Knowledge Solutions



This book is open access under a CC BY-NC 3.0 IGO license. This book comprehensively covers topics in knowledge management and competence in strategy development, management techniques, collaboration mechanisms, knowledge sharing and learning, as well as knowledge capture and storage. Presented in accessible “chunks,” it includes more than 120 topics that are essential to high-performance organizations. The extensive use of quotes by respected experts juxtaposed with relevant research to counterpoint or lend weight to key concepts; “cheat sheets” that simplify access and reference to individual articles; as well as the grouping of many of these topics under recurrent themes make this book unique. In addition, it provides scalable tried-and-tested tools, method and approaches for improved organizational effectiveness. The research included is particularly useful to knowledge workers engaged in executive leadership; research, analysis and advice; and corporate management and administration. It is a valuable resource for those working in the public, private and third sectors, both in industrialized and developing countries.

Chapters (100)

The sustainable livelihoods approach improves understanding of the livelihoods of the poor. It organizes the factors that constrain or enhance livelihood opportunities, and shows how they relate. It can help plan development activities and assess the contribution that existing activities have made to sustaining livelihoods.
Development is about people—it is about how they relate to one another and their environment, and how they learn in doing so. Outcome mapping puts people and learning first and accepts unexpected change as a source of innovation. It shifts the focus from changes in state, viz, reduced poverty, to changes in behaviors, relationships, actions, and activities.
Culture theory strengthens the expectation that markets work, not because they are comprised of autonomous individuals who are free of social sanctions but because they are powered by social beings and their distinctive ideas, beliefs, values, and knowledge. It can contribute to understanding and promoting development where group relationships predominate and individualism is tempered.
The Most Significant Change technique helps monitor and evaluate the performance of projects and programs. It involves the collection and systematic participatory interpretation of stories of significant change emanating from the field level—stories about who did what, when, and why, and the reasons why the event was important. It does not employ quantitative indicators.
Power no longer resides exclusively (if at all) in states, institutions, or large corporations. It is located in the networks that structure society. Social network analysis seeks to understand networks and their participants and has two main focuses: the actors and the relationships between them in a specific social context.
The gulf between the ideal type of a learning organization and the state of affairs in typical bilateral and multilateral development agencies remains huge. Defining roadblocks, however numerous they may be, is half the battle to removing them—it might make them part of the solution instead of part of the problem.
The conditions of economic and social progress include participation, democratic processes, and the location of necessarily diverse organizational setups at community, national, regional, and increasingly global levels. Access to and judicious use of information underpins all these.
Knowledge from evaluations will not be used effectively if the specific organizational context, knowledge, and relationships of evaluation agencies, and the external environment they face, are not dealt with in an integrated and coherent manner. Knowledge management can shed light on this and related initiatives can catalyze and facilitate identification, creation, storage, sharing, and use of lessons.
Strategic reversals are quite commonly failures of execution. In many cases, a strategy is abandoned out of impatience or because of pressure for an instant payoff before it has had a chance to take root and yield results. Or its focal point is allowed to drift over time. To navigate a strategy, one must maintain a balance between strategizing and learning modes of thinking.
The need for twenty-first century mindsets and protocols has sparked interest in design thinking. That is a human-centered, prototype-driven process for the exploration of new ideas that can be applied to operations, products, services, strategies, and even management.
Political economy embraces the complex political nature of decision-making to investigate how power and authority affect economic choices in a society. Political economy analysis offers no quick fixes but leads to smarter engagement.
To enlist commitment, organizations depend on a clear and powerful image of the future. Future Search conferencing has emerged as a system-wide strategic planning tool enabling diverse and potentially conflicting groups to find common ground for constructive action.
Organizations must be resilient if they are to survive and thrive in turbulent times. Learning from experience, investments in leadership and culture, networks, and change readiness can help them move from denial and paralysis to acceptance and practical solutions.
Strategic efforts to effect change are constantly challenged by emerging forces about which there is little advance knowledge. For constructive action, it is useful to look at the past to gain a perspective on the present; but, it is even more profitable to revisit past visions of the future from an interpretation of the present. The concepts of change over time, context, causality, contingency, and complexity help make sense.
The design and monitoring framework is a logic model for objectives-oriented planning that structures the main elements in a project, highlighting linkages between intended inputs, planned activities, and expected results.
A knowledge worker is someone who is employed because of his or her knowledge of a subject matter, rather than ability to perform manual labor. They perform best when empowered to make the most of their deepest skills.
The need to ensure that scarce funding is applied to effective projects is a goal shared by all. Focusing on common parameters of project performance is a means to that end.
Knowledge management is getting the right knowledge to the right people at the right time, and helping them (with incentives) to apply it in ways that strive to improve organizational performance.
When confronted with a problem, have you ever stopped and asked “why” five times? The Five Whys technique is a simple but powerful way to troubleshoot problems by exploring cause-and-effect relationships.
Ideas are not often plucked out of thin air. The SCAMPER brainstorming technique uses a set of directed questions to resolve a problem (or meet an opportunity). It can also turn a tired idea into something new and different.
Meetings bring people together to discuss a predetermined topic. However, too many are poorly planned and managed, and therefore fail to satisfy objectives when they do not simply waste time. The operating expenses of time wasted include related meeting expenditures, salaries, and opportunity costs.
Management by walking around emphasizes the importance of interpersonal contact, open appreciation , and recognition. It is one of the most important ways to build civility and performance in the workplace.
In the twenty-first century, managers are responsible for the application and performance of knowledge at task, team, and individual levels. Their accountability is absolute and cannot be relinquished. In a changing world, successful organizations spend more time, integrity, and brainpower on selecting them than on anything else.
Emotional intelligence describes ability, capacity, skill, or self-perceived ability to identify, assess, and manage the emotions of one’s self, of others, and of groups. The theory is enjoying considerable support in the literature and has had successful applications in many domains.
Organizations must become information-based: (i) knowledge workers are not amenable to command and control; (ii) in the face of unremitting competition, it is vital to systematize innovation and entrepreneurship; (iii) in a knowledge-based economy, it is imperative to decide what information one needs to conduct one’s affairs.
In development agencies, paradigms of linear causality condition need much thinking and practice. They encourage command-and-control hierarchies, centralize decision-making, and dampen creativity and innovation. Globalization demands that organizations see our turbulent world as a collection of evolving ecosystems. To survive and flourish they must then be adaptable and fleet-footed. Notions of complexity offer a wealth of insights and guidance to twenty-first century organizations that strive to do so.
Culture guides the way individuals groups in an organization interact with one another with parties outside it. It is the premier competitive advantage of high-performance organizations. Sadly, for others, organizational culture is the most difficult attribute to change: it outlives founders, leaders, managers, products, services, well-nigh the rest. It is best improved by organizational learning for change.
Organizational learning is the ability of an organization to gain insight and understanding from experience through experimentation, observation, analysis, and a willingness to examine successes and failures. There are two key notions: organizations learn through individuals who act as agents for them; at the same time, individual learning in organizations is facilitated or constrained by its learning system.
When embarking on a change initiative, one should rapidly implement change that results in the higher levels of performance that were envisioned when the decision to make the changes was made. To make this happen, organizations must first overcome the resistance to change and then secure as much discretionary effort as possible.
Branding is a means to identify a company’s products or services, differentiate them from those of others, and create and maintain an image that encourages confidence among clients, audiences, and partners. Until the mid-1990s, brand management—based on the 4Ps of product (or service), place, price, and promotion—aimed to engineer additional value from single brands. The idea of organizational branding has since developed, with implications for behavior and behavioral change, and is making inroads into the public sector too.
Talent is not a rare commodity—people are talented in many ways: it is simply rarely released. To make talent happen organizations must give it strategic and holistic attention.
Gary Hamel defines management innovation as a marked departure from traditional management principles, processes, and practices (or a departure from customary organizational forms that significantly alters the way the work of management is performed). He deems it the prime driver of sustainable competitive advantage in the twenty-first century.
Managing for results requires a coherent framework for strategic planning, management, and communications based on continuous learning and accountability. Results frameworks improve management effectiveness by defining realistic expected results, monitoring progress toward their achievement, integrating lessons into decisions, and reporting on performance.
In the age of competence, one must learn before, during, and after the event. Knowledge solutions lie in the areas of strategy development, management techniques, collaboration mechanisms, knowledge sharing and learning, and knowledge capture and storage.
Interest in performance measurement grows daily but the state of the art leaves much to be desired. To promote performance leadership, one must examine both its shortcomings and its pernicious effects.
Surveys present clear and mounting evidence that staff engagement correlates closely with individual, collective, and corporate performance. It denotes the extent to which organizations gain commitment from personnel.
It is a given that organizational change affects people. It is people, not processes or technology, who embrace or not a situation and carry out or neglect corresponding actions. People will help build what they create.
Good corporate governance helps an organization achieve its objectives; poor corporate governance can speed its decline or demise. Never before has the glare of the spotlight focused so much on boards of directors. Corporate governance has emerged from obscurity and become a mainstream topic.
Newly minted approaches to corporate reputation are already obsolete. Beyond gaining control of issues, crises, and corporate social responsibility, organizations need to reconceptualize and manage reputation in knowledge-based economies.
Who is your customer? What does the customer value? How do you deliver value to customers at an appropriate cost? Business models that focus on the who, what, and how to clarify managerial choices and their consequences underpin the operations of successful organizations.
Projects ought to be vehicles for both practical benefits and organizational learning. However, if an organization is designed for the long term, a project exists only for its duration. Project-based organizations face an awkward dilemma: the project-centric nature of their work makes knowledge management, hence learning, difficult.
Culture must not be seen as something that merely reflects an organization’s social reality: rather, it is an integral part of the process by which that reality is constructed. Knowledge management initiatives, per se, are not culture change projects; but, if culture stands in the way of what an organization needs to do, they must somehow impact.
Innovation is something that is new, capable of being implemented, and has a beneficial impact. It is not an event or activity; it is a concept, process, practice, and capability that defines successful organizations. Innovation in the public sector can help create value for society.
Decision-making is a stream of inquiry, not an event. Decision-driven organizations design and manage it as such: they match decision-making styles to appropriate techniques and, wherever possible, encourage parties to play roles rife with dissent and debate; decision rights are part of the design.
Communities of practice are groups of like-minded, interacting people who filter, amplify, invest and provide, convene, build, and learn and facilitate to ensure more effective creation and sharing of knowledge in their domain.
Action learning is a structured method that enables small groups to work regularly and collectively on complicated problems, take action, and learn as individuals and as a team while doing so.
Appreciative inquiry is the process of facilitating positive change in organizations. Its basic assumption is uncomplicated: every organization has something that works well. Appreciative inquiry is therefore an exciting generative approach to organizational development. At a higher level, it is also a way of being and seeing.
Cooperative work by a team can produce remarkable results. The challenge is to move from the realm of the possible to the realm of practice.
Mind maps are a visual means that represent, link, and arrange concepts, themes, or tasks, with connections usually extending radially from a central topic. They are used by individuals and groups (informally and intuitively) to generate, visualize, structure, and classify these.
The difference between poor and effective teams lies not so much in their collective mental equipment but in how well they use their abilities to think together. The Six Thinking Hats technique helps actualize the thinking potential of teams.
Virtual team management is the ability to organize and coordinate with effect a group whose members are not in the same location or time zone, and may not even work for the organization. The predictor of success is—as always—clarity of purpose. But group participation in achieving that is more than ever important to compensate for lost context. Virtual team management requires deeper understanding of people, process, and technology, and recognition that trust is a more limiting factor compared with face-to-face interactions.
Workplace dynamics make a significant difference to people and the organizations they sustain. High-performance organizations earn, develop, and retain trust for superior results.
Theories of leadership are divided: some underscore the primacy of personal qualities; others stress that systems are all-important. Both interpretations are correct: a larger pool of leaders is desirable all the time (and superleaders are necessary on occasion) but its development must be part of systemic invigoration of leadership in organizations.
Strategic alliances that bring organizations together promise unique opportunities for partners. The reality is often otherwise. Successful strategic alliances manage the partnership, not just the agreement, for collaborative advantage. Above all, they also pay attention to learning priorities in alliance evolution.
Servant leadership is now in the vocabulary of enlightened leadership. It is a practical, altruistic philosophy that supports people who choose to serve first, and then lead, as a way of expanding service to individuals and organizations. The sense of civil community that it advocates and engenders can facilitate and smooth successful and principled change.
The prevailing view of leadership is that it is concentrated or focused. In organizations, this makes it an input to business processes and performance—dependent on the attributes, behaviors, experience, knowledge, skills, and potential of the individuals chosen to impact these. The theory of distributed leadership thinks it best considered as an outcome. Leadership is defined by what one does, not who one is. Leadership at all levels matters and must be drawn from, not just be added to, individuals and groups in organizations.
Communities of practice have become an accepted part of organizational development. Learning organizations build and leverage them with effect. To reach their potential, much as other bodies, they stand to gain from healthy reporting. Quality of information and its proper presentation enable stakeholders to make sound and reasonable assessments of performance, and take appropriate action.
Necessity is the mother of invention. The demand for good ideas, put into practice, that meet pressing unmet needs and improve people’s lives is growing on a par with the agenda of the twenty-first century. In a shrinking world, social innovation at requisite institutional levels can do much to foster smart, sustainable globalization.
Corporate values articulate what guides an organization’s behavior and decision making. They can boost innovation, productivity, and credibility, and help deliver thereby sustainable competitive advantage. However, a look at typical statements of corporate values suggests much work remains to be done before organizations draw real benefits from them.
To develop and deliver products and services, large organizations rely on teams. Yet, the defining characteristics of these often hamper collaboration among different parts of the organization. The root cause is conflict: it must be accepted then actively managed. Promoting effective cross-functional teams demands that an enabling environment be built for that.
The human mind is driven by an emergent array of biological, cognitive, and social properties. Unconscious processes perform feats we thought required intention, deliberation, and conscious awareness. The breakthroughs of social neuroscience are fostering more comprehensive theories of the mechanisms that underlie human behavior.
In most types of organizations, formal authority is located at the top as part of an exchange against fairly explicit expectations. In networked, pluralistic organizations that must rapidly formulate adaptive solutions in an increasingly complex world, its power is eroding as its functions become less clear. In the twenty-first century, the requirements of organizational speed demand investments in informal authority.
With decreasing bureaucracy and decentralization of operations, the span of knowledge coordination should be as close as possible to relevant knowledge domains. Coordinating mediums, or knowledge managers, have key roles to play.
The act of delegating calls for and rests on trust. In organizations, delegation had better be understood as a web of tacit governance arrangements across quasi-boundaries rather than the execution of tasks with definable boundaries.
Surveys are used to find promising opportunities for improvement; identify, create a consensus about, and act on issues to be addressed; record a baseline from which progress can be measured; motivate change efforts; and provide two-way communication between stakeholders. Healthy communities of practice leverage survey instruments to mature into influence structures that demand or are asked to assume influential roles in their host organizations.
Complex adaptive systems are the source of much intra-organizational conflict that will not be managed, let alone resolved. To foster learning, adaptation, and evolution in the workplace, organizations should capitalize on its functions and dysfunctions with mindfulness, improvisation, and reconfiguration.
To manage organizations in ways that will make our society manageable, we need to spark innovations in management. Consider the organization in which you work. What configuration does it have and what does that tell you? What might you do to enhance the strengths and minimize the weaknesses of its structure?
Hierarchy, market, and network forms of organization are not mutually exclusive: in the twenty-first century, the need for resilience, intelligence, speed, and flexibility demands that each organizational form finds requisite expression in individual organizations.
With information and communication technology, civil society plays an increasing role in governance, promoting transparency and accountability to tackle corruption. Development agencies can strengthen civil society-led, ICT-driven anticorruption initiatives by funding projects and programs that foster institutional environments conducive to participation in public affairs, promote cooperation and mobilization, and develop capacities.
Peer assists are events that bring individuals together to share their experiences, insights, and knowledge on an identified challenge or problem. They also promote collective learning and develop networks among those invited.
Organizational learning calls for nonstop assessment of performance—its successes and failures. This makes sure that learning takes place and supports continuous improvement. After-action reviews and retrospects are a tool that facilitates assessments; they enable this by bringing together a team to discuss an activity or project openly and honestly.
Dissemination is an indispensable means of maximizing the impact of research. It is an intrinsic element of all good research practice that promotes the profile of research institutions and strengthens their capacities. The challenge is to ensure the physical availability of research material and to make it intelligible to those who access it.
Storytelling is the use of stories or narratives as a communication tool to value, share, and capitalize on the knowledge of individuals.
Good practice is a process or methodology that has been shown to be effective in one part of the organization and might be effective in another too.
A retreat is a meeting designed and organized to facilitate the ability of a group to step back from day-to-day activities for a period of concentrated discussion, dialogue, and strategic thinking about their organization’s future or specific issues. Organizations will reap full benefits if they follow basic rules.
Simple planning and a little discipline can turn an ordinary presentation into a lively and engaging event.
Organizational boundaries have been stretched, morphed, and redesigned to a degree unimaginable 10 years ago. Networks of practice have come of age. The learning organization pays attention to their forms and functions, evolves principles of engagement, circumscribes and promotes success factors, and monitors and evaluates performance with knowledge performance metrics.
Organizational learning is still seeking a theory and there can be no (and perhaps cannot be) agreement on the dimensions of the learning organization. However, useful models associated with learning and change can be leveraged individually or in association to reflect on the overall system of an organization.
Evaluation serves two main purposes: accountability and learning. Development agencies have tended to prioritize the first, and given responsibility for that to centralized units. But evaluation for learning is the area where observers find the greatest need today and tomorrow.
The insights, attitudes, and skills that equip managers for their various responsibilities come from many sources outside formal education or training. To identify areas for improvement, it is first necessary to identify what these responsibilities are.
Coaching and mentoring can inspire and empower employees, build commitment, increase productivity, grow talent , and promote success. They are now essential elements of modern managerial practice. However, many companies still have not established related schemes. By not doing so, they also fail to capitalize on the experience and knowledge seasoned personnel can pass on.
Creativity plays a critical role in the innovation process, and innovation that markets value is a creator and sustainer of performance and change. In organizations, stimulants and obstacles to creativity drive or impede enterprise.
Despite competing demands, modern organizations should not forget that learning is the best way to meet the challenges of the time. Learning charters demonstrate commitment: they are a touchstone against which provision and practice can be tested and a waymark with which to guide, monitor, and evaluate progress. It is difficult to argue that what learning charters advocate is not worth striving for.
Social media is revolutionizing the way we live, learn, work, and play. Elements of the private sector have begun to thrive on opportunities to forge, build, and deepen relationships. Some are transforming their organizational structures and opening their corporate ecosystems in consequence. The public sector is a relative newcomer. It too can drive stakeholder involvement and satisfaction.
The failure of researchers to link evidence to policy and practice produces evidence that no one uses, impedes innovation, and leads to mediocre or even detrimental development policies. To help improve the definition, design, and implementation of policy research, researchers should adopt a strategic outcome-oriented approach.
How can we gauge the successes and failures of collective learning? How can the rest of the organization benefit from the experience? Learning histories surface the thinking, experiments, and arguments of actors who engaged in organizational change.
The true value of a conference lies in its effects on participants. Conferences are to generate and share knowledge that impacts behavior and links to results: this will not happen if the state of the art of conference evaluation remains immature and event planners do not shine a light on the conditions for learning outcomes.
Where large organizations make an effort to boost knowledge sharing, the solutions they fabricate can aggravate problems. Designing jobs for knowledge behaviors and recruiting people who are positive about sharing to start with will boost knowledge stocks and flows at low cost.
Communication is the process through which relationships are instituted, sustained, altered, or ended by increases or reductions in meaning. Belatedly, as the field of development englobes ever-wider realms, it is finally recognized as a driver of change. Sped by the Internet, strategic communications can explain activity and connect to purpose in more instrumental ways than have been considered so far.
Text is no longer the primary means of learning transfer. Character-based simulation, in which animated characters provide a social context that motivates learners, can improve cognition and recall and bodes well for high-impact e-learning.
In the age of the internet, many think libraries are being destroyed. One need not yield to pessimism: identifiable trends point to a promising future. In light of these, one should be able to circumscribe plausible scenarios. Approaches to strategic planning that count on ownership should make a big difference and point to desirable skills for librarians. If they also invest in resilience and give unequivocal attention to branding, libraries can enjoy a renaissance.
Exit interviews provide feedback on why employees leave, what they liked about their job, and where the organization needs improvement. They are most effective when data is compiled and tracked over time. The concept has been revisited as a tool to capture knowledge from leavers. Exit interviews can be a win–win situation: the organization retains a portion of the leaver’s knowledge and shares it; the departing employee articulates unique contributions and leaves a mark.
Feedback is the dynamic process of presenting and disseminating information to improve performance. Feedback mechanisms are increasingly being recognized as key elements of learning before, during, and after. Monthly progress notes on project administration , in which document accomplishments as well as bottlenecks, are prominent among these.
Staff profile pages are dynamic, adaptive electronic directories that store information about the knowledge, skills, experience, and interests of people. They are a cornerstone of successful knowledge management and learning initiatives.
A weblog, in its various forms, is a web-based application on which dated entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or other material such as graphics or video are posted. A weblog enables groups of people to discuss electronically areas of interest and to review different opinions and information surrounding a topic.
The knowledge management discipline can be cryptic. These Knowledge Solutions define its most common concepts in simple terms.
If 80% of knowledge is unwritten and largely unspoken, we first need to elicit that before we can articulate, share, and make wider use of it. Knowledge harvesting is one way to draw out and package tacit knowledge to help others adapt, personalize, and apply it; build organizational capacity; and preserve institutional memory.
Organizations are often challenged to identify and resolve workplace problems. The Critical Incident technique gives them a starting point and a process for advancing organizational development through learning experiences. It helps them study “what people do” in various situations.
Organizations spend millions of dollars on management systems without commensurate investments in the categorization needed to organize the information they rest on. Taxonomy work is strategic work: it enables efficient and interoperable retrieval and sharing of data, information, and knowledge by building needs and natural workflows in intuitive structures.
Remembering times past stimulates the mind and helps give perspective and a sense of who we are. Social reminiscence is a gain in performance without practice.
... The rural livelihoods approach is essentially a micro policy analysis framework in which the assets are the devices in processes or activities that improve livelihoods. The framework uses 'assets or resources' as a vital feature and shows how these affect 'livelihood survival strategies' with 'livelihood mediating processes' which lead to various 'livelihoods' outcome (Serrat, 2017) as illustrated in Figure 2 ...
... The term resources refer to stocks of capital that can be utilised directly or indirectly to generate livelihood of the household or to sustain its well-being at different levels above survival. Different types of resources are categorised and distinguished between five capital types as natural capital, physical capital, human capital, financial capital and social capital (Serrat, 2017). Financial capital is the financial resources that people can use to achieve the livelihoods for instance access to electricity while human capital refers to the skills, knowledge, ability to labor and good health that enable people to achieve their desired livelihoods (Flora & Flora, 2013). ...
... Some of the models that have been used to measure livelihood strategies in developing countries include; the sustainable livelihood approach, the rural livelihoods approach, and the livelihood vulnerability framework (Ansah, Gardebroek & Ihle, 2019;Connolly, Boutin & Smit 2016;Sati & Vangchhia, 2017). A common denominator in these models is that livelihood outcomes are appraised from income, dimensions of human wellbeing, social safety nets, and access to public services, with poverty and food insecurity being the outcomes (Sati and Vangchhia 2017;Serrat 2017). For example, the cost of electricity installation and monthly bills at a particular moment in time comprise good determinants of access to affordable energy. ...
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Participation in sports has contributed positively to persons living with Intellectual Disability(ID) as documented in the impact of Unified Sports though an out of school activity. In Kenya, children spend most of their time in school ,thus a need for Unified Schools Programme activities that provide an opportunity for learners with (out) intellectual disabilities to participate in play and sports. They also need to work together in inclusive youth as well as whole school engagements. This study aimed at evaluating the perceived effects on social inclusion among participating learners. The research tool had both structured and unstructured questions thus, mixed research method was used specifically to cater for both quantitative and qualitative data. The study targeted 40 schools that had a special unit within the same environment and had fully implemented the three Unified School Programme Activities. To calculate the sample all the school administrators were purposively sample and 2 teachers per school who had been trained, 2 learners (1 with and 1 without ID) and a parent of each were randomly picked making a sample size of 280 respondents. Research questionnaires for the survey were adapted from a pool of questions and were administered one on one basis by trained research assistants who also conducted interviews and Focus Group Discussions.Ethical clearance and consent were acquired before the study commenced. Statistical Package for Social Sciences software was used to analyse data. Descriptive statistics was used to calculate frequencies that was then presented in tables and graphs. Findings revealed that implementation of the Unified Schools programme activities resulted to improved social inclusion. It is recommended that the programmes to continue and be expanded to all schools in Kenya
... The rural livelihoods approach is essentially a micro policy analysis framework in which the assets are the devices in processes or activities that improve livelihoods. The framework uses 'assets or resources' as a vital feature and shows how these affect 'livelihood survival strategies' with 'livelihood mediating processes' which lead to various 'livelihoods' outcome (Serrat, 2017) as illustrated in Figure 2 ...
... The term resources refer to stocks of capital that can be utilised directly or indirectly to generate livelihood of the household or to sustain its well-being at different levels above survival. Different types of resources are categorised and distinguished between five capital types as natural capital, physical capital, human capital, financial capital and social capital (Serrat, 2017). Financial capital is the financial resources that people can use to achieve the livelihoods for instance access to electricity while human capital refers to the skills, knowledge, ability to labor and good health that enable people to achieve their desired livelihoods (Flora & Flora, 2013). ...
... Some of the models that have been used to measure livelihood strategies in developing countries include; the sustainable livelihood approach, the rural livelihoods approach, and the livelihood vulnerability framework (Ansah, Gardebroek & Ihle, 2019;Connolly, Boutin & Smit 2016;Sati & Vangchhia, 2017). A common denominator in these models is that livelihood outcomes are appraised from income, dimensions of human wellbeing, social safety nets, and access to public services, with poverty and food insecurity being the outcomes (Sati and Vangchhia 2017;Serrat 2017). For example, the cost of electricity installation and monthly bills at a particular moment in time comprise good determinants of access to affordable energy. ...
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The operation of pumps requires considerable amounts of energy depending on the size of the pump and the pumping demands. Depending on how efficient the pump is, significant amounts of energy are lost – in the form of heat – during pumping operations. To ensure that the pumps operate optimally, the pumps’ efficiency is often used as one of the performance indicators. Analysis of the pump efficiency requires laborious, tedious, costly laboratory measurement of the pump’s exit pipe pressure head, the elevation head, the velocity head, the pump’s impeller’s revolution per minute (RPM), pump’s electrical power input, and the pump’s discharge. To circumvent these challenges, modelling of pump efficiency is used as a supplement and/or an alternative to the laboratory measurement of the pump efficiency�based variables. In this study, machine learning models are used to simulate pump efficiency based on laboratory observations. These machine learning models include: a single-layer (artificial) neural network model, ten multiple-layer (deep) neural network models, and three support vector regression (SVR) models. The objective of this study is to evaluate efficacy of the machine learning models to simulate pump efficiency. Results suggest that the deep neural networks outperformed both the artificial neural networks and support vector regression models. The results further show that the deep neural networks outperformed the rest of the machine learning models, and they had Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) , percent bias error (PBIAS), coefficient of determination (R2), root mean squared error (RMSE), and Willmott’s degree of agreement (d1) of 100%, <|0.133%|, 1, <0.08%, and >0.99, respectively, in the training phase, and >93%, <|1.4%|, >0.93, <1.7%, and >0.91, in the testing phase.
... Commonly used methodological frameworks for achieving SD rely on the sustainable livelihoods concept (Mensah, 2019). In this concept, sustainable livelihoods (SLs) refer to a combination of resources for which the necessary capabilities, assets, and activities are required in order to maintain a sustainable means of living (Chambers, 1991) and that can respond to and recover from pressures and shocks without destroying the natural resource base (Serrat, 2017). SLs are an important part of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2030, which is a global development agenda set by the United Nations in 2015 (United Nations General Assembly,2015). ...
... At present, a variety of SLA implementation methods coexist. Among them, the sustainable livelihoods framework (SLF), originally proposed by the Department for International Development (DFID) of the United Kingdom, has been widely used by many development organizations and researchers (Carney, 2002;DFID, 1999;Knutsson, 2006;Morse et al., 2013;Serrat, 2017). As shown in Fig. 1, the SLF is structured into five main components: vulnerability contexts, livelihood assets, transforming structures and processes, livelihood strategies, and outcomes (Carney, 2002;DFID, 1999). ...
... Some scholars have also evaluated and studied SLs in the disaster vulnerability context at the county and district levels in China's Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (Zhao et al., 2020;Zhao et al., 2019). Other studies have focused on the evaluation of SLs at a household livelihood capital scale (Chambers, 1991;Li et al., 2020;Martha G. Roberts, 2003;Serrat, 2017) in the vulnerability context. Li et al. (2013) used livelihood assets as indicators in order to explore the SLs of small farmers in the context of climate variability based on questionnaires and focus group discussions (Li et al., 2013), while Chen et al. (2018) evaluated the adaptation of farmers' livelihoods to environmental changes in the arid region of Xinjiang, China. ...
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Drylands cover about 41% of the Earth's land surface and are inhabited by more than two billion people, who rely on the diversified ecosystem services provided by drylands for their livelihoods. Achieving sustainable livelihoods (SLs) is a key component of achieving the sustainable development goals set by the agenda in 2030. Although it has aroused extensive interest, research on SLs in drylands at a regional scale is still limited. This paper aims to address this research gap by evaluating SLs through a geographic gradient of aridity in Inner Mongolia. A sustainable livelihood index (SLI) was developed using a wide range of indicators in a sustainable livelihood framework (SLF). The weight of the indicators was determined by the entropy weight method, and the characteristics of the spatial distribution of the SLI were analyzed. The results showed that the SLI varies greatly across aridity zones. In terms of livelihood assets, the SLI in the dry sub-humid zone was 15% higher than in the arid zones, while, surprisingly, semi-arid zones were found to have the most vulnerable livelihoods (rather than the arid zones). The reason for this is that land management and planning approaches are necessary in drylands. In further detail, Moran's I index illustrated that the overall performance of the SLI of each league or city has a positive spatial correlation, while through local spatial correlation it was found that Hinggan and Chifeng are hot spot areas and Hohhot is a cold spot area. The lack of physical and social capital is an important obstacle for SLs. Based on the analysis of SLs in Inner Mongolia, the characteristics of the sustainable development of local residents were revealed. In this paper, we call for an integrated (i.e., focusing on natural and human capital) land management and planning approach for drylands to reflect the nature of the tightly coupled socio-ecological systems.
... The 5 whys method is a method used to find the main cause of a particular problem (Ershadi, et al., 2018). This method is simple and powerful in solving a problem by reviewing cause-and-effect relationships (Serrat, 2017). The 5 Whys method approach is to find out what all the problems are and ask "why" and "what is the root of the problem". ...
... The Five (5) Whys method is useful when company problems involve human factors or interactions (Ahmedani, 2020). In addition, this method is simple and powerful in solving a problem by reviewing cause-and-effect relationships (Serrat, 2017). For these reasons, the 5 Whys method will be used as an approach in finding root cause analysis of the main problems of PT. ...
... The SCAMPER technique was initially developed to increase the creative abilities of children (Gündogan, 2019) but has also been used to assess the creativity in adults (Elprama et al., 2019;Wu & Wu, 2020). This technique uses a set of directed, idea-spurring questions to suggest some addition to, or modification of, something that already exists (Serrat, 2017). ...
... During disasters and organisational crises, those tasked with making low probability yet high consequences decisions, have to 'think outside the box'. This necessitates creativity and the ability for decision makers to think divergently as occurs in sense-breaking (Danish Emergency Management Agency, 2016), reframing (Ramirez & Wikinson, 2018), and using SCAMPER (Serrat, 2017), that all encourage imagination. Indeed, the importance of imagination, and specifically 'failures in imagination' as deficiencies in planning and response, were identified in the 9/11 Commission Report and after the Global Financial Crisis (Haiven, 2010;Kean, 2011). ...
Recent crises have demonstrated that modern organisations require strong foresight capabilities, such as scenario planning, to provide decision makers with a means of managing unpredictable situations and avoiding catastrophic consequences. Despite the success of scenario planning in some large corporations, there has been a distinct lack of empirical research activity surrounding scenario planning, especially in the context of crisis management. This paper takes a methodologically rigorous approach by reporting on an empirical project that sought to understand the role of creativity and decision-making as drivers for scenario planning quality during a series of crisis exercises. The project applied a pre- and post-experimental design that used a training intervention to elicit a change in aspects of scenario planning quality during a series of simulated crises. A significant change was elicited and the role creativity and decision-making play in that change has been articulated. This paper seeks to contribute to the existing empirical futures studies research and stimulate other futures scholars to consider additional methods to enhance the scientific rigour of empirical research in this field and explore the drivers and measures of scenario planning quality.
... The EGr was offered a training method based entirely on the analysis of cases, during which the educational goal was the development of pragmatic competence. The set of exercises included the Six Thinking Hats technique [63] aimed at finding all possible solutions to the case problem, audio and video fragments to analyse the existing communication patterns, to find the tactics used and to transform the given pattern into an ideal one. The final tasks included online role-play games where the students could demonstrate the acquired knowledge, as well as a peer-review assessment to practice the evaluation skills and anticipate their own mistakes. ...
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The priority of the competence approach aimed at developing professional competency of higher education students reflects the labour market need for graduates with the skills required by their speciality and relevant to the interrelated disciplines. In the case of law students, such skills include awareness of both domestic and foreign legal systems, as well as full communicative competence in the foreign language they are going to use. A key component of foreign language communicative competence is pragmatic competence—that is, knowledge about how a foreign language is used appropriately in a legal context. The research conducted contributes to the issue of pragmatic competence training by means of a practice-oriented method—that is, the case method. The significance of the case method is determined by the twofold goal of developing pragmatic competence via pseudo-real legal situations that provide students with legal knowledge, as well as stimulate them to be effective communicators in the legal sphere. The study took place at SPbPU and involved 120 s-year law students. The experiment conducted was aimed at comparing the case method and traditional methods used for teaching Legal English, particularly the first legal advice strategy—a component of pragmatic competence. A specific feature of the experiment was that it was organized in the form of distance learning. To collect and analyse the data of the study, a qualitative and a quantitative method were applied. The results of the study showed a high efficiency of the case method for fostering pragmatic competence in an ESP course for law students in comparison with traditional methods, which were not very efficient. Besides, the experiment showed that an on-line format may be an adequate methodological means of effectively achieving the goal in a foreign language training for professional needs in a course with a time limit.
... The massive size of social network datasets requires automated data processing in order to analyze them in a reasonable amount of time [22]. Interestingly, data mining techniques also require huge data sets to mine remarkable patterns from data [23]. ...
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One of the most interesting directions of digital educational technology is adaptive e-learning systems. Learning styles are used in adaptive e-learning systems to provide helpful suggestions and regulations for learners to improve their learning performance and optimize the educational process.Recently, the research trend is to detect learning styles without disturbing the users. In contrast to the old method, which included students filling out a questionnaire, many ways to automatically detecting learning styles have been presented. These methods are based on analyzing behavior data collected from students’ interactions with the system using various data mining tools.Simultaneously, recent research has embraced the use of social network analysis in improving online teaching and learning, with the goal of analyzing user profiles, as well as their interactions and behaviors, to better understand the learner and his needs in order to provide him with appropriate learning content.The aim of our research was to determine if the automatic detection of learning styles can be done using the learner social network analysis and data mining algorithms, our research was implemented with Sakai learning management systems, which allow us to examine the performance of our approach.KeywordsLearning stylesSocial network analysisData mining
... Some concentrate on the ICT4D value chain (Sein and Harindranath, 2004;Heeks, 2010;Omland and Thapa, 2017;Rothe, 2020). Other researchers use the Sustainable Livelihood Framework (Lwoga and Sangeda, 2018), which focuses on factors constraining or enhancing livelihood opportunities (Serrat, 2017) or a Capability Approach (CA) that focuses on people as goals. According to CA, development is understood as empowering people to live the life they value (Kleine, 2009;Kleine et al., 2012;Haenssgen and Ariana, 2018). ...
Positive effect of information and communication technology (ICT) on human development (HD) is not guaranteed simply by the availability of technology; this gap is especially pronounced for developing countries. Using the Capability Approach framework, we collected data from 115 countries for 2019. We tested a sample to determine stable groups of countries and split the dataset into two groups, which homogeneity differs significantly. Finally, we estimated the hypotheses predicting the influence of ICT on HD for both groups using a path modelling technique. Our results confirm the significant positive contribution of ICT on all kinds of conversion factors (CFs), except social ones in developing countries. However, the way to transform capabilities into functionings differs. In developing countries, ICT contributes to HD at the individual level only. For developed countries, ICT contributes more to social CFs and less to personal ones.
... The analysis was performed through a developed instrument based on the sustainable livelihood framework (SLF) to understand socio-economic assets that support community welfare. Five aspects were then further mentioned as socioeconomic assets (Serrat, 2017), and the SLF indicators of human resources, natural, social, financial, and physic capital were arranged into positive statements to develop resilience index (Hahn et al., 2009;Huong et al., 2019;Koirala, 2015;Sujakhu et al., 2019;Williams et al., 2020). The socio-economic assets instrument was divided into 12 components, and was sub-divided into 38 indicators (Table 2). ...
Land transformation is the main factor that may increase ecological vulnerability in coastal areas in Semarang City, Indonesia. Therefore, environmental damage in coastal areas should be restored using an integrated management strategy based on the ecosystem, social and economic condition, as well as stakeholder partnership. This research aimed to measure the resilience score of environmental and socio-economic conditions and to identify stakeholder partnership in arranging integrated coastal area management in Semarang City. A descriptive observational study was conducted in Mangkang Kulon and Tugurejo Sub-district, Tugu District, Semarang City using in-depth interviews, field observations and survey-mapping. The ecological conditions data was collected using image analysis of aerial photographs following the concept of environmental and geophysical. Meanwhile, the social-community conditions data were diagnosed using a socio-economic assessment. The result showed that changes in the coastline occured due to the disappearance of some area of mangrove that were turned indented close to the ocean. However, the socio-economic index showed a medium to a high score, which means high opportunities for the local community to develop their livelihood. Therefore, various community empowerment programs initiated by government, academics, the private sectors, and non-government organizations have increased the resilience of the community.
... The inner intelligence is the intrapersonal intelligence which one uses to know and understand oneself and is important for self -awareness, self-regulation and selfmotivation (Cobb & Mayer, 2000). Emotional intelligence includes domains such as self-awareness, self-management, social awareness and relationship management (Serrat, 2017). ...
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Introduction: Several researchers academics have revealed in recent years that cognitive ability alone is insufficient to predict success, and that morals, talent, attitude, and behaviour all play a role. Salovey and Mayer investigated the reasons why many clever people failed in life more than a decade ago. Their research led to the identification of an intelligence subset known as emotional intelligence (EI). EI, as a sort of social intelligence, is more important than cognitive intelligence in terms of success. Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the correlation of EQ and IQ with Academic performances. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted in Baqai Dental College from July 2021-September 2021 after getting ethical approval from Ethical review board, Baqai Dental College. Dental students from 2nd year, 3rd year and Final year were invited to participate through census sampling technique. The study included all students from each class who were present on the day of data collection whereas those absent from each class were excluded from the study. Results: A total of 165 dental students participated in the study. Majority of the dental students fall in the domain of emotional awareness and management within 25-34 range of effective functioning. Frequency and percentages were also calculated for level of intelligence and 72 (43.6%) of the dental students scored 90-109 which is considered as Normal. Association of students marks from the last examination with IQ score was calculated and 48(39.7%) students with <60% in the last examination fall in the Normal range of IQ. Correlation between EQ, IQ and academic performance was calculated and showed that a negative correlation was found between Academic performance and IQ. Conclusion: The present study concluded that emotional intelligence is positively correlated with academic performance and
... Alongside mapping the network, SNA could quantify network parameters such as the number of interactions each person receives (indegree) or contributes to (outdegree), and the role and position of an actor in the network (centrality measures). SNA not only helps to understand the communities but also provides the researchers with various tools to design interventions to change them [6,[10][11][12]. ...
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Background Burnout is common among residents, which could be associated with their professional network characteristics. This study aimed to assess the social networks of psychiatry residents and develop an intervention to improve their network characteristics, burnout, and perception of the educational environment. Methods We recruited a cohort of 17 PGY-2 residents and assessed their social networks, burnout, and perception of the educational environment. After the baseline survey, we held a focus group with PGY-2 residents to discuss the results, their network characteristics, and interventions that can improve their relationships. The PGY-2 residents indicated that offering extracurricular opportunities to facilitate friendly interactions among the residents and faculty members would be the most feasible and acceptable intervention. Therefore, four “interest groups” for extracurricular activities were established. Residents and faculty members were invited to participate in interest groups to improve the network characteristics. Some PGY-2 residents and faculty members agreed to moderate interest group sessions (active members). Results After the intervention, active residents improved significantly in the perceived personal accomplishment subscale of the burnout inventory and their perception of the educational environment. Active faculty members also had a significant increase in their relationships with PGY-2 residents in one domain of social networks. Conclusions Enhancing relationships between residents and faculty members through participatory intervention and extracurricular activities can improve faculty-resident connectivity and residents’ perception of personal accomplishment and educational environment quality.
... Natural wealth has a major contribution in supporting human livelihoods around it. Natural assets in the framework of sustainable livelihoods are translated as human accessibility to natural resources such as rivers, seas, grasslands, forests and so on (Serrat, 2017). In addition, in the same context, natural assets are also interpreted as ownership of assets such as land, floating net cages, and the productivity of the land/cage plots produced. ...
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The Mahakam Watershed (DAS) supports various economic activities such as; coal mining, oil and gas mining, plantation activities, agriculture, fisheries and forestry. As a result of these activities, the Mahakam watershed experiences various problems, such as: water pollution and siltation. These impacts disrupt fishing and agricultural activities. Therefore, this study aims to analyze sustainable livelihood strategies for people who work as fishermen, fish farming and farmers. The sample in this study was selected using a purposive sampling technique, and to obtain data a structured interview technique was used through a questionnaire. Then data collected were analyzed using the Sustainable Livelihood Framework (SLF) approach. Based on the results of the analysis, the group of capture fishermen are at a low level of sustainable livelihoods, and groups of fish cultivators and farmers are at a high level of sustainable livelihoods.
... In light of the findings from three consecutive focus group discussions (FGDs) with experts, 58 composite indicators were determined against nine CCD criteria for GC-2 (capacity of the line government departments), CP2 (ensure climate competence, capacity and active role of the line government departments) and six of the World Bank's good governance principles (Kartodihardjo et al. 2013). During these meetings, scenario-based learning and situational analysis techniques using flip charts were employed (Hovland 2005a;Dey 2012;Norris et al. 2012;Serrat 2017). These three consecutive in-house consultation sessions with the experts' groups were held at Islamabad, with a group size of 13-15 persons, as per maximum provision under the standard protocol for a FGD session. ...
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The development of the energy sector has played a major role in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and pollution. The situation thus necessitates rigorous actions for climate compatible development (CCD). The energy sector is context-dependent, due to which response strategies for CCD are quite challenging particularly in the context of energy crises and the actors’ capacity issue in developing countries. This study was aimed at exploring the role of government actors involved in governing the energy sector, with the objective to assess their capacity using a set of principles, criteria, and indicators (PCIs). The study attempted to answer the question: is the capacity of the line departments involved in energy governance adequate to achieve the targets set under SDG-7 and SDG-13? For this purpose, the study employed a combination of “Rules-based” and “Rights-based” governance approaches at all tiers of governance, i.e., federal, provincial, and district levels. Actors’ capacity was assessed by developing a governance index based on the scoring of PCIs. Three hundred forty key informant interviews (KIIs) and 17 focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted at federal, provincial, and district levels where respondents were asked to score each of the indicators. Responses were then statistically analyzed and validated. The findings revealed that departments at the federal level are playing an effective role and are adequately equipped to align SDG-7 and SDG-13 with energy sector development. However, departments at the provincial and district levels are still lagging behind to achieve the desired objectives, which demonstrate the need to enhance the capacities of provincial and district line departments.
... In this study, the tools used to help identify the root of the problem are using the "5 whys" method or called why why analysis, the 5 whys method is a method that functions to explore the root causes of problems and their relationship to problems that arise (Serrat, 2017), the identifying the root of the problem result as seen in Figure 1. ...
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Innovative work behavior shown by employee activities that generate ideas, promote ideas, and implement ideas is very useful for organizational sustainability. This research seeks to improve innovative work behavior by analyzing the contribution of self-efficacy and organizational climate to ionovative work behavior. The research was conducted on non-permanent instructors at PT PLN (Persero) Pusdiklat with samples 149. Hypothesis testing uses parametric statistical analysis and RCA (Root Cause Analysis) method. The findings of this research: (1) If self-efficacy increases, innovative work behavior will increase; (2) if the organizational climate increases, innovative work behavior will increase; (3) If self-efficacy and organizational climate increase together, innovative work behavior will increase. Based on the RCA (Root Cause Analysis) method, several priority indicators were found to improve innovative work behavior, namely: forming an innovation team, assigning internships / benchmarks, budgeting for awards, K3L training, creating Knowledge Capturing books, recruiting K3L HR, and book review.
... The concept of emotional intelligence is one of the primary hypotheses that has caught the curiosity of scientists and academics alike, and it is becoming increasingly popular (Serrat, 2017;Salovey & Mayer, 1990). Many different definitions and models of emotional intelligence have been proposed by academics and scientists since the field's inception. ...
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Talent management proven as a powerful tool in human resource management that aids employees to develop their leadership skills in the organisation. Talent management practices include attracting, developing and retaining talent has ensured the employees are being acknowledged and appreciated based on their knowledge, effort and skills. These talent management practices of talents are preparing them for the leadership roles with highly skills in managerial and technical. Further, this research is intended to introduce the element of emotional intelligence in the talent management practices that aids the balance of leader's development in mentally and physically. Prior research shown that these two elements; emotional intelligence and talent management are often researched separately in developing leadership talent that brings the gap of this research. Therefore, as conceptual paper, these variables will be tested quantitatively and qualitatively by emphasizing simple random sampling in the determining the sample. This research will be conducted in automotive industries in Malaysia. In future, the framework developed in this paper will be used as foundation in planning and developing talent in the organization either for private or government sector.
... Knowledge workers are more loyal to their work and less to their firms (Mládková et al., 2015). Instead of being commanded, knowledge economy employees prefer to be facilitated to accomplish their tasks (Davenport, 2013;Serrat, 2017). The combined effect of heightened competition and more assertive employee forces firms to do away with the practices of past as they are not there to meet fixed production target but to pursue the hazy change named innovation. ...
... Knowledge workers are more loyal to their work and less to their firms (Mládková et al., 2015). Instead of being commanded, knowledge economy employees prefer to be facilitated to accomplish their tasks (Davenport, 2013;Serrat, 2017). The combined effect of heightened competition and more assertive employee forces firms to do away with the practices of past as they are not there to meet fixed production target but to pursue the hazy change named innovation. ...
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Purpose – The purpose of the study is to ascertain the role of servant leadership in inducing flow at work. The study along with confirming the relation between flow at work and innovative work behavior intends to explore the mediating role of flow at work that it plays relating servant leadership to innovative work behavior. Design / Methodology – The data collection was done through an interviewee-administered questionnaire in three waves that were four weeks apart. The data was collected from 267 respondents. To run the measurement model and structural model Smart-PLS was used while SPSS was used to summarize demographic information and conduct hierarchal regression. Findings – Servant leadership was found to be related to flow at work. Additionally, flow at work was related to innovative work behavior. Finally, flow at work was found to mediate the relationship between servant leadership and innovative work behavior. The study found servant leadership to be related to flow at work. Additionally, the study unearthed the relation between flow at work and innovative work behavior. Finally, the study found flow at work to act as a mediator between servant leadership and innovative work behavior. Keyword – Servant leadership, Flow at work, Innovative work behavior
... Why some households employ one livelihood strategy rather than another, however, remains poorly understood (Gray and Bilsborrow, 2013). A better understanding of these adaptations and the processes behind them will inform more sustainable development strategies aimed at supporting impoverished rural households globally and especially in the developing world (Liu and Xu, 2016;Serrat, 2017). ...
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Rural households across the world are increasingly turning to off-farm sources of income to complement or replace farm income. A better understanding of these livelihood adaptations, their consequences, and the processes behind them will facilitate more effective rural development policies and projects. The objective of this research was to examine how off-farm income influences rural livelihoods, elucidate factors that determi