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Emotional intelligence describes ability, capacity, skill, or self-perceived ability to identify, assess, and manage the emotions of one’s self, of others, and of groups. The theory is enjoying considerable support in the literature and has had successful applications in many domains.
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Proposition 37
Understanding and Developing Emotional
In a Word Emotional intelligence describes ability, capacity, skill, or
self-perceived ability to identify, assess, and manage the emotions of ones self, of
others, and of groups. The theory is enjoying considerable support in the literature
and has had successful applications in many domains.
The intelligence quotient, or IQ, is a score derived from one of several different
standardized tests to measure intelligence.
It has been used to assess giftedness and
sometimes underpin recruitment. Many have argued that IQ, or conventional
intelligence, is too narrow: some people are academically brilliant yet socially and
When psychologists began to think about intelligence they focused attention on cognitive aspects
such as memory and problem solving.
©Asian Development Bank 2017
O. Serrat, Knowledge Solutions, DOI 10.1007/978-981-10-0983-9_37
interpersonally inept.
We know that success does not automatically follow those
who possess a high IQ rating.
If your emotional abilities arent in hand, if you dont have self-awareness, if you
are not able to manage your distressing emotions, if you cant have empathy and
have effective relationships, then no matter how smart you are, you are not going to
get very far.
Daniel Goleman
Wider areas of intelligence enable or dictate how successful we are toughness,
determination, and vision help. But emotional intelligence, often measured as an
emotional intelligence quotient, or EQ, is more and more relevant to important
work-related outcomes such as individual performance, organizational productivity,
and developing people because its principles provide a new way to understand and
assess the behaviors, management styles, attitudes, interpersonal skills, and
potential of people. It is an increasingly important consideration in human resource
planning, job proling, recruitment interviewing and selection, learning and
development, and client relations and customer service, among others.
Emotional intelligence describes the ability, capacity, skill, or self-perceived ability
to identify, assess, and manage the emotions of ones self, of others, and of groups.
People who possess a high degree of emotional intelligence know themselves very
well and are also able to sense the emotions of others. They are affable, resilient,
and optimistic. Surprisingly, emotional intelligence is a relatively recent behavioral
model: it was not until the publication of Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can
Matter More Than IQ by Goleman (1995) that the term became popular.
As early as 1920, Robert Thorndike used the term social intelligenceto describe the skill of
understanding and managing other people. In the 1940s, David Wechsler dened intelligence as
the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal
effectively with his (or her) environment. In 1943, he submitted that nonintellective abilities are
essential for predicting ones ability to succeed in life. Later, in 1983, Howard Gardner wrote
about multiple intelligences and proposed that intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligences are as
important as the type of intelligence typically measured by IQ and related tests.
Emotional intelligence draws from branches of behavioral, emotional, and communications
theories. Goleman is the person most commonly associated with it. (But he is by no means the only
researcher: the most distant roots of emotional intelligence can be traced to Charles Darwins early
work on the importance of emotional expression for survival and adaptation.) Wayne Leon Payne
is credited with rst using the term emotional intelligencein 1985. Soon after, in 1990, John
Mayer and Peter Salovey described that as the ability to monitor ones own and othersfeelings
and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide ones thinking and
330 37 Understanding and Developing Emotional Intelligence
Emotions have taught mankind to reason.
Marquis de Vauvenargues
By developing their emotional intelligence individuals can become more pro-
ductive and successful at what they do, and help others become more productive
and successful too. The process and outcomes of emotional intelligence develop-
ment also contain many elements known to reduce stressfor individuals and
therefore organizationsby moderating conict; promoting understanding and
relationships; and fostering stability, continuity, and harmony. Last but not least, it
links strongly with concepts of love and spirituality.
The Model
Individuals have different personalities, wants, needs, and ways of showing their
emotions. Navigating through this requires tact and shrewdnessespecially if one
hopes to succeed in life. This is where emotional intelligence theory helps. In the
most generic framework, ve domains of emotional intelligence cover together
personal (self-awareness, self-regulation, and self-motivation) and social (social
awareness and social skills) competences.
They are
(i) Emotional awareness: Recognizing ones emotions and their effects.
(ii) Accurate self-assessment: Knowing ones strengths and limits.
(iii) Self-condence: Sureness about ones self-worth and capabilities.
(Footnote 3 continued)
actions. In 1997, their four branch model dened emotional intelligence as involving the abilities
to perceive, accurately, emotions in oneself and others; use emotions to facilitate thinking;
understand the meaning of emotions; and manage emotions. They also tried to develop a way to
scientically measure differences between peoples abilities in the area of emotions.
Nor surprisingly, perhaps, Goleman (2006) published Social Intelligence: The New Science of
Social Relationships to illuminate theories about attachment, bonding, and the making and
remaking of memory as he examined how our brains are wired for altruism, compassion, concern,
and rapport. Good relationships nourish us and support our health, while toxic relationships can
poison us. He proposed that social intelligence is made up of social awareness (including empathy,
attunement, empathic accuracy, and social cognition) and social facility (including synchrony,
self-presentation, inuence, and concern).
The material that follows comes from the Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence in
Organizations. 1998. Emotional Competence Framework.
Benets 331
(i) Self-control: Managing disruptive emotions and impulses.
(ii) Trustworthiness: Maintaining standards of honesty and integrity.
(iii) Conscientiousness: Taking responsibility for personal performance.
(iv) Adaptability: Flexibility in handling change.
(v) Innovativeness: Being comfortable with and open to novel ideas and new
(i) Achievement drive: Striving to improve or meet a standard of excellence.
(ii) Commitment: Aligning with the goals of the group or organization.
(iii) Initiative: Readiness to act on opportunities.
(iv) Optimism: Persistence in pursuing goals despite obstacles and setbacks.
Social Awareness
(i) Empathy: Sensing othersfeelings and perspective, and taking an active
interest in their concerns.
(ii) Service orientation: Anticipating, recognizing, and meeting customers
(iii) Developing others: Sensing what others need in order to develop, and
bolstering their abilities.
(iv) Leveraging diversity: Cultivating opportunities through diverse people.
(v) Political awareness: Reading a groups emotional currents and power
Social Skills
(i) Inuence: Wielding effective tactics for persuasion.
(ii) Communication: Sending clear and convincing messages.
(iii) Leadership: Inspiring and guiding groups and people.
(iv) Change catalyst: Initiating or managing change.
(v) Conict management: Negotiating and resolving disagreements.
(vi) Building bonds: Nurturing instrumental relationships.
(vii) Collaboration and cooperation: Working with others toward shared
(viii) Team capabilities: Creating group synergy in pursuing collective goals.
In brief, the ve domains relate to knowing your emotions; managing your
emotions; motivating yourself; recognizing and understanding other peoples
emotions; and managing relationships, i.e., managing the emotions of others.
332 37 Understanding and Developing Emotional Intelligence
Table. The personal and social attributes of emotional intelligence
Competence Attribute
Emotional awareness Individuals with this competence
Know which emotions they are feeling and why
Realize the links between their feelings and what they think, do, and
Recognize how their feelings affect their performance; and
Have a guiding awareness of their values and goals
Individuals with this competence are
Aware of their strengths and weaknesses
Reective, learning from experience
Open to candid feedback, new perspectives, continuous learning,
and self-development; and
Able to show a sense of humor and perspective about themselves
Self-condence Individuals with this competence
Present themselves with self-assurance and have presence
Can voice views that are unpopular and go out on a limb for what is
right; and
Are decisive and able to make sound decisions despite uncertainties
and pressures
Self-control Individuals with this competence
Manage their impulsive feelings and distressing emotions well
Stay composed, positive, and unappable even in trying moments;
Think clearly and stay focused under pressure
Trustworthiness Individuals with this competence
Act ethically and are above reproach
Build trust through their reliability and authenticity
Admit their own mistakes and confront unethical actions in others;
Take tough, principled stands even if they are unpopular
Conscientiousness Individuals with this competence
Meet commitments and keep promises
Hold themselves accountable for meeting their objectives; and
Are organized and careful in their work
Adaptability Individuals with this competence
Smoothly handle multiple demands, shifting priorities, and rapid
Adapt their responses and tactics to tuid circumstances; and
Are exible in how they see events
Innovativeness Individuals with this competence
Seek out fresh ideas from a wide variety of sources
Entertain original solutions to problems
Generate new ideas; and
Take fresh perspectives and risks in their thinking
The Model 333
Competence Attribute
Achievement drive Individuals with this competence
Are results-oriented, with a high drive to meet their objectives and
Set challenging goals and take calculated risks
Pursue information to reduce uncertainty and nd ways to do better;
Learn how to improve their performance
Commitment Individuals with this competence
Readily make personal or group sacrices to meet a larger
organizational goal
Find a sense of purpose in the larger mission
Use the groups core values in making decisions and clarifying
choices; and
Actively seek out opportunities to fulll the groups mission
Initiative Individuals with this competence
Are ready to seize opportunities
Pursue goals beyond what is required or expected of them
Cut through red tape and bend the rules when necessary to get the
job done; and
Mobilize others through unusual, enterprising efforts
Optimism Individuals with this competence
Persist in seeking goals despite obstacles and setbacks
Operate from hope of success rather than fear of failure; and
See setbacks as due to manageable circumstance rather than a
personal aw
Social awareness
Empathy Individuals with this competence
Are attentive to emotional cues and listen well
Show sensitivity and understand othersperspectives; and
Help out based on understanding other peoples needs and feelings
Service orientation Individuals with this competence
Understand customersneeds and match them to services or
Seek ways to increase customerssatisfaction and loyalty
Gladly offer appropriate assistance; and
Grasp a customers perspective, acting as a trusted advisor
Developing others Individuals with this competence
Acknowledge and reward peoples strengths, accomplishments, and
Offer useful feedback and identify peoples needs for development;
Mentor, give timely coaching, and offer assignments that challenge
and grow a persons skills
334 37 Understanding and Developing Emotional Intelligence
Competence Attribute
Leveraging diversity Individuals with this competence
Respect and relate well to people from varied backgrounds
Understand diverse worldviews and are sensitive to group
See diversity as opportunity, creating an environment where diverse
people can thrive; and
Challenge bias and intolerance
Political awareness Individuals with this competence
Accurately read key power relationships;
Detect crucial social networks;
Understand the forces that shape views and actions of clients,
customers, or competitors; and
Accurately read situations and organizational and external realities.
Social skills
Inuence Individuals with this competence
Are skilled at persuasion
Fine-tune presentations to appeal to the listener
Use complex strategies like indirect inuence to build consensus
and support; and
Orchestrate dramatic events to effectively make a point
Communication Individuals with this competence
Are effective in give-and-take, registering emotional cues in
attuning their message
Deal with difcult issues straightforwardly
Listen well, seek mutual understanding, and welcome sharing of
information fully; and
Foster open communication and stay receptive to bad news as well
as good
Leadership Individuals with this competence
Articulate and arouse enthusiasm for a shared vision and mission
Step forward to lead as needed, regardless of position
Guide the performance of others while holding them accountable;
Lead by example
Change catalyst Individuals with this competence
Recognize the need for change and remove barriers
Challenge the status quo to acknowledge the need for change
Champion the change and enlist others in its pursuit; and
Model the change expected of others
Conict management Individuals with this competence
Handle difcult people and tense situations with diplomacy and tact
Spot potential conict, bring disagreements into the open, and help
Encourage debate and open discussion; and
Orchestrate win-win solutions
The Model 335
Competence Attribute
Building bonds Individuals with this competence
Cultivate and maintain extensive informal networks
Seek out relationships that are mutually benecial
Build rapport and keep others in the loop; and
Make and maintain personal friendships among work associates
Collaboration and
Individuals with this competence
Balance a focus on task with attention to relationships
Collaborate, sharing plans, information, and resources
Promote a friendly and cooperative climate; and
Spot and nurture opportunities for collaboration
Team capabilities Individuals with this competence
Model team qualities such as respect, helpfulness, and cooperation
Draw all members into active and enthusiastic participation
Build team identity, esprit de corps, and commitment; and
Protect the group and its reputation and share credit
Source Author
Can Emotional Intelligence Be Learned?
Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
A common question relates to whether people are born with high EQ or whether
it can be learned. The truth is that some will be more naturally gifted than others but
the good news is that emotional intelligence skills can be learned. (This must be so
because emotional intelligence is shown to increase with age.) However, for this to
happen, people must be personally motivated, practice extensively what they learn,
receive feedback, and reinforce their new skills.
Promoting Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace
Comfort in expressing your emotions will allow you to share the best of yourself
with others, but not being able to control your emotions will reveal your worst.
Bryant H. McGill
336 37 Understanding and Developing Emotional Intelligence
The work conducted in most organizations has changed dramatically in the last
20 years. Of course, there are now fewer levels of management and management
styles are less autocratic. But there has also been a decided move toward knowledge
and team-based, client-oriented jobs so that individuals generally have more
autonomy, even at the lower levels of organizations. Since modern organizations
always look to improve performance, they recognize that objective, measurable
benets can be derived from higher emotional intelligence. To name a few, these
include increased sales, better recruitment and retention, and more effective
Naturally, the criteria for success at work are changing too. Staff is now judged
by new yardsticks: not just by how smart they are, or by their training and expertise,
but also by how well they handle themselves and one another, and that is strongly
inuenced by personal qualities such as perseverance, self-control, and skill in
getting along with others. Increasingly, these new yardsticks are being applied to
choose who will be hired and who will not, who will be let go and who will be
retained, and who will be past over or promoted.
I respect the man who knows distinctly what he wishes. The greater part of all
mischief in the world arises from the fact that men do not sufciently understand
their own aims. They have undertaken to build a tower, and spend no more labor on
the foundation than would be necessary to erect a hut.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Emotional intelligence may be the (long sought) missing link that unites con-
ventional can doability determinants of job performance with will dodispo-
sitional determinants. Modern organizations now offer learning and development
that is explicitly labeled as emotional intelligenceor emotional competence
training. In support, their leaders create and manage a working environment of
exibility, responsibility, standards, rewards, clarity, and commitment.
This climate determines how free staff feel to innovate unencumbered by red tape; perceptions of
responsibility to the organization; the level of standards that are set; the sense of accuracy about
performance feedback and the aptness of rewards; the clarity staff have about the organizations
mission, vision, and values; and the level of commitment to a common purpose.
Promoting Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace 337
Fig. Good practices that cultivate emotional intelligence in the workplace. Note The four phases
correspond to those of the development process, viz., preparation, training, transfer and mainte-
nance, and evaluation. Each is important. Source Author
Goleman D (1995) Emotional intelligence: why it can matter more than IQ. Bantam Books
Goleman D (2006) Social intelligence: the new science of social relationships. Bantam Books
Further Reading
Ehin C (2000) Unleashing intellectual capital. Butterworth-Heinemann
Goleman D (1998) Working with emotional intelligence. Bantam Books
Paving the Way
Assess the organization's needs
Assess the individual
Deliver assessments with care
Maximize learner choice
Encourage people to participate
Link learning goals to personal values
Adjust expectations
Gauge readiness
Doing the Work of Change
Foster a positive relationship between
the trainers and learners
Make change self-directed
Set clear goals
Break goals into manageable steps
Provide opportunities to practice
Monitor performance and give feedback
Rely on experiential methods
Build in support
Use models
Enhance insight
Encourage T ransfer and Maintenance of
Encourage use of skills on the job
Develop an organizational culture that
supports learning
Evaluate the Change
338 37 Understanding and Developing Emotional Intelligence
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Further Reading 339
... Люди рождаются с разным уровнем ЭИ, однако данный навык можно совершенствовать и развивать. Достоверно известно, что показатели эмоционального интеллекта увеличиваются с возрастом человека (Serrat, 2017). ...
... Доказаны значимые различия в развитости эмоционального интеллекта между людьми, занимающими руководящие должности, и простыми работниками: у первых уровень ЭИ более высокий, разница статистически подтверждена (Akhmadullina & Yusupova, 2019). О. Серрат отмечает, что люди с хорошо развитым ЭИ более продуктивны и могут помогать другим в повышении их продуктивности (Serrat, 2017), что несомненно является важным навыком для человека, занимающего руководящую должность. В исследовании, проведенном П. Чека и П. Фернандес-Берросаль, определено, что управляющие эмоции, входящие в структуру эмоционального интеллекта (тест MSCEIT), отрицательно коррелируют с индексом импульсивности (Checa & Fernández-Berrocal, 2005). ...
The study is aimed at assessing the level of EI of medical students. We used the literature analysis’ method, the Lusin’s questionnaire, mathematical processing of research results, comparative analysis, synthesis and generalization. The study involved 324 students of SSMU named after V.I. Razumovsky: 242 women and 82 men. The average age of participants was 20 years. We found that the respondents generally have an average level of emotional intelligence development, which is sufficient to perform professional tasks. However, there is a disproportion in the scores on the emotion management scale, dominated by very low and low scores. With such indicators for students, the risk of emotional burnout increases. It was also revealed that students with higher grades had poorer control over expression. In addition, it was found that men have a better-developed skill of understanding and managing their own emotions, as well as control of expression, which we associate with the different hormonal background and existing gender attitudes in society about the rules for raising children. The novelty of this study lies in the selection and description of the optimal ways to improve the medical educational process, which are based on the discovered level of EI development among students. The obtained results can be used to adapt the existing medical education system to the tasks of forming medical workers with developed emotional intelligence.
... Emotion recognition refers to the attribution of emotional 8 states to yourself or others based on observed nonverbal cues (Bänziger, 2014). Relatedly, emotional awareness is the ability to attend to and notice one's own emotional experiences and their effects (Serrat, 2017), and emotional clarity refers to the ability to differentiate among one's emotions (e.g., sadness versus embarrassment) (Butler et al., 2018). Emotion acceptance reflects an openness and non-judgmental stance toward one's emotions, especially negative emotions (Williams & Lynn, 2010). ...
Research Proposal
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In current times, where attention is a precious resource, worry runs rampant, and emotions are at an all-time high, this study aims to investigate the relationships between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) symptoms, executive functioning, and emotion regulation. ADHD, characterized by persistent inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, and GAD, marked by excessive worry, are prevalent mental health conditions (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition-TR, 2022; National Comorbidity Survey, 2007). Executive functions, comprising higher-order cognitive processes like planning, inhibition, initiation, and monitoring, includes emotion regulation (Otero & Barker, 2013). Emotion regulation involves monitoring, evaluating, and managing emotions' intensity, duration, and expression (Thompson, 1994). Prior literature establishes connections between emotion regulation, ADHD symptoms, and GAD symptoms, (Christiansen et al., 2019; Groves et al., 2020; Reimherr et al., 2017); however, previous research has not examined which specific facets of emotion regulation are most relevant to ADHD. The proposed study aims to replicate previous research by examining the relationships among emotion regulation, ADHD, and GAD, extending the literature by exploring the specific facets of emotion regulation implicated, particularly for ADHD. The implications of this research extend to psychologists, researchers, and other social science professionals. By shedding light on the intricate relationships between ADHD, GAD, executive functions, and emotion regulation, the study provides insights that can guide tailored, individualized interventions. Researchers gain a different perspective on understanding ADHD-GAD comorbidity, while the findings contribute to enhancing therapeutic strategies and mental healthcare. By advancing psychological research and clinical practice, it offers transformative potential for treatments of both disorders.
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Background. Several studies identified that emotional intelligence skills are important indicators for nurse engagement and performance. Issues related to nursing performance in healthcare organizations have been gaining greater attention because they influence the effectiveness of improvement approaches to maintain high-quality care. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between emotional intelligence and nurses’ work performance and work engagement. Methods. A quantitative, descriptive, correlational design was used to evaluate the relationships between the study variables. Data were gathered from 150 nurses working at Madinah Cardiac Center, Saudi Arabia. Three scales were used to measure the study variables which were Emotional Intelligence Scale, Job Performance Scale, and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale in addition to demographics. SPSS was used to analyze data. Results. The results of this study showed that emotional intelligence has a total mean of 3.77 (SD = 0.598), nurses’ performance 3.65 (SD = 0.503), and work engagement 4.29 (SD = 1.04). The results also showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between emotional intelligence and nurses’ work performance (R2 = 0.657, p < 0.001 ). Also, it was found that emotional intelligence has a positive and significant relationship with nurses’ work engagement (R2 = 0.621, p < 0.001 ). Conclusions. This paper highlights the influence of emotional intelligence in nurses’ improved performance and engagement in work. The field of nursing is associated with care and compassion; thus, it needs a high level of emotional intelligence. Nurses need to enhance their emotional intelligence skills by attending workshops. Nurse leaders also have a role in that by building a culture for nurses that is driven by applying emotional intelligence in the workplaces.
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Psychological capital (PsyCap) has been found as a substantial contributor to a range of desirable organizational outcomes. Emotional intelligence (EI) and PsyCap have both been shown to be effective in overcoming resistance to change (RTC). In an ever-changing field such as the banking sector, one of the biggest problems with managing change is that employees may resist it when they have to adapt to the change. The data for the study was gathered via the use of a questionnaire that was sent online to 253 private bank employees. After the validating factor analysis with the help of SPSS AMOS 26 program, the structural equation model was drawn and the relationships between the variables were evaluated. This research examines the influence of EI and PsyCap on employee RTC. The findings show that EI has a positive impact on PsyCap and a negative impact on RTC. PsyCap has a negative impact on RTC. PsyCap mediated the impact of EI on RTC.
The study explored the lived experiences of online teaching by first time online lecturers in institutions of higher education in South Africa during COVID‐19. The study adopted a qualitative approach. Findings show positive and negative experiences influenced by variables related to personality, technology, workload and physical teaching environment among others. Personality traits like fear of risks, attitudes to online teaching, emotional management skills serve to model experiences. Participants with negative attitude towards online teaching and low emotional intelligence generally had negative experiences of online teaching exacerbated by a lack of technical and psycho‐social support. Positive experiences were found to be a result of positive attitude towards change, positive emotional intelligence and access to different kinds of support. This group experienced high levels of job satisfaction and positive online teaching experiences. Understanding lecturers’ experiences is thus crucial in establishing best practices in online teaching which ensure job satisfaction and quality of teaching.
This study validates and confirms the multidimensionality of social media functionality in the tourism industry. It also examines the impact of social media functionality on green destination image. Non‐probability convenience sampling technique has been used to collect the data from 550 visitors using a 5‐point Likert scale questionnaire, from the tourists visiting various destinations of Ladakh, India. Results revealed a significant impact of social media functionality on green destination image. The scale of social media functionality was also tested with special reference to the tourism industry. The outcomes of the study deliver insightful outcomes related to the role of social media functionality in developing and maintaining destination image with social media‐based marketing.
Plain language summary This article highlights the importance of including a personal development program in a research training program, particularly, one that employs PhD students. A survey conducted by Nature (2019) shows that PhD students work for over 40 hours every week and that they ranked their work–life balance as a main concern throughout their PhD project. Additionally, academic pressure, uncertainty, and the amount of workload also play a role in mental health problems amongst PhD students. PhD students struggling with mental health problems are reluctant to seek treatment. This is caused by the fear of stigma or the fear of potential negative impact it might have on their future careers. Supervised skill-building programs have shown to improve the lives of university students and to boost their professional influence ( Conley et al., 2015). These programs have helped minimize mental health problems such as anxiety and depression and can improve social and emotional skills. Within the OrganoVIR Personal Development Plan, OrganoVIR’s PhD students, also known as early stage researchers (ESRs), were guided through seven actions to help them become the next generation of scientists. These actions include taking care of their personal well-being, achieving a better understanding of their purpose in life, discovering their own identity, having an excellent understanding of how values and beliefs impact internal and external communication, boost emotional competences, integrating insights in personal and professional life as well as experimenting with new leadership behavior, and recognizing and leading ethical dilemmas.
The aim of this research is to examine the emotional intelligence and sportsmanship behavior levels of student athletes who take part in the girls and boys basketball teams competing in the star and junior category in the basketball semi-finals organized by the Turkish School Sports Federation within the scope of school sports. In the research, it is envisaged that suggestions will be made for planning emotional intelligence training to improve the sportsmanship behavior of national and international professional basketball player candidates, and that it will make positive contributions to the sports lives of the athletes and indirectly to their social lives. Quantitative research method was used in the research. The sample of the research is a simple random sample of the 10-17 age group middle school and high school athletes participating in the girls and boys semi-finals in the school sports basketball star and youth a categories, which are included in the school sports activity program of the 2022-2023 season academic year. It consists of 239 students selected by the method. Emotional Intelligence and Multidimensional Sportsmanship Orientation scales were applied to the participants. SPSS statistical package program was used in the analysis of the obtained data. Frequency analysis, percentage trend analysis, factor analysis, correlation analysis were performed descriptively in the analyses. The findings obtained as a result of the analysis were interpreted and reported. According to the research results; a significant and weak relationship was found between the emotional intelligence and sportsmanship behavior levels of the athlete students. The use of emotional intelligence by basketball athlete students can be associated with their sportsmanship behaviors in basketball competitions. Course or weekly course topics that will increase the emotional intelligence development of students studying at this level can be added to the curriculum. In this sense, the study can give ideas about students' emotional intelligence training needs, career development and improvement areas.
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The adoption of technology in second language (L2) classrooms has been found a complicated process depending on several factors,two of which may play a crucial role in teachers’ technology adoption are emotional intelligence (EI) and self-efficacy beliefs. To date, however, there exists little empirical evidence regarding their interaction to predict L2 teachers’ technology adoption in Asian countries. To bridge this gap, this quantitative study collected data through three questionnaires from a sample of 214 Chinese English as foreign language (EFL) teachers. The results of structural equation modeling (SEM) and regression analysis revealed that both EI and self-efficacy could respectively predict 89% and 63% of variances in Chinese EFL teachers’ technology adoption. Drawing on the obtained results, some conclusions, implications, and directions for future research are presented to avid researchers and educators to heighten their knowledge of educational technology and emotions.
Purpose Becoming a learning organisation (LO) is an aspiration for every organisation as it offers internal capabilities, a competitive advantage and synergy gains to organisational members. Scholars across the globe have tried to examine the outcomes of LO at various organisational levels. Still, the existing literature is fragmented, and there is no systematic understanding of the multi-level outcomes of LO. Therefore, this study aims to synthesise, analyse and categorise the scientific literature into various levels of outcomes of LO to provide a conceptual framework for use by future researchers and academicians. Design/methodology/approach The authors have performed bibliometric analysis using 603 research articles published in Scopus, entailing 1,345 authors from 77 countries, followed by a thematic cluster analysis using bibliographic coupling to understand the current research trends and to recommend a set of broad themes to provide direction for future researchers in this domain. Findings The results are largely descriptive and aim to capture a panoramic view of what has been written on the topic so far. The bibliometric analysis was conducted using different means like citation analysis, cluster analysis, and keyword analysis to reveal the most significant publications, notable authors, keywords, current research trends, and future research questions. Further, the bibliographic coupling led to the categorization of the outcomes of LO into the following four clusters (including sub-clusters): (1) Individual level learning outcomes (2) team-level learning outcomes, (3) organisational-wide learning outcomes and (4) inter-organisational learning outcomes. Practical implications Managers and practitioners (change agents) expect academicians and researchers to suggest a set of actions that integrates their learning efforts with business performance across diverse sectors and industries. So, future researchers may try and explain the findings of seminal studies identified in the most cited documents, to design choices and trade-offs that may address major hindrances in implementing the construct in true spirit. The researchers may collaborate with practitioners to study the outcomes of LO with a scientific and empirical lens. Finally, the study invites change agents and organisation development (OD) practitioners to document the outcomes of their efforts to create and leverage the outcomes of LO. Originality/value Researchers across the world have tried to examine the outcomes of LO at various levels in organisational setting including, measuring capabilities and attitudes at individual level, team capabilities and innovation, and organisational performance and sustainability, but still there is no tested conceptual framework which encompasses the various outcome levels of LO in one frame.
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