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Everyday Life after Collapse: A Bioarchaeological Examination of Entheseal Change and Accidental Injury in Postcolonial Nubia

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... However, biomechanical clinical literature cautions that a variety of factors go into entheseal changes (Benjamin et al., 2002(Benjamin et al., , 2006. Hence, fibrocartilaginous (Henderson et al., , 2015Henderson et al., 2017;Michopoulou et al., 2017), fibrous (Becker, 2017;Schrader, 2012;Schrader and Buzon, 2017;Yonemoto, 2016), or a combination of both types (Lieverse et al., 2013) have been used in recent osteological studies to understand past populations. ...
... Weiss and Jurmain (2007) also suggested that a missing element in any study of biomechanical changes, especially those associated with OA, is subadult risk, with an interest in establishing juvenile age of onset, injury, and activity intensity. Thus, most recent research on OA, entheseal changes, and CSG was careful to use population-oriented approaches, factor in age at death and sex, and note if subadults were affected (Austin, 2017;Becker, 2017;Becker and Goldstein, 2017;Cheverko and Bartelink, 2017;Domett et al., 2017;Palmer et al., 2016;Schrader and Buzon, 2017). ...
Article
Akin to approaches encouraged by Verano (1997) in the Andes, and Ortner (2011, 2012) for general paleopathological studies, this article focuses on accurate descriptions and definitions of osteoarthritis, entheses, and long bone cross-sectional geometry. By evaluating these conditions as part of biological responses to abnormal skeletal changes and biomechanical stress, the pathogenesis of each condition is discussed. Further, this article emphasizes a "small data" approach to evaluating these conditions in ancient culturally and biologically related human populations, where the study samples must have good skeletal preservation, where estimates of age and sex need to be included as major factors, and where abnormalities need to be described and evaluated. This article also discusses global clinical and osteological research on ways scholars are currently trying to establish industry-wide methods to evaluate osteoarthritis, entheses, and long bone cross-sectional geometry. Recent studies have focused on rigorous evaluation of methodological techniques, recording protocols, and inter-and intra-observer error problems. Additionally, scholars have focused on physical intensity of movement using biomechanics, evaluated burials of known occupation, and used complex statistical methods to help interpret skeletal changes associated with these conditions. This article also narrows to focus on these conditions within "small data" areas throughout the Andes. Finally, this research concludes with describing future directions to understand skeletal changes, such as more multidisciplinary studies between osteologists and pathologists, working with living people to collect CT, x-rays, or computer-aided motion capture, and a stronger focus on how these conditions correlate with intense biomechanical changes in younger individuals.
... Interestingly, ECs were used to study socio-economic-related differences in activity for past populations (Al-Oumaoui et al., 2004;Havelková et al., 2013;Schrader, 2015;Schrader & Buzon, 2017;Steen, 2003;Yonemoto, 2016;Zabecki, 2009) Thus, one can prudently use the EC data from ancient Egyptians to develop hypotheses regarding divisions in labour within and between the two socio-economic classes: workers and high officials. ...
... However, these procedures were not implemented here for the following reasons: (a) Most of the data were collected before any likely conventional acknowledgement was reached for the use of new methods; (b) the Hawkey and Merbs system provides valuable data regarding both severity and frequency of ECs; and (c) all data in this work were collected by one individual, the author, and thus minimising interobserver error. Moreover, several recent reports have reliably applied the Hawkey and Merbs system to describe activity patterns of various populations from the Nile Valley region(Schrader, 2012(Schrader, , 2015Schrader & Buzon, 2017;Zabecki, 2009). ...
Article
Entheseal changes are distinct skeletal markings that occur where a muscle, tendon, or ligament inserts into bone cortex, in response to many factors including physical activity. Therefore, entheseal changes have been frequently used to reconstruct habitual life activities of ancient populations. The present study examines a sample of 195 ancient Egyptians from Giza ‐ Old Kingdom (2700‐2190 BC), the period of pyramid builders. The material consists of two burials that were identified as belonging to individuals of different socioeconomic classes, Workers and High Officials. This distinction between the socioeconomic classes is based on evidence including location and design of cemeteries, contents of goods, and writings and drawings on tombs. Entheseal changes at 14 sites, representing the main articulations of the body, were examined to assess any association between entheseal expression and physical activities. The results of this study suggest that the frequency and severity of entheseal changes varied between Workers and High Officials, and between males and females. As expected, males exhibited higher levels of entheseal expression, suggesting sexual dimorphism in activity. No clear bilateral asymmetry was observed, except for in female High Officials, who exhibited higher levels of entheseal expression at the right hand. A direct comparison of frequencies of entheseal changes between the two social classes, by sex and age, revealed that male and female Workers had higher levels of entheseal expression than High Officials, suggesting a division in labor. Together, these data suggest that entheseal changes can be used, cautiously, to study activity patterns in ancient Egyptian populations.
... This low level of activity corresponds with the archaeological information suggesting Tombos was a community of administrative workers. When the Third Intermediate/Napatan sample is compared to the New Kingdom, a higher level of activity is revealed, which may explain why people in the Third Intermediate/Napatan cohort are larger (Schrader and Buzon, 2017). These results are supported by postcranial analyses (Gibbon and Buzon, 2016), where an environmental explanation was suggested. ...
... While skeletal features cannot be directly associated with specific activities, ethnographic and archaeological evidence provide useful contextual information to understand the observed changes. Schrader and Buzon (2017) suggest the fall of the Egyptian empire may have resulted in increased agricultural activities as well as the quarrying of granite at Tombos. Subsistence activities during this period included agriculture, herding and animal husbandry; there were surplusproducing economies that needed to support the royal and temple economy as goods were redistributed and administered through these institutions (Welsby and Anderson, 2004). ...
Article
Using morphometric assessment, we diachronically analyse mechanical stress and limb function at the Tombos (modern Sudan) archaeological site through time and changing socioeconomic circumstances. Based on previous research, we expect that during the Third Intermediate/Napatan (c. 1070-656 BCE) people were larger and more physically active than in the New Kingdom (∼1400-1070 BCE). On the appendicular skeleton of adults 57 measurements were obtained on individuals from 67 discrete burials and 370 commingled skeletal elements. These raw measurements were analysed statistically. Individuals from the discrete burials were used to calculate body mass and estimate mechanical behaviour (torsional and bending rigidity of long bones) modeled using beam theory across several bones of the upper and lower limbs. Body mass estimates for both sexes show people during the Third Intermediate/Napatan period were statistically significantly larger. On the upper limb for both sexes, variation reflects joint stabilisation and actions of flexion and extension at the elbow and/or supination/pronation of the forearm. On the lower limb, females show variation related to weight bearing activities and foot flexion; male variation is related to weight bearing activities, joint movement and stabilisation. These data point to altered habitual behaviour and physical activity for both sexes at Tombos through time. Suggested causes for both sexes include increased agricultural activities, and for males increased granite quarrying and equestrian activities. Using analyses of multiple bones of the upper and lower limbs in conjunction with biomechanical analyses, this study demonstrates the importance of the examination of physical activities in past populations, highlighting changes that can occur with sociopolitical transitions.
... The loss will grow with the distance between the German language and the language into which the text is translated into (i.e. a translation into Dutch is closer to the original than English, and English closer than a translation into Chinese….). The German word -unheimlich" is the antonym to words that denote -Haus" (home), -Wohnort" (residence) and -Heimat" (homeland, native, home country): In the experience of Nothimgness, familiarity and the teleological structure of everyday life collapse (Schrader & Buzon, 2017). Is not the German word best suited to characterize this experience of estrangementcomparable to the Greek experience of becoming a ξένος? ...
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Language endangerment and language loss have become of focal interest for linguists and cultural anthropologists who bemoan the loss of linguistic diversity. The coinage of the term “linguicide” indicates the inherent problem that is related to mondialisation, universalization, and urbanization, which in itself is a highly controversial subject. The recent discoveries of Martin Heidegger’s black notebooks cast a new perspective on his work, revealing his revulsion at universalist ideologies and his antimodernism – and, most fatefully, his antisemitism: Jews who are to him the incarnation of rootlessness, distance from the soil, and thus subversion. Heidegger was born in a rural provincial German – and for many remained so, walking in the countryside, hating TV, airplanes, pop music, and processed food that all conspire to distract us from the basic wondrous nature of Being, overwhelming us with information, killing silence, and never leaving us alone, and thus keep us away from the confrontation with “das Nichts” (the Nothing), which lies on the other side of Being, that is, however, unknown to the chatter (das Gerede), which can be perceived in the newspapers, on TV and in the cities Heidegger hated to spend time in. Although he was a Nazi to the end, this does not mean that nothing can be learned from him or problems connected to his work. This library research deals with the complexity of translating this German philosopher into the English language. It draws not only on typical examples from Heidegger’s path-breaking philosophical work Sein und Zeit and presents attempts at translating it, but also points out their shortcomings and drawbacks. Additionally, it presents solutions to the problems that emerge from Heidegger’s idiosyncratic language. Generally speaking, it reveals the almost unbridgeable language barriers that can only be overcome at the expense of depth and authenticity. Homogenization can be seen as a way of leveling down ideas and concepts that end in language death.
... There are two competing theories for how ossification exostosis is created; either it is a macro trauma that is the result of a one-time extreme action, or the result of a jump in severity of muscle movement that is sustained (Charlotte Y. Henderson, 2009;C. Y. Henderson, Mariotti, Pany-Kucera, Villotte, & Wilczak, 2013;Schrader & Buzon, 2017;Wesp, 2014b). They may, therefore, speak to a lower underlying entheseal robusticity that was unable to normally cope with the sharp increase in the strain put upon them. ...
Thesis
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Utilizing skeletal remains from the Viking Age in Denmark, this dissertation seeks to uncover how gender influenced lived experiences and identity formation during this period. Historically, biases regarding the inherent abilities of individuals of either gender have heavily influenced analysis in this area. Bioarchaeology offers a unique perspective on this query as skeletons reflect an individual’s life experiences and are a relatively unbiased source of information about the past. As identity is performed through the manipulation of the human body, analyzing the evidence of those experiences can provide a window into the past. Through an analysis of Viking Age burials from across Denmark, I explore how gender impacted identity formation and lived experience at the time. I utilize a ioarchaeological approach to discuss how individuals were impacted by gendered expectations at the time. Through assessing activity patterns, trauma prevalence rates, and the general health of individuals in the sample, patterns of behavior that may shed light on lived experiences that impacted identity formation during the Viking Age may be established. By combining that analysis with a discussion of the funerary treatment of the deceased the interplay between the deceased’s lived experiences and the social status ascribed to them by the community who buried them can be assessed. The results show that the relationship between ascribed social status and lived experiences is complex and cannot be solely attributed to the influence of gender on individual or social identity. The combination of skeletal and archaeological data help to provide a more nuanced understanding of how gender historically impacted lived experience and identity formation than either analysis could provide on its own.
... Sarah Schrader constituye una gran transferencia del conocimiento, en parte derivada de las investigaciones realizadas en el marco de su proyecto de tesis, titulado Bioarchaeology of the Everyday: Analysis of Diet and Activity Patterns in the Nile Valley (SCHRADER, 2013), el cual se centró en el estudio de la dieta y de la actividad física de varias poblaciones de Nubia de distintas cronologías (Reino Medio -Tercer Período Intermedio). Actualmente, como profesora asistente en la Universiteit Leiden y directora del Laboratory for Human Osteoarchaeology, la actividad investigadora de la autora se ha centrado especialmente en las aproximaciones bioculturales a las sociedades antiguas del Valle del Nilo (SCHRADER, 2012;2015;SCHRADER et al., 2014;SCHRADER y BUZON, 2017;SCHRADER y SMITH, 2017). A partir de algunas de estas contribuciones, se aprovechan distintos casos de estudio de Nubia, con más de 800 individuos de distintas necrópolis sudanesas como Kerma o Tombos. ...
Article
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La cotidianidad en el pasado ha sido una de las preguntas claves para la Historia y la Arqueología. Actividades tan “mundanas” como comer o trabajar, además de producir la mayor parte de evidencias arqueológicas, son ejes de estudio esenciales para comprender los mecanismos de producción y reproducción social de las comunidades que solemos abordar en nuestras investigaciones. En este sentido, la Bioarqueología o la Osteoarqueología nos pueden aportar interesantes herramientas de análisis y reflexión para aproximarnos a la vida cotidiana desde los restos óseos.
... The people of Tombos may have turned to alternative means of production and trade, independent of imperial demands. There is archaeological and human skeletal evidence to suggest that the inhabitants of Tombos began quarrying local granite resources during the Third Intermediate/Napatan Periods (Dunham 1947;Schrader 2013;Schrader & Buzon 2017). They may have also been breeding, training and trading horses (Dalley 1985;Morkot 2000). ...
Article
The recent discovery of a well-preserved horse burial at the Third Cataract site of Tombos illuminates the social significance of equids in the Nile Valley. The accompanying funerary assemblage includes one of the earliest securely dated pieces of iron in Africa. The Third Intermediate Period (1050-728 BC) saw the development of the Nubian Kushite state beyond the southern border of Egypt. Analysis of the mortuary and osteological evidence suggests that horses represented symbols of a larger social, political and economic movement, and that the horse gained symbolic meaning in the Nile Valley prior to its adoption by the Kushite elite. This new discovery has important implications for the study of the early Kushite state and the formation of Kushite social identity.
Article
The Egyptian Empire conquered and colonized Nubia, what is today northern Sudan, on multiple occasions. The colonization strategy employed was highly variable through time, ranging from the construction of militarized fortresses (Middle Kingdom 2050‐1650 BCE) to an amicable co‐existence approach (New Kingdom 1550‐1050 BCE). Egyptian tactics also varied spatially, depending on several factors including a colonized community’s utility to the empire and the potential for revolt. Using a large dataset (n=341), this paper compares osteoarthritis between seven Nubian communities to (1) evaluate whether imperial strategy impacted osteoarthritis severity, and (2) assess whether rates of osteoarthritis differed between colonized communities. Age‐controlled ANCOVA analysis suggests there was significant variation in the frequency and severity of osteoarthritis throughout the empire. The Middle Kingdom C‐Group, an indigenous Nubian population that lived outside the Egyptian built and occupied fortresses, displayed the highest rates of osteoarthritis for nearly all joint systems. Osteoarthritis then decreased during the post‐colonial Second Intermediate Period (1650‐1550 BCE) and again increased during the recolonization of the New Kingdom. However, there is significant variation of osteoarthritis at three New Kingdom sites, each of which experienced a differing colonization approach. This study suggests that the varying imperial strategies utilized by the Egyptian Empire may have impacted the physical activities and daily lives of Nubians and that these tactics were not equal throughout Nubia, but were tailored to communities. It is therefore difficult to discuss a singular outcome of colonization; rather, these interpretations need to be nuanced with community‐level archaeological context.
Book
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Theoretical Approaches in Bioarchaeology emphasizes how several different theoretical perspectives can be used to reconstruct the biocultural experiences of humans in the past. Over the past few decades, bioarchaeology has been transformed through methodological revisions, technological advances, and the inclusion of external theoretical frameworks from the social and natural sciences. These interdisciplinary perspectives became the backbone of bioarchaeology and strengthened the discipline’s ability to address questions about past biological and social dynamics. Consequently, how, why, and when to apply external theory to studies of past populations are central and timely questions tied to future developments of the discipline. This book facilitates ongoing dialogues about theoretical applications within the field and interdisciplinary connections between bioarchaeology, biological anthropology, and other disciplines. Each chapter highlights how a theoretical framework originating from a social or natural science connects to past and future bioarchaeological research. For scholars and archaeologists interested in the theoretical applications of bioarchaeology, this book will be an excellent resource.
Chapter
In this chapter, I synthesize the practice theory and methodological approaches discussed in Chapters 1– 4 by presenting a case study from Ancient Nubia. These data are the product of my dissertation as well as several additional years of excavation and research. I have been working in Nubia, modern northern Sudan, for more than 10 years and have direct experience excavating and analyzing the data presented here. In addition to the excellent degree of preservation due to the extremely arid environment, Nubia has had several instances of major sociopolitical change, which likely impacted day-to-day life. For example, the Egyptian Empire colonized Nubia twice, Nubia conquered Egypt once, and there were also several interactions with populations to the south. In short, there is plenty of fodder for a bioarchaeologist interested in daily life.
Chapter
This final chapter will summarize the previous chapters and discuss the potential for additional research. The methods I have proposed in Chapters 3 and 4, and demonstrated in Chapter 5 only represent a selection of the techniques bioarchaeologists can use to address day-to-day life. Other areas that need additional research include: collaboration between archaeology and bioarchaeology, bioarchaeological methods, and anthropologically oriented research. Bioarchaeologists have had access to many of these lines of evidence, but have yet to be conceptualized as components of everyday life. Like activity and diet, various types of data can elucidate the experience of the individual and the community. Two areas of bioarchaeological research that have begun to question lived experience include osteobiographical approaches and the bioarchaeology of care. Both of these fields have considered life events and social identities that would have framed everyday experience; however, these studies typically do not examine entire groups or communities, but rather focus on a single person. Furthermore, these approaches do not frame their research in terms of everyday experience, but rather address it peripherally. This book presents an argument for why studies of day-to-day practice are important in anthropological research and how bioarchaeological studies can contribute to this dialogue.
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This book explores how individuals, social groups, and entire populations are impacted by the tumultuous collapse of ancient states and empires. Through meticulous study of the bones of the dead and the molecules embedded therein, bioarchaeologists can reconstruct how the reverberations of traumatic social disasters permanently impact human bodies over the course of generations. In this case, we focus on the enigmatic civilizations of ancient Peru. Around 1000 years ago, the Wari Empire, the first expansive, imperial state in the highland Andes, abruptly collapsed after four centures of domination. Several hundred years later, the Inca rose to power, creating a new highland empire running along the spine of South America. But what happened in between? According to Andean folklore, two important societies, known today as the Chanka and the Quichua, emerged from the ashes of the ruined Wari state, and coalesced as formidable polities despite the social, political, and economic chaos that characterized the end of imperial control. The period of the Chanka and the Quichua, however, produced no known grand capital, no large, elaborate cities, no written or commercial records, and left relatively little by way of tools, goods, and artwork. Knowledge of the Chanka and Quichua who thrived in the Andahuaylas region of south-central Peru, ca. 1000 – 1400 A.D., is mainly written in bone—found largely in the human remains and associated funerary objects of its population. This book presents novel insights as to the nature of society during this important interstitial era between empires—what specialists call the “Late Intermediate Period” in Andean pre-history. Additionally, it provides a detailed study of Wari state collapse, explores how imperial fragmentation impacted local people in Andahuaylas, and addresses how those people reorganized their society after this traumatic disruption. Particular attention is given to describing how Wari collapse impacted rates and types of violence, altered population demographic profiles, changed dietary habits, prompted new patterns of migration, generated novel ethnic identities, prompted innovative technological advances, and transformed beliefs and practices concerning the dead.
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The first objective of this study is to reconstruct levels and types of physical activity and associated sexual and social differences using human skeletal remains from the predominately 19th century Dutch cemetery of Middenbeemster. For most individuals, life in the Beemster centred around dairy farming and was heavily based on manual labor, with a purported higher class of wealthier individuals performing less manual labor. Two skeletal markers of activity are examined in the upper limb of late young adult and middle‐aged adults of both sexes (26–49 years, n = 69): osteoarthritis (OA) and entheseal changes (EC). Results support the hypothesis that the majority of the population engaged in high levels of physical activity; however, a group with a clearly lower or different pattern of activity, possibly representing a higher, less active class, was not discernible. This may be due to a low number of less active individuals in the analysed sample and/or the heterogeneity of occupations and activities. A gendered division of labour was evident in the EC data with males having more pronounced muscle attachments in almost all sites, especially the biceps brachii, used primarily in lifting. Females had more pronounced triceps brachii, which may be due to activities that required pushing or pulling with the elbow in a flexed position. The prevalence and severity of OA did not differ between the sexes. While this could be interpreted to indicate men and women engaged in a similar level of strenuous activity, hormonal and anatomical differences limit the strength of the comparison. The second objective of this study is to evaluate the concordance of OA and EC as activity markers. The correlation between OA and EC is very low, illustrating their variable and complex etiologies. Etiological factors need further research for OA and EC to become more reliable activity markers. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The Maya. The Romans. The great dynasties of ancient China. It is generally believed that these once mighty empires eventually crumbled and disappeared. A recent trend in archaeology, however, focusing on what happened during and after the decline of once powerful societies has found social resilience and transformation instead of collapse. In Beyond Collapse: Archaeological Perspectives on Resilience, Revitalization, and Transformation in Complex Societies, editor Ronald K. Faulseit gathers scholars with diverse theoretical perspectives to present innovative approaches to understanding the decline and reorganization of complex societies. Essays in the book are arranged into five sections. The first section addresses previous research on the subject of collapse and reorganization as well as recent and historic theoretical trends. In the second section, contributors look at collapse and resilience through the concepts of collective action, eventful archaeology, and resilience theory. The third section introduces critical analyses of the effectiveness of resilience theory as a heuristic tool for modeling the phenomena of collapse and resilience. In the fourth section, contributors examine long-term adaptive strategies employed by prehistoric societies to cope with stresses. Essays in the fifth section make connections to contemporary research on post-decline societies in a variety of time periods and geographic locations. Contributors consider collapse and reorganization not as unrelated phenomena but as integral components in the evolution of complex societies. Using archaeological data to interpret how ancient civilizations responded to various stresses—including environmental change, warfare, and the fragmentation of political institutions—contributors discuss not only what leads societies to collapse but also why some societies are resilient and others are not, as well as how societies reorganize after collapse. The implications of the fate of these societies for modern nations cannot be underestimated. Putting in context issues we face today, such as climate change, lack of social diversity, and the failure of modern states, Beyond Collapse is an essential volume for readers interested in human-environment interaction and in the collapse—and subsequent reorganization—of human societies.
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Patterns of cranial trauma in a skeletal series recovered from 63 well-documented Classic and Post classic period Maya sites were analyzed by examining the extent and role of violence and captive taking in the region across time. It was hypothesized that different forms of organized inter-personal violence and weaponry use should leave distinctive traces and distribution patterns in the skeletal remains. By examining urban versus rural settings, different chronological periods, and the different contexts, Vera Tiesler and Andrea Cucina illuminate the role of warrior/captive status. The analysis of the “trophy skulls” that were placed in caches, ritual trash areas and within tomb burials and those recovered from ritual depositories in sink holes are shown to be post-sacrificial. Also, both males and females showed evidence of blunt force trauma suggesting that not only males were engaged in these types of violence.
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This research project looked at the dental health of Late Intermediate Period skeletons from the Wari capital to assess their consumption patterns. A high rate of dental disease coupled with carious lesions indicative of coca chewing supports the hypothesis that post-Wari populations maintained many of the agricultural practices and trade networks of the former state, including consumption of large quantities of maize and frequent coca chewing.
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This study documents the frequency and patterning of cranial fractures to evaluate the role of violence after Huari imperial collapse. These Late Intermediate Period burials were interred at the Monqachayoq sector at Huari, the former capital of the Huari empire. Twenty-two of 31 adults exhibit healed cranial fractures (71%). Perimortem cranial fractures were observed on 42% of adults (n=31) and 30% of children (n=10). Men, women, and children all suffered from lethal attacks, suggesting that they may have been victims of raids and killing sprees. Although the skeletal sample is not wholly representative of all LIP communities in the former imperial heartland, the data indicate that the post-Huari period was a violent time for numerous individuals, regardless of their age or sex. Este estudio presenta la frecuencia y patrón de trauma craneal para evaluar el papel de violencia después del colapso del imperio Huari. Los entierros corresponden al Intermedio Tardío y fueron enterrados en el sector de Monqachayoq en Huari, la capital antigua del imperio Huari. Veintidós de los 31 adultos (71%) demuestran fracturas craneales saneadas (antemortem). Fracturas perimortem del cráneo fueron observadas en 42% de adultos (n=31) y 30% de los jóvenes (n=10). Ambos sexos tienen porcentajes similares. Hombres, mujeres, y niños sufrieron ataques mortales, y sugiere que ellos fueron víctimas de asaltos y eventos de matanzas indiscriminadas. Aunque la muestra de esqueletos no es representativa de todas las comunidades del Intermedio Tardío, los datos osteológicos indican que el periodo después del reinado de Huari fue un tiempo violento para muchas personas de varias categorías de edad y sexo.
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IntroductionHistory of Activity StudiesMethodological ConsiderationsProspects for Future ResearchReferences
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As one of the few areas apt for horticulture in Northern Chile's arid landscape, the prehistory of the Atacama oases is deeply enmeshed with that of the inter-regional networks that promoted societal development in the south central Andes. During the Middle Horizon (AD 500-1000), local populations experienced a cultural apex associated with a substantial increase in inter-regional interaction, population density, and quantity and quality of mortuary assemblages. Here, we test if this cultural peak affected dietary practices equally among the distinct local groups of this period. We examine caries prevalence and the degree of occlusal wear in four series recovered from three cemeteries. Our results show a reduction in the prevalence of caries for males among an elite subsample from Solcor 3 and the later Coyo 3 cemeteries. Dental wear tends to increase over time with the Late Middle Horizon/Late Intermediate Period cemetery of Quitor 6 showing a higher average degree of wear. When considered in concert with archaeological information, we concluded that the Middle Horizon was marked by dietary variability wherein some populations were able to obtain better access to protein sources (e.g., camelid meat). Not all members of Atacameño society benefited from this, as we note that this dietary change only affected men. Our results suggest that the benefits brought to the San Pedro oases during the Middle Horizon were not equally distributed among local groups and that social status, relationship to the Tiwanaku polity, and interment in particular cemeteries affected dietary composition.
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Over the last twenty years, many studies have used enthesopathies as an indicator of the behaviour of past populations. However, in these works, the distinction between healthy and pathological aspects has been arbitrary. Moreover the lack of standardised observation methods exacerbates this problem and limits the comparison between different studies. The aim of this study is to propose a new method of studying enthesopathies based on present medical data. It is possible to distinguish two types of entheses according to the nature of the tissue of insertion: fibrous or fibrocartilaginous. The variations between normal and pathological aspects based on this distinction enable the proposition of four generic scoring systems. These systems were applied to 18 sites of appendicular insertions and spinal column insertions of yellow ligaments. Under each system, three scoring stages are defined representing different stages of the remodelling process. The first three groups include fibrocartilaginous insertions. We used anatomical and anatomopathological descriptions to define the stages. Such descriptions are rare for the fourth group which concerns fibrous insertions. With this method, intra- and inter-observer errors are less than 10%. Application of this scoring method on archaeological skeletons of known age, sex and activity would allow us to discuss the respective relevance of the use of fibrous and fibrocartilaginous entheses for the interpretation of behaviour and activities of past human populations.
Article
Objectives: Many authors argue that inconsistencies between studies of skeletal markers are based on different data collection protocols, especially when comparing age-related markers such as osteoarthritis. Less attention is given to the choice of statistical techniques that are used to test the hypotheses associated with the data. This paper addresses how different statistical techniques compare the prevalence of age-related skeletal indicators, specifically osteoarthritis. Materials and methods: Osteoarthritis prevalence was scored in eight postcranial joints in 243 adult individuals from seven prehistoric archaeological sites in Central California, and data was compared between three time periods [Early (4800-2800 BP), Middle (2800-1200 BP), and Late (1200-250 BP)] using commonly used statistical tests: chi-square, Fisher's exact, and odds ratios. In addition, we analyzed the data with tests that are able to take into consideration the effect of age on osteoarthritis prevalence: ANCOVA and Factorial ANOVA. Finally, bootstraps were applied to the data to investigate how fluctuating frequencies, sample size, and age-at-death distributions affected the interpretations resulting from each test. Results: The results demonstrate that the tests that consider age as a covariate (ANCOVA and Factorial ANOVA) are more efficient in rejecting the null hypothesis when smaller magnitudes of difference are observed between samples, irrespective of sample size, even though osteoarthritis prevalence fails to meet assumptions of normal distribution and homoscedasticity. Discussion: ANCOVAs or Factorial ANOVAs that incorporate age as a covariate should be considered more often in studies that test different prevalences of age-related osteological markers among past populations.
Article
Through the concept of entanglement, archaeological indications of cultural identity and skeletal evidence of biological and geographic interaction are used to explore the development of the Nubian polity who ruled as the 25th Dynasty of Egypt (Napatan period, ca. 750–656 B.C.E.). In this article, we examine the ways in which cultural and biological linkages affect the political, social, and cultural trajectories of the political entities in the ancient Nile Valley. Early studies of political developments in this region have often focused on Egypt, ignoring the aspects of power formation that may have developed independently and the long tradition of established local institutions in Nubia. The present research uses evidence from the site of Tombos, located in Upper Nubia, to investigate the processes of identity formation and population composition during the Egyptian colonial occupation and the subsequent rise of the Nubian Napatan polity. We address the impact of Egyptian and Nubian immigrants on the political developments, finding strongest support for the influence of Nubian-Egyptian communities established in colonial times on the character of the Napatan polity. [cultural entanglement, Egypt, 25th Dynasty, Tombos, mortuary practices, state formation].
Chapter
In the 1960s and 1970s, comparative studies of early complex societies in anthropological archaeology focused overwhelmingly on the emergence of the first states and urban societies.1 Prime movers, primary states, and the earliest urban systems were the subject of intensive investigation and theorizing. An investigation of the origins of civilization is certainly an appropriate task for archaeology, since the formation of the new institutions, technologies, and modes of thought inherent in that process represents one of the most important transformations in human history. Moreover, archaeology can preside in near-total isolation over the topic, since textual evidence is likely to be minimal or absent until states are well ensconced.
Chapter
Within a comparative framework of early state societies, pharaonic Egypt stands out as one of the most stable, integrated, and long-lasting political entities of which we have record. Indeed, in the two millennia or so that constituted Egypt's journey from the institution of a pharaonic state in the First Dynasty to the onset of terminally troubled times at the end of the Twentieth Dynasty, Egypt experienced only two intermediate periods, each of which lasted for roughly a century or so.
Article
Professor Smith uses Nubia as a case study to explore the nature of ethnic identity. Recent research suggests that ethnic boundaries are permeable, and that ethnic identities are overlapping. This is particularly true when cultures come into direct contact, as with the Egyptian conquest of Nubia in the second millennium BC. By using the tools of anthropology, Smith examines the Ancient Egyptian construction of ethnic identities with its stark contrast between civilized Egyptians and barbaric foreigners - those who made up the 'Wretched Kush' of the title.
Article
Skeletal remains are a vital source of evidence for archaeologists. Their interpretation has tended to take two divergent forms: the scientific and the humanistic. In this innovative study, Joanna Sofaer Derevenski argues that these approaches are unnecessarily polarized and that one should not be pursued without the other. Exploring key themes such as sex, gender, life cycle and diet, she argues that the body is both biological object and cultural site and is not easily detached from the objects, practices and landscapes that surround it.
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From the Euphrates Valley to the southern Peruvian Andes, early complex societies have risen and fallen, but in some cases they have also been reborn. Prior archaeological investigation of these societies has focused primarily on emergence and collapse. This is the first book-length work to examine the question of how and why early complex urban societies have reappeared after periods of decentralization and collapse. Ranging widely across the Near East, the Aegean, East Asia, Mesoamerica, and the Andes, these cross-cultural studies expand our understanding of social evolution by examining how societies were transformed during the period of radical change now termed 'collapse.' They seek to discover how societal complexity reemerged, how second-generation states formed, and how these re-emergent states resembled or differed from the complex societies that preceded them. The contributors draw on material culture as well as textual and ethnohistoric data to consider such factors as preexistent institutions, structures, and ideologies that are influential in regeneration; economic and political resilience; the role of social mobility, marginal groups, and peripheries; and ethnic change. In addition to presenting a number of theoretical viewpoints, the contributors also propose reasons why regeneration sometimes does not occur after collapse. A concluding contribution by Norman Yoffee provides a critical exegesis of 'collapse' and highlights important patterns found in the case histories related to peripheral regions and secondary elites, and to the ideology of statecraft. After Collapse blazes new research trails in both archaeology and the study of social change, demonstrating that the archaeological record often offers more clues to the 'dark ages' that precede regeneration than do text-based studies. It opens up a new window on the past by shifting the focus away from the rise and fall of ancient civilizations to their often more telling fall and rise.
Article
The Wari Empire thrived in the Peruvian Andes between AD 600 and 1000. This study of human skeletons reveals the biological and social impact of Wari imperialism on people's lives, particularly its effects on community organization and frequency of violence of both ruling elites and subjects. The Wari state was one of the first politically centralized civilizations in the New World that expanded dramatically as a product of its economic and military might. Tiffiny Tung reveals that Wari political and military elites promoted and valorized aggressive actions, such as the abduction of men, women, and children from foreign settlements. Captive men and children were sacrificed, dismembered, and transformed into trophy heads, while non-local women received different treatment relative to the men and children. By inspecting bioarchaeological data from skeletons and ancient DNA, as well as archaeological data, Tung provides a better understanding of how the empire's practices affected human communities, particularly in terms of age/sex structure, mortuary treatment, use of violence, and ritual processes associated with power and bodies.
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This cutting-edge synthesis of the archaeology of Nubia and Sudan from prehistory to the nineteenth century AD is the first major work on this area for over three decades. Drawing on results of the latest research and developing new interpretive frameworks, the area which has produced the most spectacular archaeology in sub-Saharan Africa is examined here by an author with extensive experience in this field. The geographical range of the book extends through the Nubian north, the Middle Nile Basin, and includes what has become the modern Sudan. Using period-based chapters, the region's long-term history is traced and a potential for a more broadly framed and inclusive 'historical archaeology' of Sudan's more recent past is explored. This text breaks new ground in its move beyond the Egyptocentric and more traditional culture-histories of Nubia, often isolated in Africanist research, and it relocates the early civilizations and their archaeology within their Sudanic Africa context. This is a captivating study of the area's history, and will inform and enthral all students and researchers of Archaeology and Egyptology.
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Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains provides an integrated and comprehensive treatment of pathological conditions that affect the human skeleton. There is much that ancient skeletal remains can reveal to the modern orthopaedist, pathologist, forensic anthropologist, and radiologist about the skeletal manifestations of diseases that are rarely encountered in modern medical practice. Beautifully illustrated with over 1,100 photographs and drawings, this book provides essential text and materials on bone pathology, which will improve the diagnostic ability of those interested in human dry bone pathology. It also provides time depth to our understanding of the effect of disease on past human populations.
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As a contribution to the explanation of sociocultural change and stability, a seminar was held at the School of American Research in Santa Fe in 1982, focussed on the search for a common pattern in the rise and fall of complex societies. Contributions to the present volume include: Contexts of civilisational collapse: a Mesopotamian view (Robert McC. Adams); The collapse of ancient Mesopotamian States and civilisation (T. Patrick Gulbert); The last years of Teotihuacan dominance (Rene Millon); The dissolution of the Roman Empire (G.W. Bowersock); The roles of the literati and of regionalism in the fall of the Han dynasty (Cho-yun Hsu); The role of barbarians in the fall of states (Bennet Bronson). -J.Sheail
Book
In this incisive book, Michel de Certeau considers the uses to which social representation and modes of social behavior are put by individuals and groups, describing the tactics available to the common man for reclaiming his own autonomy from the all-pervasive forces of commerce, politics, and culture. In exploring the public meaning of ingeniously defended private meanings, de Certeau draws brilliantly on an immense theoretical literature to speak of an apposite use of imaginative literature.
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Background., Injuries from encounters with large animals represent a significant health risk for rural communities. We evaluated our regional trauma centers' experience with large-animal injuries to determine whether certain mechanisms and patterns of injury predicted either major head/craniofacial or torso (chest/abdomen/pelvis) trauma. Methods: The hospital courses of 145 patients with injuries related to large animals were reviewed retrospectively to determine patterns of injury, specific injury mechanisms, species-specific injuries, and predictors of multiple body region trauma. Results: Seventy-nine patients (55%) were injured by horses, 47 patients (32%) by bulls, 16 patients (11%) by cows, and 3 patients (2%) by wild animal attacks. The predominant species-specific mechanisms of injury were fails (horses), tramplings (bulls), and kicks (cows). Brain/craniofacial injuries were most common from horse-related encounters (32%), whereas bull and cow encounters usually resulted in torso injuries (45% and 56%, respectively). Multiple body region injuries occurred in 32% of patients, Fractures of the upper extremities were more often associated with torso and head/craniofacial injuries (48%) than lower extremity injuries (17%) (p = 0.02). Conclusion: Large animal injuries frequently involve multiple body regions with species-specific mechanisms. Upper extremity injuries are associated with a significantly higher percentage of torso and head/craniofacial injuries, which may have implications for field triage.
Article
During the past 6 years 134 patients were admitted as the result of bovine (cow) and equine (horse) trauma. The mechanism of injury was fall from horse in 45 patients, animal assault in 42, animal kick in 39, and animal-drawn vehicle accident in eight. Injury Severity Score (ISS) ranged from 1 to 41 and was greater than or equal to 25 in 11 patients. One hundred seventeen operative procedures were performed by ten groups of surgical subspecialists. Mortality was nil. Ideal management of these injuries includes treatment in a regional trauma center and an educational program of preventive measures. (C) Williams & Wilkins 1986. All Rights Reserved.
Chapter
Although finding evidence of healed trauma in archaeological populations is fairly straightforward, the interpretation of that evidence is less so. Ryan P. Harrod, Pierre Liénard, and Debra L. Martin gathered data on healed injury among an extant population of Kenyan pastoralists, the Turkana. Their study documents cases of healed trauma resulting from all types of injuries. The findings indicate that a significant percentage of the adult population reported trauma from accident or occupational activities as well as from violent interactions. For both males and females, injury related to violence occurred primarily as cranial trauma. Injury recidivism was analyzed by comparing both the self-reported rate of corporal punishment as children and later injury as adults, as well as the co-occurrence of cranial trauma with other injuries. Both an early exposure to violence and the existence of additional injuries is predictive of cranial trauma in later life.
Article
Although archaeological evidence may express the results of several seasons of activity, the human skeleton, when correlated with archaeological and ethnographic data, provides information concerning daily activities performed throughout an individual's lifetime. Studies in occupational and sports medicine, along with electromyographic analysis of movement, have shown that different activities place different amounts of stress on human bone. In the present study, analysis of upper extremity musculoskeletal stress markers (MSM) has been used to clarify habitual activity patterns of two ancient Thule Eskimo groups from northwest Hudson Bay, Canada. Distinct pattern differences in muscle use occurred between Thule adult males and females and suggest possible gender-specific activity patterns that are not always discernible from the archaeological record alone. Temporal applications of the MSM data for Early and Late Period Thule support McCartney's theory of a substantial change in subsistence strategies through time, particularly among the adult males.
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2004. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 316-339). Microfiche. s
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The Wari empire flourished in the central, highland Peruvian Andes from AD 600-1000, and although the events that led to its demise are unknown, archaeological evidence indicates that Wari control waned at the end of the first millennium. Here, we test the hypothesis that, despite the major shift in social and political organization at the fall of the Wari empire, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) composition of populations from the Ayacucho Basin, the former imperial heartland of the empire, remained essentially unchanged. Results show that mtDNA haplogroup frequencies among the Wari and post-Wari groups differ, but the difference is not statistically significant (chi2 = 5.886, df = 3, P = 0.1172). This is the first study in the Andes to use haplotypic data to evaluate the observed genetic distance between two temporally distinct prehispanic populations (F(ST) = 0.029) against modeled expectations of four possible evolutionary scenarios. None of these simulations allowed the rejection of continuity. In total, at both the haplogroup and haplotype levels these data do not allow us to reject the hypothesis that post-Wari individuals sampled in this study are the maternal descendants of those sampled from the Wari era site of Conchopata. However, genetic homogeneity in the mitochondrial gene pool, as seen in the late prehispanic southern Andes, may also characterize our study region. But, prior to this research, this was unknown. If our new data show mtDNA homogeneity, then this could limit the detection of female migration if, in fact, it occurred. Nonetheless, the novel mtDNA data presented here currently do not support the hypothesis that there was an influx of genetically distinct females into the former Wari heartland after the Wari collapse.
Article
Differences in the incidence of hip fractures have been reported between urban and rural areas. In this population-based study the characteristics of fracture patterns between the city of Malmö and the nearby rural district of Sjöbo were compared. A total of 782 individuals in Malmö and 486 in Sjöbo were invited to participate. Fracture history for all invited was registered. The odds ratio for fracture was higher in Malmö, particularly for women over 70. More than half of the urban women aged 70 had a history of a fracture. A fourfold increase in fracture prevalence between the ages of 60 and 70 was observed in women in Malmö, whereas the prevalence doubled in Sjöbo. The differences in fracture patterns between these two urban and rural communities may be explained by different lifestyles.
Article
A one-year prospective survey was conducted to study the incidence of and potential risk factors for farm-related injuries in Eastern Ontario. One hundred and seventeen dairy and beef farms were surveyed using a personal interview. Information was collected on demographic characteristics of the farm owners, workers, and families; characteristics of the farm operations; and information on behaviors potentially affecting injury risk. Monthly telephone contact was then maintained with the farms for one year in order to document all farm-related injuries. Overall and specific injury rates were calculated. Treatment patterns for these injuries were described. The statistical significance of several potential risk factors for injury was evaluated; assessment of relative risk estimates (RR) and adjustment for confounding factors was done using logistic regression analysis. The overall farm injury rate was 7.0 persons injured per 100 person-years (95% C.I.: 4.9,9.1, n = 547). Common patterns of injury by ICD-9-E-Code included accidents caused by farm machinery (E919.0), accidental falls (E880-8), and injuries caused by animals (E906). Variables found in multivariate logistic models to be predictive of injury occurrence were living on a beef farm (RR = 2.5; p = 0.01); increased farm work experience (trend: p less than 0.01); full-time exposure to farm work (RR = 2.5; p = 0.04); and, in farm owners, the use of prescriptions medications (RR = 2.7; p = 0.07). Forty-six percent of the farm-related injuries were treated in a hospital-based emergency department (ER). Efforts to monitor the incidence of farm injuries using an ER-based information system have the potential to significantly under-estimate the scope of the regional farm injury problem in Eastern Ontario.
Article
A one-year retrospective survey was conducted to study the incidence of, and potential risk factors for farm-related injuries. One hundred thirteen dairy and beef farms in Eastern Ontario were surveyed using a personal interview. Information was collected on demographic characteristics of the farm owner, workers, and family; characteristics of the farm operation; and information on behaviours potentially affecting injury risk. The crude rate of injury was 9.6 per 100 person years. Significantly higher rates of injury were found for: owner-operators of farms (RR = 2.9; p less than 0.001); male sex (RR = 3.8; p less than 0.001); living/working on a beef as opposed to dairy farm (RR = 2.3; p = 0.01); farm owners in the age groups of less than 30 and greater than 70 years (p = 0.05), full-time as opposed to part-time beef farm owners (RR = 4.2; p = 0.02); and full-time owners of beef as opposed to dairy farms (RR 2.4; p = 0.03). Common patterns of injury included accidental falls (E880-8); lacerations, bruises, and crush injuries from working with cattle (E906) or from agricultural machinery (E919.0); and foreign body injuries to the eye (E914). Few injuries were associated with the use of tractors or power take-offs. 82% of injuries, for which medical treatment was sought, were treated in a hospital-based emergency department. This information would support efforts to establish an emergency-department-based surveillance system for farming injuries in our setting.
Article
Agricultural work injury data are less available than data for other industries, so an overview of existing data is provided. Agriculture has the highest annual work death rate of all industries, 52 per 100,000 workers, which is five times the combined rate for all industries. Tractor-related injuries are the leading types of fatal injuries; injuries involving agricultural machinery, animals, and trucks are the leading types of non-fatal injuries. Victims of fatal accidents range in age from less than 1 year to over 90. Research needs are discussed, including the need for comprehensive surveillance.
Article
An analysis of 272 Amish admissions to a community hospital over a 3-year period revealed 60 to be trauma related. The majority of the accidents were unique to the Amish community, with 26.7% horse and buggy related. Falls accounted for 20%, "hay hole" falls 8.3%, power saw injuries 8.3%, and horse drawn farm equipment 6.7%. The Amish are an exceptional group whose religious beliefs disallow the use of many modern conveniences such as automobiles and electricity. As with the general population, transportation played a major role as the main source of trauma in the Amish group; however, overall mortality and morbidity appear to be less.