between the two groups. These results are discussed in terms of alternative theoretical models of assessment and suggest that while staff declared a commitment to the formative purposes of assessment and maintained that the full range of learning was frequently assessed, they engaged in practices which militated against formative assessment and authentic assessment being fully realised.
Article
Full-text available
There have been many recommendations for dialogue to be part of the feedback process for students in higher education. In this paper, we report on the findings of feedback-dialogue practices among 17 history, politics and international relations undergraduate students. The study is based on findings obtained from semi-structured interviews and focus groups which sought to explore the extent to which students perceive feedback-dialogues to be part of their learning experience and subsequently the value they place upon them. The aim of the research is to develop strategies for encouraging dialogue between lecturer–student and student–student to enhance the students’ experiences of feedback. Analysis of the results indicates the existence of a ‘top-down’ approach to dialogue between lecturers and students and gaps in opportunities for these types of exchange. A range of strategies for creating models which address these two issues are proposed.
Article
Full-text available
Since the beginning of the century, feedback interventions (FIs) produced negative--but largely ignored--effects on performance. A meta-analysis (607 effect sizes; 23,663 observations) suggests that FIs improved performance on average ( d  = .41) but that over one-third of the FIs decreased performance. This finding cannot be explained by sampling error, feedback sign, or existing theories. The authors proposed a preliminary FI theory (FIT) and tested it with moderator analyses. The central assumption of FIT is that FIs change the locus of attention among 3 general and hierarchically organized levels of control: task learning, task motivation, and meta-tasks (including self-related) processes. The results suggest that FI effectiveness decreases as attention moves up the hierarchy closer to the self and away from the task. These findings are further moderated by task characteristics that are still poorly understood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports the findings of a two-year research project focused on developing students' understanding of assessment criteria and the assessment process through a structured intervention involving both tacit and explicit knowledge transfer methods. The nature of the intervention is explained in detail, and the outcomes are analysed and discussed. The conclusions drawn from the evidence are that student learning can be improved significantly through such an intervention, and that this improvement may last over time and be transferable, at least within similar contexts. This work is a development within a longer and ongoing research project into criterion-referenced assessment tools and processes which has been undertaken in the pursuit of a conceptually sound and functional assessment framework that would promote and encourage common standards of assessment; that project is also sum-marised.
Article
Full-text available
Taylor and Francis Ltd CSHE_A_157196.sgm 10.1080/03075070600572132 Studies in Higher Education 0307-5079 (print)/1470-174X (online) Original Article 2006 Society for Research into Higher Education 31 2 000000April 2006 DavidCarless Faculty of EducationUniversity of Hong KongPokfulamHong Kongdcarless@hkucc.hku.hk Feedback is central to the development of effective learning, yet is comparatively underresearched. This article seeks to examine the notion of written feedback on assignments and argue that this feedback process is more complex than is sometimes acknowledged. The author illustrates the prob-lematic nature of assignment feedback by drawing on a large-scale questionnaire survey conducted across eight universities, and then analysing the issue in more depth though fine-grained data collected from students in a teacher education institute. The article is framed by the concepts of discourse, power and emotion. It highlights a number of different perceptions of students and tutors towards the assessment, marking and feedback process. The author concludes by arguing that 'assessment dialogues' are a way forward to mitigate some of the mistrust or misconceptions that may be unwanted outcomes of the assessment process.
Article
Full-text available
The research on formative assessment and feedback is reinterpreted to show how these processes can help students take control of their own learning, i.e. become self-regulated learners. This refor-mulation is used to identify seven principles of good feedback practice that support self-regulation. A key argument is that students are already assessing their own work and generating their own feedback, and that higher education should build on this ability. The research underpinning each feedback principle is presented, and some examples of easy-to-implement feedback strategies are briefly described. This shift in focus, whereby students are seen as having a proactive rather than a reactive role in generating and using feedback, has profound implications for the way in which teachers organise assessments and support learning.
Article
Full-text available
An important rationale for higher education is that it equips students for learning beyond the point of graduation. Th is paper considers the role that assessment plays in this. It suggests we need to take a new perspective on assessment: assessment to promote learning throughout life. It focuses on ideas that can be used to contribute to the construction of assessment practices and on wider implications for course design. It concludes by exploring barriers to acceptance of this perspective and how they might be addressed. As is well understood, assessment fulfi ls more than one role. It grades students and eventually certifi cates them, but it also has a part to play in aiding their learning. While early books about assessment emphasised its summative function, seeing the student's role as that of test taker, the balance between these two functions has changed over recent decades, and the formative function now has greater prominence. Most early books about assessment featured examples of what Serafi ni (2000) called 'assessment as measurement'. Th is paradigm of assessment was followed, Serafi ni suggests, by two further paradigms: 'assessment as procedure' and 'assessment as enquiry'. Th e role of the student has also changed, and many teachers now aim to encourage their students to be active agents in their own learning. It would however be premature to suggest that the formative function of assessment is now central, even though many higher education institutions have policy statements that acknowledge it. Rowntree (1987) also identifi ed a further purpose of assessment. He argued that it should help prepare students for life. It is this purpose that interests and concerns us. Boud (2000) explored this purpose further, conceptualising it as 'sustainable assessment'. In this paper we ask how, and to what extent, assessment has a role in preparing students for learning in professional life. It is our belief that much current assessment is inadequate to the task of preparing learners for a lifetime of learning. However, there are some practices that have moved this agenda in the right direction. We shall look at some assessment initiatives that might contribute to preparation for lifelong learning and discuss implications of the agenda of lifelong assessment for the design of assessment practices.
Article
Full-text available
Whilst many definitions of formative assessment have been offered, there is no clear rationale to define and delimit it within broader theories of pedagogy. This paper aims to offer such a rationale, within a framework which can also unify the diverse set of practices which have been described as formative. The analysis is used to relate formative assessment both to other pedagogic initiatives, notably cognitive acceleration and dynamic assessment, and to some of the existing literature on models of self-regulated learning and on classroom discourse. This framework should indicate potentially fruitful lines for further enquiry, whilst at the same time opening up new ways of helping teachers to implement formative practices more effectively.
Article
Performance feedback is an important part of many organizational interventions. Managers typically assume that providing employees with feedback about their performance makes it more likely that performance on the job will be improved. Despite the prevalence of feedback mechanisms in management interventions, however, feedback is not always as effective as is typically assumed. In this article, we present specific conditions under which feedback might be less effective, or even harmful. We then discuss the implications of our results and model for designing of interventions aimed at improving performance, and focus more narrowly on 360-degree appraisal systems. After arguing that these systems typically have design characteristics that reduce effectiveness, we conclude with recommendations for improving their effectiveness. We also emphasize the need for systematic evaluations of feedback interventions.
Article
A variety of understandings of feedback exist in the literature, which can broadly be categorised as cognitivist information transmission and socio-constructivist. Understanding feedback as information transmission or ‘telling’ has until recently been dominant. However, a socio-constructivist perspective of feedback posits that feedback should be dialogic and help to develop students’ ability to monitor, evaluate and regulate their learning. This paper is positioned as part of the shift away from seeing feedback as input, to exploring feedback as a dialogical process focusing on effects, through presenting an innovative methodological approach to analysing feedback dialogues in situ. Interactional analysis adopts the premise that artefacts and technologies set up a social field, where understanding human–human and human–material activities and interactions is important. The paper suggests that this systematic approach to analysing dialogic feedback can enable insight into previously undocumented aspects of feedback, such as the interactional features that promote and sustain feedback dialogue. The paper discusses methodological issues in such analyses and implications for research on feedback.
Article
Feedback has long been considered a vital component of training in the health professions. Nonetheless, it remains difficult to enact the feedback process effectively. In part, this may be because, historically, feedback has been framed in the medical education literature as a unidirectional content-delivery process with a focus on ensuring the learner's acceptance of the content. Thus, proposed solutions have been organized around mechanistic, educator-driven, and behavior-based best practices. Recently, some authors have begun to highlight the role of context and relationship in the feedback process, but no theoretical frameworks have yet been suggested for understanding or exploring this relational construction of feedback in medical education. The psychotherapeutic concept of the "therapeutic alliance" may be valuable in this regard.In this article, the authors propose that by reorganizing constructions of feedback around an "educational alliance" framework, medical educators may be able to develop a more meaningful understanding of the context-and, in particular, the relationship-in which feedback functions. Use of this framework may also help to reorient discussions of the feedback process from effective delivery and acceptance to negotiation in the environment of a supportive educational relationship.To explore and elaborate these issues and ideas, the authors review the medical education literature to excavate historical and evolving constructions of feedback in the field, review the origins of the therapeutic alliance and its demonstrated utility for psychotherapy practice, and consider implications regarding learners' perceptions of the supervisory relationship as a significant influence on feedback acceptance in medical education settings.
Article
This article reports on a study concerning secondary school students' meaning-making of socio-scientific issues in Information and Communication Technology-mediated settings. Our theoretical argument has as its point of departure the analytical distinction between 'doing science' and 'doing school,' as two different forms of classroom activity. In the study we conducted an analysis of students working with web-based groupware systems concerned with genetics. The analysis identified how the students oriented their accounts of scientific concepts and how they attempted to understand the socio-scientific task in different ways. Their orientations were directed towards finding scientific explanations, towards exploring the ethical and social consequences, and towards 'fact-finding.' The students' different orientations seemed to contribute to an ambivalent tension, which, on the one hand, was productive because it urged them into ongoing discussions and explicit meaning-making. On the other hand, however, the tension elucidated how complex and challenging collaborative learning situations can be. Our findings suggest that in order to obtain a deeper understanding of students' meaning-making of socio-scientific issues in Information and Communication Technology-mediated settings, it is important not only to address how students perform the activity of 'doing science.' It is equally important to be sensitive with respect to how students orient their talk and activity towards more or less explicit values, demands, and expectations embedded in the educational setting. In other words, how students perform the activity of 'doing school.'
Article
This article presents a thematic analysis of the research evidence on assessment feedback in higher education (HE) from 2000 to 2012. The focus of the review is on the feedback that students receive within their coursework from multiple sources. The aims of this study are to (a) examine the nature of assessment feedback in HE through the undertaking of a systematic review of the literature, (b) identify and discuss dominant themes and discourses and consider gaps within the research literature, (c) explore the notion of the feedback gap in relation to the conceptual development of the assessment feedback field in HE, and (d) discuss implications for future research and practice. From this comprehensive review of the literature, the concept of the feedback landscape, informed by sociocultural and socio-critical perspectives, is developed and presented as a valuable framework for moving the research agenda into assessment feedback in HE forward.
Article
Feedback is one of the most powerful influences on learning and achievement, but this impact can be either positive or negative. Its power is frequently mentioned in articles about learning and teaching, but surprisingly few recent studies have systematically investigated its meaning. This article provides a conceptual analysis of feedback and reviews the evidence related to its impact on learning and achievement. This evidence shows that although feedback is among the major influences, the type of feedback and the way it is given can be differentially effective. A model of feedback is then proposed that identifies the particular properties and circumstances that make it effective, and some typically thorny issues are discussed, including the timing of feedback and the effects of positive and negative feedback. Finally, this analysis is used to suggest ways in which feedback can be used to enhance its effectiveness in classrooms.
Article
Within the broad field of research on learning, culture and social interaction, sociocultural theory is now commonly used as an explanatory conceptual framework. In this article we begin by setting out the essential elements of this theory as it applies to a specific area of enquiry in which we have been involved, which is aimed at understanding the educational functions of classroom talk. In doing so, we will discuss some key concepts generated by the theory. We then review empirical research on talk and learning which has been inspired and informed by a sociocultural perspective, and go on to consider the educational implications of its findings. Finally, we consider how research on the educational functions of classroom talk might be developed, both theoretically and empirically, by using a sociocultural framework to link it with other lines of enquiry into learning and cognitive development.
Article
Ikujiro Nonaka e Hirotaka Takeuchi establecen una vinculación del desempeño de las empresas japonesas con su capacidad para crear conocimiento y emplearlo en la producción de productos y tecnologías exitosas en el mercado. Los autores explican que hay dos tipos de conocimiento: el explícito, contenido en manuales y procedimientos, y el tácito, aprendido mediante la experiencia y comunicado, de manera indirecta, en forma de metáforas y analogías. Mientras los administradores estadounidenses se concentran en el conocimiento explícito, los japoneses lo hacen en el tácito y la clave de su éxito estriba en que han aprendido a convertir el conocimiento tácito en explícito. Finalmente, muestran que el mejor estilo administrativo para crear conocimiento es el que ellos denominan centro-arriba-abajo, en el que los gerentes de niveles intermedios son un puente entre los ideales de la alta dirección y la realidad caótica de los niveles inferiores.
Article
Academic emotions have largely been neglected by educational psychology, with the exception of test anxiety. In 5 qualitative studies, it was found that students experience a rich diversity of emotions in academic settings. Anxiety was reported most often, but overall, positive emotions were described no less frequently than negative emotions. Based on the studies in this article, taxonomies of different academic emotions and a self-report instrument measuring students' enjoyment, hope, pride, relief, anger, anxiety, shame, hopelessness, and boredom (Academic Emotions Questionnaire [AEQ]) were developed. Using the AEQ, assumptions of a cognitive-motivational model of the achievement effects of emotions, and of a control/value theory of their antecedents (Pekrun, 1992b, 2000), were tested in 7 cross-sectional, 3 longitudinal, and 1 diary study using samples of university and school students. Results showed that academic emotions are significantly related to students' motivation, learning strategies, cognitive resources, self-regulation, and academic achievement, as well as to personality and classroom antecedents. The findings indicate that affective research in educational psychology should acknowledge emotional diversity in academic settings by addressing the full range of emotions experienced by students at school and university.
Article
Current literature provides useful insights into the role of assessment feedback in student learning, yet fails to recognise its complexity as a unique form of communication. This article outlines ideas emerging from ongoing research into the meaning and impact of assessment feedback for students in higher education. We argue that new models of communication are required to understand students' responses to the language of tutors' comments, and that issues of discourse, identity, power, control and social relationships should be central to any understanding of assessment feedback as a communication process. Implications of adopting an alternative perspective for research and practice are identified and discussed.
Article
Much evaluation of teaching focuses on what teachers do in class. This article focuses on the evaluation of assessment arrangements and the way they affect student learning out of class. It is assumed that assessment has an overwhelming influence on what, how and how much students study. The article proposes a set of 'conditions under which assessment supports learning' and justifies these with reference to theory, empirical evidence and practical experience. These conditions are offered as a framework for teachers to review the effectiveness of their own assessment practice.
Article
Within many higher education systems there is a search for means to increase levels of student satisfaction with assessment feedback. This article suggests that the search is under way in the wrong place by concentrating on feedback as a product rather than looking more widely to feedback as a long-term dialogic process in which all parties are engaged. A three-year study, focusing on engaging students with assessment feedback, is presented and analysed using an analytical model of stages of engagement. The analysis suggests that a more holistic, socially-embedded conceptualisation of feedback and engagement is needed. This conceptualisation is likely to encourage tutors to support students in more productive ways, which enable students to use feedback to develop their learning, rather than respond mechanistically to the tutors’ ‘instruction’.
Article
The topic of feedback to students is an under‐researched area, and there has been little empirical research published which focuses on student perceptions. This study explores student perceptions of written feedback and examines whether feedback received demonstrated a student‐centred approach to learning. A multi‐method approach of qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis was used to survey 44 students in the faculties of Business and Art & Design. Student responses show feedback is valued, but believed tutor comments could be more helpful. Survey results indicate that students may need advice on understanding and using feedback before they can engage with it. Content analysis of feedback samples and student responses uncovered four main themes of feedback considered unhelpful to improve learning: comments which were too general or vague, lacked guidance, focused on the negative, or were unrelated to assessment criteria. It is suggested that by focusing on messages conveyed by their writing, providing feedback set in the context of assessment criteria and learning outcomes, and by ensuring that it is timely, tutors could greatly improve the value of feedback.
Article
While effective feedback has frequently been identified as a key strategy in learning and teaching, little known research has focused on students’ perceptions of feedback and the contribution feedback makes to students’ learning and teaching. This reported qualitative study aims to enrich our understanding of these perceptions and importantly to provide insight into the meaning of ‘effective’ when related to feedback. The study involved four focus groups of undergraduate students of varying levels and from a range of Schools completing degrees in the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney. Students’ perceptions relating to a definition of feedback, how they use it and preferences for delivery were prompted by the facilitators. Thematic analysis resulted in three key dimensions: perceptions of feedback, impact of feedback and credibility of feedback. The analysis demonstrated that effectiveness of feedback extends beyond mode of delivery and timeliness to include the credibility of the lecturer giving the feedback. The role of effective feedback includes not only enhancing learning and teaching but also facilitating the transition between school and university.
Article
Attention has recently focused on sectoral concern with assessment and feedback as a result of the National Student Survey. Government, the higher education agencies and the NUS have called for urgent action to address this concern. Existing data from institutional student feedback surveys, using the Student Satisfaction Approach, some dating back well over a decade, shows that the issue is not a new one. Indeed, several institutions have been addressing student concerns and as a result, have seen student satisfaction increase.This paper explores the existing student feedback data in order to identify not only how students' perceptions of assessment and feedback have changed over time but also the main concerns of students and institutions and what action has been taken by institutions to increase satisfaction.Several main concerns emerge from the data. Students value feedback as it is re-assuring as an indication of their progress and that it should be timely. Institutions that have used the Student Satisfaction Approach are concerned to clarify their processes to students, to increase their own efficiency in returning work, to monitor and review their assessment and feedback régimes and to share good practice, both internally and externally. Action taken as a result of listening to the student voice results in increased satisfaction but this can take several years.
Article
We discuss a teaching approach that we believe promotes deep learning and diminishes the powerful voice of the teacher, thereby allowing students and the teacher to reason actively and inquire together in the classroom. This teaching approach is based on an integration of the concepts of dialogue and of mediation and utilizes learning tasks to structure dialogue with students during classroom meetings and outside the classroom, when students work independently. Students' experiences of this approach within the two courses reported on in the article were generally positive.
Article
The importance of formative assessment instudent learning is generally acknowledged, butit is not well understood across higher education.The identification of some key features offormative assessment opens the way for adiscussion of theory. It is argued that thereis a need for further theoretical developmentin respect of formative assessment, which needsto take account of disciplinary epistemology,theories of intellectual and moral development,students' stages of intellectual development,and the psychology of giving and receivingfeedback. A sketch is offered of the directionthat this development might take. It is notedthat formative assessment may be eitherconstructive or inhibitory towards learning. Suggestions are made regarding research intoformative assessment, and how research mightcontribute to the development of pedagogicpractice.
Article
In an economy where the only certainty is uncertainty, the one sure source of lasting competitive advantage is knowledge. Yet, few managers understand the true nature of the knowledge-creating company-let alone know how to manage it. According to this 1991 article by Japanese organizational theorist Ikujiro Nonaka, the problem is that most Western managers define knowledge-and what companies must do to exploit it-too narrowly. They believe that the only useful knowledge is "hard" (read "quantifiable") data. And they see the company as a kind of machine for information processing. Nonaka shows us another way to think about knowledge and its role in business organizations. He uses vivid examples from highly successful Japanese companies such as Honda, Canon, NEC, and Sharp. Managers at these companies recognize that creating new knowledge is not simply a matter of mechanistically processing objective information. Rather, it depends on tapping the tacit and often highly subjective insights, intuitions, and ideals of employees. The tools for making use of such knowledge are often soft"-such as slogans, metaphors, and symbols-but they are indispensable for continuous innovation. The reasons Japanese companies are especially adept at this holistic kind of knowledge creation are complex. But the key lesson for managers is quite simple: Much as manufacturers worldwide have learned from Japanese manufacturing techniques, companies that want to compete on the knowledge playing field must also learn from Japanese techniques of knowledge creation.