Water Leak Detection System

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The water supply shortage has increased in recent years due to overpopulation, climate change and obsolete water facilities, where deteriorated pipes cause most of the water leaks. The problem is not the size of the leak, but the time it takes to detect it. This paper presents the implementation of a system installed in the hydraulic facilities of a residence, to detect water leaks. The system consists of a water sensor installed by a water reservoir of interest, a microprocessor to interpret the data and evaluate whether it is a water leak or not, an SMS alert message, and an electrical actuator to shut off the main water supply to avoid leakage.

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Fluid leak detection represents a problem that has attracted the interest of researchers, but not exclusively because in industries and services leaks are frequently common. Indeed, in water or gas supplies, chemical or thermal plants, sea-lines or cooling/heating systems leakage rates can cause important economic losses and sometimes, what it is more relevant, environmental pollution with human, animal or plant lives at risk. This last issue has led to increased national and international regulations with different degrees of severity regarding environmental conservation.[...]
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Conference Paper
This paper reviews low power AC-DC converter in different techniques capable of developing high efficiency of energy consumption in many applications. By using low power AC-DC converter, the size of whole system integrated circuit could be reduced. However, the requirements of CMOS converter that required low input voltage and low voltage drop of MOS transistors is discussed. Different techniques in different application are implemented to overcome those problems. In this paper, the reviews of low power AC-DC converters have been focused for energy harvesting systems and wireless power devices only. These AC-DC converters consume several micro-watts from small ac or rf signal voltage and achieve excellent performance in terms of power efficiency. However, the power efficiency of AC-DC converter system is actually highly correlated to the relationship between voltage and the alternating current in ac source. It is because, an in-phase voltage and current in alternating current source is causing in good power factor performance. Power factor correction, PFC is important in many single-phase AC-DC converter circuits to reduce harmonic distortion, hence increase power efficiency of electric appliances. Therefore, the low power AC-DC converter with PFC is proposed. The post-layout of low power AC-DC converter is designed by using the Silterra 0.18 μm technology. The whole post-layout AC-DC converter circuit consumes only 50 μW and works in low voltage, 1V. The power efficiency of whole system also improved to 93%. The proposed low power AC-DC converter with PFC is suitable for future power electronics systems such as battery charger and energy conversion devices.
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Due to financial and operational problems faced by local Indonesian water supply companies (Perusahaan Daerah Air Minum – PDAMs), people depend for their domestic water on many private providers, who use groundwater as their source. Within this context, this article interrogates the current water supply regulatory framework and its implications. Indonesia is at the crossroads of treating water supply as a public service or commercialising it through market or market proxy mechanisms. Through content analysis and a literature study on the impacts of such regulations in the past, this article shows that Indonesia’s regulatory framework lends itself to the commercialisation option. Some findings on the current regulations and their impacts indicate that awarding commercial water rights has the potential to marginalise traditional users as well as create administrative problems; adopting the full cost recovery concept has made PDAMs reluctant to expand their services, especially to the poor; inviting the private sector to manage water supply is surely not in the best interests of the provision of public services; assigning an Indonesian National Standard (SNI) has resulted in bottled water becoming the most reliable drinking water; and allowing groundwater extraction to take place without sufficient regulation and law enforcement has resulted in excessive extraction at a detriment to the environment.
Power electronics, which is a rapidly growing area in terms of research and applications, uses modern electronics technology to convert electric power from one form to another, such as ac-dc, dc-dc, dc-ac, and ac-ac with a variable output magnitude and frequency. Power electronics has many applications in our every day life such as air-conditioners, electric cars, sub-way trains, motor drives, renewable energy sources and power supplies for computers. This book covers all aspects of switching devices, converter circuit topologies, control techniques, analytical methods and some examples of their applications.
This review examines the current knowledge of water intake as it pertains to human health, including overall patterns of intake and some factors linked with intake, the complex mechanisms behind water homeostasis, and the effects of variation in water intake on health and energy intake, weight, and human performance and functioning. Water represents a critical nutrient, the absence of which will be lethal within days. Water's importance for the prevention of nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases has received more attention recently because of the shift toward consumption of large proportions of fluids as caloric beverages. Despite this focus, there are major gaps in knowledge related to the measurement of total fluid intake and hydration status at the population level; there are also few longer-term systematic interventions and no published randomized, controlled longer-term trials. This review provides suggestions for ways to examine water requirements and encourages more dialogue on this important topic.
Conference Paper
A simple rectifier, little documented in the literature, provides a low-voltage output from an AC-mains supply, with inherent short-circuit protection. We present waveforms, a theoretical analysis, simulation results (within ±2% of theoretical predictions over a 512:1 range of the principal design parameter) and experimental confirmation, and propose variants with improved regulation. The line-harmonic characteristics comply with IEC 1000-3-2, Class A, at power levels up to 250 W. This rectifier finds application in equipment requiring a low-voltage, nonisolated DC supply
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