Article

Strength Training with Repetitions to Failure does not Provide Additional Strength and Muscle Hypertrophy Gains in Young Women

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Abstract

This study investigated the effects of a 10-week resistance training to failure on neuromuscular adaptations in young women. Eighty-nine active young women were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1) repetitions to failure (RF; three sets of repetitions to failure); 2) repetitions not to failure with equalized volume (RNFV; four sets of 7 repetitions); and 3) repetitions not to failure (RNF; three sets of 7 repetitions). All groups performed the elbow flexor exercise (bilateral biceps curl) and trained 2 days per week using 70% of 1RM. There were significant increases (p<0.05) in muscle strength after 5 (15.9% for RF, 18.4% for RNF, and 19.9% for RNFV) and 10 (28.3% for RF, 26.8% for RNF, and 28.3% for RNFV) weeks of training, with no significant differences between groups. Additionally, muscular endurance increased after 5 and 10 weeks, with no differences between groups. However, peak torque (PT) increased significantly at 180°.s-1 in the RNFV (13.7%) and RNF (4.1%) groups (p<0.05), whereas no changes were observed in the RF group (-0.5%). Muscle thickness increased significantly (p<0.05) in the RF and RNFV groups after 5 (RF: 8.4% and RNFV: 2.3%) and 10 weeks of training (RF: 17.5%, and RNFV: 8.5%), whereas no significant changes were observed in the RNF group (3.9 and 2.1% after 5 and 10 weeks, respectively). These data suggest that short-term training of repetitions to failure do not yield additional overall neuromuscular improvements in young women.

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... Normalmente, por cada unidad de volumen (medido como número de series) el estímulo para la hipertrofia va a ser siempre mayor si ese volumen se realiza hasta el fallo muscular (Martorelli et al., 2017). La intensidad y el estado de entrenamiento también son variables a tener en cuenta. ...
... La evidencia científica analizada con anterioridad a este trabajo fin de grado nos indicaba que, a igual volumen de entrenamiento, realizar las series hasta el fallo muscular proporcionaba mejores resultados en cuanto a la hipertrofia muscular debido a la gran importancia de la tensión mecánica (Martorelli et al., 2017). También se comprobó que aumentando el número de series que se realizan se puede evitar el entrenamiento hasta el fallo muscular consiguiendo los mismos resultados, pero en mayor tiempo de entrenamiento. ...
... Por lo tanto, para analizar si realmente el fallo muscular influye en la magnitud de hipertrofia muscular habría que diseñar estudios específicamente para comprobar la influencia de esta variable. La literatura analizada previamente sigue la línea de que igualando el número de series, llegar hasta el fallo muscular produce mayor hipertrofia que otro tipo de entrenamiento que no sea realizado hasta la fatiga máxima en cada serie (Martorelli et al., 2017). ...
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Variables de influencia en el proceso de hipertrofia en adultos sanos y su importancia en la elaboración de programas de entrenamiento
... At the end of the analysis and selection of articles for the concentric muscle failure variable, the articles included were (Martorelli et al., 2017;Carroll et al., 2019). ...
... Both analysed studies (Martorelli et al., 2017;Carroll et al., 2019) did not find a positive benefit in relation to concentric muscle failure, however, if we take into account the principle of variability, it is suggested that the process of changing one or more variables over the periodisation becomes an effective method to make training challenging and effective (2009). Therefore, the use of concentric muscle failure should not be neglected within a training program, but it must be carefully planned because although training to failure can generate benefits in hypertrophy, it also increases psychological exhaustion and can generate a state of overtraining (Schoenfeld, 2010). ...
... In the study by Martorelli et al. (2017), the group that did not use the failure but had the volume equalised obtained similar results to the group that performed the concentric muscle failure. In a recent review, suggested that training to concentric muscle failure is less relevant when using heavier loads, and in the study by Martorelli et al. (2017), the load used in the protocols was 70% of 1RM. in their review, concluded that the volume variable is of fundamental importance when considering the relevance of training to failure, corroborating the findings of the present study, in which when the volume is equalised, the use or not of muscle failure present similar results. ...
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Resistance training (RT) is a widely practiced type of training and the number of adherents of this type of physical exercise is increasing each year. Among the most sought objectives of those who initiate RT is muscle hypertrophy, although success in this process depends on a well-designed protocol and good manipulation of training variables. The present study aims to analyze, through a systematic review, the impact of the RT variables (such as intensity, volume, recovery interval, execution speed, and concentric muscle failure) relevant to muscle hypertrophy and if there is an ideal range for each training variable. The research was carried out in the PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Scielo databases, from 2000 to 2020, using the terms “resistance training” and “hypertrophy” and “intensity” or “volume” or “recovery interval” or “execution speed” or “muscular failure”. Twenty-three articles were included in the review. The PEDro scale was used to analyze the selected articles quality. It was concluded that the variables intensity and volume must be carefully analyzed in a training program. The other variables, despite of not having a direct impact on hypertrophy, affect the intensity and volume, and must be manipulated according to what is intended with the others.
... However, there is evidence that a high level of muscle activity can be achieved by HL-RT before reaching muscle failure (34), thereby calling into question the need to train to failure. Findings from longitudinal studies on the topic are conflicting with some studies showing advantages for achieving muscle failure (7,29,33) while others reporting no benefit (21,25,31). A confounding issue in these studies is that advantages for muscle failure with HL-RT occurred concomitantly with a greater total training volume, suggesting that positive results may have been induced by a higher total training volume rather than muscle failure. ...
... A confounding issue in these studies is that advantages for muscle failure with HL-RT occurred concomitantly with a greater total training volume, suggesting that positive results may have been induced by a higher total training volume rather than muscle failure. Thus, it is difficult to draw conclusions from the literature as to the role of muscle failure since studies on the topic performed a similar number of repetitions in the failure and nonfailure groups (19) or did not equalize the total training volume (7,21). It is well established that total training volume plays an important role in muscular strength and hypertrophy (27,32), and thus, this variable must be matched between groups to determine causality as to the role of training to failure in promoting muscular adaptations. ...
... Fourth, we cannot rule out the possibility that a cross-education effect may have influenced our results since muscle failure condition always was performed first. However, our results are in accordance with other studies (21,31) showing that performing repetitions to failure is not the major issue to development of muscle strength; thus, if the cross-education did in fact occur, it was not sufficient to confound results. Fourth, our training protocol used only the leg extension exercise, limiting generalizability to hypertrophic changes associated with failure training using other exercises and in regions of the body other than the quadriceps. ...
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Lasevicius, T, Schoenfeld,BJ, Silva-Batista, C,Barros, TdS,Aihara, AY,Brendon,H, Longo,AR, Tricoli, V, Peres,BdA, and Teixeira,EL. Muscle failure promotes greater muscle hypertrophy in low-load but not in high-load resistance training. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000–000, 2019—The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week resistance training program at low and high loads performed with and without achieving muscle failure on muscle strength and hypertrophy. Twenty-five untrained men participated in the 8-week study. Each lower limb was allocated to 1 of 4 unilateral knee extension protocols: repetitions to failure with low load (LL-RF; ;34.4 repetitions); repetitions to failure with high load (HL-RF;;12.4 repetitions); repetitions not to failure with low load (LL-RNF;;19.6 repetitions); and repetitions not to failure with high load (HL-RNF; ;6.7 repetitions). All conditions performed 3 sets with total training volume equated between conditions. The HL-RF and HL-RNF protocols used a load corresponding to 80% 1 repetitionmaximum (RM), while LL-RF and LL-RNF trained at 30%1RM.Muscle strength (1RM) and quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) were assessed before and after intervention. Results showed that 1RMchanges were significantly higher for HL-RF (33.8%, effect size [ES]: 1.24) and HL-RNF (33.4%, ES: 1.25) in the post-test when compared with the LL-RF and LL-RNF protocols (17.7%, ES: 0.82 and 15.8%, ES: 0.89, respectively). Quadriceps CSA increased significantly for HL-RF (8.1%, ES: 0.57), HL-RNF (7.7%, ES: 0.60), and LL-RF (7.8%, ES: 0.45), whereas no significant changes were observed in the LL-RNF (2.8%, ES: 0.15).We conclude that when training with low loads, training with a high level of effort seems to have greater importance than total training volume in the accretion of muscle mass, whereas for high load training, muscle failure does not promote any additional benefits. Consistent with previous research, muscle strength gains are superior when using heavier loads. Key Words: muscular failure, muscle mass, strength, low load and high load
... However, data from a recent meta-analysis published by Davies et al. (10) investigating MF vs. NMF training effects on maximal strength response, demonstrated that both training strategies provided similar muscle strength gains. Among the previous studies that showed contradictory results (MF vs. NMF), some reported superiority for MF (15,37), others reported support for NMF training (21), and some reported similar outcomes (9,22,29,34,36). These differences in observed results between studies could be partially due to interindividual differences in responsiveness to different training protocols (8). ...
... Thus, considering previous studies that have not equated different training protocols makes it difficult to interpret their strength and muscle hypertrophy responses and makes it impossible to conclude that the results found in these studies were due only to performing repetitions to MF. Given the importance of being able to equate training protocols when comparing chronic adaptations, some studies have tried to match the volume performed between MF and NMF protocols to account for this potential confounding factor (9,22,29,36,37). Recently, Martorelli et al. (29) observed that MF and NMF training, equated by load volumes (sets 3 repetitions 3 load), increased maximum strength, measured by one repetition maximum (1RM), and muscular endurance in young active women after 5 and 10 weeks of training. ...
... Given the importance of being able to equate training protocols when comparing chronic adaptations, some studies have tried to match the volume performed between MF and NMF protocols to account for this potential confounding factor (9,22,29,36,37). Recently, Martorelli et al. (29) observed that MF and NMF training, equated by load volumes (sets 3 repetitions 3 load), increased maximum strength, measured by one repetition maximum (1RM), and muscular endurance in young active women after 5 and 10 weeks of training. In addition, Martorelli et al. (29) also demonstrated that the 2 groups with equal load volumes increased the elbow flexors muscle thickness throughout the training period, whereas a third group (lower volume load than the others) did not show an increase in muscle thickness. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of muscle failure (MF) or non-MF (NMF) training on strength and muscle hypertrophy relative gains (average and individual data). Ten men untrained in resistance training participated in the study. Each leg was allocated in 1 of 2 unilateral training protocols (MF or NMF with equal volume) on knee extension exercise. Both protocols were performed with 3–4 sets, 3 minutes’ rest, and 55–60% of one repetition maximum (1RM). Rectus femoris and vastus lateralis muscles cross-sectional area (CSA), maximal muscle strength (1RM and maximal voluntary isometric contraction), and muscular endurance (maximum number of repetition) were assessed before and after 14 weeks. In addition, neuromuscular activation by normalized root mean square of the electromyographic signal (EMGRMS) was measured in 2nd and 35th training sessions. The average results showed that both training protocols were similarly effective in inducing increases in strength and muscle hypertrophy gains. However, individual analysis data suggest that NMF protocol with equal volume may promote similar or even greater muscle hypertrophy (vastus lateralis) and muscular endurance performance when compared with MF protocol. Also, normalized EMGRMS responses analyzed during 2nd and 35th sessions were similar in MF and NMF protocols for rectus femoris and vastus lateralis muscles. In conclusion, MF and NMF protocol conducted with the same total repetition numbers produced similar maximal muscle strength performance and neuromuscular activation. Nevertheless, NMF training could be a more appropriate strategy to increase muscle hypertrophy (vastus lateralis) and muscular endurance performance in untrained individuals when compared with MF.
... In healthy people, RTF seems to result in marked neuromuscular gains (1,24,28,44), although evidence that training leading to concentric failure is superior to RT not leading to failure (RTNF). Indeed, several studies have shown that RTF did not induce additional muscle strength gains compared with RTNF in young trained and untrained populations (12,13,25,26,35,48), whereas a smaller number of studies observed greater strength increase after RTF (8,15,47). In addition, it seems that RTF does not induce further muscle size enhancements in young (35,40,48) and older individuals (53), although this outcome is less investigated. ...
... Indeed, several studies have shown that RTF did not induce additional muscle strength gains compared with RTNF in young trained and untrained populations (12,13,25,26,35,48), whereas a smaller number of studies observed greater strength increase after RTF (8,15,47). In addition, it seems that RTF does not induce further muscle size enhancements in young (35,40,48) and older individuals (53), although this outcome is less investigated. Regarding muscle power output, it has been shown that RTF may compromise muscle power improvements in highly trained athletes (25,26), whereas another study has shown similar muscle power adaptations between RTF and RTNF in older adults (2). ...
... Notwithstanding, this study only addressed maximal strength, and analyses on muscle hypertrophy and muscle power output adaptations were not performed. In addition, since the publication of this work (6), several other articles on this topic have been published, providing more data on the comparison between failure and not to failure approaches during RT (2,12,35,40,53). ...
Article
The aim of this review was to summarize the evidence from longitudinal studies assessing the effects induced by resistance training (RT) performed to failure (RTF) vs. not to failure (RTNF) on muscle strength, hypertrophy, and power output in adults. Three electronic databases were searched using terms related to RTF and RTNF. Studies were eligible if they met the following criteria: randomized and nonrandomized studies comparing the effects of RTF vs. RTNF on muscle hypertrophy, maximal strength, and muscle power in adults, and RT intervention ≥6 weeks. Results were presented as standardized mean differences (SMDs) between treatments with 95% confidence intervals, and calculations were performed using random effects models. Significance was accepted when p < 0.05. Thirteen studies were included in this review. No difference was found between RTF and RTNF on maximal strength in overall analysis (SMD: -0.08; p = 0.642), but greater strength increase was observed in RTNF considering nonequalized volumes (SMD: -0.34; p = 0.048). Resistance training performed to failure showed a greater increase in muscle hypertrophy than RTNF (SMD: 0.75; p = 0.005), whereas no difference was observed considering equalized RT volumes. No difference was found between RTF and RTNF on muscle power considering overall analysis (SMD: -0.20; p = 0.239), whereas greater improvement was observed in RTNF considering nonequalized RT volumes (SMD: -0.61; p = 0.025). Resistance training not to failure may induce comparable or even greater improvements in maximal dynamic strength and power output, whereas no difference between RTF vs. RTNF is observed on muscle hypertrophy, considering equalized RT volumes.
... In healthy people, RTF seems to result in marked neuromuscular gains (1,24,28,44), although evidence that training leading to concentric failure is superior to RT not leading to failure (RTNF). Indeed, several studies have shown that RTF did not induce additional muscle strength gains compared with RTNF in young trained and untrained populations (12,13,25,26,35,48), whereas a smaller number of studies observed greater strength increase after RTF (8,15,47). In addition, it seems that RTF does not induce further muscle size enhancements in young (35,40,48) and older individuals (53), although this outcome is less investigated. ...
... Indeed, several studies have shown that RTF did not induce additional muscle strength gains compared with RTNF in young trained and untrained populations (12,13,25,26,35,48), whereas a smaller number of studies observed greater strength increase after RTF (8,15,47). In addition, it seems that RTF does not induce further muscle size enhancements in young (35,40,48) and older individuals (53), although this outcome is less investigated. Regarding muscle power output, it has been shown that RTF may compromise muscle power improvements in highly trained athletes (25,26), whereas another study has shown similar muscle power adaptations between RTF and RTNF in older adults (2). ...
... Notwithstanding, this study only addressed maximal strength, and analyses on muscle hypertrophy and muscle power output adaptations were not performed. In addition, since the publication of this work (6), several other articles on this topic have been published, providing more data on the comparison between failure and not to failure approaches during RT (2,12,35,40,53). ...
Article
Concurrent training (CT) is an efficient strategy to improve neuromuscular function and cardiorespiratory fitness in older adults, which are factors of pivotal importance for the maintenance of functional capacity with aging. However, there is a lack of evidence about the effectiveness of power training (PT) as an alternative to traditional strength training (TST) during CT. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of 16 weeks (twice weekly) TST combined with high intensity interval training (TST + HIIT) vs. PT combined with HIIT (PT + HIIT) on functional performance, cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in older men. Thirty five older men (65.8 ± 3.9 years) were randomly allocated into two training groups: TST + HIIT (n = 18), and PT + HIIT (n = 17). TST + HIIT performed resistance training at intensities ranging from 65% to 80% 1RM at slow controlled speed (≅ 2 s for each concentric phase), whereas PT + HIIT trained at intensities ranging from 40% to 60% of 1RM at maximal intentional speed. Both groups performed HIIT at intensities ranging from 75 to 90% of VO2peak. Participants performed functional tests (sit-to-stand, timed-up-and-go, stair climbing); cardiopulmonary exercise testing (maximal cycling power output: Wmax, peak oxygen uptake: VO2peak, cycling economy), as well as body composition assessment (DXA) before, post 8 and post 16 weeks of training. The groups improved similarly (P < 0.05) with training in all functional capacity outcomes, Wmax, cycling economy, VO2peak and body composition (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that HIIT based CT programs involving TST vs. PT are equally effective in improving functionality, cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in healthy older men.
... 2.2 Volume. Weekly training volume (repetitions x sets) can be altered directly by manipulating the number of sets per session [10][11][12][13], the number of repetitions per set (e.g., by training to volitional fatigue or not) [14][15][16]*, or the number of training sessions per week [17][18][19]; however, weekly training volume is also indirectly altered by manipulating load [5,6,9,[20][21][22] or time under tension [23]. Regardless, increased volume (or volume-load [load x repetitions x sets]) does not, beyond a certain point, necessarily augment RET-induced changes in muscular strength [5, 7, 9-19, 21, 22, 24, 25]*/**. ...
... Some have proposed that there is a dose-response relationship between volume (repetitions x sets) and RET-induced muscular hypertrophy [45]. In contrast, recent data has revealed that increasing volume or volume-load by manipulating the number of sets per session [11,12], number of repetitions per set [14][15][16]*, number of sessions per week [17,19], or load lifted per repetition [3,5,9,[20][21][22]]** does not result in superior RET-induced muscular hypertrophy. However, supplementing a group of participants that were not performing RET to ...
... volitional fatigue with additional volume can match the RET-induced muscle hypertrophy of a group of participants that were performing RET to volitional fatigue [14]*. Thus, though second to performing RET to volitional fatigue, volume may have a small effect on RET-induced muscular hypertrophy in untrained populations. ...
Article
Resistance exercise training (RET)-induced increases in voluntary 1RM strength are greater with higher loads and training by replicating (or close) the strength test. In contrast, RET-induced muscular hypertrophy is primarily mediated by intensity of effort, which is achieved by performing RET to volitional fatigue and with an internal focus on contracting a muscle throughout the exercise range of motion. In addition, RET-induced muscular hypertrophy is augmented by increasing training volume, but with diminishing returns. Other training variables such as volume-load, inter-set rest, and time under tension have negligible effects on RET-induced changes in muscle size or strength. We conclude that an uncomplicated, evidence-based approach to optimizing RET-induced changes in muscle size and strength follows the FITT principle: frequency, intensity (effort), type, and time.
... Moreover, it seems that ST with maximal repetitions per set does not induce further muscle size gains in young subjects. [14][15][16] Nevertheless, most of the above-mentioned studies have investigated this issue in young adults, and to the best of the authors' knowledge, only two studies have focused on the effects of ST using repetitions to failure or non-failure in older men. 7,8 Recently, Da Silva et al 7 demonstrated that CT performed using repetitions not to failure (ie, submaximal repetitions) promoted similar gains in the maximal strength, muscle thickness, maximal neuromuscular activity, rate of torque development (RTD), and jumping performance in older men when compared to the repetitions to failure approach. ...
... However, these studies verified adaptations following 12 weeks of training, 7,8 while studies involving young populations investigated this issue across training periods ranging from 6 to 16 weeks. [10][11][12][13][14][15][16] Thus, it remains unclear if the same findings (ie, similar adaptations to maximal and submaximal repetitions) would be observed over longer training interventions (ie, 20 weeks). ...
... 31 After the intervention period, the improvements found in the lower limb maximal dynamic and isometric strength (PT iso ) were in agreement with gains observed in previous studies investigating CT in older men. 1,32,33 Regarding the use of repetitions to failure or not to failure, our findings are in accordance with those of other studies that carried out similar comparisons over shorter training periods (from 6 to 16 weeks) in young [12][13][14][15][16] and older individuals. 7 In a previous study performed in our laboratory, Da Silva et al 7 showed that 12 weeks of CT induced marked adaptations in the maximal dynamic strength and isometric peak torque of the lower limbs, regardless of whether repetitions to failure or greater ST volumes were used. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study compared the effects of 20 weeks of concurrent training with and without repetitions to failure on neuromuscular and functional adaptations in older men. Methods Thirty‐six older men (67.1 ± 5.1 years) were randomized into three groups: one performing repetitions to failure (RFG, n = 13), another performing repetitions not to failure and 50% of the repetitions of the RFG (NFG, n = 12), and a third performing repetitions not to failure with equal training volume of the RFG (ENFG, n = 11). Training was performed twice a week for 20 weeks at intensities ranging from 65 to 80% of maximal strength. In each session, the individuals started with strengthening exercises and then performed aerobic exercise on a treadmill. Before and after the intervention, individuals were assessed for their one repetition maximum (1RM) for leg press (LP) and knee extension (KE) exercises, knee extensors’ isometric peak torque (PTiso) and rate of torque development (RTD) at 50 ms, 100 ms and 250 ms, muscle thickness of the quadriceps, as well as functional performance on sit‐to‐stand, and timed up and go tests. Results After training, there were significant (P<0.001) increases in the LP and KE 1RM, PTiso, and RTD outcomes in all groups. Also, there were significant increases in muscle thickness of the quadriceps and in the sit‐to‐stand test (P <0.05) in all groups. No significant differences were observed between groups in any outcome. Conclusion Concurrent training using repetitions to concentric failure did not promote additional benefits for neuromuscular function, muscle thickness or functional capacity of older individuals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... In healthy elderly people, ST using repetitions to failure seems to result in marked neuromuscular gains (Izquierdo et al., 2004;Kraemer et al., 1999;Pinto et al., 2014;Cadore et al., 2012). However, several studies have shown that ST performed with repetitions until concentric failure does not induce additional muscle strength and power output gains when compared to repetitions not to failure (i.e., submaximal repetitions per set) in young populations (Folland et al., 2002;Izquierdo et al., 2006;Izquierdo-Gabarren et al., 2010;Sampson and Groeller, 2016;Martorelli et al., 2017), whereas a fewer number of studies observed greater strength gains following repetitions to failure (Rooney et al., 1994;Drinkwater et al., 2005). In addition, it seems that ST with repetitions to failure (i.e., maximal repetitions per set) does not induce further muscle size gains in young subjects (Sampson and Groeller, 2016;Martorelli et al., 2017;Nóbrega et al., 2018), although its effects are less investigated. ...
... However, several studies have shown that ST performed with repetitions until concentric failure does not induce additional muscle strength and power output gains when compared to repetitions not to failure (i.e., submaximal repetitions per set) in young populations (Folland et al., 2002;Izquierdo et al., 2006;Izquierdo-Gabarren et al., 2010;Sampson and Groeller, 2016;Martorelli et al., 2017), whereas a fewer number of studies observed greater strength gains following repetitions to failure (Rooney et al., 1994;Drinkwater et al., 2005). In addition, it seems that ST with repetitions to failure (i.e., maximal repetitions per set) does not induce further muscle size gains in young subjects (Sampson and Groeller, 2016;Martorelli et al., 2017;Nóbrega et al., 2018), although its effects are less investigated. Notwithstanding, to the best of the authors' knowledge, no previous study has compared the performance of ST with repetitions to failure or not to failure (i.e., submaximal per set) in elderly populations. ...
... However, our results showed that performing repetitions until concentric failure did not provide additional maximal strength increases, even in comparison to the group that performed 50% of the repetitions per set without equalizing volume. The absence of additional strength increases due to performing repetitions to concentric failure has been previously shown by several studies in young populations (Folland et al., 2002;Izquierdo et al., 2006;Izquierdo-Gabarren et al., 2010;Sampson and Groeller, 2016;Martorelli et al., 2017). Notwithstanding, our data is novel because, to the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to compare performing repetitions to failure and repetitions not to failure during concurrent training in elderly men. ...
Article
This randomized clinical trial compared the neuromuscular adaptations induced by concurrent training (CT) performed with repetitions to concentric failure and not to failure in elderly men. Fifty-two individuals (66.2 ± 5.2 years) completed the pre- and post-measurements and were divided into three groups: repetitions to failure (RFG, n = 17); repetitions not to failure (NFG, n = 20); and repetitions not to failure with total volume equalized to RFG (ENFG, n = 15). Participants were assessed in isometric knee extension peak torque (PTiso), maximal strength (1RM) in the leg press (LP) and knee extension (KE) exercises, quadriceps femoris muscle thickness (QF MT), specific tension, rate of torque development (RTD) at 50, 100 and 250 ms, countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) performance, as well as maximal neuromuscular activity (EMGmax) of the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles. CT was performed over 12 weeks, twice weekly. Along with each specific strength training program, each group also underwent an endurance training in the same session. After training, all groups improved similarly and significantly in LP and KE 1RM, PTiso, CMJ and SJ performance, RTD variables, specific tension, and VL EMGmax, (P < 0.05-0.001). QF MT improved only in RFG and ENFG (P < 0.01). These results suggest that repetitions until concentric failure does not provide further neuromuscular performance gains and muscle hypertrophy, and that even a low number of repetitions relative to the maximal possible (i.e., 50%) optimizes neuromuscular performance in elderly men. Moreover, training volume appears to be more important for muscle hypertrophy than training using maximal repetitions.
... Moreover, it seems that ST with maximal repetitions per set does not induce further muscle size gains in young subjects. [14][15][16] Nevertheless, most of the above-mentioned studies have investigated this issue in young adults, and to the best of the authors' knowledge, only two studies have focused on the effects of ST using repetitions to failure or non-failure in older men. 7,8 Recently, Da Silva et al 7 demonstrated that CT performed using repetitions not to failure (ie, submaximal repetitions) promoted similar gains in the maximal strength, muscle thickness, maximal neuromuscular activity, rate of torque development (RTD), and jumping performance in older men when compared to the repetitions to failure approach. ...
... However, these studies verified adaptations following 12 weeks of training, 7,8 while studies involving young populations investigated this issue across training periods ranging from 6 to 16 weeks. [10][11][12][13][14][15][16] Thus, it remains unclear if the same findings (ie, similar adaptations to maximal and submaximal repetitions) would be observed over longer training interventions (ie, 20 weeks). ...
... 31 After the intervention period, the improvements found in the lower limb maximal dynamic and isometric strength (PT iso ) were in agreement with gains observed in previous studies investigating CT in older men. 1,32,33 Regarding the use of repetitions to failure or not to failure, our findings are in accordance with those of other studies that carried out similar comparisons over shorter training periods (from 6 to 16 weeks) in young [12][13][14][15][16] and older individuals. 7 In a previous study performed in our laboratory, Da Silva et al 7 showed that 12 weeks of CT induced marked adaptations in the maximal dynamic strength and isometric peak torque of the lower limbs, regardless of whether repetitions to failure or greater ST volumes were used. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study compared the functional and physiological adaptations induced by concurrent training (CT) performed with repetitions to concentric failure and not to failure in elderly men. Fifty-two individuals (66.2 ± 5.2 years) completed the pre- and post-measurements and were divided into three groups: repetitions to failure (RFG, n = 17); repetitions not to failure (NFG, n = 20); and repetitions not to failure with total volume equalized to that in the RFG (ENFG, n = 15). The participants' sit-to-stand ability, timed-up-and-go (TUG), muscle power output in squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), blood lipids and glucose, as well as blood pressure levels were assessed. A subsample of our participants (n = 22) also underwent assessment of body composition by dual x-ray X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). CT was performed twice weekly for over 12 weeks. In addition to the specific strength training (ST) programme, each group also underwent endurance training (ET) in the same session (i.e., ST immediately followed by ET). After training, all groups improved similarly and significantly in their sit-to-stand ability (P < 0.01), muscle power output relative to body mass in SJ and CMJ (P < 0.001), VO2peak (P < 0.01) and HDL cholesterol levels (P < 0.001). There were reductions in the total, leg and trunk percent fat mass as well as increases in the total, leg and trunk percent lean mass (P values ranging from P < 0.05 to P < 0.01). Independent of performing repetitions until concentric failure and greater ST volumes, all CT groups exhibited improved sit-to-stand ability, muscle power output, VO2peak and HDL cholesterol levels. In addition, our preliminary data suggest that there are no differences in the effects of the assessed CT approaches on body composition outcomes. We therefore highlight the need for additional well-powered studies to assess whether repetitions to failure could underlie distinct effects on body composition.
... However, individual studies, including recent studies not included in the meta-analyses, have produced mixed results. When comparing failure with non-failure training for muscle hypertrophy, some studies have reported significantly greater or more favorable effect sizes with failure training [10,11] while others favor nonfailure training [12,13]. Still other studies reported no significant group differences [5,14] for muscle hypertrophy. ...
... Still other studies reported no significant group differences [5,14] for muscle hypertrophy. Similar to hypertrophy, studies on muscle strength have observed greater improvements with failure training [15,16] while others have observed effect sizes in favor of nonfailure training [17,18], and yet others show no significant difference between failure and non-failure [5,11,19,20]. Ambiguity is also apparent across studies comparing multiple non-failure groups training at different proximities to failure [21][22][23]. Additionally, training to failure has been associated with greater session rating of perceived exertion [5,19] and a longer time course of recovery than non-failure training [24,25], further suggesting that per-set proximity to failure is a crucial variable. ...
... For example, the most common total volume assessment method is to calculate sets × repetitions × weight lifted, while load can be quantified as a percentage of 1RM, and frequency as the number of days per week in which a muscle group or specific exercise is trained. However, failure itself is not always clearly defined [11,27] and proximity to failure is often not directly quantified in submaximal training groups [18,[27][28][29][30][31][32]. Further, the various prescription methods such as percentage of 1RM, velocity loss (VL), and self-reported RIR that are used to terminate submaximal sets only allow for estimates of proximity to failure. ...
Article
Full-text available
Resistance training variables such as volume, load, and frequency are well defined. However, the variable proximity to failure does not have a consistent quantification method, despite being defined as the number of repetitions in reserve (RIR) upon completion of a resistance training set. Further, there is between-study variability in the definition of failure itself. Studies have defined failure as momentary (inability to complete the concentric phase despite maximal effort), volitional (self-termination), or have provided no working definition. Methods to quantify proximity to failure include percentage-based prescription, repetition maximum zone training, velocity loss, and self-reported RIR; each with positives and negatives. Specifically, applying percentage-based prescriptions across a group may lead to a wide range of per-set RIR owing to interindividual differences in repetitions performed at specific percentages of 1 repetition maximum. Velocity loss is an objective method; however, the relationship between velocity loss and RIR varies set-to-set, across loading ranges, and between exercises. Self-reported RIR is inherently individualized; however, its subjectivity can lead to inaccuracy. Further, many studies, regardless of quantification method, do not report RIR. Consequently, it is difficult to make specific recommendations for per-set proximity to failure to maximize hypertrophy and strength. Therefore, this review aims to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the current proximity to failure quantification methods. Further, we propose future directions for researchers and practitioners to quantify proximity to failure, including implementation of absolute velocity stops using individual average concentric velocity/RIR relationships. Finally, we provide guidance for reporting self-reported RIR regardless of the quantification method.
... (1) Theme A: Studies comparing a group(s) performing RT to momentary muscular failure to a non-failure group(s) (Amdi et al., 2021;Fonseca et al., 2020;Gantois et al., 2021;Kassiano et al., 2021;Lacerda et al., 2020;Lasevicius et al., 2019;Mangine et al., 2022;S Martorelli et al., 2017;Nobrega et al., 2018;Santanielo et al., 2020;Santos et al., 2019). (2) Theme B: Studies comparing a group(s) performing RT to set failure (defined as anything other than the definition of momentary muscular failure) to a non-failure group(s) (Bergamasco et al., 2020;Costa et al., 2021;Garcia-Ramos et al., 2020;Gonzalez-Badillo et al., 2016;Gonzalez-Hernandez et al., 2021;Gorostiaga et al., 2012Gorostiaga et al., , 2014Karsten et al., 2021;Linnamo et al., 2005;AS Martorelli et al., 2021;Moran-Navarro et al., 2017;Pareja-Blanco, Rodriguez-Rosell, et al., 2020; Pareja-Blanco, Rodriguez-Rosell, Sanchez-Medina, Ribas-Serna, et al., 2017; Raastad et al., 2000;Sampson & Groeller, 2016;Sanchez-Medina & Gonzalez-Badillo, 2011;Shibata et al., 2019;Terada et al., 2021;Vasquez et al., 2013). ...
... The five studies (Lacerda et al., 2020;Lasevicius et al., 2019;S Martorelli et al., 2017;Nobrega et al., 2018;Santanielo et al., 2020) included in this scoping review that compared RT performed to momentary muscular failure versus non-failure (Theme A) found no statistically significant differences in muscle hypertrophy from pre-to post-intervention. This suggests reaching momentary muscular failure in RT is not mandatory to maximise muscle hypertrophy, particularly in untrained individuals, who were involved in four (Lacerda et al., 2020;Lasevicius et al., 2019;S Martorelli et al., 2017;Nobrega et al., 2018) of the five studies. ...
... The five studies (Lacerda et al., 2020;Lasevicius et al., 2019;S Martorelli et al., 2017;Nobrega et al., 2018;Santanielo et al., 2020) included in this scoping review that compared RT performed to momentary muscular failure versus non-failure (Theme A) found no statistically significant differences in muscle hypertrophy from pre-to post-intervention. This suggests reaching momentary muscular failure in RT is not mandatory to maximise muscle hypertrophy, particularly in untrained individuals, who were involved in four (Lacerda et al., 2020;Lasevicius et al., 2019;S Martorelli et al., 2017;Nobrega et al., 2018) of the five studies. Findings from Lasevicius et al. (Lasevicius et al., 2019) highlight the loads used in RT may influence the importance of proximity-to-failure on muscle hypertrophy in untrained men, with an advantage of momentary muscular failure versus non-failure found on muscle hypertrophy when RT was performed with a low-load (30% 1-RM) versus a high-load (80% 1-RM). ...
Article
While proximity-to-failure is considered an important resistance training (RT) prescription variable, its influence on physiological adaptations and short-term responses to RT is uncertain. Given the ambiguity in the literature, a scoping review was undertaken to summarise evidence for the influence of proximity-to-failure on muscle hypertrophy, neuromuscular fatigue, muscle damage and perceived discomfort. Literature searching was performed according to PRISMA-ScR guidelines and identified three themes of studies comparing either: i) RT performed to momentary muscular failure versus non-failure, ii) RT performed to set failure (defined as anything other than momentary muscular failure) versus non-failure, and iii) RT performed to different velocity loss thresholds. The findings highlight that no consensus definition for "failure" exists in the literature, and the proximity-to-failure achieved in "non-failure" conditions is often ambiguous and variable across studies. This poses challenges when deriving practical recommendations for manipulating proximity-to-failure in RT to achieve desired outcomes. Based on the limited available evidence, RT to set failure is likely not superior to non-failure RT for inducing muscle hypertrophy, but may exacerbate neuromuscular fatigue, muscle damage, and post-set perceived discomfort versus non-failure RT. Together, these factors may impair post-exercise recovery and subsequent performance, and may also negatively influence long-term adherence to RT. KEY POINTS (1) This scoping review identified three broad themes of studies investigating proximity-to-failure in RT, based on the specific definition of set failure used (and therefore the research question being examined), to improve the validity of study comparisons and interpretations. (2) There is no consensus definition for set failure in RT, and the proximity-to-failure achieved during non-failure RT is often unclear and varies both within and between studies, which together poses challenges when interpreting study findings and deriving practical recommendations regarding the influence of RT proximity-to-failure on muscle hypertrophy and other short-term responses. (3) Based on the limited available evidence, performing RT to set failure is likely not superior to non-failure RT to maximise muscle hypertrophy, but the optimal proximity to failure in RT for muscle hypertrophy is unclear and may be moderated by other RT variables (e.g., load, volume-load). Also, RT performed to set failure likely induces greater neuromuscular fatigue, muscle damage, and perceived discomfort than non-failure RT, which may negatively influence RT performance, post-RT recovery, and long-term adherence.
... Volumen de entrenamiento y fallo muscular Por tanto, los objetivos y riesgos que pueda demandar del entrenamiento de contra resistencia hasta el fallo, deben considerarse antes de su prescripción (Martorelli et al., 2017). (Martorelli et al., 2017). ...
... Volumen de entrenamiento y fallo muscular Por tanto, los objetivos y riesgos que pueda demandar del entrenamiento de contra resistencia hasta el fallo, deben considerarse antes de su prescripción (Martorelli et al., 2017). (Martorelli et al., 2017). ...
... En cuanto a las mujeres, al igual que lo dicho anteriormente, el entrenamiento de contra resistencia realizado con repeticiones hasta el fallo no induce ganancias adicionales en la fuerza máxima, la resistencia o la hipertrofia muscular (Martorelli et al., 2017). Además, este mismo autor sugiere que realizar repeticiones hasta el fallo concéntricas, sí que puede ayudar a estimular la capacidad de tolerar la fatiga muscular (Martorelli et al., 2017) ...
Article
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Objective: To determine what are the effects of muscle failure on the development of hypertrophy in counter resistance training. Method: It is a systematic review type of study, that is, with a qualitative approach and a non-experimental design. A systematic search was carried out in 5 databases (Pubmed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Sportdiscus). After analyzing 405 studies, it was necessary to consider their usefulness and relevance in respect of the review, as well as the credibility or experience of the author on the subject. Results: After the corresponding screening and methodological evaluation, 9 studies met the inclusion criteria, as obtained from this review, the use of Muscle Failure (FM) did not show additional benefits in increasing muscle mass. In addition, it was shown that there are no significant differences when comparing high and low loads using this variable. Conclusion: It was determined that the volume variable is more important in hypertrophic developments regardless of whether or not an exercise is executed towards muscle failure, it is also more beneficial for hypertrophy when repetitions do not lead to muscle failure but are close to it.
... 3,4 Given the hypothesis that training to muscle failure is important for catalyzing resistance training-induced adaptations, several studies examined the effects that this type of training has on muscular strength and hypertrophy, as compared to the effects of training that does not include reaching muscle failure. [5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21] However, detailed scrutiny of these studies highlights inconsistent findings. For example, some report that training to muscle failure results in greater increases in muscular strength and/or hypertrophy. ...
... Since publication of the meta-analysis by Davies et al. 22,23 , 8 additional studies have been published that examine the topic. 8,11,[13][14][15][16][17]21 Thus, an updated meta-analysis would theoretically have a ~2-fold increase in the number of included studies. Furthermore, while the effects of training to or not to muscle failure on muscular strength have been explored via meta-analysis, the same is not true for hypertrophy. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of training to muscle failure or non-failure on muscular strength and hypertrophy. Methods Meta-analyses of effect sizes (ESs) explored the effects of training to failure vs. non-failure on strength and hypertrophy. Subgroup meta-analyses explored potential moderating effects of variables such as training status (trained vs. untrained), training volume (volume equated vs. non-equated), body region (upper vs. lower), exercise selection (multi- vs. single-joint exercises (only for strength)), and study design (independent vs. dependent groups). Results Fifteen studies were included in the review. All studies included young adults as participants. Meta-analysis indicated no significant difference between the training conditions for muscular strength (ES = –0.09; 95% confidence interval (CI): –0.22 to 0.05) and for hypertrophy (ES = 0.22; 95%CI: –0.11 to 0.55). Subgroup analyses that stratified the studies according to body region, exercise selection, or study design showed no significant differences between training conditions. In studies that did not equate training volume between the groups, the analysis showed significant favouring of non-failure training on strength gains (ES = –0.32; 95%CI: –0.57 to –0.07). In the subgroup analysis for resistance-trained individuals, the analysis showed a significant effect of training to failure for muscle hypertrophy (ES = 0.15; 95%CI: 0.03 to 0.26). Conclusion Training to muscle failure does not seem to be required for gains in strength and muscle size. However, training in this manner does not seem to have detrimental effects on these adaptations, either. More studies should be conducted among older adults and highly trained individuals to improve the generalizability of these findings.
... Throughout the course of the intervention, all exercises were performed with "repetitions until failure" (RTF), meaning that the participants lifted 70% of 1RM until exhaustion. Previous resistance training interventions commonly used loads of 60-80% of 1RM [39][40][41][42] given that such loads have been shown to increase muscular strength [38,43]. Previous work has demonstrated that resistance training intervention implementing repetitions until failure protocols are effective for improving muscular strength and strength endurance [44][45][46]. ...
... Circuit training sessions took place Tuesday morning and Thursday evening for 7-weeks. Previous work has shown that resistance-training interventions of similar duration are effective in increasing muscular strength [9,41,47]. Upon completion of the 7-week intervention training programme, all participants completed reassessments 1RM. ...
Article
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The present study uniquely examined the effect of 3 mg·kg−1 chronic caffeine consumption on training adaptations induced by 7-weeks resistance training and assessed the potential for habituation to caffeine’s ergogenicity. Thirty non-specifically resistance-trained university standard male rugby union players (age (years): 20 ± 2; height (cm): 181 ± 7; body mass (kg): 92 ± 17) completed the study), who were moderate habitual caffeine consumers (118 ± 110 mg), completed the study. Using a within-subject double-blind, placebo-controlled experimental design, the acute effects of caffeine intake on upper and lower limb maximal voluntary concentric and eccentric torque were measured using isokinetic dynamometry (IKD) prior to and immediately following a resistance training intervention. Participants were split into strength-matched groups and completed a resistance-training program for seven weeks, consuming either caffeine or a placebo before each session. Irrespective of group, acute caffeine consumption improved peak eccentric torque of the elbow extensors (p < 0.013), peak concentric torque of the elbow flexors (p < 0.005), total eccentric work of the elbow flexors (p < 0.003), total concentric work of the knee extensors (p < 0.001), and total concentric and eccentric work of the knee flexors (p < 0.046) following repeated maximal voluntary contractions. Many of these acute caffeine effects were still prevalent following chronic exposure to caffeine throughout the intervention. The training intervention resulted in significant improvements in upper and lower body one-repetition maximum strength (p < 0.001). For the most part, the effect of the training intervention was equivalent in both the caffeine and placebo groups, despite a small but significant increase (p < 0.037) in the total work performed in the participants that consumed caffeine across the course of the intervention. These results infer that caffeine may be beneficial to evoke acute improvements in muscular strength, with acute effects prevalent following chronic exposure to the experimental dose. However, individuals that consumed caffeine during the intervention did not elicit superior post-intervention training- induced adaptations in muscular strength.
... Independentemente da combinação dessas variáveis, quando o volume total de treinamento está equalizado, diferentes protocolos parecem proporcionar o mesmo ganho de massa muscular 3 , principalmente quando são realizadas repetições até a exaustão 4,5 . Por outro lado, para o desenvolvimento da força, o treinamento deve priorizar a carga levantada 3,4 . ...
Article
O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar intervalos de recuperação fixos e auto-sugerido durante o exercício supino com barra em homens treinados. Participaram 12 homens treinados e saudáveis (27,5 ± 4,5 anos; 77,8 ± 7,2 kg; 180,1 ± 11,3 cm). O experimento teve a duração de cinco dias não consecutivos. Os dois primeiros dias foram utilizados para a obtenção de uma repetição máxima (1RM) no exercício supino. Nos demais dias, seguindo um delineamento aleatorizado e cruzado, os sujeitos realizaram quatro séries até a exaustão com 70% de 1RM, adotando-se como intervalos de recuperação o tempo de 1 a 2 min (INT1), 2 a 3 min (INT2) e auto-sugerido (AS). Em AS, o sujeito descansava o período que achasse necessário, sem acesso ao tempo de descanso. A análise dos resultados mostrou que o INT1 apresentou menor número de repetições (28,9 ± 4,7) somente em relação ao intervalo AS (34,0 ± 7,2; P=0,02). Por outro lado, a densidade do treinamento do INT1 foi maior (5,6 ± 1,8) que INT2 (4,5 ± 1,3; P=0,002) e AS (3,8 ± 1,4; P=0,004). Concluindo, intervalos com maior duração se mostram mais eficazes na manutenção do número de repetições, enquanto que intervalos com menor duração podem apresentar uma densidade de treinamento superior.
... Recently, there is evidence against the theory that shorter rest intervals promote better muscle hypertrophy (De Souza Jr, 2010;Schoenfeld, Contreras, Vigotsky & Peterson, 2016). There are also studies that do not support the theory of training until the concentric failure for the same goal (Martorelli et al., 2017, Nóbrega & Libardi, 2017. So our study showed that for recreationally trained men to maintain higher volume of work with a pre-establish load, longer rest intervals may be required (at least 90s for 8RM, for lower body exercises). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Proceedings of the 7th and 8th International Symposium on Strength & Conditioning (2018). Motricidade, 15(2-3), 1-48.
... Significant increases in SBP, DBP, and HR after training were observed in both RT protocols, with the high-volume protocol presenting a greater increase in comparison to the low-volume protocol. These differences can be attributed to the fact that more repetitions were performed in the high-volume session, thus requiring a higher level of effort, which in turn is related to greater mechanical stress and neuromuscular fatigue (Martorelli et al., 2017). Studies that aimed to compare exclusively the acute effects of low and high-volume RT on blood pressure in the elderly have shown different acute responses. ...
... Performing resistance training sets to neuromuscular failure is unlikely to provide additional benefit in non-athlete populations. [27] Aerobic exercise intensity is prescribed using the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) method, where aerobic ergometer resistance or speed will be adjusted to elicit the target RPE throughout the trial. A confirmatory, supervised aerobic assessment -the constant load test [24] will be conducted at the start of each cycle to monitor aerobic fitness progression across the exercise program including the self-management period. ...
... Martorelli et al., 2017;Nóbrega, Ugrinowitsch, Pintanel, Barcelos, & Libardi, 2018;Sampson & Groeller, 2016). Moreover,Izquierdo, Ibañez et al. (2006) reported different trends in resting serum hormone concentration when applying chronic training to failure vs. training at submaximal exertion. ...
Thesis
Velocity-based resistance training (VBT) has been widely considered a hypernym for various methods to regulate resistance training on the basis of feedback on maximum intended movement velocity. While the specific case of competitive powerlifting does not necessarily require the practice of high-velocity movements, it relies on frequent training of the competition exercises (squat, bench press, deadlift). Therefore, reasonable benefit could be expected when applying certain methodological concepts of VBT to regulate training load, volume and neurophysiological exertion, given that the respective concepts provide sufficient validity and reliability. Twenty-four trained powerlifters were assessed for their one-repetition maximum (1-RM) and individual load-velocity profiles in the squat, bench press and deadlift. A total of eighteen different methods were analyzed to estimate the 1-RM from velocity at loads which could be considered representative of a typical range used for specific warm-up and training in powerlifting. All of the investigated methods either failed to provide sufficient accuracy due to substantial over- and underestimation, or resulted in statistically unclear trends due to high inter-individual variability. Therefore, load-velocity based estimation of the 1-RM was considered not to be a valuable reference for adjusting daily training loads.
... Martorelli et al. (16) randomly assigned 89 active women to one of three groups: (1) a group that performed three sets of repetitions to failure at 70% 1RM; (2) a group that performed four sets of seven repetitions not to failure, but with volume equalized to the failure condition, and; (3) a group that performed three sets of seven repetitions not to failure. Training consisted of free-weight biceps curls performed two days per week for ten weeks. ...
Article
Full-text available
It has been proposed that training to failure is a necessary strategy to maximize muscle growth. This paper examines the research behind these claims, and attempts to draw evidence-based conclusions as to the practical implications for hypertrophy training.
... In such cases, an increase in training volume might bring additional benefit. Therefore, whilst there are controversies regarding the need to train to momentary failure to optimize adaptations [24][25][26][27][28] , the correct definition of set endpoints might be necessary in order to compare different RT studies 21 , since this seems to influence the results during lower volume resistance training protocols (<4 sets per muscle group per week) 15,29,30 . Therefore, one important aspect of the present study is that the participants were closely supervised in order to reach the defined set endpoint. ...
... In such cases, an increase in training volume might bring additional benefit. Therefore, whilst there are controversies regarding the need to train to momentary failure to optimize adaptations [24][25][26][27][28] , the correct definition of set endpoints might be necessary in order to compare different RT studies 21 , since this seems to influence the results during lower volume resistance training protocols (<4 sets per muscle group per week) 15,29,30 . Therefore, one important aspect of the present study is that the participants were closely supervised in order to reach the defined set endpoint. ...
Article
Purpose: To compare the effects of different resistance training volumes on muscle performance and hypertrophy in trained men. Methods: 37 volunteers performed resistance training for 24 weeks, divided into groups that performed five (G5), 10 (G10), 15 (G15) and 20 (G20) sets per muscle group per week. Ten repetition maximum (10RM) tests were performed for the bench press, lat pull down, 45º leg press, and stiff legged deadlift. Muscle thickness (MT) was measured using ultrasound at biceps brachii, triceps brachii, pectoralis major, quadriceps femoris and gluteus maximus. All measurements were performed at the beginning (pre) and after 12 (mid) and 24 weeks (post). Results: All groups showed significant increases in all 10RM tests and MT measures after 12 and 24 weeks when compared to pre (p <0.05). There were no significant differences in any 10RM test or changes between G5 and G10 after 12 and 24 weeks. G5 and G10 showed significantly greater increases for 10RM than G15 and G20 for most exercises at 12 and 24 weeks. There were no group by time interaction for any MT measure. Conclusions: The results bring evidence of an inverted "U shaped" curve for the dose response curve for muscle strength. Whilst the same trend was noted for muscle hypertrophy, the results did not reach significance. Five to 10 sets per week might be sufficient for bringing about optimal gains in muscle size and strength in trained men over a 24-week period.
... The importance of muscular failure is still a controversial topic also in regard to its role in maximizing muscle performance [43,44]. With the short-term interval between sets, HIIRT induces a total depletion of intramuscular creatine phosphate and complete exhaustion after each set. ...
Article
Full-text available
Consistent practice of physical activity has well known positive effects on general health; however, time for exercise remains one major barrier for many. An acute bout of high intensity interval resistance training (HIIRT) increases acute resting energy expenditure (REE) and decreases respiratory ratio (RR), suggesting its potential role on weight loss and increased fatty acid oxidation. The aim of this study was to test the long-term effect of HIIRT on body composition, lipid profile and muscle strength using a randomized parallel trial. Twenty healthy young adults (22.15 1.95 years) were randomized to perform either a HIIRT (N = 11) protocol, consisting of three sets of 6 repetitions at 6 repetition maximum (RM) and then 20 seconds of rest between repetitions until exhaustion repeated for 3 times with 2’30″ rest between sets or a traditional training (TRT, N = 9) protocol of 3 sets of 15 reps with 75 sec of rest between sets. Body composition, resting energy metabolism, aerobic capacity, muscle strength and blood measurements were taken before and after 8 weeks of training. Both protocols enhanced muscle strength, but only HIIRT improved endurance strength performance (+22.07%, p < 0.05) and lean body mass (+2.82%, p < 0.05). REE and RR were unaltered as lipid profile. HIIRT represents a valid training method to improve muscle strength and mass, but its role on body weight control was not confirmed.
... Significant increases in SBP, DBP, and HR after training were observed in both RT protocols, with the high-volume protocol presenting a greater increase in comparison to the low-volume protocol. These differences can be attributed to the fact that more repetitions were performed in the high-volume session, thus requiring a higher level of effort, which in turn is related to greater mechanical stress and neuromuscular fatigue (Martorelli et al., 2017). Studies that aimed to compare exclusively the acute effects of low and high-volume RT on blood pressure in the elderly have shown different acute responses. ...
... For example, Sampson and Groeller (87) reported that performing an additional volume induced by performing sets to concentric failure did not enhance maximal strength (1RM) (30.6% vs 28.6% for failure vs non-failure protocols, respectively) and CSA (11.6% vs 10.9% for failure and nonfailure protocols, respectively) increases in the elbow flexor muscles of untrained men after 12 weeks. Similarly, Martorelli et al. (64) reported that, within matched VL-condition, avoiding sets to failure promoted similar gains in muscle thickness of the elbow flexor muscles of untrained young women. Interestingly, maximal strength increments were similar even when training sets were performed with a reduced volume (far from failure), highlighting that the concept that increasing training volume does not offer additional gains in muscle strength-related outcomes. ...
Article
Full-text available
International Journal of Exercise Science 15(4): 910-933, 2022. The regular practice of resistance training (RT) has been shown to induce relevant increases in both muscle strength and size. In order to maximize these adaptations, the proper manipulation of RT variables is warranted. In this sense, the aim of the present study was to review the available literature that has examined the application of the acute training variables and their influence on strength and morphological adaptations of healthy young adults. The information presented in this study may represent a relevant approach to proper training design. Therefore, strength and conditioning coaches may acquire a fundamental understanding of RT-variables and the relevance of their practical application within exercise prescription.
... For example, in untrained individuals sensitive to spinal axial loading, who cannot tolerate large external loads, bilateral exercises, such as the back squat can be confidently substituted with unilateral exercises due to similar effectiveness in lower body strength development, despite relative lower external loading [206]. When the goal is to elicit alterations in skeletal muscle hypertrophy in untrained individuals, current literature [24,[207][208][209] suggests training with a high level of effort, irrespective of load. Whereas momentary failure is important during low load training to capitalise on muscular adaptations, this does not provide any additional benefits when training at high resistance training loads. ...
Article
Full-text available
Global health organizations have provided recommendations regarding exercise for the general population. Strength training has been included in several position statements due to its multi-systemic benefits. In this narrative review, we examine the available literature, first explaining how specific mechanical loading is converted into positive cellular responses. Secondly, benefits related to specific musculoskeletal tissues are discussed, with practical applications and training programmes clearly outlined for both common musculoskeletal disorders and primary prevention strategies.
... Thus, even in a volume-load-equated format, results should be analyzed with caution because "failing" is another variable that may be different between protocols (and not load only), influencing the responses [49]. In these cases, as well as when comparing groups that perform sets to failure or not, or different distances to failure (e.g., cluster-sets [28], repetitions in reserve [50]), since sets, repetitions, and load are affected, volume-load has to be used as a proxy to match training volumes [51,52]. In addition, it has been shown that the implementation of other training types (i.e., aerobic or stretching) to resistance-training programs, and the use of blood-flow restriction cuffs, may influence training volume [53,54]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Calculating resistance-training volume in programs focused on muscle hypertrophy is an attempt to quantify the external workload carried out, then to estimate the dose of stimulus imposed on targeted muscles. The volume is usually expressed in some variables that directly affected the total training work, such as the number of sets, repetitions, and volume-load. These variables are used to try to quantify the training work easily, for the subsequent organization and prescription of training programs. One of the main uses of measures of volume quantification is seen in studies in which the purpose is to compare the effects of different training protocols on muscle growth in a volume-equated format. However, it seems that not all measures of volume are always appropriate for equating training protocols. In the current paper, it is discussed what training volume is and the potentials and shortcomings of each one of the most common ways to equate it between groups depending on the independent variable to be compared (e.g., weekly frequency, intensity of load, and advanced techniques).
... For example, Sampson and Groeller (87) reported that performing an additional volume induced by performing sets to concentric failure did not enhance maximal strength (1RM) (30.6% vs 28.6% for failure vs non-failure protocols, respectively) and CSA (11.6% vs 10.9% for failure and nonfailure protocols, respectively) increases in the elbow flexor muscles of untrained men after 12 weeks. Similarly, Martorelli et al. (64) reported that, within matched VL-condition, avoiding sets to failure promoted similar gains in muscle thickness of the elbow flexor muscles of untrained young women. Interestingly, maximal strength increments were similar even when training sets were performed with a reduced volume (far from failure), highlighting that the concept that increasing training volume does not offer additional gains in muscle strength-related outcomes. ...
Article
Full-text available
International Journal of Exercise Science 15(4): X-Y, 2022. The regular practice of resistance training (RT) has been shown to induce relevant increases in both muscle strength and size. In order to maximize these adaptations, the proper manipulation of RT variables is warranted. In this sense, the aim of the present study was to review the available literature that has examined the application of the acute training variables and their influence on strength and morphological adaptations of healthy young adults. The information presented in this study may represent a relevant approach to proper training design. Therefore, strength and conditioning coaches may acquire a fundamental understanding of RT-variables and the relevance of their practical application within exercise prescription.
... In summary, the results from the cited studies show that lower loads can be equally effective as higher loads if RE is performed to muscular failure. However, the topic is still ambiguous as some studies showed benefits for accomplishing muscular failure during dynamic RE (Rooney et al., 1994;Drinkwater et al., 2005; while others reported no benefit (Sampson and Groeller, 2016;Martorelli et al., 2017;Nóbrega et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Skeletal muscle is one of the most important tissues of the human body. It comprises up to 40% of the body mass and is crucial to survival. Hence, the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass and strength is pivotal. It is well-established that resistance exercise provides a potent anabolic stimulus to increase muscle mass and strength in men and women of all ages. Resistance exercise consists of mechano-biological descriptors, such as load, muscle action, number of repetitions, repetition duration, number of sets, rest interval between sets, frequency, volitional muscular failure, and range of motion, which can be manipulated. Herein, we discuss the evidence-based contribution of these mechano-biological descriptors to muscle mass and strength.
... Although, an adequate training stimulus may only require sets terminated at close proximity to failure (~1-2 repetitions from failure) since no differences in muscle endurance following failure versus non-failure sets has been demonstrated in some studies. 36,37 The present study assessed relative muscular endurance (i.e. pre-and post-intervention 1RM used to determine load) to remove the potential confounding variable of muscular strength when using absolute muscular endurance tests (i.e. ...
Article
Background: A paucity of research exists examining whether resistance training with a greater number of sets per exercise enhances the development of muscular endurance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ten sets versus five sets of resistance training on muscle endurance. Methods: Fifteen healthy males (age 23.7 ± 4.6 y) with at least 1 year resistance training experience were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of 10 sets (10-SET) or 5 sets (5-SET) of 10 repetitions at 60-80% one-repetition maximum (1RM) for specific compound resistance exercises with rest intervals between sets of 60-90 s and 60 s between exercises, performed 3 times per week. Relative muscle endurance test was assessed via maximal repetitions using 70% 1RM for the bench press, lat pulldown and leg press. Results: There was a significant increase in the number of repetitions to failure in the muscle endurance test for the leg press in 10-SET (40.9%, p = 0.04) and 5-SET (27.9%; p = 0.03), although no statistical differences between groups in the post-intervention results. Both groups increased volume-load in the muscle endurance test for the bench press (≥14.3%, p<0.05) and leg press (≥36.7%, p<0.05), but there were no statistical differences between groups in the post-intervention results. Conclusions: Findings suggest that performing 10 sets compared to 5 sets of resistance training does not enhance the development of relative muscle endurance. The volume-load accrued within an individual set rather than across sets may be of greater importance when targeting muscular endurance.
... Volume-load is one of the most effective variables of resistance training (RT) to promote strength and hypertrophy gains (Izquierdo et al., 2006;Martorelli et al., 2017). RT has a dose-response effect on power, strength, muscle hypertrophy, and health outcomes (Figueiredo et al., 2018;Schoenfeld et al., 2017). ...
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We investigated the acute effects of mental fatigue induced by 30-minute use of smartphone social network apps on volume load in resistance training among recreationally trained adults. Sixteen (n = 16) adults of both sexes performed three sets of a half back-squat exercise to failure with 80% of 15RM, interspersed with 3-minutes of passive recovery between sets, before and after two different cognitive tasks: (a) use of smartphone social network apps; and (b) watching a documentary. We assessed mechanical variables and ratings of perceived exertion during the strength exercise. Relative to the documentary-viewing control condition, a 30-minute exposure to smartphone social network apps led participants toward increased perception of mental fatigue ( p = 0.004) and lower volume-load during the strength exercise ( p = 0.006). There were no significant differences in perceived exertion between conditions ( p = 0.54), participants’ motivation ( p = 0.277), intra-set mechanical variables ( p > 0.05), or blood lactate concentrations ( p = 0.36). Our findings of an isolated possible higher-than normal RPE without changes in physiological variables, accompanying the lower volume-load in the mentally-fatigued participants support psychological, rather than physiological, bases for mental fatigue effects.
... However, it is not clear if any acute neuromuscular performance impairment (e.g., repetition movement velocity or number of repetitions per set) may occur when paired alternating-limb sets (e.g., full squat and bench press) are performed using repetitions per set without reaching muscle failure. This issue is especially relevant considering that repetitions to failure have been questioned to be necessary to promote additional neuromuscular improvements and may even impair strength development at high velocities [15,16]. In this regard, velocity-based RT (VBRT) has been recognized as a highly effective and reliable methodology for training prescription and load monitoring during RT programs [17]. ...
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This study aimed to compare the effect on bar execution velocity and number of repetitions between two velocity-based resistance training protocols only differing in the set configuration of the full-squat (SQ) and bench-press (BP) exercises. Moderately strength-trained men were assigned to a traditional (TS, n = 9)- or an alternating-set (AS, n = 10) configuration group to perform four testing sessions against different relative loads (55–60–65–70% 1RM). Relative load, magnitude of intra-set velocity loss (%VL), number of sets, inter-set recovery time, and exercise order were matched for both groups in each session. Mean propulsive velocity of the first repetition (MPVfirst), average number of repetitions per set (NRS), total number of repetitions (TNR), and total training time per session (TT) were measured. No significant differences between training conditions were observed for any relative load in MPVfirst, NRS, and TNR in both exercises. The TS group completed a significantly higher number of repetitions (p < 0.05) at faster velocities (MPV > 0.9–1.1 m·s−1) in the SQ. In conclusion, training sessions performing AS between SQ and BP exercises with moderate relative loads and %VL result in similar bar execution velocity and volume, but in a more time-efficient manner, than the traditional approach
... Ob die regelmäßige Ausbelastung auf lange Sicht physisch und psychisch toleriert werden kann, ist jedoch bislang fraglich. Bei höheren Intensitäten wird die Notwendigkeit der Ausbelastung immer wieder in Frage gestellt, da hier vermutlich die mechanische Spannung als Mechanismus an Bedeutung gewinnt [21], [22]. Es wird daher empfohlen, das Krafttraining bis zum Muskelversagen periodisiert oder wenige Male pro Woche einzusetzen [23]. ...
Article
The breakdown of skeletal muscles increases with age and is further accelerated in today’s society due to lower physical activity. The skeletal muscles are primarily responsible for the transmission of force and thus for our everyday movement. With the reduction of muscle mass, the execution of everyday movement is continuously hampered and the quality of life can be significantly reduced. However, strength or hypertrophy training can counteract muscle atrophy by slowing down degradation processes and rebuilding skeletal muscles. Nonetheless, training recommendations for hypertrophy training vary considerably. The primary aim of this article, therefore, is to summarize the current state of research and make practical recommendations. The most decisive aspect of hypertrophy training seems to be the setting of regular progressive and exhausting stress stimuli that activate at least one mechanism of action that is responsible for hypertrophic effects. In particular, the variation of the mechano-biological descriptors (training resistance, number of repetitions and sets, rests, etc.) could help to create long-term effective stimuli. There is almost no limit to the number of possible combinations, but these have to be adapted to the level of performance and the resilience of the training person as well as the feasibility in everyday life. As in the motto “many roads lead to Rome,” hypertrophy training does not just entail one specific solution for planning and implementation. It is more essential to perform iterative stress stimuli in different variations in order to generate a hypertrophy effect and consequently counteract the breakdown of the skeletal muscles.
... Whether or not RT sets are taken to (or close to) muscular failure may therefore influence study outcomes. However, there is evidence that training to muscular failure is not obligatory, and may even be detrimental, for muscle hypertrophy and strength outcomes (Izquierdo et al., 2006;Martorelli et al., 2017). Notably, previous meta-analyses on this topic (Lopez et al., 2020;Schoenfeld, Grgic et al., 2017;Schoenfeld et al., 2016) excluded studies whereby both higher-load and lowerload RT was not performed to muscular failure, presumably to control for differences in intensity-of-effort across studies that may influence outcomes (e.g., muscle hypertrophy in particular). ...
Article
This systematic review and meta-analysis determined resistance training (RT) load effects on various muscle hypertrophy, strength, and neuromuscular performance task [e.g., countermovement jump (CMJ)] outcomes. Relevent studies comparing higher-load [>60% 1-repetition maximum (RM) or <15-RM] and lower-load (≤60% 1-RM or ≥ 15-RM) RT were identified, with 45 studies (from 4713 total) included in the meta-analysis. Higher- and lower-load RT induced similar muscle hypertrophy at the whole-body (lean/fat-free mass; [ES (95% CI) = 0.05 (−0.20 to 0.29), P = 0.70]), whole-muscle [ES = 0.06 (−0.11 to 0.24), P = 0.47], and muscle fibre [ES = 0.29 (−0.09 to 0.66), P = 0.13] levels. Higher-load RT further improved 1-RM [ES = 0.34 (0.15 to 0.52), P = 0.0003] and isometric [ES = 0.41 (0.07 to 0.76), P = 0.02] strength. The superiority of higher-load RT on 1-RM strength was greater in younger [ES = 0.34 (0.12 to 0.55), P = 0.002] versus older [ES = 0.20 (−0.00 to 0.41), P = 0.05] participants. Higher- and lower-load RT therefore induce similar muscle hypertrophy (at multiple physiological levels), while higher-load RT elicits superior 1-RM and isometric strength. The influence of RT loads on neuromuscular task performance is however unclear.
... These types of sets can have several different structures including basic cluster sets, inter-set rest redistribution, equal work-to-rest ratio, and the rest-pause method (full descriptions provided in Table 1). As well as facilitating superior maintenance of repetition velocity and power output compared to traditional sets [37,98], cluster training has been shown to allow a higher number of repetitions to be performed if desired, resulting in a greater volume load than traditional set structures [43], which may contribute to superior hypertrophic and strength development [2,28,58]. A likely reason for these effects is that cluster training causes less metabolic fatigue than equivalent conventional sets [67], which would result in less feedback from type III and IV muscle afferents, and therefore, a smaller reduction in efferent neural drive from the CNS [4,96]. ...
Article
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Background Resistance training has been used to enhance a range of athletic abilities through correct manipulation of several variables such as training load, training volume, set configuration, and rest period. Objective The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare the acute and chronic responses of lower body cluster, contrast, complex, and traditional training across a range of athletic performance outcomes (1-repetition maximum squat strength, jump height, peak power, peak force, peak velocity, and sprint time). Methods A database search was completed (SPORTDiscus, Medline and CINAHL) followed by a quality scoring system, which concluded with 41 studies being used in the meta-analysis. Effect sizes were calculated for acute and training intervention changes compared to baseline. For acute cluster training, effect sizes were used to represent differences between equated traditional and cluster sets. Results Acutely, contrast and cluster training can be implemented to enhance and maintain velocity. Complex training does not acutely show a performance-enhancing effect on jump performance. Conclusion When looking to develop exercise-specific force, the exercise should be completed closer to set failure with fewer repetitions still able to be completed, which can be achieved using complex or high-volume contrast training to pre-fatigue the lighter exercise. When the objective is to improve velocity for the target exercise, it can be combined with a heavier contrast pair to create a postactivation performance enhancing effect. Alternatively, cluster set designs can be used to maintain high velocities and reduce drop-off. Finally, traditional training is most effective for increasing squat 1-repetition maximum.
... Several studies have investigated the effect of different training loads on the improvement of strength and power in active young people and elite athletes [2,4,5]. In this regard, the effect on hormonal responses, strength, and power muscular gain of training with exercises leading to failure compared to training that does not lead to failure is unclear [5,6]. ...
Article
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Resistance training (RT) variables can affect sleep quality, strength recovery and performance. The aim of this study was to examine the acute effect of RT leading to failure vs. non-failure on sleep quality (SQ), heart rate variability (HRV) overnight and one-repetition maximum (1-RM) performance 24 hours after training. Fifteen resistance-trained male athletes (age: 23.4 ± 2.4 years; height 178.0 ± 7.6 cm; weight: 78.2 ± 10.6 kg) performed two training sessions in a randomized order, leading to failure (4x10) or non-failure (5x8(10) repetitions), with 90 seconds for resting between sets at 75% 1-RM in bench press (BP) and half squat (HS). The day after, the participants completed the predicted 1-RM test for both exercises. In addition, the subjective and actigraphic SQ and HRV during sleep were measured after each training session. The day after the training protocol leading to failure, the 1-RM of BP (MD = 7.24 kg; -7.2%; p < 0.001) and HS (MD = 20.20 kg; -11.1%; p < 0.001) decreased. However, this parameter did not decrease after a non-failure RT session. No differences were observed between failure and non-failure training sessions on SQ and HRV; therefore, both types of training sessions similarly affected the SQ and the autonomic modulation during the night after the training session. This study provides an insight into the influence of different training strategies on SQ, strength performance and recovery after moderate- to high-demand training. This information could be useful especially for professional coaches, weightlifters and bodybuilders, due to the potential influence on the programming processes.
... Resistance training is one of the most popular forms of physical exercise and commonly aims to increase muscle strength and mass [1][2][3]. It has been used to promote benefits in a wide range of populations, including healthy young people and chronically ill patients [4][5][6]. The external load used during resistance training is considered to be one the main factors to achieve the desired results [7]. ...
Article
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The present article aims to compare electromyographic (EMG) activity of the knee extensors during traditional resistance training (TRT) and no load resistance training with or without visual feedback (NL-VF and NL-NF). Sixteen healthy men (age: 25.2 ± 3.6) volunteered to participate in the study. Participants visited the laboratory on three occasions involving: (1) a 10 repetition maximum test (10 RM test), (2) familiarization and (3) performance of knee extensions using TRT, NL-VF and NL-NF in a random order, with 10 min of rest between them. TRT involved the performance of a set to momentary muscle failure using the 10 RM load. NL-NF involved the performance of 10 repetitions with no external load, but with the intention to maximally contract the muscles during the whole set. NL-VF involved the same procedure as NL-NF, but a monitor was positioned in front of the participants to provide visual feedback on the EMG activity. Peak and mean EMG activity were evaluated on the vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF). Results: there were no significant differences in VM and VL peak EMG activity among different situations. There was a significant difference for peak EMG activity for RF, where TRT resulted in higher values than NL-VF and NL-NF (p < 0.05). Higher values of mean EMG activity were found for VM, VL and RF during TRT in comparison with both NL-VF and NL-NF. Conclusions: resistance training with no external load produced high levels of peak muscle activation, independent of visual feedback, but mean activation was higher during TRT. These results suggest that training with no external load might be used as a strategy for stimulating the knee extensors when there is limited access to specialized equipment. Although the clinical applications of no load resistance training are promising, it is important to perform long-term studies to test if these acute results will reflect in muscle morphological and functional changes.
... Another important variable that should be considered in rt prescription is the intensity of effort [21,22], which is related to the proximity of momentary muscle failure [23,24] . Whilst it has been discussed for beginners [25][26][27], the performance of sets until momentary muscle failure seems important to increase adaptations in experienced resistance-trained individuals [28] . Further, rt involving higher intensity of effort seems to induce greater positive changes in metabolic function and, subsequently, body composition improvements [29]. ...
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Purpose. To conduct a narrative review of relevant studies comparing the impact of different resistance training (RT) volumes on muscle hypertrophy and lean body mass. Methods. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were clinical trials comparing the effects of different RT volumes on muscle hypertrophy and body composition. Overall, 22 articles were considered relevant and included in this review after an extensive literature hand search of the following databases: SciELO, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, LILACS, and Web of Science. Results. Of the 22 studies, 6 showed greater effects of high-volume, 1 showed greater effects of low-volume, and the remaining studies showed no difference between high- and low-volume RT. Five studies that revealed better results for higher volume were performed in untrained people, 1 concerned trained people, and the study that presented better results for lower volume referred to trained subjects. High heterogeneity was observed in the studies’ methodology regarding training protocols, population characteristics, length of intervention, supervision status, and measures of muscle size and body composition. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that muscle size and lean body mass are not mainly affected by RT volume and that other variables, especially the intensity of effort, should be considered in RT prescription. In this sense, increased volume could be beneficial, especially when training with low effort or when effort is not well controlled. However, it is important to note that there seems to be a ceiling effect and the use of higher volumes might be detrimental to muscle hypertrophy over a long term.
... Therefore, it is absolutely relevant to enhance skeletal muscle power output in older individuals to maintain functional status (Cadore and Izquierdo, 2018;Radaelli et al., 2018). This observation is in accordance with previous studies in younger adults, which have shown that performing repetitions to concentric failure did not provide additional muscle power gains, and in fact, can even impair the gains (Izquierdo et al., 2006;Izquierdo-Gabarrén et al., 2010;Martorelli et al., 2017). On the other hand, it is also noteworthy that even greater muscle power gains could be observed if our interventions would be performed at maximal Journal Pre-proof J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f intended concentric velocity as possible. ...
Article
This study investigated the effects of concurrent training performed either with repetitions to failure or not to failure in muscle power, muscle quality (MQ), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), and visceral fat in older men. This is an ancillary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. 36 older men (mean age ± SD; 67.1 ± 5.1 years) were randomized into three groups: one performing repetitions to failure (RFG, n = 13), another performing repetitions not to failure and 50% of the repetitions of the RFG (NFG, n = 12), and third performing repetitions not to failure with equal training volume of the RFG (ENFG, n = 11). The training was performed twice a week for 20 weeks at intensities ranging from 65 to 80% of maximal strength. In each session, the individuals started with strengthening exercises and then performed aerobic exercise (i.e., walking) on a treadmill. The primary endpoint was change from baseline to post-20 wk of absolute and relative muscle power output during squat and countermovement jump, ultrasound measurements for MQ using quadriceps echo intensity, and visceral fat thickness, as well as their VO2peak through a maximal incremental test on a treadmill. All training groups improved similarly and significantly jump height (ranging from 9 to 16%) and all their muscle power outcomes (mean change ranging from 2 to 7%) (P < .001). In addition, all groups significantly decreased visceral fat thickness (ranging from −11 to −21%) (P < .001), and significantly increased VO2peak (ranging from 4 to 8%) (P < .01), with no differences between groups. No changes were observed in the MQ outcomes. Concurrent training performed using repetitions to failure or not to failure promoted similar gains in the muscle power output, aerobic capacity, and visceral fat in healthy older men.
Article
The main aim was to investigate the influence of various distracting stimuli on the endurance-strength and fatigue of the lumbar region in asymptomatic participants. Fifty-four healthy individuals were randomized to three groups: auditory distraction group (ADG), visual distraction group (VDG) and control group without distraction (CG). Lumbar muscle endurance and perceived fatigue were the outcome measures. Lumbar muscle endurance was assessed with the Biering-Sorensen test, and perceived fatigue was assessed with the modified Borg scale, once baseline and second with the distraction intervention. Lumbar muscle endurance showed significant changes over time, and there were intragroup differences for VDG and ADG. The direct comparison did show significant differences between both distraction groups with respect to the control group with a large effect size (ΔVDG-CG: p<0.001, d=1.55 and, ΔADG-CG: p=0.008, d=1.07) but not between the two distraction groups (ΔVDG-VDG: p=0.56). Fatigue showed significant changes over time but not for group*time interaction, revealing intragroup differences for VDG and ADG. There were no intragroup differences in the CG for muscle resistance or fatigue, and there were no between-group differences. Auditory and visual distractors might produce a significant increase in muscle resistance during the Biering-Sorensen test. Both techniques are valid for increasing lumbar muscle endurance but also both stimuli produced a higher level of fatigue or perception of effort once the test was completed when compared with CG. Finally, we were unable to demonstrate that one type of stimulus produces superior results to the other.
Article
Comfort, P, Jones, PA, Thomas, C, Dos'Santos, T, McMahon, JJ, and Suchomel, TJ. Changes in early and maximal isometric force production in response to moderate- and high-load strength and power training. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-The aims of this study were to determine the changes in early (50-, 100-, 150-, 200-, 250 ms) and maximal isometric force production, in response to a 4-week period of moderate-load resistance training (60-82.5% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]), followed by a 4-week period of high-load (80-90% 1RM) resistance training. Thirty-four subjects (age 19.5 ± 2.8 years; height 1.72 ± 0.08 m; body mass 69.9 ± 11.4 kg; maximal power clean 0.92 ± 0.03 kg·kg) participated in this study. Only trivial-to-moderate (0.2-2.7%, d = 0.00-0.88) and nonsignificant (p > 0.05) changes in early isometric force production were observed in response to the moderate-load training period, whereas very large (9.2-14.6%, d = 2.71-4.16), significant (p ≤ 0.001) increases in early isometric force production were observed in response to high-load training. In contrast, there was a very large, significant increase in peak force (PF) across the moderate-load phase (7.7 ± 11.8%, d = 2.02, p = 0.003), but only a moderate significant increase in PF (3.8 ± 10.6%, d = 1.16, p = 0.001) across the high-load phase. The results of this study indicate that high-load multijoint resistance training, that follows moderate-load training, results in superior increases in early multi-joint force production, compared with the changes observed after moderate-load resistance training.
Article
Mangine, GT, Serafini, PR, Stratton, MT, Olmos, AA, VanDusseldorp, TA, and Feito, Y. Effect of the repetitions-in-reserve resistance training strategy on bench press performance, perceived effort, and recovery in trained men. J Strength Cond Res 36(1): 1-9, 2022-This study examined the effects of the repetitions-in-reserve (RIR) strategy on resistance exercise performance, perceived effort, and recovery. Fourteen resistance-trained men (24.6 ± 3.0 years, 176 ± 5 cm, 85.7 ± 14.0 kg) completed 2 bench press protocols in a randomized crossover fashion. The protocols consisted of 4 sets at 80% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) to a self-reported 3-RIR and a fifth set to failure or all 5 sets to failure (0-RIR). Barbell kinetics (velocity, rate of force development, and impulse), repetition volume, total work, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were quantified on each set. Barbell kinetics were reassessed during one set of 3 repetitions at 80% 1RM completed at 24-hour, 48-hour, and 72-hour postexercise. Blood samples were collected before and after exercise at 6 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours and analyzed for concentrations of creatine kinase (CK). Separate, 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed significant interactions (p < 0.001) where 3-RIR better maintained repetitions and work at greater average velocity (+0.6 m·s-1) and lower RPE (0-RIR = 10; 3-RIR = 8.2) across all sets. No differences were seen between conditions for CK at 6 hours postexercise (3-RIR: 32.2 ± 55.3%; 0-RIR: 40.8 ± 66.0%) or for CK and barbell kinetics at 24 hours to 72 hours postexercise. Although no differences were seen for recovery, the RIR strategy enabled work to be better sustained across sets at a lower perceived effort and higher average velocity. This strategy could be used to manage fatigue and better sustain effort and volume during a resistance training session.
Article
Abstract Santos, WDNd, Vieira, CA, Bottaro, M, Nunes, VA, Ramirez-Campillo, R, Steele, J, Fisher, JP, and Gentil, P. Resistance training performed to failure or not to failure results in similar total volume, but with different fatigue and discomfort levels. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000–000, 2018—The purpose of this study was to compare the acute response to 4 sets of high velocity of parallel squats performed to momentary failure (MF) or not to momentary failure (NF). Twelve women (24.93 ± 5.04 years) performed MF and NF protocols, in a randomized order with 2–3 interday rest. The protocol involved 4 sets of parallel squats executed at high velocity at 10RM load, with 2 minutes of rest interval between sets. During the NF protocol, the sets were interrupted when the participant lost more than 20% of mean propulsive velocity. The analysis involved the number of repetitions performed per set, total number of repetitions, movement velocity loss, power output loss, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), rating of perceived discomfort (RPD), and session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE). Compared with NF, MF resulted in a higher number of repetitions in the first set (11.58 ± 1.83 vs. 7.58 ± 1.72, p < 0.05), but a lower in the last set (3.58 ± 1.08 vs. 5.41 ± 1.08, p < 0.05). Total number of repetitions was similar between the protocols (MF 26.25 ± 3.47 vs. NF 24.5 ± 3.65, p > 0.05). In both protocols, there were significant decreases in maximum and mean movement velocity loss and power output loss, but higher decreases were observed in MF than NF (p < 0.05). Values for RPE, sRPE, and RPD were higher during MF than NF (p < 0.05). Controlling the movement velocity in NF protocol enabled performance of a similar total volume of repetitions with lower movement velocity and power output losses, RPE, sRPE, and RPD than during an MF protocol.
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The objective of this study was to observe the ideal recovery time between sets and exercises, for both chest and back, which allowed for maintaining muscle function with the initial load previously established. Sixty young men recreationally trained in strength training (ST) were divided into 2 groups: (a) 30 subjects were included in the GC group (the group that performed ST for the chest) and (b) 30 subjects were included in the GB group (the group that performed ST for the back). Each group was submitted to 3 experimental sessions, performing an ST sequence with 3 sets of 8 repetition maximum: GC performed a chest barbell press (CBP), an inclined CBP, and a chest butterfly; GB performed a lat pull-down, a back row, and a shoulder extension on the high pulley. The experimental sessions differed in rest time between sets performed (60, 90, and 120 seconds). For both groups in each sequence, significantly higher numbers of repetitions were observed with the rest time of 120 seconds relative to the rest time of 90 seconds (p = 0.004), 120 seconds in relation to the rest time of 60 seconds (p = 0.001), and in the rest interval of 90 seconds in relation to the rest time of 60 seconds (p < 0.0001). The results showed that 120 seconds was sufficient to maintain muscle function and perform the total number of repetitions per set. The data seem to show that for the ST methodology applied, it is not appropriate to assume that a certain relative intensity will translate into a similar number of repetitions in different exercises, especially with shorter rest intervals such as 60 and 90 seconds.
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Since the first 2018 issue, the European Journal of Translational Myology expanded its authorship and readership from the strict topics of biology, physiology, diagnostic, management and rehabilitation of skeletal muscle to the more clinically relevant fields of human mobility to those of general medicine. This third issue opens with a review on Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, a very complex medical problem, as its other names testify (Myalgic Encephalomyelitis or Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease). A more typical molecular myology original article follows (Increasing autophagy does not affect neurogenic muscle atrophy), but then several Rapid Reports cover different Medical Specialties fields, related or unrelated to neuromyology, mobility problems and their potential solutions. The Advisors of EJTM invite Authors to submit typescripts, taking into account that the journal is keen to publish high-level papers in the fields of Translational Myology, Mobility and Medicine at large.
Chapter
Pregnancy is a special and empowering time for women as well as an appropriate time to reassess lifestyle choices and adopt positive lifestyle changes. The female body undergoes many metabolic, biochemical, and physiologic changes during pregnancy that may affect a woman’s ability and willingness to exercise. The pelvic floor, in particular, experiences a unique combination of stressors that affect its form and function. Current research suggests that light and even moderate intensity endurance and strength training are appropriate to continue, or even commence, during healthy pregnancies without adverse outcomes for mother or child while high-intensity training and supine exercise should be avoided in second and third trimesters. Specific exercises to maintain the health and function of the pelvic floor may also be recommended during and after pregnancy. It is important to be aware that many pregnant women are not meeting exercise recommendations and/or may not have access to adequate information to maintain satisfactory physical health and function during and after pregnancy. Thus both health care and exercise professionals should be aware of the benefits and potential contraindications to exercise participation in pregnant women as well as the current evidence-based recommendations for exercise prescription in pregnant women.
Article
Purpose This study compared sex-related affective responses during resistance training performed to concentric failure. Methods The study was a non-randomized trial (quasi-experimental study). Well-trained young participants were allocated into two groups according to sex (Women, n=7, 21.1±6.0 years, 57.6±5.0 kg; and Men, n=7, 28.3±5.7 years, 88.3±11.4 kg). Participants visited the laboratory three times: 1) 12-repetition maximum; 2-3) resistance training to concentric failure sessions. Perceptual measures were assessed before, during, and immediately after the resistance training sessions. The following were assessed: a) rating of perceived exertion for effort (RPE-E) and discomfort (RPE-D), b) feeling scale, c) physical activity affect scale (PAAS), d) felt arousal scale, and e) physical activity enjoyment scale (PACES) Results High levels of RPE-E and RPE-D were reported without between-groups differences (p>0.218). Women reported a reduction in the feeling scale (p=0.001) whereas men did not (p>0.680). Larger effect sizes were observed for women compared to men in the felt arousal scale and PAAS (negative affect and fatigue). Feeling scale and felt arousal scale data plotted in a circumplex model of affect indicated a transition to high-activation and unpleasant-affect only for the women. There was good reliability between results from sessions 1 and 2 Conclusions Training to concentric failure resulted in negative changes in affective perceptual responses only for women. This type of training should be used with caution since it may change the affect perception and reduce training adherence in women. Further studies are needed using larger sample sizes, different resistance-training exercises, and diverse training methods.
Article
Background: This study aimed to analyze and compare the effects of two different resistance training programs. Methods: Fourteen under-17 youth female basketball players were randomly assigned to repetitions in reserve (RIR, n = 7) or maximum effort (RM, n = 7) resistance training programs. The programs consisted of 3-4 sets of 4 exercises x 7-10 repetitions with 2 min of passive recovery between sets and exercises, twice a week for a period of 8 weeks. The RIR group was instructed to perform the exercises with 3 repetitions remaining (rate of perceived exertion [RPE] = 7). The physical assessment included jumping, agility, and sprinting tests. Moreover, the maximum strength (one maximum-repetition [1-RM]) and muscle power output at 60% 1RM were assessed for back-squat and bench-press exercises. Results: The within-group analysis showed improvements in all tests for both groups (RIR = 1.3-43.9%; RM = 1.3-17.2%). Between-group analyses showed a substantially better performance of the RER group in the countermovement jump (ES = 0.80), V-cut (ES = 0.72), T-test (ES = 1.39), and in the averagepower bench-press (ES = 0.60), and 1RM bench-press (ES = 0.60, p < 0.05). a significant interaction effect (group x time) on 1-RM bench-press (F = 8.07, p < 0.05, η2p = 0.40), favoring RIR group. Conclusions: This study reports for the first time that the use of RIR-based RPE resistance training protocol promotes improvements in high-intensity actions (sprinting, jumping, and cutting), muscle power output, and maximum strength, particularly in youth athletes. Considering the advantages of non-failure training, RIR training may be a suitable in-season training strategy. However, more studies are needed to confirm whether the training-induced benefits of this novel training strategy are significantly better as compared to other approaches.
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Prior resistance training (RT) recommendations and position stands have discussed variables that can be manipulated when producing RT interventions. However, one variable that has received little discussion is set end points (i.e. the end point of a set of repetitions). Set end points in RT are often considered to be proximity to momentary failure and are thought to be a primary variable determining effort in RT. Further, there has been ambiguity in use and definition of terminology that has created issues in interpretation of research findings. The purpose of this paper is to: 1) provide an overview of the ambiguity in historical terminology around set end points; 2) propose a clearer set of definitions related to set end points; and 3) highlight the issues created by poor terminology and definitions. It is hoped this might permit greater clarity in reporting, interpretation, and application of RT interventions for researchers and practitioners.
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The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a very slow (VS) velocity and a self-selected volitional (VOL) velocity at varying intensities on repetition number, peak force, peak power, and total volume in the squat and shoulder press exercises. On separate testing days, 9 resistance trained men (age: 23.9 +/- 2.5 years; height: 174.8 +/- 6.5 cm; body mass: 80.1 +/- 12.4 kg) performed a squat (SQ) and shoulder press (SP) exercise at 60 or 80% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) at either VOL or VS (10-second eccentric and 10-second concentric actions) velocity for as many repetitions as possible. Force, power, and volume (repetitions x kg) were also determined. Subjects performed significantly fewer repetitions (p < or = 0.05) in the VS exercises (60% VS SQ 5 +/- 1 vs. VOL SQ 24 +/- 2; 80% VS SQ 2 +/- 0 vs. VOL SQ 12 +/- 1; 60% VS SP 4 +/- 1 vs. VOL SP 14 +/- 2; 80% VS SP 1 +/- 0 vs. VOL SP 6 +/- 1). Peak force and power were significantly higher at the VOL speed (peak force [in newtons]: 60% VS SQ 564.4 +/- 77.3 vs. VOL SQ 1229.0 +/- 134.9 N; 80% VS SQ 457.3 +/- 27.9 vs. VOL SQ 1059.3 +/- 104.7 N; 60% VS SP 321.6 +/- 37.8 vs. VOL SP 940.7 +/- 144.8 N; 80% VS SP 296.5 +/- 24.7 vs. VOL SP 702.5 +/- 57.7 N; and peak power [in watts]: 60% VS SQ 271.2 +/- 40.1 vs. VOL SQ 783.2 +/- 129.1 W; 80% VS SQ 229.3 +/- 49.5 vs. VOL SQ 520.2 +/- 85.8 W; 60% VS SP 91.3 +/- 21.9 vs. VOL SP 706.6 +/- 151.4 W; 80% VS SP 78.1 +/- 19.8 vs. VOL SP 277.6 +/- 46.4 W). VOL speed elicited higher total volume than the VS velocity. The results of this study indicate that a VS velocity may not elicit appropriate levels of force, power, or volume to optimize strength and athletic performance.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of hypertrophy-type resistance training (RT) on upper limb fatigue resistance in young adult men and women. Fifty-eight men (22.7 ± 3.7 years, 70.6 ± 9.3 kg, and 176.8 ± 6.4 cm) and 65 women (21.6 ± 3.7 years, 58.8 ± 11.9 kg, and 162.6 ± 6.2 cm) underwent RT for 16 weeks. Training consisted of 10-12 whole body exercises with 3 sets of 8-12 repetitions maximum performed 3 times per week. Before and after the RT intervention participants were submitted to 1RM testing, as well as a fatigue protocol consisting of 4 sets at 80% 1RM on bench press (BP) and arm curl (AC). The sum of the number of repetitions accomplished in the 4 sets in each exercise was used to indicate fatigue resistance. There was a significant (p<0.05) time-by-group interaction in 1RM BP (men=+16%, women=+26%), however in 1RM AC no significant time-by-group interaction was observed (men=+14%, women=+23%). For the total number of repetitions, men and women showed a significant increase in BP (men=+16.3%, women=+10.5%) with no time-by-group interaction. The results suggest that the adaptation in maximal strength is influenced by sex in BP. On the other hand, for fatigue resistance, the individual’s sex does not seem to influence outcomes either in BP or AC.
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Aging is associated with declines in the neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems, resulting in an impaired capacity to perform daily activities. Frailty is an age-associated biological syndrome characterized by decreases in the biological functional reserve and resistance to stressors due to changes in several physiological systems, which puts older individuals at special risk of disability. To counteract the neuromuscular and cardiovascular declines associated with aging, as well as to prevent and treat the frailty syndrome, the strength and endurance training seems to be an effective strategy to improve muscle hypertrophy, strength and power output, as well as endurance performance. The first purpose of this review was discuss the neuromuscular adaptations to strength training, as well as the cardiovascular adaptations to endurance training in healthy and frail elderly subjects. In addition, the second purpose of this study was investigate the concurrent training adaptations in the elderly. Based on the results found, the combination of strength and endurance training (i.e., concurrent training) performed at moderate volume and moderate to high intensity in elderly populations is the most effective way to improve both neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory functions. Moreover, exercise interventions that include muscle power training should be prescribed to frail elderly in order to improve the overall physical status of this population and prevent disability.
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this study examined the effects of heavy resistance training on the relationships between power loss and surface EMG (sEMG) indices and blood metabolite concentrations on dynamic exercise-induced fatigue with the same relative load as in pretraining. twelve trained subjects performed five sets consisting of 10 repetitions in the leg press, with 2 min of rest between sets before and after a strength training period. sEMG variables (the mean average voltage, the median spectral frequency, and the Dimitrov spectral index of muscle fatigue) from vastus medialis and lateralis muscles and metabolic responses (i.e., blood lactate, uric acid, and ammonia concentrations) were measured. the peak power loss after the posttraining protocol was greater (61%) than the decline observed in the pretraining protocol (46%). Similar sEMG changes were found for both protocols, whereas higher metabolic demand was observed during the posttraining exercise. The linear models on the basis of the relations found between power loss and changes in sEMG variables were significantly different between pretraining and posttraining, whereas the linear models on the basis of the relations between power loss and changes in blood metabolite concentrations were similar. linear models that use blood metabolites to map acute exercise-induced peak power changes were more accurate in detecting these changes before and after a short-term training period, whereas an attempt to track peak power loss using sEMG variables may fail after a strength training period.
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This study examined the possibility of using movement velocity as an indicator of relative load in the bench press (BP) exercise. One hundred and twenty strength-trained males performed a test (T1) with increasing loads for the individual determination of the one-repetition maximum (1RM) and full load-velocity profile. Fifty-six subjects performed the test on a second occasion (T2) following 6 weeks of training. A very close relationship between mean propulsive velocity (MPV) and load (%1RM) was observed (R (2)=0.98). Mean velocity attained with 1RM was 0.16+/-0.04 m x s(-1) and was found to influence the MPV attained with each %1RM. Despite a mean increase of 9.3% in 1RM from T1 to T2, MPV for each %1RM remained stable. Stability in the load-velocity relationship was also confirmed regardless of individual relative strength. These results confirm an inextricable relationship between relative load and MPV in the BP that makes it possible to: 1) evaluate maximal strength without the need to perform a 1RM test, or test of maximum number of repetitions to failure (XRM); 2) determine the %1RM that is being used as soon as the first repetition with any given load is performed; 3) prescribe and monitor training load according to velocity, instead of percentages of 1RM or XRM.
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The purpose of the present study was to compare the changes in muscle strength in nontrained young males performing resistance training under different supervision ratios. One hundred twenty-four young men were randomly assigned to groups trained under a high (HS, 1:5 coach to athlete ratio) or low (LS, 1:25) supervision ratio. Both groups performed identical resistance training programs. Subjects were tested for maximum bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and knee extensor torque before and after 11 weeks of training. According to the results, only HS lead to a significant increase (11.8%) in knee extensor torque. Both groups significantly increased bench press 1RM load; the increases were 10.22% for LS and 15.9% for HS. The results revealed significant differences between groups for changes in knee extensor torque and 1RM bench press, with higher values for the HS group. There were no differences between groups for the increases in bench press and leg press work volume or training attendance. The proportion of subjects training with maximum intensity was higher in HS for both bench press and leg press exercises. In addition, the distribution of subjects training with maximal intensity was higher for the bench press than for the leg press exercise in both groups. The primary findings of the present study are that the strength gains for both lower- and upper-body muscles are greater in subjects training under higher supervision ratios, and this is probably because of higher exercise intensity. These results confirm the importance of direct supervision during resistance training.