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... The popular notion of resilience conveys so many different interpretations, that the actual meaning of the term is still unclear [5]. Likewise, while the smart city has become a trend in the field of urban development [6][7][8], the understanding of the term remains obscure [4,9]. At the same time, the necessity to integrate the two concepts at the operational level towards a transition from conventional, vulnerable, and mismanaged urban built environments to smart, sustainable, and resilient ones has just recently started to emerge [4,10]. ...
... Instead of exploring a debatable theoretical background, some researchers purposefully identify the essence of smart city in the integration of ICT solutions in the existing urban systems [6,74,[77][78][79]. This approach acknowledges the enabling role of technology in the pursuit of smartness and hence, the incorporation of the so-called smart infrastructure in the existing urban systems could increase the latter's performance and quality, with benefits to businesses and citizens [72]. ...
... In practice, systems thinking and the dimension of complexity serve as the shared operational framework for the urban development of the resilience and smart city concepts. Urban resilience can be promoted with the employment of conceptual constructs, such as the complex adaptive systems, which are also used to describe the development of smart city [6]. Furthermore, it is easy to detect the conceptual linkage of these two approaches in the perspective of sustainability and more specifically, for the reduction in vulnerability and the improvement of efficiency and overall quality of the urban systems. ...
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The continuous growth of cities brings out various concerns for improved development and management of the multifaceted urban systems, including those of resilience and smartness. Despite the many significant efforts in the research field, both notions remain changeable, thus retaining the lack of commonly accepted conceptual and terminological frameworks. The paper’s research goals are to designate the current direct and indirect links in the conceptualizations and research trends of the resilience and smart city frameworks and to prove the potential of the conceptual convergence between them in the context of urban systems. The application of a semi-systematic literature review, including bibliometric evidence and followed by content analysis, has led to the observation that as the resilience discourse opens up to embrace other dimensions, including technology, the smart city research turns its interest to the perspective of urban protection. Therefore, both concepts share the goal for urban sustainability realized through specific capacities and processes and operationalized with the deployment of technology. The paper’s findings suggest that the conceptual and operational foundations of these two concepts could support the emergence of an integrated framework. Such a prospect acknowledges the instrumental role of the smart city approach in the pursuit of urban resilience and unfolds a new model for sustainable city management and development.
... Colding and Barthel [7] provide "reflections that need to forgo any wider-scale implementation of the Smart Citymodel with the goal to enhance urban sustainability". They criticise current research and literature dealing with smart cities, maintaining that it "must better include analysis around social sustainability issues for city dwellers. ...
... In a metropolis, the complex organisational structure and the sheer number of stakeholders makes it virtually impossible for any given project or initiative to ascertain deep enough buy-in from all of them. In a smaller city, however, it is significantly more feasible, just as is the "analysis around social sustainability issues for city dwellers" [7]. ...
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Smart Cities have been around as a concept for quite some time. However, most examples of Smart Cities (SCs) originate from megacities (MCs), despite the fact that most people live in Small and Medium-sized Cities (SMCs). This paper addresses the contextual setting for smart cities from the perspective of such small and medium-sized cities. It starts with an overview of the current trends in the research and development of SCs, highlighting the current bias and the challenges it brings. We follow with a few concrete examples of projects which introduced some form of “smartness” in the small and medium cities context, explaining what influence said context had and what specific effects did it lead to. Building on those experiences, we summarise the current understanding of Smart Cities, with a focus on its multi-faceted (e.g., smart economy, smart people, smart governance, smart mobility, smart environment and smart living) nature; we describe mainstream publications and highlight the bias towards large and very large cities (sometimes even subconscious); give examples of (often implicit) assumptions deriving from this bias; finally, we define the need of contextualising SCs also for small and medium-sized cities. The aim of this paper is to establish and strengthen the discourse on the need for SMCs perspective in Smart Cities literature. We hope to provide an initial formulation of the problem, mainly focusing on the unique needs and the specific requirements. We expect that the three example cases describing the effects of applying new solutions and studying SC on small and medium-sized cities, together with the lessons learnt from these experiences, will encourage more research to consider SMCs perspective. To this end, the current paper aims to justify the need for this under-studied perspective, as well as to propose interesting challenges faced by SMCs that can serve as initial directions of such research.
... Many cities are currently initiating public-private partnerships and/ or special financing to adopt the "smart city" model with respect to sustainable urban development. The basic idea behind the smart city concept is to increase the effectiveness of city governance by creating positive feedbacks between end users and innovative technologies, building a communication paradigm in which the objects of everyday life are equipped with digital solutions [138]. The main goal of the smart Table 1 A summary of some of the models and tools used to measure carbon, energy and water footprints in WWTPs and to quantify the nexus. ...
... This approach is being highly applied in the water management, and not only for the urban life but also should be taken into account for rural areas that was highlighted by Hosseini and colleagues [141]. Despite the afore-mentioned points of motivation, some critical concerns and gaps regarding the concept of smart city were also addressed elsewhere [138]. Nevertheless, many public and private water service providers have been reclaiming their conventional supply-oriented strategies toward a more sustainable urban water management. ...
Article
Wastewater treatment is one of the major carriers of the water-energy-food-climate (WEFC) nexus, and although the relationship between water and energy is well recognized, there is still a lack of adequate analysis of the cyber-physical framework to address and assess urban and peri-urban WEFC nexus in an integrated approach. In this review paper, we deeply analyze and summarize the modelling tools and data that are currently used to quantify the nexus in wastewater treatment. Currently, comprehensive models and tools are missing that consider the interconnections amongst catchment, sewer network, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), river and climatic system in a holistic approach and define relevant monitoring requirements and trustable information provision. Cyber-physical systems provide a technological ground for an efficient management of such integrated systems. The nexus approach in precision irrigation and smart agriculture is further discussed in the paper, highlighting the issue of water reuse and the engagement of different levels of stakeholders. Digital solutions and serious games addressing the nexus in urban and peri-urban water management are also presented to facilitate innovative practice aspects and to foster public involvement. Adaptable digital solutions can help to understand stakeholders’ perception of water quality and its governance and to improve levels of awareness and collaboration between utilities, authorities, farmers and citizens. Finally, recommendations on the added value of currently used models, tools and possible digital solutions are given to WWTP and reclamation managers and/or operators to bring the WEFC nexus approach on the operative environment.
... Calls for the reform of urban planning to make it more effective and to address the looming climate change crisis (Colding, 2017) have become insistent. Many of the planners working in the planning bureaus and institutes state that they lack the time or training or both to do what is necessary, while the urban planning schools in China continue to emphasize plan production technique. ...
... In general, there are several competing approaches to local development planning from the perspective of environment. The "smart city" is criticized as having little contribution to the sustainable city (Colding & Barthel, 2017). Building for resilience, or for conservation of land resources or for transport efficiency may all involve quite different planning outcomes such that future planning with CE as the focus should also consider the relevant outcomes if one of the above approaches is adopted. ...
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Cities in China gather data to support strategic and operational management, including databases on buildings, land use, human occupancy, underground services, and travel surveys. However, these data are seldom used to analyze policy decisions, with urban planning confined largely to operational planning. Real estate and financial interests dominate strategic planning, while an ecological crisis threatens urban sustainability in the long run. In this research, carbon emissions (CE) related to planning, building, and intra-urban travel are measured for two representative types of typical urban development in southern China, using data from Shenzhen. The two types are contemporary planned units (PUD) and dense, low-rise developments (VSD). It is found that VSD accounts for less than one-third the CE of PUD, although there is considerable diversity in the performance of PUD. Based on this research, major reductions in CE can be achieved by focussing urban planning policy on carbon-efficient development.
... In research, it is noticeable that authors face difficulty to describe the depth of ICT technology implementation level in reach. However, smart city critics note that it is a lack of the ecological and environmental emphasis, between technologies and public asset resulting control of urban systems (Colding & Barthel, 2017). ...
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Todays large cities are continually evolving human ecosystem, delivering many services to citizens. The dramatic urbanisation processes and increasing numbers of the population in cities put many strains on city infrastructure and services. XXI century urbanisation issues require robust strategies and innovative planning for their future. Easily cities are characterised as smart or intelligent without regard to clear criteria or specification for a city. There are different opinions regarding smart cities, arguing that it may bring positive social and economic change, developed governance and human capital. However, these aspects are heavily achievable without eliminating the present discrepancy in planning. The purpose of the article is to clarify and identify the characteristics of smartness based on current scholar research. The qualitative study overview on integrative literature review and seven Baltic region cities case study explores possible characteristics, and various city dimension factors which can make a city smart.
... It helps evaluate, review, and implement sustainable practices and formulate public awareness policies [109]. Metrics can help policymakers make informed decisions, and results must be reported without ambiguity [131]. Sustainability indicators can serve as a benchmark for comparing current and baseline conditions [132]. ...
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Urbanization is a continuous process for a city’s economic development. Though rapid urbanization provides a huge employment opportunity for people, urban threats also increase proportionately due to natural and man-made hazards. Understanding urban resilience and sustainability is an urgent matter to face hazards in the rapidly urbanized world. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the concept and develop key indications of urban resilience and sustainability from the existing literature. A systematic literature review guided by PRISMA has been conducted using literature from 1 January 2001 to 30 November 2021. It argues that sustainability and resilience are interre-lated paradigms that emphasize a system’s capacity to move toward desirable development paths. Resilience and sustainability are fundamentally concerned with preserving societal health and well-being within the context of a broader framework of environmental change. There are significant differences in their emphasis and time scales, particularly in the context of urbanization. This study has identified key indicators of urban resilience under three major components like adaptive capacity (education, health, food, and water), absorptive capacity (community support, urban green space, protective infrastructure, access to transport), and transformative capacity (communication technology, collaboration of multi-stakeholders, emergency services of government, community-oriented urban planning). This study also identified several indicators under major dimensions (social, economic, and environmental) of urban sustainability. The findings will be fruitful in understanding the dynamics of urban vulnerability and resilience and its measurement and management strategy from developed indicators.
... The evaluation of the co-benefits and costs of any given solution is transversal to the design and implementation process (Raymond et al. 2017b;Frantzeskaki et al. 2019) and requires focusing on decision contexts that have specific, well-defined properties (Watts 2017). In this digital age, new methods are needed for assessing the interconnected effects of a proposed solution on social, ecological and technological systems and for managing the varying types of socio-technical changes that may constrain or promote transformations toward sustainability (Colding and Barthel 2017;McPhearson 2020). Multiple forms of sensing data collated using geographic information observatories, including data on sense of place, planning preferences and behavioural patterns, will play an increasing role in these efforts. ...
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We reply to ‘A relational turn for sustainability science?’ by West et al. We commend West et al. for their salient comments about the relational turn. Yet the article leaves us wondering about the methodological challenges and pragmatics of relational thinking. The authors omitted important tensions in relational thinking discussion about how to assess dynamic socio-ecological systems, and how to lever change for sustainability. Whilst relational thinking is helpful, researchers inevitably need to make strategic choices about where to divide system components if the goal is to systematically assess relations and to promote transformations toward sustainability. Where and how to ‘apply the knife’ inevitably is informed by one’s ontological starting point (view of reality) and personal epistemological beliefs. We outline three questions to be answered in order to more firmly establish relational thinking in sustainability science: If systems and processes are continually unfolding, how do we identify where to lever change for sustainability? In relational thinking, can we explain human action outside of the shared ‘activity of experiencing’? If society and ecology is co-constituted, how can relational approaches be used to understand unfolding and cascading effects in complex systems? We conclude with future directions for a solutions-oriented sustainability science agenda.
... Still, a clearly defined framework is required for providing standards towards the development of a smart city. A survey was carried out by Frost and Sullivan regarding the development of smart city projects around the globe and the common factors were identified and based on these factors a smart diamond framework was proposed that can predict the future trend of smart city development [13]. The smart diamond structure consists of eight fundamental phases such as governance, Energy, building or infrastructure, technology, healthcare and citizens. ...
... [4] employs advanced technologies to improve the ease, comfort, safety and energy efficiency at the home environment. [5] discusses techniques to detect fire at very early stages. [6] enlists techniques for designing an alert system in case of fire. ...
Article
Automation of homes is the most important requirement at present as it helps to conserve almost 40% of the energy that has been consumed and in turn this facilates to reduce the toll on our electricity bill. This method of saving of energy also helps to protect our environment from major sort of emissions. The proposed kit for the above said purpose that has been developed has multiple utilities. The kit uses sensors to sense the temperature that is used for alerting the users when fire is detected, Infra Red (IR) type sensors are employed for detecting the person’s count in the room and hence switching the ON the lights in room. Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) is incorporated in the module for detecting the darkness and hence switching ON the light. Power sensor is deployed for detecting the consumption of power. These values are transmitted to the remote laptop by means of the zigbee communication device. Here two IR sensors are deployed to estimate the direction in which the person is crossing the room door. The zigbee transfers all the sensed data that has been sensed using the sensors instantaneously to the remote device so that a remote user can track the house from a remote location. This also enhances the requirements of security from a remote location.
... It is found that the theoretical framework of the existing mathematical models is often from a particular perspective. For example, such perspectives include studying the effects of smart growth on the basis of ecological benefits [13], researching the connotation of smart growth from the perspective of building density and transportation [10,14,15], discussing the role of residential location and land consumption in smart growth [16], etc. In fact, smart growth can have certain influences both on the field of society, economy, and ecology. ...
Article
Smart growth is widely adopted by urban planners as an innovative approach, which can guide a city to develop into an environmentally friendly modern city. Therefore, determining the degree of smart growth is quite significant. In this paper, sustainable degree (SD) is proposed to evaluate the level of urban smart growth, which is established by principal component regression (PCR) and the radial basis function (RBF) neural network. In the case study of Yumen and Otago, the SD values of Yumen and Otago are 0.04482 and 0.04591, respectively, and both plans are moderately successful. Yumen should give more attention to environmental development while Otago should concentrate on economic development. In order to make a reliable future plan, a self-organizing map (SOM) is conducted to classify all indicators and the RBF neural network-trained indicators are separate under different classifications to output new plans. Finally, the reliability of the plan is confirmed by cellular automata (CA). Through simulation of the trend of urban development, it is found that the development speed of Yumen and Otago would increase slowly in the long term. This paper provides a powerful reference for cities pursuing smart growth.
... Thus, IoT is transforming the Internet into a more pervasive and immersive model [1,2]. The literature demonstrates that the emergence of IoT has initiated Smart City (SC) concept, a paradigm that particularly concentrates on reconciling and enhancing both ecology and economy of city modernisation [3,4]. An ultimate goal of IoT technology for the SC is to optimise and efficiently control the city systems. ...
Article
Internet-of-Things (IoT) is an appealing service to revolutionise Smart City (SC) initiatives across the globe. IoT interconnects a plethora of digital devices known as Sensor Nodes (SNs) to the Internet. Due to their high performance and exceptional Quality-of-Service (QoS) Multiprocessor System-on-Chip (MPSoC) computing architectures are gaining increasing popularity for the computationally extensive workloads in both IoT and consumer electronics. In this survey, we have explored balance between the IoT paradigm and its applications in SC while introducing Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), including the structure of the SN. We considered MPSoCs systems in relation to characteristics such as architecture and the communication technology involved. This provides an insight into the benefits of coupling MPSoCs with IoT. This paper, also investigates prevalent software level energy optimisation techniques and extensively reviews workload mapping and scheduling approaches since 2001 until today for energy savings using (1) Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS) and/or Dynamic Power Management (DPM) (2) Inter-processor communication reduction (3) Coarse-grained software pipelining integrated with DVFS. This paper constructively summarises the findings of these approaches and algorithms identifying insightful directions to future research avenues.
... The long-term ecological research (LTER) framework (National Science Foundation 2018) provides a powerful, integrative approach to understanding landscapes across space and time, and has been applied to explicitly socio-ecological settings such as the Gwynns Falls Watershed in Baltimore, Maryland. Similarly, the ''smart cities'' movement, with its integrated networks of local and remote sensors collecting and sharing diverse types of data in built environments (Batty et al. 2012), has immense, if largely untapped, potential to support ecological research and natural resource valuation in inhabited landscapes (Gatrell and Jensen 2008;Colding and Barthel 2017). An equally necessary component is the cultural knowledge of communities, including traditional ecological knowledge (Berkes et al. 2000;Charnley et al. 2007), community science (Balazs and Morello-Frosch 2013), and public-participation mapping (Rall et al. 2019), which both challenges and complements quantitative scientific approaches. ...
Article
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Context Connections among ecosystems and their components are critical to maintaining ecological functions and benefits in human-modified landscapes, including urban areas. However, the literature on connectivity and ecosystem services has been limited by inconsistent terminology and methods, and largely omits human access to nature and its benefits as a form of connectivity. Objectives In this paper, we build upon previous research and theory to define distinct categories of connectivity, considering both ecological and social dimensions, and identify ecosystem services that are supported by them. Methods We reviewed the literature to determine socio–ecological benefits that depend on the categories of connectivity. Results We identified four distinct but interrelated categories of connectivity: landscape, habitat, geophysical, and eco-social connectivity. Each connectivity category directly or indirectly supports many ecosystem services. There are overlaps, conflicts, and synergies among connectivity categories and their associated services and disservices. Conclusions Identifying the services that arise from these four categories of connectivity, and how they interact, can help build a common understanding of the value of connectivity to maximize its benefits, improve understanding of complex socio–ecological systems across disciplines, and develop more holistic, socially equitable decision-making processes, especially in urban landscapes.
... As the first source of CI threats, adverse weather and natural events include earthquakes, droughts, storms and infrastructure failures during its deployment life cycle (Birkett and Mala-Jetmarova, 2014;Clark and Hakim, 2014;Möderl et al., 2014). The second source of threats to the security of CI is of human origin and includes terrorism, criminal activity, vandalism, sabotage and human error (Colding and Barthel, 2017;Greiman, 2015;Janke et al., 2014). The humanorigin threats to the security of CI are considered high risk as they are very difficult to predict for attaining early detection capabilities to improve response and recovery times (Kshetri, 2019;Birkett and Mala-Jetmarova, 2014). ...
Article
Purpose For many innovative organisations, Industry 4.0 paves the way for significant operational efficiencies, quality of goods and services and cost reductions. One of the ways to realise these benefits is to embark on digital transformation initiatives that may be summed up as the intelligent interconnectivity of people, processes, data and cyber-connected things. Sadly, this interconnectivity between the enterprise information technology (IT) and industrial control systems (ICS) environment introduces new attack surfaces for critical infrastructure (CI) operators. As a result of the ICS cybersecurity risk introduced by the interconnectivity between the enterprise IT and ICS networks, the purpose of this study is to identify the cybersecurity capabilities that CI operators must have to attain good cybersecurity resilience. Design/methodology/approach A scoping literature review of best practice international CI protection frameworks, standards and guidelines were conducted. Similar cybersecurity practices from these frameworks, standards and guidelines were grouped together under a corresponding National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) cybersecurity framework (CF) practice. Practices that could not be categorised under any of the existing NIST CF practices were considered new insights, and therefore, additions. Findings A CI cybersecurity capability framework comprising 29 capability domains (cybersecurity focus areas) was developed as an adaptation of the NIST CF with an added dimension. This added dimension emphasises cloud computing and internet of things (IoT) security. Each of the 29 cybersecurity capability domains is executed through various capabilities (cybersecurity processes and procedures). The study found that each cybersecurity capability can further be operationalised by a set of cybersecurity controls derived from various frameworks, standards and guidelines, such as COBIT®, CIS®, ISA/IEC 62443, ISO/IEC 27002 and NIST Special Publication 800-53. Practical implications CI sectors are immediately able to adopt the CI cybersecurity capability framework to evaluate their levels of resilience against cyber-attacks, given new attack surfaces introduced by the interconnectivity of cyber-connected things between the enterprise and ICS levels. Originality/value The authors present an added dimension to the NIST framework for CI cyber protection. In addition to emphasising cryptography, IoT and cloud computing security aspects, this added dimension highlights the need for an integrated approach to CI cybersecurity resilience instead of a piecemeal approach.
... A smart city and sustainable city could be conceived as the fertile ground in which a resilient city bases its strategic vision [47,50,51]. However, in moving from a digital city to a resilient city, the scope and key elements of the urban strategy continue to expand. ...
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Citation: Bruzzone, M.; Dameri, R.P.; Demartini, P. Resilience Reporting for Sustainable Development in Cities. Sustainability 2021, 13, 7824.
... The recycling and reutilization of garbage made by human can also be implemented based on the novel smart management [1,12]. In terms of the discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater, it is the optimal tool for IoT application [39,[54][55][56][57][58]. ...
Article
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With the rapid development of smart cities all over the world, the evaluation of the smart city has become a new research hotspot in the academic circles. Nevertheless, there still exist a series of common problems in current smart city evaluation, including the cognitive deprivation, lack of experience in planning, low coordination level, etc. Therefore, it is critical to establish a new hierarchy for smart city evaluation indicators, especially in the 5G era. Based on literature review, expert consensus, and the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process, this study developed an innovative smart city evaluation framework. In the framework, an index comprising three dimensions, i.e., smart economy, smart society, and smart environmental protection, as well as several attributes for these dimensions for smart city evaluation were established. Then, taking Jiangsu Province, the fastest-growing province in China, as the research area, the development level of smart city for the cities in Jiangsu was calculated. The results have verified the effectiveness of the framework, which can provide suggestions for sustainable urbanization, and help urban decision-makers to promote the efficient development of smart cities.
... Such forms of hyper techno-scientific urbanisation are encouraged in terms of predictive security, speed, and efficiency. Authors critical of the smart city concept and practice have argued that such cities often function to the benefit of capital flows as opposed to the needs of residents (Colding and Barthel, 2017;Kitchin, 2015). Notions of 'security' and 'efficiency' act as a façade for more intrusive governance practices and surveillance. ...
Article
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The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has made headlines for its use of mass surveillance technologies against UAE residents, as well as opponents externally. Under the guise of protecting national security, there has been a proliferation of state-led initiatives to monitor public spaces and online activity across the UAE, making the country an important laboratory for advanced surveillance tools. This article takes as a starting point that despite claims to being race-neutral and scientific, surveillance technologies have an embedded racial bias and operate according to context to (re)produce forms of state control and racial social relations. Reviewing the introduction of multiple surveillance technologies, this article traces the rationales used to racially order space and define deviance in the UAE context, emphasising questions of race, migration status and labour, to understand how the state defines, codifies, and regulates an ethno-racial hierarchy.
... One significant disconnection between the two concepts as argued by Cugurullo (2017) is that there is little or no innovation but a rather replication of traditional strategies of urbanization. Also, as pointed out by extant literature (Chang & Sheppard, 2013;Colding & Barthel, 2017;Datta, 2015b) they hardly integrate sustainability or fulfill its promises of making it sustainable. ...
Thesis
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The increasing urbanization of the built environment has bolstered the need of promoting sustainable practices and Building Information Modelling (BIM) initiative in building and construction projects. However, there has not been a unified adoption and implementation of BIM initiative and sustainability in most countries and the built environment as a whole – most notably within the sub-Saharan region of Africa due to several factors. Moreover, based on the extant literature, the existing green rating tools have been found to be inadequate to fully address the greenness and evaluate the sustainability performance of buildings. Hence, these generate several hindrances to the current drive for a holistic implementation of sustainability practices and innovative technologies such as BIM in the construction industry. Therefore, this research study aims to develop a green-BIM assessment model and cloud-based sustainability decision support system for evaluating buildings' compliance to sustainability principles with a view to integrating smart sustainable practices in building construction and management, improving operational efficiency, and enhancing the overall implementation of sustainable development in the built environment. The scope of study mainly focuses on developing countries located in the sub-Saharan region of Africa – using Nigeria, the largest economy in the region as a case study – with practical applications to other regions. The following research objectives was set out in fulfilling the study’s aim: (1) To identify and assess the inherent benefits, barriers, and critical success factors (drivers) associated with integrating BIM and sustainability principles in building projects. (2) To establish the relative weightings of the key sustainability indicators, sustainability attributes, and sub-attributes for buildings. (3) To develop a sustainability evaluation index for buildings using the Generalized Choquet Fuzzy Integral method. (4) To develop a cloud-based sustainability decision support system (C-SDSS) for buildings. (5) To develop a conceptual Green-BIM assessment framework as a tool for the evaluation of sustainability performance of buildings. Objective #1 was achieved via an in-depth desktop review of extant literature, pilot and Delphi surveys, empirical questionnaire surveys, as well as the use of several statistical analysis tools such as descriptive and inferential statistical tools, factor analysis, and fuzzy synthesis evaluation method. According to the desktop literature review, a total of 36 benefits, 38 barriers and 30 critical success factors were identified. Fourteen (14) experts from eight countries participated in the Delphi survey while 220 respondents from 21 countries were involved in the international questionnaire survey. Meanwhile, the base inputs for the data to achieve Objectives (#2 - #4) consisted of 189 diversified sets of experts in Nigeria with requisite experience in the built environment. A holistic review of green building technical notes and guidelines, existing green building rating systems, and relevant journal articles was undertaken to fulfil Objectives (#2 - #4); and augmented by industry experts’ inputs which facilitated the development of the Building Sustainability Assessment Method (BSAM) scheme. The BSAM scheme green rating system has been designed for developing countries in the sub-Saharan region of Africa. The proposed BSAM scheme is a more unified green rating tool that adequately considers the environmental, economic, and social pillars of sustainable development unlike the existing green rating tools such as LEED, BREEAM, BEAM Plus, Green Mark, etc. which focus solely on the environmental sustainability with little or no consideration of the other two sustainability pillars. Objective #3 was actualized by employing the Generalized Choquet Fuzzy Integral (GCFI) method to establish the weightings of the 8 key sustainability indicators, 32 sustainability attributes, and 136 sustainability sub-attributes of the BSAM scheme. Data collected from industry experts form the base inputs for the impacts of various sustainability criteria based on the local variations. The GCFI approach is regarded as a more practical and robust weighting method for non-additive, dependent, and interactive criteria. Consequently, the Building Sustainability Evaluation Index (BSEI) and a six-grade certification system were developed to evaluate the sustainability performance of building projects. The key sustainability criteria with the highest weighting based on the GCFI analysis include sustainability construction practices, transportation, and energy criteria. To ease the adoption and implementation of the proposed BSAM scheme, BSEI, and the BSAM certification system for use in the built environment, a Cloud-Based Sustainability Decision Support System (C-SDSS) was established to achieve Objective #4. PHP and Jscript, being high-level programming languages, as well as the MySQL relational database along with other web-based tools and systems were used to code, design, and deploy the C-SDSS platform. BIM models, and relevant data from four real-life building projects based in Nigeria were used during the validation exercise to demonstrate the usefulness of the developed C-SDDS and the BSAM scheme in practice for the built environment. The validation exercise was augmented with validation questionnaire surveys with industry experts. Finally, a conceptual green-BIM assessment (GBA) framework was developed as an effective tool for the evaluation of the sustainability performance of buildings using a cloud-based system (Objective #5). The proposed GBA framework comprised of six main components is intended to provide comprehensive guidelines and algorithms that can facilitate the full and optimal integration of BIM and green building rating systems (e.g. the proposed BSAM scheme) in the assessment of the sustainability performance of buildings. The developed GBA framework was validated using expert questionnaire surveys as well. The findings of the study have generated salient and significant contributions both from the theoretical and practical (industry) standpoints. Moreover, they have provided valuable insights, effective strategies, and recommendations that have addressed the limitations of the integration of the concepts of BIM and sustainability practices in the built environment. Overall, the research deliverables would be crucial in implementing Green-BIM both locally (in Nigeria and other sub-Saharan countries), and internationally.
... Research in earth sciences, ecology, and conservation has suggested that shifts towards more ubiquitous digital practices in recent years are occurring to support environmental data collection, monitoring, and management practicesand (urban) forestry is no exception (Arts et al. 2015;Zou et al. 2019;D'Urban Jackson et al. 2020;Salam 2020;Nitoslawski et al. 2021). In the urban context, smart-cities research has evolved to not only focus on technological applications, but also reflect on the importance of social capital, equity, and ecosystem resilience to support truly sustainable cities (Colding and Barthel 2017;Trencher 2019;Yigitcanlar et al. 2019). Green infrastructure and urban forests, along ...
Article
OVERVIEW OF THE SPECIAL ISSUE This special issue of Arboriculture & Urban Forestry addresses current knowledge gaps by exploring how the planning, design, management, and use of urban trees, urban forests, and green infrastructure can be integrated into smart-city planning. It includes a range of contributions, geographically and thematically, at the intersection of technology, arboriculture, and urban forestry. Aerial and ground-based remote-sensing tools and techniques constitute a major focus. Chen et al. introduce a suite of survey and assessment techniques for roadside trees in Taiwan, integrating high-precision GIS-based instruments, LiDAR, radio frequency identification (RFID), and streetscape imagery. Lu et al. use aerial laser scanning approaches to model the provisioning of shade across the city of Vancouver (Canada), highlighting relationships between greenery and urban form across multiple scales. Satellite imagery, coupled with historical aerial photos and maps, were used by Freeman-Day and Fischer to track urban forest patches on the Indiana University campus (USA) across a large time series, emphasizing the potential to combine “low-” and “high-tech” tools in urban ecological monitoring. Pace et al. compare different field measurement systems, including smartphones with LiDAR capabilities, to quantify tree attributes, illustrating opportunities for small-scale, portable computers to characterize vegetation at finer scales.
... However, an overdevelopment of living and inclusive practices could create problems and cause the loss of the link with reality by excessively influencing the development dynamics of the urban context (March and Ribera-Fumaz, 2016;Krishnan, Arumugam and Maddulety, 2020). Therefore, in recent years we see a real need for the smart city literature to deal with the issues of overdevelopment and conceptualization in practices of smart city development, which are mainly concerned with the race cities are involved in for self-promotion in the face of fierce competition for human and financial capital in a global market, and not with a new line of thought aimed at promoting the environmental and social context of cities (Shelton, Zook and Wiig, 2015;Colding and Barthel, 2017). In their bid to combine economic growth with efficiency gains, environmental improvements, and more positive images, cities strongly invest in smart practices to elevate their status (Vanolo, 2014;Hollands, 2020). ...
Thesis
The work explores the role played by cities into the urban development considering i) the interception between the smart city context and the international marketing strategies ii) the impact of the promotion of a high-tech business environment on the attraction of knowledge and students in relation to the moderating effect of youth entrepreneurship in the city; iii) the relationship between Smart Mobility Practices and tourism flows in cities; iv) the (dis) advantages of inclusive, integrative and social urban practices on the creation of new business and the effect of intra- and inter-national human capital inflow. The core of the research aims to find connections between smart cities, city attractiveness, business environment, international marketing strategies, and human capital. The thesis consists of four peer-reviewed publications. The first chapter describes an overview of the thesis. The second chapter proposes a systematic literature review to discover the current literature trend and the fundamental base for further research. A quantitative analysis contributes to the research area with additional insights in the third, fourth and fifth chapters. The quantitative analysis uses the General Nesting Spatial (GNS) method, Generalized Method of Moment (GMM) methods, and Generalized Least Squared (GLS) methods to analyze a sample of 20 Italian cities. The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the smart cities area by reviewing the current literature from an international perspective and analyzing the role of the city in the urban environment both in terms of business development and city attractiveness, using empirical evidence. Moreover, this thesis aims to take part in the debate on the implementation of smart cities by proposing new insights and opportunities for discussion, criticism, and support for further research.
... Notwithstanding the acknowledgement of a social dimension to smart cities, in practice issues related to people and communities have been relatively neglected (Monfaredzadeh & Krueger, 2015). The evidence of social content in smart cities remains limited (Colding & Barthel, 2017). Table 4 attempts to summarise the most explicit thematic coverage. ...
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The smart city concept has emerged as an attractive label to address pressing issues of global urbanization and combat the critical challenges to attain sustainable development. Sustainability is still often conceived through a green environmental lens, but any change in the built environment also has implications for the social environment. Social sustainability is a dynamic concept that combines design of the physical realm with design of the social world and promotes infrastructure to support social needs and concerns. While smart cities primarily aim at enhancing performance through innovative use of digital data and technology, a social sustainability perspective stresses the critical interconnections between people and place. Through a critical systematic literature review, this paper establishes a dialogue between the smart city and social sustainability. It evaluates the smart city concept through a social sustainability lens within a built environment paradigm. A multi-stage conceptual framework is advanced around notions of place, identification of core social sustainability themes and related factors, and sensitivity to broader policy and detailed implementation scales. The framework provides guidance for further studying both the social objectives and outcomes of smart city policies.
... The presence of nature plays a pivotal role in shaping peoples' attitudes toward the environment and environmental protection far beyond city borders [80][81][82]. A criterion for this, though, is that urban residents have the possibility to experience nature in their immediate environments [83]. There has lately been an increase in research on the topic of human-nature connection (HNC) (e.g., Refs. ...
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This paper describes a new approach in urban ecological design, referred to as social– ecological urbanism (SEU). It draws from research in resilience thinking and space syntax in the analysis of relationships between urban processes and urban form at the microlevel of cities, where social and ecological services are directly experienced by urban dwellers. The paper elaborates on three types of media for urban designers to intervene in urban systems, including urban form, institutions, and discourse, that together function as a significant enabler of urban change. The paper ends by presenting four future research frontiers with a potential to advance the field of social–ecological urbanism: (1) urban density and critical biodiversity thresholds, (2) human and non-human movement in urban space, (3) the retrofitting of urban design, and (4) reversing the trend of urban ecological illiteracy through affordance designs that connect people with nature and with each other.
... Some of the surveyed articles however suggest that the interrelations between smartness and resilience may produce negative outcomes overall [4,7,[35][36][37]62,77,119]. They point out that rather than improving urban resilience, smart digital technologies introduce new vulnerabilities into the urban context. ...
Article
Cities continue to face significant challenges that test their capacity for resilience. With the development of smart cities, there needs to be a better understanding of how the introduction of smart technologies will affect urban resilience. To address this issue, this article presents a critical review of the literature on smart cities and smart technologies focussing on representations of resilience. The findings reveal that discussing resilience in relation to smart city components of the data layer, digital technologies and the physical city can provide some degree of clarity despite the existence of a multiplicity of definitions and interpretations. Furthermore, the analysis indicates that the nature of relationships between ‘smartness’ and ‘resilience’ remains contested, and largely dependent on the perceived role of digital technologies in resilience-building processes. This in turn is influenced by how these technologies are used and what the intention and expectations are in relation to their use. In order to address these issues, we conclude that further interdisciplinary research, extending to the physical, social and environmental systems of cities, is needed to better understand the relations between smartness and resilience.
... Despite prospective benefits of the smart city approach, its relation to ecological and environmental dimensions is often overlooked (Colding and Barthel 2017). The most prevailing criticism is lack of integration at the interface of smart digital technology and environmental protection (Grace et al. 2021). ...
Article
In parallel with ongoing discussions on what the concept of a smart city actually entails, use of smart technology in management and governance of urban green space is increasing. Application of smart technologies usually involves multiple sensors, smartphones, internet connections, etc., working together to make green space management more inclusive and effective. In the Sustainable Smart Parks project in Gothenburg, Sweden, new technologies are being applied and tested for availability, reliance, and relevance for contemporary management. However, moving these technologies beyond ad-hoc applications and creating a joint systems approach to future management is still unexplored. In this article, we introduce an analytical framework based on urban ecology and nature-based thinking and use it to examine the Sustainable Smart Parks initiative. The framework works well in distinguishing integration of diversity, connectivity, adaptation, inclusion, and perception in different technologies. However, further studies are needed to test adequacy of the 5 initial criteria in a wider context and to increase coupling of smart technologies that share similar focus within each criterion. This would stimulate “systems mapping” and thus clearer progression toward integrated smart green space management.
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The concept of citizens’ participation (CP) has been widely adopted by scholars, professionals and governments around the world. Many frameworks have been developed that include CP as a core domain. Although government agencies admit the usefulness of adopting CP, there is little written about the application of CP in the context of smart cities. The aim of this study is to critically review the literature focussed on engaging, empowering and enabling citizens to participate in achieving smart cities in relation to decision-making, digital communication and socio-cultural pillars, and to develop a conceptual framework that helps in demonstrating the interconnection of the identified fields. The data were retrieved from online search engines. Google trends, annual publications, CP in relation to other domains, authors’ affiliations and active authors were reviewed. Since 1985, there has been a considerable number of articles published annually relating to CP, yet there has been a fluctuation in the number of annual publications. Authors have contributed significantly to the topic of smart cities. However, there is little in the literature that contributes to achieving smart sustainable cities through CP. Moreover, recent publications have increased dramatically compared to past years. Universities are the top contributors in terms of authors’ affiliations. Subject to validation by empirical evidence, the citizens’ participation framework developed can be adopted to achieve smart, sustainable urbanisation in Saudi Arabia. The framework focuses on the empowerment of CP in making decisions, the application of ICT to facilitate CP and effective stakeholder communication between citizens and government.
Article
This research paper introspects on the aspects of urban resilience and inclusion in the smart cities of India and in particular Bhubaneswar. The strategic transformational outlay of cities for sustainable development leading to a systematic urbanization process has been argued for better urban governance. The aspects of urban ecosystem relevant to the policies along with innovations have been envisaged with creative ideation. This research paper shall review on the literature and models of smart cities abroad, India and Bhubaneswar in particular for redefining and inventing a cutting edge concept for uniqueness. This research paper shall apply qualitative and quantitative data to refine an appropriate choice of attributes in a smart city. This paper shall critically analyze into the holistic approach of a smart city with a perspective to ecological sustainability crucial for urban residence in a growth-driven urban ecosystem. This study focuses on a number of facets that are considered for the edification of smart cities such as mobility, living, atmosphere, residents, government, and structural design in relation to the technological aspects. The dimension of urban resilience highlighting on different dimensions, area of application, challenges and prospects has been discussed in-depth in this research paper. This research paper reveals about the facets that strongly relates the concept of urban resilience with the transformation of smart cities leading towards sustainable development and also on the aspect of critical deflection.
Article
This paper studies environmental policy integration (EPI) in eco-city/island, building an empirical model to quantify EPI levels based on decoupling analysis. EPI integration levels have been highlighted but have seldom been quantitatively probed in existing academia. It attempts to identify whether EPI, especially its prioritization, is approached in Chongming eco-city/island and identify the factors for it to be achieved. The four-quadrant decoupling model is applied and further operationalized temporally and spatially. Results show that Chongming had a strong prioritized EPI in four consecutive years in the examined years of 2012–2018 despite fluctuations in integration levels. Spatially in its 18 towns, 7 towns have prioritized EPI and one has strongly prioritized EPI, indicating optimistic empirical evidence for an eco-city/island. Contributing factors are discussed, such as EPI levels embodied in the distributed spatiality and time intervals, isolated bounded spatiality and functional symbiosis, and offsetting high costs with multi-level support.
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Globally, urban planners and decision makers are pursuing place-based initiatives to develop and enhance urban infrastructure to optimise city performance, competitiveness and sustainability credentials. New discourses associated with big data, Building Information Modelling, SMART cities, green and biophilic thinking inform research, policy and practice agendas to varying extents. However, these discourses remain relatively isolated as much city planning is still pursued within traditional sectoral silos hindering integration. This research explores new conceptual ground at the Smart – Natural City interface within a safe interdisciplinary opportunity space. Using the city of Birmingham UK as a case study, a methodology was developed championing co-design, integration and social learning to develop a conceptual framework to navigate the challenges and opportunities at the Smart-Natural city interface. An innovation workshop and supplementary interviews drew upon the insights and experiences of 25 experts leading to the identification of five key spaces for the conceptualisation and delivery at the Smart-Natural city interface. At the core is the space for connectivity; surrounded by spaces for visioning, place-making, citizen-led participatory learning and monitoring. The framework provides a starting point for improved discussions, understandings and negotiations to cover all components of this particular interface. Our results show the importance of using all spaces within shared narratives; moving towards ‘silver-green’ and living infrastructure and developing data in response to identified priorities. Whilst the need for vision has dominated traditional urban planning discourses we have identified the need for improved connectivity as a prerequisite. The use of all 5 characteristics collectively takes forward the literature on socio-ecological-technological relationships and heralds significant potential to inform and improve city governance frameworks, including the benefits of a transferable deliberative and co-design method that generates ownership with a real stake in the outcomes.
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Urban ecology has been an understudied topic in myxomycete research. For that reason, the present investigation aimed to generate data related to myxomycetes in urban areas of the Neotropical region. With an approach of two discrete experiments, one centered on ground-based information and one on air-based data, results showed that myxomycetes can be valuable organisms for microbial ecology assessments in urban centers. Data from these experiments showed that, using a simple and classical laboratory-based method of detection, the number of records seemed to be affected by the degree of urbanization, which also had an effect on pH values, but the number of species seemed to be more associated with site-specific characteristics. Airborne propagules of myxomycete dispersion, captured using substrates exposed to outdoor conditions, indicated that air currents may play a role on the distribution of myxomycetes in urban conditions, potentially affecting the process of ecological data generation. The results obtained herein are useful to demonstrate that myxomycetes can be studied in urban centers and that more systematic approaches could generate relevant data in the context of climate change, green cities, and urban biodiversity monitoring.
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This book tells the story of visionary urban experiments, shedding light on the theories that preceded their development and on the monsters that followed and might be the end of our cities. The narrative is threefold and delves first into the eco-city, second the smart city and third the autonomous city intended as a place where existing smart technologies are evolving into artificial intelligences that are taking the management of the city out of the hands of humans. The book empirically explores Masdar City in Abu Dhabi and Hong Kong to provide a critical analysis of eco and smart city experiments and their sustainability, and it draws on numerous real-life examples to illustrate the rise of urban artificial intelligences across different geographical spaces and scales. Theoretically, the book traverses philosophy, urban studies and planning theory to explain the passage from eco and smart cities to the autonomous city, and to reflect on the meaning and purpose of cities in a time when human and non-biological intelligences are irreversibly colliding in the built environment. Iconoclastic and prophetic, Frankenstein Urbanism is both an examination of the evolution of urban experimentation through the lens of Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein, and a warning about an urbanism whose product resembles Frankenstein’s monster: a fragmented entity which escapes human control and human understanding. Academics, students and practitioners will find in this book the knowledge that is necessary to comprehend and engage with the many urban experiments that are now alive, ready to leave the laboratory and enter our cities.
Article
The development of smart cities in practice requires significant investments and financial expenses, therefore, the authors of the article decided to identify and evaluate the economic conditions of this process, which is rarely analysed in the literature on the subject. For this purpose, they conducted representative surveys in 287 Polish cities, taking into account 5 groups of parameters related to the subsequent stages of the evolution of smart cities. According to the obtained results, the key barrier to the development of smart cities in Poland is the unsatisfactory level of prosperity of the residents and the difficult financial situation of cities, which means that the vast majority of the surveyed areas are not able to attempt to get closer to the Smart City 1.0 generation. In contacts with stakeholders, Polish cities prefer the triple helix model, focused on business cooperation and creating favourable conditions for commercial entrepreneurship. Relationships of higher order helices (with communities or ecological organisations) are not a priority for them, which may contribute to the aggravation of urban pathologies in the form of unsustainability and socio-economic exclusion. Conclusions and recommendations resulting from the research contribute to the economics of smart cities and can be used in the practical improvement of the process of their creation and development.
Article
The article shows the modern application of the digital economy in Russia, state participation in the development of the digital economy; a method for solving new problems and risks is proposed as a tool for ensuring sustainable development.The possibilities of using the digital economy for the SME sector have been identified. Further development prospects were considered, the main threats to the development of the SME sector were identified in the context of the implementation of the digital economy program.
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به دنبال تجدید ساختار اقتصادی و اجتماعی جهانی، تحولی در مفهوم توسعة شهری و پارادایم‏های آن به‏وجود آمده است؛ از آن جمله شهر هوشمند پارادایمی برای توسعة شهرها در جامعة اطلاعاتی است. شهرهای هوشمند،به‏عنوان آیندة شهرهای انسانی، شهری فعال در زمینة فناوری، انعطاف‏پذیری، پایداری، خلاقیت،و قابل زندگی در جهان پیش‏بینی‏ شده‏اند و در حال تبدیل‏شدن به بخشی از چشم‏انداز دولت‏های ملی‏اند، زیرا با هدف افزایش کیفیت زندگی شهروندان ظهور یافته‏اند. این پژوهش با هدف تدقیق، بومی‏سازی و اولویت‏بندی، و همچنین سنجش اثر معیارهای شهر هوشمند در شهر زنجان انجام شده است. جامعة آماری تحقیق کارشناسان آشنا با مفاهیم شهر هوشمند در شهر زنجان است و ابزار جمع‏آوری داده‏ها پرسش‏نامه و مصاحبه است. تحلیل در دو بخش انجام یافته است: بخش اول توسط آزمون‏های آماری Spssانجام گرفته است و بخش دوم توسط نرم‏افزار میک‏مک. نتایج نشان داد معیارهای زیرساخت‏ فناوری، خدمات عمومی- اجتماعی، و دسترسی به ترتیب با وزن‏های 01657/0، 01636/0، و 01619/0 در اولویت‏های اول تا سوم برای هوشمندی شهر قرار دارند. همچنین، نتایج تحلیل اثرهای متقابل معیارها نشان‏دهندة پراکنش نامنظم معیارها در پلان تأثیرگذاری و تأثیر‏پذیری است. تحلیل نشان داد که متغیرها در بخش تأثیرگذاری و تأثیرپذیری متوسط دارای تراکم زیادی است و سیستم مورد مطالعه دارای ناپایداری است. در نهایت، شش معیار راهبردی، کلیدی، و استراتژیک سیستم شناسایی شدند که برای هوشمندی شهر زنجان بسیار مهم‏اند؛ این معیارها عبارت‏اند از 1. زیرساخت‏های فناوری؛ 2. توانمندی و صلاحیت شهروندان؛ 3. حکمروایی شفاف؛ 4. مشارکت شهروندان؛ 5. امکانات فرهنگی؛ 6. جاذبه‏های گردشگری.
Article
In the last decade, the world has witnessed increasing investments in smart city initiatives, which frequently employ data and emerging technologies to tackle complex urban challenges. Although existing literature has acknowledged the potential benefits of smart cities, such as increasing economic development and improving urban operations, their sustainability, understood as the enduring or long-term impact of specific outcomes, has been under-researched. Furthermore, the few studies touching on sustainability have focused on environmental or economic sustainability, mostly ignoring social sustainability. Therefore, this paper aims to review and synthesize the state-of-the-art research on social sustainability in smart cities. Our research questions are: (1) what are the main topics in the literature related to social sustainability in smart cities? and (2) what are the gaps that require further investigation? Our review shows that inclusion and equity are crucial components that must be considered. More specifically, civic engagement is an effective method for smart cities to better understand and respond to all residents’ social, economic, and environmental demands, enabling a more inclusive and equitable smart community.
Article
Increasingly, firms need to cope with challenges related to sustainability and ecological transformation while also experiencing an ongoing transformation by implementing New Work forms, a trend even more accelerated by the Covid 19 pandemic. The current study submits the concept of an ‘Organizational Sustainability Identity’ (OSI). It represents a firm's holistic inclination toward sustainability and the ecological transformation. New Work, often understood to advance work satisfaction, creativity, and entrepreneurship might particularly facilitate the evolvement of an OSI, such as by providing more autonomous and humane work while lowering CO2 emissions. We systematically examine New Work related to home offices, coworking spaces, and hybrid multilocal work at the backdrop of supporting the construction of an OSI. In essence, New Work can contribute to the evolvement of an OSI by improving humane work, bridging factual activities that reduce CO2 emissions, and especially by supporting social interactions which facilitate the construction of a shared identity.
Thesis
Los debates en torno a los enfoques de la intervención de los asentamientos informales se ha centrado principalmente en las actuaciones adelantadas en las ciudades de América Latina, África y Asia, dejando de lado los procesos y formas de intervención dadas en algunas ciudades europeas, actuaciones que lograron revertir la urbanización informal a partir de la constitución de marcos institucionales y normativos, la formulación e implementación de políticas, planes y programas urbanísticos y sociales dirigidos a la atención de esta problemática. En este estudio se plantearon dos objetivos principales, el primero buscó develar las interacciones sociales, ambientales e institucionales que propiciaron la configuración de los modelos de intervención de los asentamientos informales en Madrid entre 1975-2015 dirigidos a garantizar el derecho a la vivienda adecuada a las familias en situación de pobreza y exclusión, y su vinculación a las estructuras del bienestar en España... Debates about intervention approaches on informal settlements have focused mainly on the actions carried out in the cities of Latin America, Africa and Asia, leaving aside the processes and forms of intervention given in some European cities, actions that managed to revert informal urbanization through the constitution of institutional and regulatory frameworks, the formulation and implementation of specific urban and social policies, plans and programs aimed at respond this problem.This study had two main objectives. The first sought to unveil the social, environmental and institutional interactions that led to the configuration of intervention models of informal settlements in Madrid between 1975-2015 aimed at guaranteeing the right to adequate housing for families in poverty and exclusion situation as well as their connection to welfare structures in Spain. The second, aimed to identify the substantive and specific contributions of Social Work to the constitution of the public housing provision system and to the social integration of the families living in the shanty towns of Madrid. Special attention has payed to neighborhoods remodeling and rehousing programs implemented in that period of study...
Article
This literature review provides a systematic review of smart city research between 2000 and 2019. The aim of the review is to provide a comprehensive picture of the state-of-the-art of research in smart cities by addressing major issues and identifying gaps and areas for future research. The analysis of 191 publications drawn from high-quality journals and the most influential or highly cited smart city literature highlights four major challenges for small city research: (a) smart city research is often fragmented and technology-driven; (b) many studies are on the perceived benefits of smart cities and fewer on the downsides of technologies and failed projects; (c) there is a need to build new theories for smart city research; and (d) there is a lack of empirical testing of the conceptual frameworks developed in smart city research. The research insights of this literature review may encourage practitioners, including city councillors, urban planners, and business managers, to consider smart city strategies in a holistic way when building vibrant, sustainable, and resilient cities of the future.
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This chapter comes out of two separate research projects carried out in Colombia, South America. One, finished in 2017, was called City of Data. It was an exploration of government-led, centralised Smart City projects in the cities of Bogotá and Medellín. The other, still ongoing, is called Communication Practices in the Medellín’s Gardeners Network. It is an exploration of grass-roots gardening initiatives in Cali, Bogotá and Medellín. Both projects had to do with approaches to public data: some ‘centralised’, government-led in the form of Smart City projects and others, more in the form of citizen-led initiatives. We analysed documents, conducted semi-structured interviews with dozens of officials and citizen group leaders, and carried out participatory research. Our main goal was to analyze government-led and grass-roots-led initiatives producing and managing data to empower citizens in Medellín and Bogotá. Our theoretical perspective comes from Critical Data Studies, Decoloniality and Relational Ontologies. We found very closed and centralized data production practices in the government-led, smart city initiatives studied, but discovered what could be described as promising ‘good data’ citizen-led approaches in Medellín’s Gardeners Network (RHM). We also found some issues and challenges arising from the particular, non-Western, highly unequal context of these citizen-led initiatives.
Conference Paper
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Пшеница является первым и самым важным продуктом во всем мире. Республика Армения, к сожелению, никогда не могла удовлетворять спрос населения на пшеницу: большая часть была импортирована, в результате чего уровень самодостаточности всегда был низким. Поскольку Армения имеет малый рынок, здесь цены на товары находятся в прямой зависимости от международного рынка, следовательно, подорожание зерна заставляет многих стран, в том числе и Армению думать о продовольственном обеспечении. Учитывая значение производства пшеницы с точки зрения продовольственной безопасности и обеспеченности, была отмечена важность изучения современного состояния производства пшеницы, так же проблем и возможностей увеличения объемов производства продовольственной пшеницы в Республике Армения.
Chapter
Extensive growth in human population, rapid urbanisation, and climate change mediated extreme weather conditions are the three major challenges the world is facing today. Among these challenges, rapid urbanisation can be seen as playing catalytic role in land‐use changes and waste generation mediating the processes responsible for the global climate change. Rapid conversion of pervious lands to impervious surfaces during the process of urbanisation is deteriorating the inherent ecosystem services of the natural ecosystems provided to the humankind. Moreover, pseudo‐adaptation technologies based on extensive energy consumption and natural resource exploration are further adding to the causes for the happening of the climate change phenomenon. Now the scientific communities and even the common people have developed an understanding of the protection and maintenance of the natural vegetation to mitigate the climate change‐related extreme weather conditions. The concept of urban ecology is getting wider attention in the recent years. Green infrastructure, green space development, and water‐resource maintenance can be seen as the major policy measures for the recent urban developments. In addition, preservation of local floral and faunal diversity by the government and urban inhabitants has also been observed in the recent studies. In this chapter, we will provide a brief understanding of the urbanisation‐climate change nexus. Further, elaboration of the emergent climate change adaptation and mitigation measures to be considered in the urban ecosystems has been done in the latter part of the chapter. A bibliometric analysis was performed for collating the studies related to the urban ecology‐climate change nexus published during the past two decades. Overall, this chapter will be briefly introducing the problems associated with rapid urbanisation in the climate change scenario and the possible nature‐based mitigation strategies with respect to the urban ecology principles.
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Smart city development is expanding rapidly globally and is often argued to improve urban sustainability. However, these smart developments are often technology-centred approaches that can miss critical interactions between social and ecological components of urban systems, limiting their real impact. We draw on the social-ecological-technological systems (SETS) literature and framing to expand and improve the impact of smart city agendas. A more holistic systems framing can ensure that 'smart' solutions better address sustainability broadly and extend to issues of equity, power, agency, nature-based solutions and ecological resilience. In this context, smart city infrastructure plays an important role in enabling new ways of measuring, experiencing and engaging with local and temporal dynamics of urban systems. We provide a series of examples of subsystems interactions, or 'couplings', to illustrate how a SETS approach can expand and enhance smart city infrastructure and development to meet normative societal goals.
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Planting multifunctional trees (e.g., fruit species) in cities can promote genetic conservation, economic activity, ecosystem services, and social cohesion. However, in Indonesia, the relationship between the abundance of fruit tree species and different city characteristics, including their involvement in the national smart city project, is still unknown. In this study, published reports and field surveys were used to evaluate the fruit tree distribution and its relationship with the characteristics of 224 of 514 Indonesian cities in order to identify tree species for multifunctional city greenery. This is the first study on the distribution of fruit tree species at the national level. The study identified 151 fruit species of 90 genera and 40 families, including large-sized fruits, such as avocados, breadfruit, coconuts, durians, jackfruit, and mangos. On average, cities contained 54 tree species, of which 21 (38.9%) were fruit trees. These findings indicate that cities are important contributors to the genetic conservation of local fruit trees, which can be further evaluated as new city greenery. However, a city’s involvement in the smart city project bore no relationship (p > 0.05) with the number of identified fruit species. Conversely, non-fruit species tended to be more diverse in smart cities. Since the presence of fruit species is associated with the city population, geographic position, climate, altitude, and attitude towards the fragility of sustainable conservation, introducing and maintaining these species as city greenery requires advocacy to city stakeholders.
Article
This study investigates whether China's smart city pilots (SCPs) have promoted efficiency in cities' economic and ecological operations and proposes a directional distance function model for super efficiency. Our model captures the economic flexibility of smart cities in China by exploiting slack aspects. We employ this model and other methods to study SCPs in China at the prefecture level. The results show that SCPs have a positive effect on both economic and total ecological efficiency (incorporating resource consumption and pollution emissions). However, the environmental protection effect is not as strong as the resource-preserving effect. These results may be related to China's current stage of development. These findings can help local governments understand the development effect of smart cities and formulate their plans accordingly, while providing valuable insights into the development of a new theory in this field.
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Com a emergência do conceito de desenvolvimento sustentável e seus desdobramentos, um dos grandes desafios que persiste é o de como avaliar os impactos das atividades socioeconômicas sobre o meio ambiente, assim como os avanços alcançados rumo à sustentabilidade. Dentre os instrumentos desenvolvidos e aperfeiçoados, desde a década de 1970, os indicadores de sustentabilidade surgiram, primeiro como indicadores ambientais, evoluíram para indicadores de avaliação das dimensões de desenvolvimento sustentável de forma independente, até se chegar aos indicadores de sustentabilidade, quando as diferentes dimensões passaram a ser articuladas. Indicadores de biodiversidade urbana são uma das variações de indicadores de sustentabilidade, com foco na avaliação das perdas crescentes da biodiversidade com a degradação dos ecossistemas e suas consequências, assim como dos benefícios de sua conservação. Nesse sentido, este estudo teve como objetivo, propor uma estrutura conceitual de indicadores de biodiversidade urbana, visando seu monitoramento e avaliação. A pesquisa propõe uma estrutura conceitual de indicadores de biodiversidade urbana, como base para a avaliação de sustentabilidade. Para isso, a metodologia adotada baseou-­se na revisão sistemática de literatura e análise de conteúdo, utilizando-­se de método misto para caracterizar quantitativa e qualitativamente as inferências de uso de indicadores de biodiversidade urbana na avaliação da sustentabilidade das cidades. A partir da análise de como as propostas de avaliação de sustentabilidade urbana, presentes na literatura, são descritas pelos autores, foi possível identificar nove principais tendências temáticas que englobam a sustentabilidade urbana. A categorização dos indicadores de sustentabilidade urbana, de acordo com as possibilidades de uso, demonstrou uma maior tendência temática sobre os serviços ecossistêmicos, sugerindo que os clusters priorizam na sua maioria o valor instrumental da biodiversidade. A estrutura conceitual proposta considerou o modelo PEIR – Pressão, Estado, Impacto e Resposta. A partir dos resultados, concluiu-­se que existe predominância de abordagens tais como, ecologia urbana, existência de áreas verdes urbanas, desafios para o paisagismo urbano, parques urbanos, relação cidade e sociedade e interferências da expansão urbana no meio ambiente. Essa predominância, se deve a aproximação da temática de sustentabilidade urbana e biodiversidade e justifica­-se por serem os mais citados entre as publicações analisadas. Esses dados demonstram que há uma preocupação em discutir a relação da urbanização e o crescimento populacional e como esses elementos podem interferir no processo funcional dos ecossistemas naturais. Através desta pesquisa foi possível identificar as principais ferramentas de avaliação de sustentabilidade urbana propostas na literatura. A categorização dos indicadores de sustentabilidade urbana, aqui empreendida, permitiu também estabelecer um caminho teórico e metodológico para inserir indicadores de biodiversidade nos processos de avaliação.
Thesis
Smart places, such as the dematerialization of diverse natural ecosystems, involve several autonomous ecosystems that interconnect and promote the integration of information and the convergence of necessarily secure functions and activities that depend on reliable data and sources. The problem of data management, quality, and governance is aggravated by the amount of data generated, the multiplicity of devices, spaces, infrastructures, users, and connected entities, being a technological and management challenge. The various cyber risks can lead to data compromise, exploitation of weaknesses, infiltration of systems, conditioning the functioning of the city, and, to the limit, disengaging or even destroying the physical infrastructure to the point where citizens have their lives threatened. The research methodology chosen for this work is the Design Science Research (DSR) methodology, in the problem-centered approach, where we intend to construct an artifact, which allows us to evaluate viable alternatives for using reliable, blockchain-based technology. The proposal focuses on a generic data model to be applied to smart places in the context of smart cities, focusing on their revision and structuring in data management aspects and governance. The proposed model adopts blockchain technologies and applies to the different characteristics of the city, in the electronic governance, in the contracting of products and services, and in the collection of data. Various IoT objects and multiple networks, along with blockchain technology, can result in safer and more efficient spaces and cities. This work explores the concept of smart cities in the mobility and transport ecosystem, using blockchain technology as a platform for data security and reliability, applied in the ticketing subsystem and traffic subsystem, for the safety and control of the logs generated by the numerous devices. With this artifact it is intended the generalization of the model be applied to different subsystems allowed that generic data models, be integrated and automated, with quality data and reliable information. Controlling data flows, and managing the data and information lifecycle will enable a more reliable data management, information management, and governance process.
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Despite arguments justifying the need to consider how cultural ecosystem services are co-produced by humans and nature, there are currently few approaches for explaining the relationships between humans and ecosystems through embodied scientific realism. This realism recognises that human-environment connections are not solely produced in the mind, but through relations among mind, body, culture and environment in time. Using affordance theory as our guide, we compare and contrast embodied approaches to common understandings of the co-production of cultural ecosystem services across three assumptions: 1) perspective on cognition; 2) the position of socio-cultural processes; and 3) typologies used to understand and value human-environment interactions. To support a deeper understanding of co-production, we encourage a shift towards embodied ecosystems for assessing the dynamic relations among mind, body, culture and environment. We discuss some of the advantages and limitations of this approach and conclude with directions for future research.
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Understanding how people's relationships with nature form, how they influence personal values and attitudes, and what behavioural implications they may have could provide more insight into how connectedness to nature (CNT) can effectively contribute to environmental management goals. This paper undertakes a review of literature published over the past decade (2002-2011) on SCOPUS; and describes the current state of knowledge regarding CNT, assesses any efforts towards the spatial mapping of CNT for environmental management, and identifies measures of CNT defined in the broader literature. This review suggests that there is quite some overlap in the literature on CNT concepts, and that more effort needs to be made towards multi-disciplinary research which explores how CNT can be useful to environmental planning and conservation research on the field. It also further corroborates the need and relevance of applying more social and affective strategies to promote conservation behaviour. The main progress in CNT theory seems to have been made in the development of measurement tools, and it is clear that there is a strong convergent validity amongst the different measures due to their similarity, and functional associations. Further efforts towards the exploration of multi-dimensional measures is recommended since they consistently stand out as showing better results. The geographic visualisation of CNT constructs is another area of research that deserves attention since it can provide a unique point of view towards guiding participatory protected area planning and management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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This article examines the role played by urban gardens during historical collapses in urban food supply lines and identifies the social processes required to protect two critical elements of urban food production during times of crisis—open green spaces and the collective memory of how to grow food. Advanced communication and transport technologies allow food sequestration from the farthest reaches of the planet, but have markedly increasing urban dependence on global food systems over the past 50 years. Simultaneously, such advances have eroded collective memory of food production, while suitable spaces for urban gardening have been lost. These factors combine to heighten the potential for food shortages when—as occurred in the 20th century—major economic, political or environmental crises sever supply lines to urban areas. This paper considers how to govern urban areas sustainably in order to ensure food security in times of crisis by: evincing the effectiveness of urban gardening during crises; showing how allotment gardens serve as conduits for transmitting collective social-ecological memories of food production; and, discussing roles and strategies of urban environmental movements for protecting urban green space. Urban gardening and urban social movements can build local ecological and social response capacity against major collapses in urban food supplies. Hence, they should be incorporated as central elements of sustainable urban development. Urban governance for resilience should be historically informed about major food crises and allow for redundant food production solutions as a response to uncertain futures.
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Published article at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2016.09.009 For those who don't have access to it a preprint version is available at http://www.vtt.fi/inf/julkaisut/muut/2017/What_are_the_differences_between_sustainable_and_smart_cities.pdf ABSRACT: City assessment tools can be used as support for decision making in urban development as they provide assessment methodologies for cities to show the progress towards defined targets. In the 21st century, there has been a shift from sustainability assessment to smart city goals. We analyze 16 sets of city assessment frameworks (eight smart city and eight urban sustainability assessment frameworks) comprising 958 indicators altogether by dividing the indicators under three impact categories and 12 sectors. The following main observations derive from the analyses: as expected, there is a much stronger focus on modern technologies and “smartness” in the smart city frameworks compared to urban sustainability frameworks. Another observation is that as urban sustainability frameworks contain a large number of indicators measuring environmental sustainability, smart city frameworks lack environmental indicators while highlighting social and economic aspects. A general goal of smart cities is to improve sustainability with help of technologies. Thus, we recommend the use of a more accurate term “smart sustainable cities” instead of smart cities. However, the current large gap between smart city and sustainable city frameworks suggest that there is a need for developing smart city frameworks further or re-defining the smart city concept. We recommend that the assessment of smart city performance should not only use output indicators that measure the efficiency of deployment of smart solutions but also impact indicators that measure the contribution towards the ultimate goals such as environmental, economic or social sustainability.
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In light of the urgent threats presented by climate change and rapid urbanisation, interest in ‘smart city systems’ is mounting. In contrast to scholarship that poses ‘smartness’ as something that needs to be added to cities, recent developments in spatial morphology research pursue a view of the built fabric of cities as an extension of the cognitive human apparatus, as well as a material formulation of social, cultural and economic relations and processes. The built fabric of cities needs to be understood as a highly intelligent artefact in itself, rather than simple, dead matter. The current focus on high-tech systems risks concealing the fact that the machine is already there. In contrast to the technological ‘implements’ of smart city systems, this article looks at cities as ‘facilities’ – that is, as technologies that slow down, store and maintain energy as a resource for a variety of purposes. The article builds on space syntax research in order to give precision to the understanding of the affordances the cities offer their various processes and the ways in which cities operate as information storage and retrieval devices for individuals and for society. The city must be considered, we argue, in terms of a range of tangled, interdependent systems, reaching from individual buildings to the whole city, an understanding anchored in notions of ‘diversity’ and ‘density’ (recently gathered under the concept of ‘spatial capital’) and in research addressing how the distribution of space and artefacts serve as means of knowledge communication (specifically, in complex buildings such as libraries and department stores). In conclusion, we argue that existing discussions on ‘smart city systems’ would benefit acknowledgement of the role of cities as facilities. EPB Online First: http://journals.sagepub.com/toc/epbb/0/0
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Urban expansion often occurs on croplands. However, there is little scientific understanding of how global patterns of future urban expansion will affect the world's cultivated areas. Here, we combine spatially explicit projections of urban expansion with datasets on global croplands and crop yields. Our results show that urban expansion will result in a 1.8-2.4% loss of global croplands by 2030, with substantial regional disparities. About 80% of global cropland loss from urban expansion will take place in Asia and Africa. In both Asia and Africa, much of the cropland that will be lost is more than twice as productive as national averages. Asia will experience the highest absolute loss in cropland, whereas African countries will experience the highest percentage loss of cropland. Globally, the croplands that are likely to be lost were responsible for 3-4% of worldwide crop production in 2000. Urban expansion is expected to take place on cropland that is 1.77 times more productive than the global average. The loss of cropland is likely to be accompanied by other sustainability risks and threatens livelihoods, with diverging characteristics for different megaurban regions. Governance of urban area expansion thus emerges as a key area for securing livelihoods in the agrarian economies of the Global South.
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Today's children have less direct contact with nature than ever before, resulting in an ?extinction of experience?. Research has suggested that such loss of daily interactions decreases people's appreciation of the natural world, but this remains quantitatively unexplored. We conducted a questionnaire survey of undergraduate university students in Tokyo, Japan, and determined the effects of frequency of contact with nature on emotional connectedness to nature and perceptions of neighbourhood nature. A total of 255 students participated in the surveys. Students' perceptions of neighbourhood nature were measured by to what extent they valued cultural ecosystem services derived from neighbourhood natural environments, birds and butterflies. Results showed that students valued neighbourhood natural environments, birds and butterflies for many different reasons, such as relaxation, beauty of natural scenes, an indicator of seasonality, and opportunities for education. Linear mixed models revealed that both current and childhood frequencies of contact with nature were positively related not only to students' emotional connectedness to nature but also their perceptions of neighbourhood nature. Students' emotional connection to nature and perceptions of neighbourhood nature were positively associated with each other. Our results suggest that, given the rapid decrease in children's daily contact with nature, public appreciation of the value of the natural world is likely gradually also to decrease. This can be a major obstacle to reversing global environmental challenges. People should therefore be encouraged to experience neighbourhood natural environments and biodiversity, and city planners and policy makers will play a vital role in connecting people with nature.
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The 21st century has been hailed as the urban century and one in which ICT-led transformations will shape urban responses to global environmental change. The Smart City encapsulates all the desires and prospects on the transformative and disruptive role technology will have in solving urban issues both in Global North and Global South cities. Critical scholarship has pointed out that private capital, with the blessing of technocratic elites, has found a techno-environmental fix to both reshuffle economic growth and prevent other alternative politico-ecological transitions to take root in urban systems. Against this bleak outlook, the paper argues that these technological assemblages might be compatible with alternative post-capitalist urban transformations aligned with Degrowth. Through a cross-reading of research on Smart Cities with theoretical perspectives drawn from the literature on Degrowth, I suggest that Degrowth should not refrain from engaging with urban technological imaginaries in a critical and selective way. As the paper shows through alternative uses of Smart technologies and digital open-source fabrication, the question is not so much around technology per se but around the wider politico-economic context into which these technological assemblages are embedded.
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Despite substantial focus on sustainability issues in both science and politics, humanity remains on largely unsustainable development trajectories. Partly, this is due to the failure of sustainability science to engage with the root causes of unsustainability. Drawing on ideas by Donella Meadows, we argue that many sustainability interventions target highly tangible, but essentially weak, leverage points (i.e. using interventions that are easy, but have limited potential for transformational change). Thus, there is an urgent need to focus on less obvious but potentially far more powerful areas of intervention. We propose a research agenda inspired by systems thinking that focuses on transformational ‘sustainability interventions’, centred on three realms of leverage: reconnecting people to nature, restructuring institutions and rethinking how knowledge is created and used in pursuit of sustainability. The notion of leverage points has the potential to act as a boundary object for genuinely transformational sustainability science.
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Natural features, settings, and processes in urban areas can help to reduce stress associated with urban life. In this and other ways, public health benefits from, street trees, green roofs, community gardens, parks and open spaces, and extensive connective pathways for walking and biking. Such urban design provisions can also yield ecological benefits, not only directly but also through the role they play in shaping attitudes toward the environment and environmental protection. Knowledge of the psychological benefits of nature experience supports efforts to better integrate nature into the architecture, infrastructure, and public spaces of urban areas.