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Performance assessment of façade integrated glazed air solar thermal collectors

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Present trends on solar thermal systems for building integration define the need of integrated solar technologies for façades. The integration of solar systems in façades allows for the direct connection of solar systems to heated spaces, and automated air solar collectors based on the trombe-mitchell provide a suitable technology for its adoption in multi-rise buildings with decentralized-individual HVAC systems in Central-European and Mediterranean heating dominated climates.
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Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
ScienceDirect
Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000
www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia
1876-6102 © 2017The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of The 15th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling.
The 15th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling
Assessing the feasibility of using the heat demand-outdoor
temperature function for a long-term district heat demand forecast
I. Andrića,b,c*, A. Pinaa, P. Ferrãoa, J. Fournierb., B. Lacarrièrec, O. Le Correc
aIN+ Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research -Instituto Superior Técnico,Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal
bVeolia Recherche & Innovation,291 Avenue Dreyfous Daniel, 78520 Limay, France
cDépartement Systèmes Énergétiques et Environnement -IMT Atlantique, 4 rue Alfred Kastler, 44300 Nantes, France
Abstract
District heating networks are commonly addressed in the literature as one of the most effective solutions for decreasing the
greenhouse gas emissions from the building sector. These systems require high investments which are returned through the heat
sales. Due to the changed climate conditions and building renovation policies, heat demand in the future could decrease,
prolonging the investment return period.
The main scope of this paper is to assess the feasibility of using the heat demand outdoor temperature function for heat demand
forecast. The district of Alvalade, located in Lisbon (Portugal), was used as a case study. The district is consisted of 665
buildings that vary in both construction period and typology. Three weather scenarios (low, medium, high) and three district
renovation scenarios were developed (shallow, intermediate, deep). To estimate the error, obtained heat demand values were
compared with results from a dynamic heat demand model, previously developed and validated by the authors.
The results showed that when only weather change is considered, the margin of error could be acceptable for some applications
(the error in annual demand was lower than 20% for all weather scenarios considered). However, after introducing renovation
scenarios, the error value increased up to 59.5% (depending on the weather and renovation scenarios combination considered).
The value of slope coefficient increased on average within the range of 3.8% up to 8% per decade, that corresponds to the
decrease in the number of heating hours of 22-139h during the heating season (depending on the combination of weather and
renovation scenarios considered). On the other hand, function intercept increased for 7.8-12.7% per decade (depending on the
coupled scenarios). The values suggested could be used to modify the function parameters for the scenarios considered, and
improve the accuracy of heat demand estimations.
© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of The 15th International Symposium on District Heating and
Cooling.
Keywords: Heat demand; Forecast; Climate change
Energy Procedia 115 (2017) 353–360
1876-6102 © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of AREQ 2017.
10.1016/j.egypro.2017.05.032
10.1016/j.egypro.2017.05.032
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
ScienceDirect
Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000
www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia
1876-6102 © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of AREQ 2017.
International Conference – Alternative and Renewable Energy Quest, AREQ 2017, 1-3 February
2017, Spain
Performance assessment of façade integrated glazed air solar
thermal collectors
Roberto Garay Martineza,*, Julen Astudillo Larraza
a Tecnalia, Sustainable Construction Division, C/ Geldo s/n, Edificio 700, 48160, Derio, Bizkaia, Spain
Abstract
Present trends on solar thermal systems for building integration define the need of integrated solar technologies for façades. The
integration of solar systems in façades allows for the direct connection of solar systems to heated spaces, and automated air solar
collectors based on the trombe-mitchell provide a suitable technology for its adoption in multi-rise buildings with decentralized-
individual HVAC systems in Central-European and Mediterranean heating dominated climates.
This paper reviews the main principles of such building envelope components, and the construction and design considerations of
two air-based solar thermal collectors. Full scale preliminary prototypes of these systems were tested at the KUBIK by Tecnalia
test facility in an Oceanic Climate (Koppen Geiger Cfb zone). The observed thermal performance is analyzed, and the process of
a full scale installation in a real building envelope retrofitting process of a building in Spain is reviewed.
© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of AREQ 2017.
Keywords: Solar thermal systems; Building envelopes; Integration; Integrated Solar Collector Envelopes;
1. Introduction
With energy efficiency and an ultimate need to reduce primary energy consumption of buildings towards
sustainability, energy systems are increasing its presence in building envelopes. Solar energy systems such as solar
thermal and photovoltaic systems are being implemented in buildings, boosted by energy procurement policies and
user/owner will to reduce the overall energy costs in buildings.
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +34 667 178 958; fax: +34 946 460 900.
E-mail address: roberto.garay@tecnalia.com
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
ScienceDirect
Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000
www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia
1876-6102 © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of AREQ 2017.
International Conference – Alternative and Renewable Energy Quest, AREQ 2017, 1-3 February
2017, Spain
Performance assessment of façade integrated glazed air solar
thermal collectors
Roberto Garay Martineza,*, Julen Astudillo Larraza
a Tecnalia, Sustainable Construction Division, C/ Geldo s/n, Edificio 700, 48160, Derio, Bizkaia, Spain
Abstract
Present trends on solar thermal systems for building integration define the need of integrated solar technologies for façades. The
integration of solar systems in façades allows for the direct connection of solar systems to heated spaces, and automated air solar
collectors based on the trombe-mitchell provide a suitable technology for its adoption in multi-rise buildings with decentralized-
individual HVAC systems in Central-European and Mediterranean heating dominated climates.
This paper reviews the main principles of such building envelope components, and the construction and design considerations of
two air-based solar thermal collectors. Full scale preliminary prototypes of these systems were tested at the KUBIK by Tecnalia
test facility in an Oceanic Climate (Koppen Geiger Cfb zone). The observed thermal performance is analyzed, and the process of
a full scale installation in a real building envelope retrofitting process of a building in Spain is reviewed.
© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of AREQ 2017.
Keywords: Solar thermal systems; Building envelopes; Integration; Integrated Solar Collector Envelopes;
1. Introduction
With energy efficiency and an ultimate need to reduce primary energy consumption of buildings towards
sustainability, energy systems are increasing its presence in building envelopes. Solar energy systems such as solar
thermal and photovoltaic systems are being implemented in buildings, boosted by energy procurement policies and
user/owner will to reduce the overall energy costs in buildings.
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +34 667 178 958; fax: +34 946 460 900.
E-mail address: roberto.garay@tecnalia.com
© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of AREQ 2017.
354 Roberto Garay Martinez et al. / Energy Procedia 115 (2017) 353–360
2 Roberto Garay Martinez / Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000
Solar thermal systems are commonly used as a heat source for Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)
systems in buildings, in such a way that the need for electricity or fossil fuels in the building is reduced. Also, a large
fraction of solar energy is commonly used for Domestic Hot Water (DHW) heating. These systems can be classified
as indirect systems, as solar energy flows to the building use across the HVAC/DHW system.
In direct systems, solar heat is directly used in the building, without the need for its connection to HVAC networks
in the building. These systems are commonly air-driven systems, where indoor air is circulated across the collector
and introduced back into the building with a certain heat gain. Depending on various possible air loops, other
circulations are possible, such as heating of outdoor ventilation air prior to its introduction to the building.
In [1], a Passive solar collector module for building envelope is proposed, which provides a flexible air circulation
in the collector, with up to 4 different circulation schemes (trombe wall, parieto-dynamic wall, solar chimney,
ventilated façade). In this paper, two engineered solutions of this concept are detailed and their performance assessed.
Due to increased requirements in the use of solar energy in buildings, an evenly increasing building envelope
surface is required. This implies that the impact of solar thermal technologies in the overall aesthetics of the building
also increases. For this reason, solar systems in buildings are evolving from “technical kits” to building envelope
systems. The seamless integration of these technologies in buildings is required to ensure that building owners accept
their integration in their property.
The presented solution integrates the solar thermal system within a curtain wall scheme, suitable for retrofit or new-
constructed buildings, which also facilitates dimensional adaptation to construction projects.
2. Air solar collectors
Air solar collectors are relatively easy constructions where solar energy is absorbed and transferred to an air stream.
Depending on the particular type of collector, the air stream is forced by a fan, or created by the thermal buoyancy of
the air as it is heated.
Most commonly referred solar collectors are glazed constructions, where a glass cover is used to generate a channel
over the absorber. The glazing serves the dual purpose of allowing solar radiation into the collector, and insulating the
collector and the heated air from outdoor conditions.
In its most simple configuration, air solar collectors are created with the erection of a glazed pane in front of a brick
wall, and the perforation of venting holes on the upper and lower edges of the wall. This constructions, when installed
in irradiated façades (South façades in the Northern hemisphere), will serve to heat the building. However, the
performance of this system would be substantially increased with some control of the otherwise completely natural
and uncontrolled ventilation. Airflow control by means of operable ventilation grilles will avoid overheating of the
served building, and also cooling phenomena in cold, non-irradiated periods (e.g. winter nights).
Although the concept is relatively simple, a modern implementation of such a system should incorporate a set of
properties to ensure the proper formal integration of the system in buildings, a seamless and confortable operation,
and reduced user disturbance when it is installed in retrofit projects.
3. The Tecnalia passive air solar collector system
In European Patent [1], a modular passive solar collector system is presented which presents a suitable root for the
development of several air solar thermal collector systems. This concept is underpinned on a high quality curtain wall
Aluminum frame, where the collector is housed.
Roberto Garay Martinez et al. / Energy Procedia 115 (2017) 353–360 355
Roberto Garay Martinez / Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000 3
Fig. 1. Schematics of the air solar collector in a building [1].
The proposed system is compatible with a modular curtain wall system in new-built constructions, and with wall
overcladding solutions in building energy retrofits. In this later case, the system is suitable for installation over
unglazed walls, with additional thermal insulation of the wall.
The system incorporates a set of operable louvres where the ventilation scheme of the air channel can be modified.
These louvres are three way actuators which rotate according to manual or automatic systems. Figure 2 depicts the
louvre system and some of the possible ventilation schemes.
(a) (b) (c)
Fig. 2. (a) Detail of the T-shaped louvre system. (b and c) Ventilation schemes [1].
356 Roberto Garay Martinez et al. / Energy Procedia 115 (2017) 353–360
4 Roberto Garay Martinez / Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000
4. Implementations
Several implementations of this system have been produced, with variants related to the final purpose of the system,
and available degrees of freedom for the design.
4.1. Common Engineered parts
Both systems are rooted in the same platform, consisting in a set of conventions. The following elements are the
common key elements:
- Aluminum frame system: An aluminum frame was designed, manufactured and tested for assembly. The
resulting concept is tested for structural integrity, and a manufacturing protocol is available, which facilitates
to focus design on specific variables related to the thermal performance of the system and its variants. Although
specific mechanical validations might be necessary, the system is validated for large dimensions, with tentative
heights above 3m, and widths larger than 1m.
- Actuator system: An actuator system was defined which allows the T-shaped louvre to rotate up to 270º. Cone
gears were used, and a chassis defined to allow for the integration of the louvre system, the rotation axis, and
a standard HVAC rotational actuator. All the assembly is designed to fit within a tubular frame in de main
Aluminum frame system. A tray for ventilation fans is also defined, based on low profile, ventilation fans
commonly used for electrical cabinets.
- Louvre system: The louvre system, compatible with the previously mentioned actuator and frame assemblies.
The louvre system consists on plastic rotational elements within a plastic housing. The relatively smooth
assembly ensures that minimal air leaks are produced in the junctions. Based on the same assembly concept of
fixed envelope and rotational core, T, I and L-shaped variants allow for different degrees of freedom in the
design of ventilation loops.
- Glazing and blind: A double pane, Low-emissive glazing is used in the standard configuration; a roller blind
is installed in cases where summer overheating is possible.
Figure 3 shows two phases in the assembly process of the aluminum frame, louvre system and actuator in project
RETROKIT, “Toolboxes for systemic retrofitting” [3].
Fig. 3. Aluminum frame, louvres and actuators in the assembly process.
Roberto Garay Martinez et al. / Energy Procedia 115 (2017) 353–360 357
Roberto Garay Martinez / Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000 5
4.2. MeeFS air solar collector system
In EU project MeeFS, “Multifunctional Energy Efficient Façade System” [2], an air solar collector was
implemented, where Phase Change Materials were installed to smooth the temperature output of the system along the
day. This system is capable of providing the 4 main ventilation schemes due to its two L-shaped louvres (figure 4).
Fig. 4. Venting schemes of the air chamber in the MeeFS solar collector.
4.3. RETROKIT solar collector and ventilation module
In EU project Retrokit [3], a ventilation module was implemented with solar air pre-heating. This system is used
to heat outdoor air only. This system is capable of selecting the most suitable intake to the ventilation system. One T-
shaped louvre system selects outdoor air, or air from the collector according to a pre-defined algorithm.
5. Experimental assessment
The thermal performance of the systems presented in this project was tested at the KUBIK by Tecnalia [4] test facility
within 2013, 2014 and 2015. KUBIK by Tecnalia is a multi-rise building aimed at realistic testing of building concepts,
for which it provides a fully adaptable environment (internal boundary conditions, HVAC system layout, adaptation
of building envelopes, fully customizable building automation & control). It is located in Derio, on the Atlantic coast
of Spain, which exhibits a Cfb climate based on the Koppen climate classification system [5]. The Cfb climate
characterizes most of central and West Europe, including the British Islands, and some locations in the Mediterranean
Coast. The KUBIK test facility is designed and operated as a test facility to bridge the gap between laboratory testing
and full scale deployment, and is customized on a case-by case basis to meet the specific needs of each project.
A section of the South façade of the building was used for the experimentation of both systems. The MeeFS system
was installed and tested in mid 2013, while the RETROKIT substituted the previous prototype in late 2014. In figure
5, South views of the experimental collectors are presented.
358 Roberto Garay Martinez et al. / Energy Procedia 115 (2017) 353–360
(a) (b)
Fig. 5. Proof of concept MeeFS (a) and RETROKIT (b) solar collector modules in the South Façade of the KUBIK building
Both test set-ups were sensorized with similar criteria. Solar radiation and ambient conditions were recorded by
the central meteorological station setup in Kubik. Additionally, ambient temperature was measured in the vicinity of
the prototypes with local sensors. Internally, air temperature and collector surface temperature were measured at three
different heights inside the solar collector. Indoor measurements consisted on ambient air temperature, radiant
temperature and relative humidity. In figure 6, details of the sensor scheme used in the MeeFS experiment can be
found.
Fig. 6. Sensor scheme for the experimental campaign of the MeeFS prototype
Data was gathered with a minute frequency, and several analyses were performed. Due to different scopes in the
research, different data was pursued. In MeeFS, a transfer-function-like expression was targeted, for its
implementation in the control system of the product. In Retrokit, the overall possible temperature increase in the
system was targeted, with different results for various moments in the day.
The mathematical expressions obtained from the MeeFS experiment is presented in (1 and 2). Two equations are
required to correctly model the thermal performance of the air channel and the PCM thermal storage layer. Further
detail of the research output of the MeeFS project is available in [6].
Roberto Garay Martinez et al. / Energy Procedia 115 (2017) 353–360 359
Roberto Garay Martinez / Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000 7
ܶ
ை௨௧௟௘௧ǡ௜ ൌ ͲǤͲͲͳͲʹͳ כ ܫௌ௢௟௔௥ǡ௜ െ ͲǤͲͳͶͷ͵ͷ כ ܶ
ை௨௧ௗ௢௢௥ǡ௜ ൅ ͲǤͷͶͺͶͷ כ ܶ
ூ௡௟௘௧ǡ௜ ൅ ͲǤͶ͸͹͸ͷͷ כ ܶ
௉஼ெǡ௜
(1)
ܶ
௉஼ெǡ௜
ൌ ͲǤͲͲ͵͹͸ͷ כ ܫ
ௌ௢௟௔௥ǡ௜
൅ ͲǤͲͷͺʹ͵Ͷ כ ܶ
ை௨௧ௗ௢௢௥ǡ௜
െ ͲǤʹͶʹ͵ͺ͵ כ ܶ
ூ௡ௗ௢௢௥ǡ௜
൅ͲǤͶ͸͹͸ͷͷ כ ܶ
ூ௡௟௘௧ǡ௜ ൅ ͲǤ͹ͳͺ͵Ͳͺ כ ܶ
ூ௡௟௘௧ǡ௜ (2)
In Retrokit, regression techniques were used to find suitable expressions of the thermal performance of the solar
collector for different ambient temperature and solar radiation cases. In figure 7, collector outlet temperature, and
inlet-outlet temperature gains for various moments along the day are shown.
Fig 7. Service temperature levels and temperature gain in the air stream in the RETROKIT Solar air collectorFull scale integration in occupied
building
6. Full scale implementation in a building retrofitting project
The overall goal of project MeeFS is a development of an industrialized concept for building envelope retrofitting
with multifunctional envelope panels. The system, based on a modular grid is then equipped with various technologies
such as insulation, green façade, ventilation and solar technologies. The air solar collector presented in this work was
designed to fit into the MeeFS grid. A demonstration setup of this system will be constructed in Spain in 2016, where
2 air solar collectors will be installed.
These collectors were constructed in an industrial setting near Bilbao, and transported by Road for final installation.
The systems were delivered with all automatic parts and control system already installed.
Fig 8. Original configuration and façade project for the energy retrofitting of the MeeFS demonstration building in Mérida, Extremadura, Spain.
360 Roberto Garay Martinez et al. / Energy Procedia 115 (2017) 353–360
7. Conclusions
In this paper, a technological platform for the development and particularization of air-solar collectors is presented.
Two particular developments are presented where a dynamic solar façade with automatic control, and a ventilation
module with an integrated solar heater.
Experimental performance of these collectors was tested, and mathematical models and heat gain metrics were
obtained. In project MeeFS, the performance of the solar collector is defined by two equations. In project Retrokit,
the solar gain capacity of the device is set at 5ºC over inlet/ambient air.
At present state, the solar thermal platform has evolved, and industrially manufactured prototypes were delivered
to a demonstration setup in a real building in Spain.
Acknowledgements
The research leading to the results reported in this work has received funding from the European Union Seventh
Framework Programme FP7/2007–2013, projects Multifunctional Energy efficient Façade System (MeeFS, Grant
Agreement no 285411) and Toolboxes for systemic Retrofitting (Retrokit, Grant Agreement no 314229).
References
[1] Amundarain Suarez, A., Campos Dominguez, J. M., Chica Paez, J. A., Meno Iglesias, S., Uriarte Arrien, A., Garay Martinez, R., et al. (2014).
Passive solar collector module for building envelope. European Patent EP 2520870 B1, 5 March 2014.
[2] MEEFS, Multifunctional Energy Efficient Façade System, EU FP7 GA nº 285411, http://www.meefs-retrofitting.eu/ (2016/07/22)
[3] RETROKIT, Toolboxes for systemic retrofitting, EU FP7 GA nº 314229, http://www.retrokitproject.eu/ (2016/07/22)
[4] R. Garay, et al., Energy efficiency achievements in 5 years through experimental research in KUBIK, in: 6th International Building Physics
Conference, IBPC 2015, Torino, 2015. Energy Procedia Volume 78, November 2015, Pages 865-870, doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2015.11.009
[5] Kottek, M., J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel, 2006: World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated. Meteorol. Z.,
15, 259-263. DOI: 10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130.
[5] D. Kolaitis, R. Garay Martinez, M. Founti, An experimental and numerical simulation study of an active solar wall enhanced with phase change
materials, Journal of Facade Design and Engineering, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 71-80, 2015
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Energy efficiency achievements in 5 years through experimental research in KUBIK, in: 6th International Building Physics Conference, IBPC 2015, Torino, 2015
  • R. Garay
Passive solar collector module for building envelope
  • Amundarain Suarez
  • A Campos Dominguez
  • J M Chica Paez
  • J A Meno Iglesias
  • S Uriarte Arrien
  • A Garay Martinez
Amundarain Suarez, A., Campos Dominguez, J. M., Chica Paez, J. A., Meno Iglesias, S., Uriarte Arrien, A., Garay Martinez, R., et al. (2014). Passive solar collector module for building envelope. European Patent EP 2520870 B1, 5 March 2014.