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Emotional intelligence describes ability, capacity, skill, or self-perceived ability to identify, assess, and manage the emotions of one’s self, of others, and of groups. The theory is enjoying considerable support in the literature and has had successful applications in many domains.
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Proposition 37
Understanding and Developing Emotional
Intelligence
In a Word Emotional intelligence describes ability, capacity, skill, or
self-perceived ability to identify, assess, and manage the emotions of ones self, of
others, and of groups. The theory is enjoying considerable support in the literature
and has had successful applications in many domains.
Introduction
The intelligence quotient, or IQ, is a score derived from one of several different
standardized tests to measure intelligence.
1
It has been used to assess giftedness and
sometimes underpin recruitment. Many have argued that IQ, or conventional
intelligence, is too narrow: some people are academically brilliant yet socially and
1
When psychologists began to think about intelligence they focused attention on cognitive aspects
such as memory and problem solving.
©Asian Development Bank 2017
O. Serrat, Knowledge Solutions, DOI 10.1007/978-981-10-0983-9_37
329
interpersonally inept.
2
We know that success does not automatically follow those
who possess a high IQ rating.
If your emotional abilities arent in hand, if you dont have self-awareness, if you
are not able to manage your distressing emotions, if you cant have empathy and
have effective relationships, then no matter how smart you are, you are not going to
get very far.
Daniel Goleman
Wider areas of intelligence enable or dictate how successful we are toughness,
determination, and vision help. But emotional intelligence, often measured as an
emotional intelligence quotient, or EQ, is more and more relevant to important
work-related outcomes such as individual performance, organizational productivity,
and developing people because its principles provide a new way to understand and
assess the behaviors, management styles, attitudes, interpersonal skills, and
potential of people. It is an increasingly important consideration in human resource
planning, job proling, recruitment interviewing and selection, learning and
development, and client relations and customer service, among others.
Denition
Emotional intelligence describes the ability, capacity, skill, or self-perceived ability
to identify, assess, and manage the emotions of ones self, of others, and of groups.
People who possess a high degree of emotional intelligence know themselves very
well and are also able to sense the emotions of others. They are affable, resilient,
and optimistic. Surprisingly, emotional intelligence is a relatively recent behavioral
model: it was not until the publication of Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can
Matter More Than IQ by Goleman (1995) that the term became popular.
3
2
As early as 1920, Robert Thorndike used the term social intelligenceto describe the skill of
understanding and managing other people. In the 1940s, David Wechsler dened intelligence as
the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal
effectively with his (or her) environment. In 1943, he submitted that nonintellective abilities are
essential for predicting ones ability to succeed in life. Later, in 1983, Howard Gardner wrote
about multiple intelligences and proposed that intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligences are as
important as the type of intelligence typically measured by IQ and related tests.
3
Emotional intelligence draws from branches of behavioral, emotional, and communications
theories. Goleman is the person most commonly associated with it. (But he is by no means the only
researcher: the most distant roots of emotional intelligence can be traced to Charles Darwins early
work on the importance of emotional expression for survival and adaptation.) Wayne Leon Payne
is credited with rst using the term emotional intelligencein 1985. Soon after, in 1990, John
Mayer and Peter Salovey described that as the ability to monitor ones own and othersfeelings
and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide ones thinking and
330 37 Understanding and Developing Emotional Intelligence
Benets
Emotions have taught mankind to reason.
Marquis de Vauvenargues
By developing their emotional intelligence individuals can become more pro-
ductive and successful at what they do, and help others become more productive
and successful too. The process and outcomes of emotional intelligence develop-
ment also contain many elements known to reduce stressfor individuals and
therefore organizationsby moderating conict; promoting understanding and
relationships; and fostering stability, continuity, and harmony. Last but not least, it
links strongly with concepts of love and spirituality.
4
The Model
Individuals have different personalities, wants, needs, and ways of showing their
emotions. Navigating through this requires tact and shrewdnessespecially if one
hopes to succeed in life. This is where emotional intelligence theory helps. In the
most generic framework, ve domains of emotional intelligence cover together
personal (self-awareness, self-regulation, and self-motivation) and social (social
awareness and social skills) competences.
5
They are
Self-Awareness
(i) Emotional awareness: Recognizing ones emotions and their effects.
(ii) Accurate self-assessment: Knowing ones strengths and limits.
(iii) Self-condence: Sureness about ones self-worth and capabilities.
(Footnote 3 continued)
actions. In 1997, their four branch model dened emotional intelligence as involving the abilities
to perceive, accurately, emotions in oneself and others; use emotions to facilitate thinking;
understand the meaning of emotions; and manage emotions. They also tried to develop a way to
scientically measure differences between peoples abilities in the area of emotions.
4
Nor surprisingly, perhaps, Goleman (2006) published Social Intelligence: The New Science of
Social Relationships to illuminate theories about attachment, bonding, and the making and
remaking of memory as he examined how our brains are wired for altruism, compassion, concern,
and rapport. Good relationships nourish us and support our health, while toxic relationships can
poison us. He proposed that social intelligence is made up of social awareness (including empathy,
attunement, empathic accuracy, and social cognition) and social facility (including synchrony,
self-presentation, inuence, and concern).
5
The material that follows comes from the Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence in
Organizations. 1998. Emotional Competence Framework.
Benets 331
Self-Regulation
(i) Self-control: Managing disruptive emotions and impulses.
(ii) Trustworthiness: Maintaining standards of honesty and integrity.
(iii) Conscientiousness: Taking responsibility for personal performance.
(iv) Adaptability: Flexibility in handling change.
(v) Innovativeness: Being comfortable with and open to novel ideas and new
information.
Self-Motivation
(i) Achievement drive: Striving to improve or meet a standard of excellence.
(ii) Commitment: Aligning with the goals of the group or organization.
(iii) Initiative: Readiness to act on opportunities.
(iv) Optimism: Persistence in pursuing goals despite obstacles and setbacks.
Social Awareness
(i) Empathy: Sensing othersfeelings and perspective, and taking an active
interest in their concerns.
(ii) Service orientation: Anticipating, recognizing, and meeting customers
needs.
(iii) Developing others: Sensing what others need in order to develop, and
bolstering their abilities.
(iv) Leveraging diversity: Cultivating opportunities through diverse people.
(v) Political awareness: Reading a groups emotional currents and power
relationships.
Social Skills
(i) Inuence: Wielding effective tactics for persuasion.
(ii) Communication: Sending clear and convincing messages.
(iii) Leadership: Inspiring and guiding groups and people.
(iv) Change catalyst: Initiating or managing change.
(v) Conict management: Negotiating and resolving disagreements.
(vi) Building bonds: Nurturing instrumental relationships.
(vii) Collaboration and cooperation: Working with others toward shared
goals.
(viii) Team capabilities: Creating group synergy in pursuing collective goals.
In brief, the ve domains relate to knowing your emotions; managing your
emotions; motivating yourself; recognizing and understanding other peoples
emotions; and managing relationships, i.e., managing the emotions of others.
332 37 Understanding and Developing Emotional Intelligence
Table. The personal and social attributes of emotional intelligence
Competence Attribute
Self-awareness
Emotional awareness Individuals with this competence
Know which emotions they are feeling and why
Realize the links between their feelings and what they think, do, and
say
Recognize how their feelings affect their performance; and
Have a guiding awareness of their values and goals
Accurate
self-assessment
Individuals with this competence are
Aware of their strengths and weaknesses
Reective, learning from experience
Open to candid feedback, new perspectives, continuous learning,
and self-development; and
Able to show a sense of humor and perspective about themselves
Self-condence Individuals with this competence
Present themselves with self-assurance and have presence
Can voice views that are unpopular and go out on a limb for what is
right; and
Are decisive and able to make sound decisions despite uncertainties
and pressures
Self-regulation
Self-control Individuals with this competence
Manage their impulsive feelings and distressing emotions well
Stay composed, positive, and unappable even in trying moments;
and
Think clearly and stay focused under pressure
Trustworthiness Individuals with this competence
Act ethically and are above reproach
Build trust through their reliability and authenticity
Admit their own mistakes and confront unethical actions in others;
and
Take tough, principled stands even if they are unpopular
Conscientiousness Individuals with this competence
Meet commitments and keep promises
Hold themselves accountable for meeting their objectives; and
Are organized and careful in their work
Adaptability Individuals with this competence
Smoothly handle multiple demands, shifting priorities, and rapid
change
Adapt their responses and tactics to tuid circumstances; and
Are exible in how they see events
Innovativeness Individuals with this competence
Seek out fresh ideas from a wide variety of sources
Entertain original solutions to problems
Generate new ideas; and
Take fresh perspectives and risks in their thinking
(continued)
The Model 333
(continued)
Competence Attribute
Self-motivation
Achievement drive Individuals with this competence
Are results-oriented, with a high drive to meet their objectives and
standards
Set challenging goals and take calculated risks
Pursue information to reduce uncertainty and nd ways to do better;
and
Learn how to improve their performance
Commitment Individuals with this competence
Readily make personal or group sacrices to meet a larger
organizational goal
Find a sense of purpose in the larger mission
Use the groups core values in making decisions and clarifying
choices; and
Actively seek out opportunities to fulll the groups mission
Initiative Individuals with this competence
Are ready to seize opportunities
Pursue goals beyond what is required or expected of them
Cut through red tape and bend the rules when necessary to get the
job done; and
Mobilize others through unusual, enterprising efforts
Optimism Individuals with this competence
Persist in seeking goals despite obstacles and setbacks
Operate from hope of success rather than fear of failure; and
See setbacks as due to manageable circumstance rather than a
personal aw
Social awareness
Empathy Individuals with this competence
Are attentive to emotional cues and listen well
Show sensitivity and understand othersperspectives; and
Help out based on understanding other peoples needs and feelings
Service orientation Individuals with this competence
Understand customersneeds and match them to services or
products
Seek ways to increase customerssatisfaction and loyalty
Gladly offer appropriate assistance; and
Grasp a customers perspective, acting as a trusted advisor
Developing others Individuals with this competence
Acknowledge and reward peoples strengths, accomplishments, and
development
Offer useful feedback and identify peoples needs for development;
and
Mentor, give timely coaching, and offer assignments that challenge
and grow a persons skills
(continued)
334 37 Understanding and Developing Emotional Intelligence
(continued)
Competence Attribute
Leveraging diversity Individuals with this competence
Respect and relate well to people from varied backgrounds
Understand diverse worldviews and are sensitive to group
differences
See diversity as opportunity, creating an environment where diverse
people can thrive; and
Challenge bias and intolerance
Political awareness Individuals with this competence
Accurately read key power relationships;
Detect crucial social networks;
Understand the forces that shape views and actions of clients,
customers, or competitors; and
Accurately read situations and organizational and external realities.
Social skills
Inuence Individuals with this competence
Are skilled at persuasion
Fine-tune presentations to appeal to the listener
Use complex strategies like indirect inuence to build consensus
and support; and
Orchestrate dramatic events to effectively make a point
Communication Individuals with this competence
Are effective in give-and-take, registering emotional cues in
attuning their message
Deal with difcult issues straightforwardly
Listen well, seek mutual understanding, and welcome sharing of
information fully; and
Foster open communication and stay receptive to bad news as well
as good
Leadership Individuals with this competence
Articulate and arouse enthusiasm for a shared vision and mission
Step forward to lead as needed, regardless of position
Guide the performance of others while holding them accountable;
and
Lead by example
Change catalyst Individuals with this competence
Recognize the need for change and remove barriers
Challenge the status quo to acknowledge the need for change
Champion the change and enlist others in its pursuit; and
Model the change expected of others
Conict management Individuals with this competence
Handle difcult people and tense situations with diplomacy and tact
Spot potential conict, bring disagreements into the open, and help
deescalate
Encourage debate and open discussion; and
Orchestrate win-win solutions
(continued)
The Model 335
(continued)
Competence Attribute
Building bonds Individuals with this competence
Cultivate and maintain extensive informal networks
Seek out relationships that are mutually benecial
Build rapport and keep others in the loop; and
Make and maintain personal friendships among work associates
Collaboration and
cooperation
Individuals with this competence
Balance a focus on task with attention to relationships
Collaborate, sharing plans, information, and resources
Promote a friendly and cooperative climate; and
Spot and nurture opportunities for collaboration
Team capabilities Individuals with this competence
Model team qualities such as respect, helpfulness, and cooperation
Draw all members into active and enthusiastic participation
Build team identity, esprit de corps, and commitment; and
Protect the group and its reputation and share credit
Source Author
Can Emotional Intelligence Be Learned?
Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
A common question relates to whether people are born with high EQ or whether
it can be learned. The truth is that some will be more naturally gifted than others but
the good news is that emotional intelligence skills can be learned. (This must be so
because emotional intelligence is shown to increase with age.) However, for this to
happen, people must be personally motivated, practice extensively what they learn,
receive feedback, and reinforce their new skills.
Promoting Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace
Comfort in expressing your emotions will allow you to share the best of yourself
with others, but not being able to control your emotions will reveal your worst.
Bryant H. McGill
336 37 Understanding and Developing Emotional Intelligence
The work conducted in most organizations has changed dramatically in the last
20 years. Of course, there are now fewer levels of management and management
styles are less autocratic. But there has also been a decided move toward knowledge
and team-based, client-oriented jobs so that individuals generally have more
autonomy, even at the lower levels of organizations. Since modern organizations
always look to improve performance, they recognize that objective, measurable
benets can be derived from higher emotional intelligence. To name a few, these
include increased sales, better recruitment and retention, and more effective
leadership.
Naturally, the criteria for success at work are changing too. Staff is now judged
by new yardsticks: not just by how smart they are, or by their training and expertise,
but also by how well they handle themselves and one another, and that is strongly
inuenced by personal qualities such as perseverance, self-control, and skill in
getting along with others. Increasingly, these new yardsticks are being applied to
choose who will be hired and who will not, who will be let go and who will be
retained, and who will be past over or promoted.
I respect the man who knows distinctly what he wishes. The greater part of all
mischief in the world arises from the fact that men do not sufciently understand
their own aims. They have undertaken to build a tower, and spend no more labor on
the foundation than would be necessary to erect a hut.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Emotional intelligence may be the (long sought) missing link that unites con-
ventional can doability determinants of job performance with will dodispo-
sitional determinants. Modern organizations now offer learning and development
that is explicitly labeled as emotional intelligenceor emotional competence
training. In support, their leaders create and manage a working environment of
exibility, responsibility, standards, rewards, clarity, and commitment.
6
6
This climate determines how free staff feel to innovate unencumbered by red tape; perceptions of
responsibility to the organization; the level of standards that are set; the sense of accuracy about
performance feedback and the aptness of rewards; the clarity staff have about the organizations
mission, vision, and values; and the level of commitment to a common purpose.
Promoting Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace 337
Fig. Good practices that cultivate emotional intelligence in the workplace. Note The four phases
correspond to those of the development process, viz., preparation, training, transfer and mainte-
nance, and evaluation. Each is important. Source Author
References
Goleman D (1995) Emotional intelligence: why it can matter more than IQ. Bantam Books
Goleman D (2006) Social intelligence: the new science of social relationships. Bantam Books
Further Reading
Ehin C (2000) Unleashing intellectual capital. Butterworth-Heinemann
Goleman D (1998) Working with emotional intelligence. Bantam Books
Paving the Way
Assess the organization's needs
Assess the individual
Deliver assessments with care
Maximize learner choice
Encourage people to participate
Link learning goals to personal values
Adjust expectations
Gauge readiness
Doing the Work of Change
Foster a positive relationship between
the trainers and learners
Make change self-directed
Set clear goals
Break goals into manageable steps
Provide opportunities to practice
Monitor performance and give feedback
Rely on experiential methods
Build in support
Use models
Enhance insight
Encourage T ransfer and Maintenance of
Change
Encourage use of skills on the job
Develop an organizational culture that
supports learning
Evaluate the Change
Evaluate
338 37 Understanding and Developing Emotional Intelligence
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Further Reading 339
... Ascertaining the EI profiles (also a critical factor for efficiency) of middle level managers who according to Rezvani (2017) are generally and largely responsible for driving industry business agenda and industry reforms to make the industry viable has also been overlooked. As stated by researches by Serrat (2017), Issah (2018), Prezerakos (2018), Whitner (2020) and Cherry (2020) EI has made significant contribution toward business successes and not considering the EI levels of these middle managers could pose implications for the achievement of the reforms of the industry and in the long term affect the achievement of the GDP target for the insurance industry. Again, since EI is critical to human resource and organizational development, not ascertaining the effect of variables like age, on the EI of the middle level managers of the industry could have implications for effective manpower planning, manpower utilization, manpower deployment and business (industry) survival in the long term (Serrat, 2017;TalentSmart, 2019). ...
... As stated by researches by Serrat (2017), Issah (2018), Prezerakos (2018), Whitner (2020) and Cherry (2020) EI has made significant contribution toward business successes and not considering the EI levels of these middle managers could pose implications for the achievement of the reforms of the industry and in the long term affect the achievement of the GDP target for the insurance industry. Again, since EI is critical to human resource and organizational development, not ascertaining the effect of variables like age, on the EI of the middle level managers of the industry could have implications for effective manpower planning, manpower utilization, manpower deployment and business (industry) survival in the long term (Serrat, 2017;TalentSmart, 2019). This study therefore aimed to obtain the EI profile of middle level managers in the Ghanaian insurance industry, to determine the effect of age on EI and EI competencies of respondents and to ascertain if EI and EI competencies levels differed with age. ...
... According to Ebrahimi, et al. (2018) EI can be learned and developed. Serrat (2017), also indicated that the more one ages the more a person develops social and emotional intelligence. Serrat (2017) indicated that the essential competences that are acquired during childhood are said to be flexible, easy to change and has potential of being improved. ...
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... Therefore, pairs such as Salovey and Mayer who agreed with him asserted that Gardner's newly developed concept is a combination of EQ and SQ (Klafke, Picinin, & Townsend, 2019). According to Serrat (2017), "EQ describes the ability, capacity, skill or self-perceived ability to identify, assess and manage the emotions of oneself, of others, and of groups." On the other hand, SQ seen as a cognitive component of individuals' communicative competence (Yermentayeva, (2016), is defined as "the development by his knowledge, skills and abilities to understand himself/herself, self-behaviour, actions of other people and to build effective interaction and also to achieve a goal" (Karl, 2005, p. 304). ...
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... This may be because emotional intelligence had not been supported much in previous education and that there has recently been a lot of new scientific knowledge focused on how to develop this area. Emotional intelligence is a key element to managing the "emotions" of other (groups) through self-understanding (Serrat, 2017). The programme participants reported that what helped them most in this area was newly acquired communication skills in terms of how to communicate with themselves: not to deal with or think about things and situations they cannot influence but rather channel energy into what they can influence. ...
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... Emotional intelligence (EI) is identified as a collection of skills to acknowledge, understand, evaluate and regulate selfemotions and those of other people or groups (1)(2). The concept of EI was first introduced by John Mayer and Peter Salovey in the 1990s, who proposed that EI enables an individual to handle emotions, differentiate between the negative and positive outcomes of the emotions and utilise emotional information faithfully before making decisions and personal actions (3). ...
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... SM revolves around managing emotions and drives to achieve goals (Ikpesu, 2017). While social awareness, Serrat (2017) involves sensing others' feelings and perspective, recognizing and meeting others' needs and acknowledging people's accomplishments. Another more important dimension of EI is the relationship management which as further affirmed by Krishnan et al., (2018) that it is crucial to have social relationship with the society members and to enhance teamwork skills is necessary for employment and achieve organization's goals. ...
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Based on the current state of research on emotional intelligence in project management, an empirical study is used to examine and evaluate the influence of emotional intelligence on project management in practice. Finally, recommendations for action for project management practice are derived. In project management practice, the competence of emotional intelligence is characterized by empathy, the ability to work in a team, and the ability to deal with conflict as competence elements. Particularly in agile and hybrid projects and in the implementation phase of projects, this competence is of great importance and should therefore be taken into account as an equal competence alongside technical and methodological competence when putting together the project team. The relevance of emotional intelli- gence is independent of the complexity of the project and the degree of innovation of the project. The project team size and project duration also have no reinforcing or diminishing influence on the relevance of emotional intelligence for project management.
Unleashing intellectual capital. Butterworth-Heinemann Goleman D (1998) Working with emotional intelligence
  • C Ehin
Ehin C (2000) Unleashing intellectual capital. Butterworth-Heinemann Goleman D (1998) Working with emotional intelligence. Bantam Books
Social intelligence: the new science of social relationships
  • D Goleman
Emotional intelligence: why it can matter more than IQ. Bantam Books Goleman D (2006) Social intelligence: the new science of social relationships. Bantam Books Further Reading Ehin C (2000) Unleashing intellectual capital
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Goleman D (1995) Emotional intelligence: why it can matter more than IQ. Bantam Books Goleman D (2006) Social intelligence: the new science of social relationships. Bantam Books Further Reading Ehin C (2000) Unleashing intellectual capital. Butterworth-Heinemann Goleman D (1998) Working with emotional intelligence. Bantam Books Paving the Way