Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers (Menispermaceae) is a Mediterranean herb, used in Ayurvedic, Siddha, Unani, and folk medicines. The herb is also used in conventional medicine to treat oxidative stress-related diseases and conditions, including inflammation, pain, diarrhea, asthma, respiratory infections, cancer, diabetes, and gastrointestinal disorders.
Aim of the review
The taxonomy, botanical classification, geographical distribution, and ethnobotanical uses of T. cordifolia, as well as the phytochemical compounds found in the herb, the toxicology of and pharmacological and clinical studies on the effects of T. cordifolia are all covered in this study.
Materials and methods
To gather information on T. cordifolia, we used a variety of scientific databases, including Scopus, Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, and Springer Link. The information discussed focuses on biologically active compounds found in T. cordifolia, and common applications and pharmacological activity of the herb, as well as toxicological and clinical studies on its properties.
The findings of this study reveal a connection between the use of T. cordifolia in conventional medicine and its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulatory, and other biological effects. The entire plant, stem, leaves, root, and extracts of T. cordifolia have been shown to have a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, antiparasitic, antidiabetic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic, hepatoprotective, and cardioprotective impact. Toxicological testing demonstrated that this plant may have medicinal applications. T. cordifolia contains a variety of biologically active compounds from various chemical classes, including alkaloids, terpenoids, sitosterols, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Based on the reports researched for this review, we believe that chemicals in T. cordifolia may activate Nrf2, which leads to the overexpression of antioxidant enzymes such as CAT, GPx, GST, and GR, and thereby induces the adaptive response to oxidative stress. T. cordifolia is also able to reduce NF-κB signalling by inhibiting PI3K/Akt, activating AMPK and sirtuins, and downregulating PI3K/Akt.
Our findings indicate that the pharmacological properties displayed by T. cordifolia back up its conventional uses. Antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antidiabetic, nephroprotective, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, and cardioprotective activities were all demonstrated in T. cordifolia stem extracts. To validate pharmacodynamic targets, further research is needed to evaluate the molecular mechanisms of the known compounds against gastrointestinal diseases, inflammatory processes, and microbial infections, as immunostimulants, and in chemotherapy. The T. cordifolia safety profile was confirmed in a toxicological analysis, which prompted pharmacokinetic assessment testing to confirm its bioavailability.