Article

Self-Efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change

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Abstract

Presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and to predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their form, alter the level and strength of self-efficacy. It is hypothesized that expectations of personal efficacy determine whether coping behavior will be initiated, how much effort will be expended, and how long it will be sustained in the face of obstacles and aversive experiences. Persistence in activities that are subjectively threatening but in fact relatively safe produces, through experiences of mastery, further enhancement of self-efficacy and corresponding reductions in defensive behavior. In the proposed model, expectations of personal efficacy are derived from 4 principal sources of information: performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological states. Factors influencing the cognitive processing of efficacy information arise from enactive, vicarious, exhortative, and emotive sources. The differential power of diverse therapeutic procedures is analyzed in terms of the postulated cognitive mechanism of operation. Findings are reported from microanalyses of enactive, vicarious, and emotive modes of treatment that support the hypothesized relationship between perceived self-efficacy and behavioral changes. (21/2 p ref)

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... The body of this study is designed to emphasize the relationship between self-efficacy which is a positive perspective, and the intolerance of uncertainty which expresses the negative situations, especially in terms of university students who excessively experience the uncertainty during this pandemic process. Self-efficacy Theory that was firstly proposed by Bandura in 1977 to be able to emphasize the importance of predicting, analyzing and explaining behavioral changes with different modes of treatments (Bandura, 1977). Self-efficacy Theory is based on the behaviors formed by the perception of "what one can do", rather than the thought that "one cannot cope with difficult and stressful events or situations". ...
... Individuals often experience positive psychological development and negative affections together throughout their lives. Self-efficacy is more concerned with people's beliefs in their capabilities to control their own functions and events which affect their lives (Bandura, 1977). On the other hand, intolerance is inevitable in the face of uncertainties in daily life. ...
... Self-efficacy content has been emphasized for years by Bandura especially and other researchers in related literature as well, and the common point that everyone agrees on is that self-efficacy can affect and have impact on everything in personal life "from psychological states to behavior to motivation" (Bandura, 1977). ...
Conference Paper
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Çavuş, M. F., Gökçen-Kapusuz, A., Develi, A., & Najimudinova, S. (2022). Can uncertainty be tolerated by self-efficacy? In H. Karadal, E. Ekiz, M. Saygın, E. Dinçer, M. Şahin Karadal (Eds.). 7th international EMI entrepreneurship & social sciences congress proceedings e-book (pp. 431-441). Dilkur academy.
... Going into more specific maternal factors that play a role in the development of parenting behaviors, one important aspect that should be considered is maternal selfefficacy [34]. Self-efficacy is the individual perception and trust in one's own ability to perform a particular behavior successfully [36]. The concept of self-efficacy could be linked to the parenting skills and tasks required of the mother and her own beliefs regarding the successful enactment of these behaviors. ...
... The concept of self-efficacy could be linked to the parenting skills and tasks required of the mother and her own beliefs regarding the successful enactment of these behaviors. Bandura [36] emphasized that mothers must believe that their actions will have the desired outcome and have confidence in their ability to perform specific behaviors or skills. If a woman feels that she can take good care of her baby, her self-esteem will increase and she will be able to show affectionate reactions to her baby's requests, building positive interactions with the baby. ...
... Indeed, maternal stress, anxiety, and depression are negatively associated with a high level of MSE [13,45,46]. However, MSE at one month was also associated with marital positivity (love and maintenance), which supports Bandura's theory that social-marital support influences self-efficacy through processes involving social persuasion and verbal encouragement [34,36]. ...
Article
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A mother’s responses to her newborn and her confidence in the child’s caretaking depend on her attachment security, general parental stress, and perceived self-efficacy. However, few studies have analyzed maternal confidence in caretaking and how it is influenced by some mothers’ characteristics. We aimed to examine the association between maternal adult attachment and confidence in a child’s caretaking and to understand whether this relationship was mediated by parenting stress and maternal self-efficacy. The sample consisted of 96 mothers with a mean age of 33 years with newborn children aged between 3 and 30 days. The instruments used were the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R), the Mother and Baby Scale (MABS), the Parenting Stress Index Short Form (PSI-SF), and the Maternal Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (MEQ). The results showed a positive association between attachment avoidance and lack of confidence in caretaking, and this association was mediated by parenting stress. Conversely, attachment anxiety appeared not to influence confidence in caretaking, and maternal self-efficacy did not appear to mediate the relationship between attachment and confidence in the caretaking of infants. Our results could guide new research in studying confidence in caretaking and enable healthcare professionals to recognize at-risk situations early from the first month after childbirth.
... Students' self-efficacy beliefs develop as a result of emotions and thoughts (i.e., personal factors), teachers' effective use of classroom structures (i.e., environmental factors) and students' self-regulatory practices (Usher, 2009). According to Bandura (1977), self-efficacy affects an individual's choice of activities, efforts and persistence. For this reason, people with a low sense of efficacy regarding their ability to accomplish a task may avoid it, and those who believe they will master the task will be motivated to prepare for, and put in effort to achieve, the task (Schunk, 1991). ...
... People have different interests and differ in the areas in which they cultivate their efficacy, so selfefficacy is a differentiated set of self-beliefs linked to distinct realms of functioning (Bandura, 2006). Bandura (1977) postulated that four sources of efficacy are crucial for the development and creation of a person's self-efficacy beliefs. Given our application of these sources in the context of a school setting, it is important to note that we followed Bandura (1997) and, for example, Wyatt (2014), who do not see knowledge as a source of self-efficacy in and of itself. ...
... The second source, vicarious experience, is derived from observing others perform a task. Thus, in addition to assessing the results of their own actions, people build efficacy beliefs by watching others perform the behaviour they are contemplating (Bandura, 1977). Similar others, such as classmates and peers in the context of this paper, offer the best basis for comparison (Schunk, 1991). ...
Article
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Quantitative and qualitative data have rarely been combined to offer a rich portrait of how self-efficacy develops in a specific context. We responded to this limitation by investigating students’ experiences of an extra school year between lower and upper secondary school. The objective of the extra school year is to reduce school dropout by strengthening students’ professional and social competences before they enter upper secondary education. The purpose of this paper was to explore how the students’ self-efficacy developed during the extra preparatory school year and to evaluate their perspective on the changes in their self-efficacy and sources of development. We applied a mixed methods design using a threefold questionnaire and individual interviews. The data collected for this study were part of a larger research project. Pre- and post-tests using a survey were applied to measure general self-efficacy, Norwegian self-efficacy and mathematics self-efficacy in individuals. A total of 23 qualitative semi-structured interviews with students near the end of their extra preparatory school year complemented the quantitative data. The data were analysed using a combination of Rasch analysis and thematic analysis. Our findings showed that learning and learning processes cannot be seen in isolation from the context, and we concluded that teachers are a central source of students’ self-efficacy. In this study, the teachers, in their capacity as facilitators and source performers, helped the students work with their individual purposes in mind, both within the domain of qualification and socialisation. However, these purposes could not have been achieved without the initiative and responsibility of each student. By building positive and trustful relationships with their students, the teachers managed to activate the students and help them take responsibility for the social and academic aspects of their lives. From the students’ point of view, the teachers seemed to build contexts in which the educational purposes were present, viewable, sensible and reachable – and important for nurturing the students’ self-efficacy. The students reported on their self-acceptance and feeling of belonging, being forward-looking and being able to portray their future selves as a consequence of mastering their academic disciplines. This study offers a methodological contribution in that we combined quantitative and qualitative data to analyse the students’ self-efficacy. The qualitative data allowed for a more comprehensive understanding of the students’ increased self-efficacy than that derived from the quantitative data alone.
... In contrast, those who have a sense of high self-efficacy tend to complete the task. 5,6 Research shows us that, if someone lacks self-efficacy, they will fail to accomplish tasks that they are perfectly capable of carrying out. 7,8 Individuals with a low sense of self-efficacy either avoid doing certain tasks altogether or, if they do take on the task in question, perform poorly and put themselves under a lot of stress. ...
... However, they are also likely to take part in activities�and act with self-efficacy�when they think they can handle situations that would otherwise seem daunting to them. 6 This holds true in the context of chemistry instruction. More needs to be done to find out just how chemistry teachers with high self-efficacy feel with their skills/knowledge when working in the lab and boost their self-efficacy if necessary. ...
... Wulf and Lewthwaite (1) developed the optimizing performance through intrinsic motivation and attention for learning (OPTIMAL) theory, which shows the essential role of motivational and attentional components in the optimal performance of motor skills. The influential factors in the OPTIMAL theory are (1) enhanced expectancies for future performance, (2) supporting learners' autonomy, and (3) promoting an external focus of attention. Enhanced ex-pectancies and autonomy are considered motivational factors, and external focus of attention is considered an attentional factor to optimize motor skill performance (1). ...
... Furthermore, regarding the OPTIMAL theory, self-efficacy plays an important role, because enhanced expectancies and autonomy support (AU) are invoked through the self-efficacy structure. Self-efficacy is, for the most part characterized as the conviction in one's capacity to succeed in particular circumstances or to perform a skill (2). Several studies have tested the effects of the instructions based on the motivational and attentional factors in the OPTIMAL theory (i.e., enhanced expectancies, AU, and external focus of attention) and found that these factors positively affect performance and self-efficacy in a variety of motor tasks and across a range of age groups (3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16). ...
Article
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Background: The optimizing performance through intrinsic motivation and attention for learning (OPTIMAL) theory proposes that enhancing expectancies for future performance and supporting learners' autonomy facilitate motor performance and learning. However, the effects of these factors on the performance of medical motor skills such as suturing have not been understood. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effects of enhanced expectancies and autonomy support (AU) on motor performance , learning, and self-efficacy of a medical motor skill. Methods: Participants were 63 right-handed medical students in the pre-clinical stage of their studies (years 1 and 2 of medical education). They were randomly assigned to 3 groups: (a) social-comparative feedback (SCF), (b) AU, and (c) control (CO) groups. A vertical mattress suture was chosen as a motor task. Following the pretest with 2 trials, all participants were exposed to a 5-day practice phase. The retention test was performed 1 week after the practice phase. During the practice phase, the SCF group received positive feedback at the end of the day. The AU group was given the option of choosing the color of silk sutures. The participants in the CO group practiced without any feedback or choosing the color of silk sutures. Suturing quality and self-efficacy were measured as dependent variables. Results: Positive SCF led to a better suturing performance on the retention test; however, AU did not enhance motor learning of a suturing motor task. Moreover, positive SCF increased self-efficacy during the acquisition phase and on the retention test, while AU had no positive effects on self-efficacy. Conclusions: The present findings support the OPTIMAL theory by demonstrating that enhanced expectancies in the form of positive SCF can facilitate learning medical motor skills (i.e., vertical mattress suturing).
... CO-OP's CHW intervention was based upon Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory [17]. We hypothesized that tooth brushing behaviors could be influenced by immediate feedback from CHWs that are external to the family but aligned with the participant's social network [6]. ...
... After each visit, CHWs reached out to caregivers through a follow-up phone call. CHWs used social cognitive theory to help families identify and make changes in oral health behaviors [17]. CO-OP CHWs applied formal selfmanagement skills (problem solving, decision making, resource utilization, patient/doctor partnership, and taking action) to activities aimed to address the oral health core curriculum topics (basic tooth anatomy, pathological factors, early childhood caries, tooth brushing basics, fluoride basics, nutrition, oral health recommendations) [26][27][28][29]. ...
Article
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Introduction Household-level psychosocial stress levels have been linked to child tooth brushing behaviors. Community health worker (CHW) interventions that target psychosocial factors in high-risk communities have been associated with changes in health behaviors. Aim Observe changes in psychosocial factors over time and an association between psychosocial factors and CHW intervention dose amongst urban Chicago families. Patients and methods Participants ( N = 420 families) were recruited from 10 community clinics and 10 Women, Infants, or Children (WIC) centers in Cook County, Illinois to participate in a clinical trial. Research staff collected participant-reported psychosocial factors (family functioning and caregiver reports of depression, anxiety, support, and social functioning) and characteristics of CHW-led oral health intervention visits (number, content, child engagement) at 0, 6, and 12 months. CHWs recorded field observations after home visits on household environment, social circumstances, stressors, and supports. Results Participants across the cohort reported levels of psychosocial factors consistent with average levels for the general population for nearly all measures. Psychosocial factors did not vary over time. Social functioning was the only measure reported at low levels [32.0 (6.9); 32.1 (6.7); 32.7 (6.9); mean = 50 (standard deviation)] at 0, 6, and 12 months. We did not observe a meaningful difference in social functioning scores over time by exposure to CHW-led intervention visits (control arm, 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 visits). Field observations made by CHWs described a range of psychosocial stress related to poverty, language barriers, and immigration status. Conclusion The unexpectedly average and unchanging psychosocial factors over time, in the context of field observations of stress related to poverty, lack of support, immigration status, and language barriers, suggests that our study did not adequately capture the social determinants of health related to oral health behaviors or that measurement biases precluded accurate assessment. Future studies will assess psychosocial factors using a variety of instruments in an attempt to better measure psychosocial factors including social support, depression, anxiety, functioning, trauma and resilience within our urban population. We will also look at neighborhood-level factors of community distress and resilience to better apply the social ecologic model to child oral health behaviors.
... Role of self-e cacy as a moderator between fine arts education and psychological wellbeing Albert Bandura introduced the concept of self-efficacy into social cognitive theory (1977). The belief of self-efficacy is that an individual can perform the behavior required for a specific outcome, resulting in an increase in an individual's high selfefficacy (Bandura, 1977). Fine arts education is extremely useful in terms of the expected impact on the individual's personality because it allows the individual to realize his/her own abilities, and gain and develop a sense of self-confidence between the individual and social goals. ...
Article
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The purpose of our research was to explore the impact of fine arts education on psychological wellbeing among undergraduate students through moderating role of creativity and self-efficacy. Art is the most effective medium for expressing human ideals, culture, identity, lifestyles, emotions, and societal experiences. Cross-sectional research was carried out on 376 undergraduates in the 2022–2023 academic year at the public and private Chinese universities, and those students who are currently enrolled in fine arts courses. A link to the Google Doc survey was sent through email and social media channels (i.e., WeChat). The time frame of the data collection was 3 months, from February 2022 to April 2022. While analyzing the obtained data, we used IBM SPSS version 25, which includes both descriptive and inferential statistics. The overall results of the study indicate that the fine arts education positively and significantly influences psychological wellbeing. Moreover, findings also indicate that the creativity and self-efficacy positively and significantly moderate the relationship between fine arts education and psychological wellbeing. The study highlighted the significance of fine arts education in Chinese students. Through this study, students studying in this field should be made more aware of the importance of fine arts education and its link with psychological wellbeing. Further, art courses should be added to the curriculum at different levels of education to boost the creativity and self-efficacy of higher education students in China. Implications for parents, students, and teachers are also discussed.
... 491). Esto es lo que se conoce como autoeficacia (Bandura, 1997). ...
Article
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Resumen Se analizó la asociación del control psicológico parental y la percepción de autoeficacia en situaciones académicas con el rendimiento académico en una muestra de 197 adolescentes con una edad media de 13.2 años (D.T.=.75), de una secundaria en el estado de Colima, México. Se aplicaron dos cuestionarios, uno para identificar la percepción de autoeficacia en situaciones académicas y otro para evaluar la percepción del control psicológico parental. Los resultados muestran que el rendimiento académico mantiene una correlación negativa con el control psicológico materno y una correlación positiva con la percepción de autoeficacia académica. El control psicológico parental correlacionó con el rendimiento académico de las mujeres pero no con el de los hombres. Se demuestra que una educación punitiva puede generar fracaso escolar en los estudiantes. Asimismo, un alto sentido de autoeficacia académica puede generar mayor disposición académica, lo que se refleja en las calificaciones obtenidas.
... Additionally, observing other students' speech fosters learning via "vicarious reinforcement" and "vicarious punishment", so that people can benefit from the successes and weaknesses of others as well as from their own experiences (Bandura, 1977). By observing their peers' performance, students would enact desired behaviors and refrain from undesired ones to achieve successful performance. ...
Article
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Video feedback (VF) is a useful learning technique in acquiring public speaking skills due to its capacity to retain both verbal and non-verbal elements of multimodal communication. Previous research has focused on video self-critique, peer VF, online feedback, or one-on-one VF in the first language (L1) context and has yielded varied results regarding the impact of VF on public speaking competence and anxiety. Therefore, this quasi-experimental classroom-based study compared the impact of the one-on-one VF and in-class VF on public speaking competency and anxiety of learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Three intact university-level English classes in China (n = 74) were assigned to the three conditions (in-class VF, one-on-one VF, and verbal feedback). Data on students' speaking competence were validated using many-facet Rasch measurement (MFRM). Subsequent gain score analysis and ANCOVA showed that in-class VF significantly improved students' delivery skill and global competence and reduced their speaking anxiety compared with the verbal feedback group. It is proposed that in-class VF be employed as an instructional procedure to help EFL learners improve their public speaking skills and reduce their public speaking anxiety, particularly in the teaching context of a large class size together with comparatively limited logistic and teaching resources.
... Self-efficacy is an individual characteristic that serves as a resource factor for appraisal . Thus, while self-efficacy is rather stable and tends to translate to other situations (Bandura 1977), appraisal may vary between situations and within situations over time depending on outcome expectations. This is because appraisal is a cognition that may change continuously as an individual interacts with the environment . ...
Thesis
Our world is becoming more and more digital and interconnected. Particularly new communication and collaboration technologies have changed the way we go about our daily life and work. Several technological and social developments are the driving forces for this change. On the one hand, technological advancements, such as portable devices, fast infrastructure, and constantly available software applications, transform the way employees communicate, collaborate, and transfer knowledge. On the other hand, social developments, such as an increase in knowledge-intense jobs and a workforce that has grown accustomed to increasingly modern and innovative technology from their private lives, contribute to the development. Further, during the COVID-19 pandemic, digital work and the use of communication and collaboration technology has increased unlike anything seen before. It is the organizations’ responsibility to care for their employees and leave no one behind in this transformation process of work as we know it. Yet, the management of increasingly complex portfolios of digital technologies, comprised of privately-owned and business-owned components, confronts individuals, IT departments, and management with challenges. To address them, organizations and individuals need to broaden their understanding of how and why employees use digital technologies and learn about the associated outcomes. Information Systems research has long been concerned with understanding digital technology use, which is among the most researched topics of the discipline. Research results on technology use have been summarized along the three categories antecedents, use process, and outcomes Antecedents describe factors that influence use. Insights into use processes provide us with details of how technology is used in practice. Use outcomes comprise different factors that can be positively or negatively affected by using technology, such as performance or stress. Within the field, a subset of studies has specifically focused on communication and collaboration technology. Yet, in light of the rise in ubiquitous digital work and the challenges that come with it, further investigation into this subject is necessary. This dissertation aims at providing novel insights into the use of communication and collaboration technology for organizations and individuals across the three categories: antecedents, use processes, and outcomes. In Chapter 2, this dissertation deals with important antecedents of use decisions of communication and collaboration technology. Chapter 2.1 does so by identifying factors that drive the choice of digital technologies in the context of knowledge transfer. Chapter 2.2 analyzes rationales for using privately-owned technology for business purposes based on a risk-benefit perspective. Chapter 3 analyzes individual use processes of communication and collaboration technology in more detail using digital trace data and user interviews. Different heterogeneous user roles are derived from the data in Chapter 3.1. Second, user behavior over time and the effect of external events on such behavior are examined (Chapter 3.2). Chapter 4 presents insights on outcomes of use behavior, particularly adverse outcomes. Insights are provided on the role of individual appraisal in the relationship between communication and collaboration technology use and associated stress (Chapter 4.1). Second, outcomes of the use of mixed IT portfolios comprised of privately-owned and business-owned components are investigated (Chapter 4.2). In summation, this dissertation contributes to the rich body of knowledge on technology use. It broadens our understanding of why communication and collaboration technologies are used, how they are used, and what consequences arise from their use. Thus, insights are provided to practitioners on how to manage technology use in a human-centered way while considering the risks of technology use and reaping its multifaceted benefits. The results of this dissertation may inspire future research on a topic that is potentially more relevant today than ever before.
... This study is based on Bandura's social cognitive theory for self-efficacy [21], by which patients with gestational diabetes can successfully perform self-care behaviors, utilizing four resources of self-efficacy, including enactive mastery experiences, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion and allied types of social influences, and physiological and affective states. Self-efficacy was measured by utilizing the instrument for measuring diabetic patients' self-efficacy developed in nine items by Gu [22]. ...
Article
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This study aimed to investigate the change in self-care, self-efficacy, and health status of pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and to identify whether blood glucose control influences pregnancy outcomes. This study is experimental research using a one-group pretest-posttest design. The study subjects were 40 pregnant women diagnosed with GDM, and the data were collected in their 24th and 40th week of gestation and analyzed using SPSS 27.0. Paired samples t-test was used to compare the health status, self-care, and self-efficacy of subjects between antepartum and postpartum, and t-test and non-parametric test were used to evaluate the changes in self-care and self-efficacy according to the ability to control blood glucose. As a result of this study, maternal BMI, self-care, and self-efficacy after childbirth were significantly worse than before (p < 0.001). However, HbA1c did not deteriorate and remained at a similar level, which is possibly the effect of diabetes education (p = 0.902). Furthermore, it was found that HbA1c control has a significant effect on preventing a decrease in self-care. In conclusion, it is necessary to develop and apply various diabetes education programs to manage blood glucose levels in pregnant women with GDM as blood glucose control is effective for improving not only their health outcomes but also their cognitive status, such as self-care.
... Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) is considered as being one of the most apt theories for explaining behavioral processes. Under SCT, it is assumed that both external and internal factors have an influence in motivating and regulating human behavior (Bandura, 1977). Both academic self-efficacy and career decision-making self-efficacy were adapted from Bandura's Self-Efficacy Theory by Betz and Hackett (1981). ...
Article
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The present study is aimed at exploring the links between academic self-efficacy, career decision-making self-efficacy, and academic major satisfaction, with career optimism as the mediator. The hypotheses based on this aim were tested on the data collected from a sample consisting of 411 senior engineering undergraduates attending a prestigious public university in Turkey. The results of structural equation modeling analyses indicate that career optimism mediates the relationship between academic self-efficacy and academic major satisfaction. Additionally, career optimism was found to have a mediating effect in the relationship between career decision-making self-efficacy and academic major satisfaction. Implications for theory and practice are presented.
... Other characteristics that can help predict citizens' online information behavior are self-efficacy and/or political efficacy (Dong and Ji 2018;Halpern et al. 2017). Self-efficacy refers to an individual's perception of their ability to gain control over actions, tasks, and other life events (Bandura 1977(Bandura , 1986(Bandura , 1993. A study examining the perception of political efficacy among young people in Mexico found a positive relationship between the use of online sources and the overall influence of political and democratic involvement (Kavanaugh et al. 2016). ...
Article
This study aims to examine the information behavior and acquisition of government information by Israeli citizens on social media. A mixed-methods research approach was used, with the study conducted in two main stages: an online survey, via a questionnaire distributed among Israeli citizens, and in-depth interviews. Both stages focus on citizens’ patterns of use, experience, and acquisition of government information through various digital means. The findings indicate that users do not prefer social networks to actively retrieve government information. They also avoid making direct inquiries to government bodies on these platforms, either out of fear of an invasion of privacy, or due to a lack of trust in the government. However, social media channels provide fertile ground for accidental and unintentional exposure to government announcements and updates. The findings also show that users with higher digital literacy and high internal political efficacy are more likely to rely on digital media as a tool for data acquisition and exposure to new public information. Our work offers a new way to classify different types of exposure to government information, distinguishing between intentional and accidental exposure through various platforms.
... The target article focused on pro-environmental decision-making and policy support , and we aimed to further investigate the interaction between political identities and attribute framing on the following two dependent variables: (1) self-efficacy related to remedying climate change, and (2) perceived impact on climate change. Within the context of the present study, we refer to self-efficacy as the belief that one's own decision-making and behavior can contribute to mitigating the negative effects of climate change (Bandura 1977;1982;Kerr, 1992;, and perceived climate change impact as perceptions of the likely positive and negative contributions of a decision to climate change . ...
Preprint
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Attribute framing of environmental costs refers to the phenomenon whereby describing environmental costs in positive or negative yet objectively equivalent versions of a critical characteristic (e.g., offset versus tax) influences one’s judgment and decision-making. Specifically, environmental costs positively framed as an offset are systematically favored over equivalent costs negatively framed as a tax. In this Registered Report Stage 1, we will conduct a high-powered (N = 450) direct replication of Study 1 by Hardisty and colleagues (2010). The original study examined whether individual differences in political affiliation moderated attribute framing of environmental costs. Republicans and Independents showed greater pro-environmental decision-making outcomes when environmental costs were described as an offset as opposed to a tax, whereas Democrats were not affected by such framing. The present replication [failed to find/found] support for this effect [effect size+CIs information]. Extending the original work, the present study also [failed to find/found] support for additional interactions between political affiliation and attribute framing on self-efficacy related to climate change and perceived impact on climate change [effect size+CIs information]. Materials, data, and analysis code are available on https://osf.io/ksjpu/
Article
Childhood obesity is a high prevalence condition that causes a high burden of disease in adulthood. Mobile phone app are increasingly used to prevent it. We summarized the evidence on the effectiveness of mobile apps for devices used by parents to prevent and treat childhood and adolescent obesity. An update of a systematic review of the literature (Quelly et al. 2016) was carried out. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Scopus, and ERIC were searched up to 2020. The included studies should target children 1-18 years, compare an app aimed at preventing or treating overweight and obesity, as stand-alone intervention or as part of a complex program, installed on parents’ mobile devices, to no intervention or an intervention without the app. Outcomes related to weight status, diet, and physical activity (PA) behaviors were considered. Nineteen studies (14 RCTs and 5 non-randomized trials) were included. The app was mainly used to record food consumption and PA, to set goals, to view progress, and send health promotion messages. One study reported a significant decrease and one a suggestive decrease in anthropometric measures in obese and overweight children, while other studies observed no effect. One study reported a significant increase in PA. Six interventions proved to be effective in changing dietary behaviors. Interventions targeting overweight and/or obese children had the most positive results. All studies reported high acceptability and feasibility of interventions. The differences between interventions and the small sample size of the studies did not allow this review to reach conclusion on effectiveness.
Article
While most educational models point toward cognitive and metacognitive skills to promote reading comprehension, recent studies indicate that motivation also plays a key role. Consequently, studying social factors that may support reading motivation represents an interesting research avenue. We therefore performed a systematic review of the literature to highlight the types of reading support provided by teachers, parent, or peers that predict changes in reading motivation among students in grades 4 to 6. Restricting our sample to peer-reviewed articles published in the last twenty years, we identified 7208 research papers from electronic databases. From these, we selected papers focused on 4th to 6th graders with normative development, using reading supports (from either teachers, parents, or peers) as independent variable(s) and reading motivation as the dependent variable, and having at least two waves of data. At the end of the selection process, 18 studies were eligible for data extraction. Our synthesis suggests that the current state of research in the field of reading motivation does not allow the identification of reading interventions that are undoubtedly effective in promoting reading motivation. However, it appears that supporting students’ psychological needs is generally an effective way of producing positive changes in their reading motivation.
Article
One of the key roles of an educator or manager is to provide feedback to students and direct reports, but what effect does this expectation of evaluation have on the creativity of the individuals who receive it? This synthetic review examined 20 published, peer-reviewed journal articles on the topic of evaluation expectation and its effects on creativity. The research in this area comes from the diverse fields of education, psychology, and organizational behavior, and therefore it approaches the question from many different points of view. However, a broadly similar methodological approach was observed among the surveyed articles. The review identified four creativity domains that have been used in these studies—creative writing, visual arts, creative problem-solving, and scientific creativity—as well as domain-general approaches focused on “divergent” and “convergent” thinking. To synthesize the information in this literature, findings of the prior studies were examined through the lens of self-determination theory, an outlook on motivation and personality in social contexts that views motivation as being either of a controlling or autonomous nature. The componential theory of creativity, which holds that there are specific intrinsic and extrinsic factors that shape creative variance in the population, was also used to organize and interpret the prior findings. The results of the literature review generally supported the self-determination theory, but they also indicate a need for stronger methodological approaches in this area to improve our understanding of the mediating and moderating roles of internal and external variables. Recommendations are provided for applying these findings to teaching and management, along with suggestions for future research.
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Background To improve the understanding of the psychological impacts of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, a systematic review synthesizing the evidence on knee self-efficacy, fear avoidance beliefs and kinesiophobia following ACL injury is needed. Objective The aim of this systematic review was to investigate knee self-efficacy, fear avoidance beliefs and kinesiophobia following ACL injury, and compare these outcomes following management with rehabilitation alone, early and delayed ACL reconstruction (ACLR). Methods Seven databases were searched from inception to April 14, 2022. Articles were included if they assessed Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK), Knee Self-Efficacy Scale (KSES), or Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ). Risk of bias (RoB) was assessed using domain-based RoB tools (ROBINS-1, RoB 2, RoBANS), and GRADE-assessed certainty of evidence. Random-effects meta-analyses pooled outcomes, stratified by time post-injury (pre-operative, 3–6 months, 7–12 months, > 1–2 years, > 2–5 years, > 5 years). Results Seventy-three studies (70% high RoB) were included (study outcomes: TSK: 55; KSES: 22; FABQ: 5). Meta-analysis demonstrated worse kinesiophobia and self-efficacy pre-operatively (pooled mean [95% CI], TSK-11: 23.8 [22.2–25.3]; KSES: 5.0 [4.4–5.5]) compared with 3–6 months following ACLR (TSK-11: 19.6 [18.7–20.6]; KSES: 19.6 [18.6–20.6]). Meta-analysis suggests similar kinesiophobia > 3–6 months following early ACLR (19.8 [4.9]) versus delayed ACLR (17.2 [5.0]). Only one study assessed outcomes comparing ACLR with rehabilitation only. Conclusions Knee self-efficacy and kinesiophobia improved from pre-ACLR to 3–6 months following ACLR, with similar outcomes after 6 months. Since the overall evidence was weak, there is a need for high-quality observational and intervention studies focusing on psychological outcomes following ACL injury.
Article
Why people do or do not change their beliefs has been a long-standing puzzle. Sometimes people hold onto false beliefs despite ample contradictory evidence; sometimes they change their beliefs without sufficient reason. Here, we propose that the utility of a belief is derived from the potential outcomes associated with holding it. Outcomes can be internal (e.g., positive/negative feelings) or external (e.g., material gain/loss), and only some are dependent on belief accuracy. Belief change can then be understood as an economic transaction in which the multidimensional utility of the old belief is compared against that of the new belief. Change will occur when potential outcomes alter across attributes, for example because of changing environments or when certain outcomes are made more or less salient.
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This study examines how differentiation in leader–member exchange relationships (LMXD) provokes different individual responses depending on personal dispositions—internal locus of control and self-efficacy. Further, we identify three types of individual behavioral responses to LMXD: in-role and extra-role performance as self-focused responses, impression management toward the leader as a leader-focused response, and social undermining of coworkers as a coworker-focused response. Analysis of data from a survey conducted in South Korea demonstrates cross-level interaction effects between LMXD and the two dispositional variables on these behavioral responses of individuals. Specifically, LMXD is more positively related to in-role and extra-role performance and impression management toward the leader for individuals high than low in internal locus of control and for individuals high than low in self-efficacy. However, the cross-level interaction effects are not supported regarding social undermining of coworkers. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
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The current article examines the emergence and dynamics of leadership during an extreme situation—a terrorist attack at the foreign subsidiary of a multinational energy corporation—and the crisis response undertaken at the corporate headquarters. The inductive analysis reveals that the in-situ crisis leadership involved impromptu interactions between multiple individuals leading collectively. Multiple sources of leadership emerged to carry out four critical leadership functions, namely strategic framing, ad hoc structuring, relational coping, and instant developing. These functions were carried out by several formal and informal leaders together, enhancing the overall leadership capacity in the crisis management organization (CMO). With increased capacity to lead efforts in different domains came specialization, which could have led to misalignment and fragmentation. But this was avoided by leaders acting as “role boundary transgressors,” expanding the boundaries of their responsibilities across roles, functions, and levels to foster the alignment of collective efforts across the CMO. Based on rich data from a leadership situation that researchers rarely have access to, this study contributes to the understanding of leadership during extreme situations by illustrating who leads (the emergence of multiple leadership sources), what leaders do (leadership functions), and how leadership plays out over time and across levels (through dynamic role boundary transgressions).
Article
Purpose Misinformation on social media has become a great threat across the globe. Therefore, the authors aim to provide a comprehensive understanding of social media users' misinformation combating behavior, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Specifically, the authors merged the uses and gratifications theory, social cognitive theory and theory of prosocial behavior into one theoretical framework (e.g. information seeking, status seeking, entertainment and norms of reciprocity) to understand their effect on users' prosocial media sharing experience and misinformation self-efficacy to combat misinformation. Design/methodology/approach The authors collected data from 356 social media users through “Google Forms” during the third wave of coronavirus in Pakistan. Further, the authors applied structural equation modeling for hypotheses testing. Findings The authors noted that entertainment and perceived norms of reciprocity positively affect social media users' prior experience and misinformation self-efficacy to enhance their misinformation combating intention. However, information seeking positively affects social media users' prior experience and insignificantly affects their misinformation self-efficacy. Similarly, status seeking was noted to be insignificantly associated with social media users' prior experience and misinformation self-efficacy. Research limitations/implications The authors tested this model of misinformation combating intention in a developing country during the COVID-19 pandemic and noted that entertainment and status seeking motives are context-specific. Therefore, this study may likely benefit researchers, academicians and policymakers to understand the causal relationship between motivations and the behavior of combating misinformation on social media within a developing country. Originality/value In this study the authors merged three theories (e.g. uses and gratifications theory, social cognitive theory and theory of prosocial behavior) to understand information seeking, status seeking, entertainment and norms of reciprocity as the main motives for social media users' misinformation combating intention.
Article
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As an innovative exercise therapy, therapeutic climbing (TC) has attracted more attention than ever before in recent years. In this review of the related studies on TC, the authors explore its origin and development; summarize its therapeutic effect in treating depression, low back pain and other diseases; and further analyze its underlying mechanism. According to the literature, TC was primarily applied in the field of orthopedics and then was gradually used in neurology, psychiatry and psychology. It provides a new means for the treatment of depression, lower back pain, multiple sclerosis and other diseases. There are two potential mechanisms: physiological and psychological. In the future, exercise effects, adverse effects and exercise prescriptions of TC should be explored with large samples and high-quality randomized controlled trials.
Article
Despite the evidence that person-centred communication underpins all that we do in our interactions with patients, caregivers and team members, the knowledge about the implementation of systematic communication skills training is still in its infancy. This position paper describes some of the main contextual facilitators for translating knowledge about communication skills training for health care professionals (HCP) and recommends ways to guide practical implementation. Based on the literature that has been published over the last two decades, it seems evident that communication skills training programs should be underpinned by clinician self-reflection, be experiential, and focused on behaviour change and implementation of new skills into practice. The programs should be delivered by trainers possessing an understanding of communication micro skills, the skills and confidence to observe interactions, and coach learners through the rehearsal of alternative approaches. Communication skills programs should be flexible to adapt to individual learners, local needs, and circumstances. Interventions should not be limited to the empowerment of individual HCP but should be a part of the organisational quality assurance framework, e.g., by including communication skills in clinical audits. Implementation science frameworks may provide tools to align programs to the context and to address the determinants important for a sustained implementation process. Programs need to be embedded as ‘core business’, otherwise the culture change will be elusive and sustainability under threat if they are only dependent on provisional funding.
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This study aimed to develop a model illustrating how teacher leadership contributes to student learning in higher education settings in the Eastern world. Specifically, the current study examined the relationship between teacher leadership style, classroom climate, student self-efficacy, and academic motivation. Four hundred and forty-six randomly selected undergraduate students from four medical universities in China participated in this study. PLS-SEM analyses revealed that teacher leadership style had a significant and positive effect on academic motivation. Findings also showed that classroom climate and student self-efficacy significantly mediated the association between teacher leadership style and academic motivation. Apart from contributing to the theoretical understanding of how teacher leadership impacts student learning, this research provides insightful references for medical teachers, policymakers, and stakeholders.
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Research on situated motivation and emotion in education has made substantial progress, as documented in the contributions to this special issue. We discuss how this field can make further headway. First, we address the ambiguous meaning of the term situation and propose a 2 × 2 model of situational variation across time and context. From this model, it follows that we should consider study designs that address not only variation over time and single settings, but also across broader socio-cultural contexts. We then explain the need to overcome the current fragmentation of theoretical models by integrating constructs and theoretical propositions. Next, we discuss strategies to improve methodology, including further development of empirical paradigms, analyzing the equivalence of effects across levels and persons, and use of dynamic modeling of data from different sources. Finally, we argue that we need to broaden research perspectives by developing formalized micro- and macro-theories; considering motivation and emotion beyond the achievement domain; including samples from non-WEIRD countries; and investigating the generalizability of principles and practices across persons, cultural contexts, and historical times.
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Vaccination is without a doubt one of the most efficient ways to stop the COVID-19 pandemic from spreading. The goal of this study was to look into the acceptance and resistance to COVID-19 vaccination and its associated components using the Health Belief Model, which is a framework for changing health behaviours (HBM). The current study is quantitative; hence data was collected from attendants of patients admitted to hospitals in Pakistan's top-tier cities using a survey-based self-administered questionnaire. Nonprobability convenient sampling was utilised to approach the respondents. The model was tested in two stages using partial least squares (variance-based structural equation modelling). The measurement model's reliability and validity imply that the data is reliable and valid. Except for the impact of benefits on accepting behaviour, all of the study postulated relationships are supported by the results. The study agenda adds to our understanding of health care, immunisation, consumer behaviour, and behavioural research. It adds to the body of knowledge in the fields of immunisation and behavioural research by examining people's behaviours and changes during the worldwide mass vaccination period.
Article
The current study examined the role of career adaptability and academic self-efficacy as two potential mediators between hope, future work self, and life satisfaction. A total of 636 Chinese vocational high school students completed measures of hope, future work self, career adaptability, academic self-efficacy, and life satisfaction. The results indicated that: (a) hope, future work self, career adaptability, and academic self-efficacy were positively related to life satisfaction; (b) the effects of hope and future work self on life satisfaction were mediated by career adaptability or academic self-efficacy; (c) more hope and clearer future work self were associated with greater career adaptability, which related to higher academic self-efficacy; ultimately, higher academic self-efficacy was related to higher life satisfaction; (d) males tended to report more hope, greater career adaptability, higher academic self-efficacy, and higher life satisfaction than females. These findings contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the factors that intervene in vocational high school students' life satisfaction and enrich theoretical implications about career adaptability.
Article
Elementary science education calls on teachers to facilitate student learning of the content of science while they engage in the work of scientists. Additionally, recent national and state standards incorporate the practices of engineering into science education throughout grades K-12. However, many practicing teachers receive little to no professional development related to this shift in educational practice for the science classroom. To exasperate the issue, elementary teachers are generalists by nature without content or practical expertise in science and engineering content or practices. This study investigated how two fifth-grade teachers experienced co-facilitating an independent engineering fair with their students. The findings from this study can inform the ways in which teacher educators can support the incorporation of authentic engineering practice in the elementary classroom.
Article
This study examines the culturally responsive teaching self-efficacy of graduates from a Physical Education Teacher Education program focused on social justice issues. We examined barriers to culturally responsive teaching and areas where alumni felt least efficacious. Forty-three graduates of a Physical Education Teacher Education program completed the culturally responsive teaching self-efficacy scale and demographic questions via Qualtrics, and 13 completed a 45- to 60-min interview regarding urban teaching experience. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and comparative data analysis to determine areas of lower self-efficacy. Two major themes emerged from this data: (a) misalignment between expectations and reality and (b) lack of practical experiences with communication. Specific coursework, training, and supports need to be implemented to address the mismatch between participants’ lived experiences and their daily challenges upon induction. Physical Education Teacher Education programs need to critically examine the experiences preservice teachers have interacting and communicating with English language learners and their caregivers prior to induction.
Article
Childbirth self-efficacy is a useful measure for determining a woman's confidence in managing childbirth and for determining any preconceptions that require reinforcement. Childbirth self-efficacy is also particularly helpful in advising not only how to cope with birth, but also maternal well-being and fostering the improvement of a wide variety of perinatal outcomes. The present study aims to determine the factors affecting childbirth self-efficacy in pregnant women. The sample size consisted of 380 pregnant women between the ages of 18 and 45. Data were collected via face to face interviews using the Childbirth Self Efficacy Scale Short Form (CBSEI-32) in the Akdeniz University Hospital between November 2019 and February 2020 and used Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector analyses, resulting in a mean CBSEI-32 score of 244.279 ± 45.121. As a result of the analysis, it was seen that income status affects self-efficacy, and personal experiences such as foetal loss affect a woman's childbirth self-efficacy. In addition, it was also found that the level of prenatal education affected childbirth self-efficacy. Health professionals should assess pregnant women during the antenatal period in terms of their childbirth self efficacy and prepare personalised training programs and plan initiatives to increase perceptions of self-efficacy.IMPACT STATEMENTWhat is already known on this subject? Childbirth self-efficacy is one of the important psychological parameters to determine a woman's belief in her confidence in managing childbirth and to measure women's perceptions of her need for reinforcement.What do the results of this study add? Sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics of women affect their childbirth self-efficacy perception positively and negatively. Women's birth self-efficacy can be improved positively with prenatal education. In addition, it is one of the interesting findings of the study that the self-efficacy level of women who had a previous low experience was high.What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? Women's childbirth self efficacy can be improved with trainings and appropriate nursing interventions. For this reason, it is important to determine the factors affecting the self-efficacy perception of women. In future studies, the childbirth self-efficacy perceptions of women in different samples (risky pregnancy, disabled pregnant, etc.) should be measured.
Article
Introduction: College students-including those of Hispanic backgrounds-are at risk for hazardous drinking. Research has shown robust group differences between Hispanic and White individuals in alcohol use outcomes. The ability to resist alcohol consumption can be leveraged to reduce hazardous drinking; however, little research has examined Hispanic-White differences and whether drinking refusal self-efficacy accounts for group differences in hazardous drinking. Considering Hispanic individuals make up the largest ethnic/racial minority group in the United States, it is important to identify malleable psychological factors that prevent and reduce drinking problems. Method: Hispanic and White college students at two predominantly White institutions (N = 389; 58.6% women, Mage= 20.22) completed measures assessing drinking refusal self-efficacy, hazardous drinking, and negative drinking consequences. Results: Hispanic students reported lower levels of hazardous drinking, alcohol-related problems, and drinking refusal self-efficacy than White students. Drinking refusal self-efficacy was found to partially explain Hispanic-White differences in the levels of hazardous drinking and drinking-related problems. Specifically, drinking refusal self-efficacy was associated with alcohol use outcomes only among White students and not Hispanic students. Conclusion: The correspondence between drinking refusal self-efficacy and actual behaviors to turn down drinks, ethnic/racial distinctiveness in ratings of self-efficacy and cultural orientations, and situational contexts that surround drinking should be examined in future research.
Article
Background Global scale-up of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) includes services to HIV-negative people in partnerships with people living with HIV (serodifferent couples). Data are needed on HIV outcomes, including uptake and adherence to PrEP and antiretroviral treatment (ART), to describe the impact of integrating PrEP into an existing HIV program. Methods Using a stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial design, we launched PrEP delivery for HIV-negative members of serodifferent couples in Uganda by integrating PrEP into existing ART programs for people living with HIV. The program provided PrEP training for ART providers, ongoing technical assistance, and a provisional supply chain mechanism for PrEP medication. Primary data on PrEP initiation, PrEP refills, ART initiation, and HIV viremia at 6 months (measured at 42-270 days) were collected through data abstraction of medical records from HIV-serodifferent couples sequentially enrolling at the ART clinics. Modified Poisson regression models, controlling for time and cluster, compared viral suppression (<1000 copies/ml) before and after launch of the PrEP program. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03586128. Findings From June 1, 2018-December 15, 2020, 1,381 HIV-serodifferent couples were enrolled across 12 ART clinics in Kampala and Wakiso, Uganda, including 730 enrolled before and 651 after the launch of PrEP delivery. During the baseline period, 99.4% of partners living with HIV initiated ART and 85.0% were virally suppressed at 6 months. Among HIV-negative partners enrolled after PrEP launched, 81.0% (527/651) initiated PrEP within 90 days of enrolling; among these 527, 11.2% sought a refill 6 months later. In our powered intent-to-treat analysis, 82.1% and 76.7% of partners living with HIV were virally suppressed, respectively, which was not a statistically significant difference (RR=0.94, 95% CI: 0.82-1.07) and was stable across sensitivity analyses. Interpretation Integration of PrEP into ART clinics reached a high proportion of people in HIV-serodifferent relationships and did not improve the already high frequency of HIV viral suppression among partners living with HIV. Funding National Institute of Mental Health (R01MH110296).
Article
This research attempts to measure the direct and moderated influence of entrepreneurial passion (EP), motivation (EM) and creativity (EC) on intention (EI) while being moderated by entrepreneurship education (EE). This study also instrumentalizes the conditional interaction effect of fear of failure on the moderated paths. A data sample of 1090 business students from five Indian universities was subjected to screening and cleaning before establishing the measurement model and testing the hypotheses using structural equation modelling and Process Macro. EP, EM and EC were found to affect EI directly, while EE also moderated these links. Fear of failure was also found to be conditioning the moderated paths such that the positive moderation effect of EE on direct paths between EP, EM, EC and EI was stronger when students perceived no fear of failure. The study advances the existing literature on the moderating role of entrepreneurship education by recognizing the conditional interaction effect (moderated-moderation) of fear of failure on the moderating effects of entrepreneurship education. The authors also provide valuable suggestions for practice.
Article
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Parenting self-efficacy (PSE) has been linked to a variety of important child and family outcomes, including child internalizing and externalizing problems. However, there is uncertainty regarding the relation between PSE and these problems as a function of child age. The current study examined: (1) the associations of PSE and child age with internalizing and externalizing problems and (2) the role of age as a potential moderator in the relation between PSE and internalizing and externalizing problems. Participants included youth ranging from 5–18 years of age in the southeastern United States (N = 276, M age = 11.27, 55.6% male). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated child age and PSE were negatively associated with externalizing problems, and the relation between PSE and externalizing problems was constant as a function of age. Among late adolescents, PSE was not associated with internalizing problems. However, among youth in middle childhood and early adolescence, PSE was negatively associated with internalizing problems. Implications of study findings for future research and practice are discussed.
Article
Purpose Achieving financial well-being is essential for individuals, families and countries as it leads to life satisfaction and happiness. This study synthesizes and identifies financial well-being’s key areas and dimensions using a blended systematic literature review and bibliometric analysis approach. Design/methodology/approach The authors systematically study a sample of 467 articles from the Scopus database to identify the research trend regarding financial well-being during the last 25 years (1997–2021). Various graphs and networks are presented to understand the publication trends, influential papers, conceptual and intellectual structures and research collaboration status. Findings Four clusters in the field of financial well-being were found: conceptualization and antecedents of financial well-being, financial well-being of young adults, the relationship between financial literacy and financial well-being and consequences of financial well-being. Further, emerging themes in financial well-being were identified with a content analysis of the papers published during the last five years. Practical implications This study will help financial planners, regulatory bodies and academic researchers in getting a better understanding of financial well-being and in identifying potential areas for future research. Originality/value Prior to this study, no such comprehensive bibliometric analysis on financial well-being has been carried out to the best of the authors' knowledge. This gap motivated the authors to combine quantitative and qualitative methods to review the published research and do a content analysis, to identify prominent authors and publications.
Article
Background Although nursing students are educated on the importance of exercising regularly and maintaining a well-balanced diet, many do not practice healthy weight management behaviors, and some even use unhealthy weight loss methods. Yet, little research has examined both positive and negative psychosocial variables related to weight control among nursing students. Purpose The present study aimed to identify the most salient psychosocial variables related to healthy and unhealthy weight control among nursing students. Method Using survey data from 241 nursing students, structural equation modeling was conducted to examine the relative contributions of eight interrelated psychosocial variables, including constructs from a strengths perspective (health-specific hope, health self-efficacy, social support, and body satisfaction) and from a deficit perspective (depression, anxiety, weight perception, and barriers to physical activity). Results Results showed that the degree to which individuals perceive themselves to be overweight was related to both healthy and unhealthy weight control. Aside from weight perception, health self-efficacy produced the strongest association with healthy weight control, and anxiety produced the strongest association with unhealthy weight control. The structural model explained 23 % of the variance in healthy weight control and 29 % of the variance in unhealthy weight control. Conclusions These findings emphasize the need for tailored, integrated weight management interventions for nursing students that equip them with effective anxiety management skills and build self-efficacy.
Article
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Background Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) survivorship results in unique issues in return to physical and psychological function. The purpose of the study was to compare recovery across the first year between SCA survivors and other arrhythmia patients who received a first-time implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) for secondary prevention, participating in a social cognitive theory (SCT) intervention. Methods 168 (129 males, 39 females) who received an ICD for secondary prevention (SCA N = 65; other arrhythmia N = 103) were randomized to one of two study conditions: SCT intervention (N = 85) or usual care (N = 83). Outcomes were measured at baseline hospital discharge, 1, 3, 6, & 12 months: (1) Physical Function: Patient Concerns Assessment (PCA), SF-36 (PCS); (2) Psychological Adjustment: State Trait Anxiety (STAI), CES-D depression, SF-36 (MCS); (3) Self-Efficacy: Self-Efficacy (SCA-SE), Self-management Behaviors (SMB), Outcome Expectations (OE). Outcomes were compared over 12 months for intervention condition x ICD indication using general estimating equations. Results Participants were Caucasian (89%), mean age 63.95 ± 12.3 years, EF% 33.95 ± 13.9, BMI 28.19 ± 6.2, and Charlson Index 4.27 ± 2.3. Physical symptoms (PCA) were higher over time for SCA survivors compared to the other arrhythmia group ( p = 0.04), ICD shocks were lower in SCA survivors in the SCT intervention ( p = 0.01); psychological adjustment (MCS) was significantly lower in SCA survivors in the SCT intervention over 6 months, which improved at 12 months ( p = 0.05); outcome expectations (OE) were significantly lower for SCA survivors in the SCT intervention ( p = 0.008). Conclusions SCA survivors had greater number of physical symptoms, lower levels of mental health and outcome expectations over 12 months despite participation in a SCT intervention. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT04462887.
Article
This brief report provides an overview of lessons learned through evaluation of the first five years of the NIA-funded South Carolina-Advancing Diversity in Aging Research (SC-ADAR) undergraduate program, whose goal is to increase the number of qualified underrepresented minority (URM) students who pursue scientific graduate studies in programs focusing on medicine, science, technology, engineering, and mathematics and aging. Partnering with five Historically Black Colleges and Universities in South Carolina, we implemented a research training approach that included two consecutive summers of research training in a University of South Carolina faculty laboratory, as part of a comprehensive 24-month research education program. In addition to the mentored research experience in a laboratory, students had coursework in the biology of aging and social gerontology, with additional workshops tailored to emergent student needs including basic academic skills development, work-life management skills, reflective social experiences, and enhanced support in the transition from undergraduate to graduate school. We provide an overview of lessons learned throughout the early program period, and a description of the iterative changes we made in the program in response to this learning, all of which have been incorporated into the existing SC-ADAR program.
Chapter
Self-efficacy is a critical component in the development of social work practice skills. If students lack self-efficacy, it can impact their preparation and performance during field placement. Therefore, the self-efficacy of students enrolled in the Bachelor of Social Work program at a Historically Black College and University (HBCU) was examined. Social work pedagogy and curriculum were adapted to include the four sources of self-efficacy to address deficits in the students' self-perception and self-concept. Students' self-efficacy was measured using the social work self-efficacy scale before and after the completion of the first mock case study and at the completion of the second mock case study.
Chapter
This chapter addresses the underrepresentation of students of African descent and Latinx heritage by offering a model that supports inclusion into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) pipeline via research competitions. The 5P Model is a social justice framework designed to redress the exclusion of underrepresented students by providing a support structure for success in research competitions. The model includes conducting research, performing a research experiment, creating a poster board presentation, writing the research paper, and the oral presentation. These elements develop research skills and strategies which are foundational for overall academic success and preparation for most career pathways. Drawing from a qualitative study of 120 middle school 6th and 7th grade students from a middle/high charter school in New Mexico, the data reveals evidence that, as self-efficacy increased, persistence and positive attitudes toward participation increased.
Article
Background During the COVID-19 pandemic, pregnant women were identified as a high-risk and vulnerable group. To reduce risk of transmission, maternity healthcare services were modified to limit exposure but maintain services for pregnant women. However, the change in hospital practice may have compromised quality maternal care standards. Therefore, this review aims to explore parental experiences and views with maternity care received from healthcare institutions during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods A mixed studies systematic review was conducted. Six electronic databases (Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsycInfo, Web of Science, and Maternity and Infant Care) were searched for qualitative, observational, and mixed method studies from the year 2019 to February 2022. Study quality was appraised using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Quantitative findings were converted to narrative findings. Data was synthesised thematically using a convergent synthesis design. Results Fifty-eight articles were included. Four themes were generated: 1) Distress associated with COVID-19 regulations (perception of hospital restrictions, confusion with ever changing policies), 2) adaptability with maternity services (prenatal: changes in birth plans, prenatal: altered antenatal appointments, education, and care, intrapartum: medicalization of birth, postpartum: varied views on care received and Breastfeeding woes, postpartum: skin-to-skin contact and mother infant bonding) 3) importance of support persons, and 4) future direction for maternity services. Conclusions Parental experiences highlighted how maternity care during the COVID-19 pandemic did not adhere to WHO standards of quality maternity care. This calls for healthcare institutions to continuously appraise the implementation of restrictive practices that deviate from evidence-based frameworks underpinning quality care.
Article
Background: At present, family socioeconomic status is a significant contributor to the differences in university students’ learning motivation, but few studies have examined the effects on different types of motivation to learn conformity. Thus, the present study investigates the effects of family socioeconomic status on different types of learning conformity and the mediating role of self-efficacy. Methods: 339 Chinese university students were surveyed using the general self-efficacy scale, the learning conformity scale, and the family socioeconomic status questionnaire. We analyzed the effect of family socioeconomic status on learning conformity and the mediating role of general self-efficacy through common bias tests, correlation analysis, structural equation modeling, and tests of mediating effects. Results: (1) There are three types of learning conformity, as follows: learning abidance, learning obedience, and learning compliance. (2) The mediation model concluded that family socioeconomic status had a positive and significant effect on learning abidance and learning obedience, and general self-efficacy played a partially mediating role, with an adequate ratio of 59.7% and 26.26%, respectively; family socioeconomic status had a negative and significant effect on learning compliance, and general self-efficacy played a partially mediating role, with an adequate ratio of 52.02%. Conclusions: This study provides first-hand empirical data to support studies of learning motivation, learning conformity behavior, and self-efficacy among Chinese university students. It also provides a theoretical basis for subsequent research on family socioeconomic status and learning conformity.
Article
Objective Parents face many challenges during the perinatal period and are at risk for mental health issues, especially during the current coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Mobile application-based interventions can help parents to improve their psychosocial well-being in a convenient and accessible manner. This review aims to examine the effectiveness of mobile application-based perinatal interventions in improving parenting self-efficacy, anxiety, and depression (primary outcomes), as well as stress, social support, and parent-child bonding (secondary outcomes) among parents. Methods Seven electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Scopus, and ProQuest Thesis and Dissertations) were searched from their respective inception dates until August 2021. The Cochrane Risk of Bias-2 tool was used to conduct quality appraisals. Results were narratively synthesized due to the high heterogeneity of intervention and participant types. Findings A total of 6164 articles were retrieved from the seven electronic databases and citation searching. After excluding duplicate records and irrelevant titles/abstracts, 105 full texts were examined. Full-text screening excluded another 93 articles, leaving 12 included studies in this review. All studies were rated as having some concerns or a high overall risk of bias. Mobile application-based interventions were found to be feasible and promising in improving parents’ overall well-being post-intervention during the perinatal period. Further research would be needed to determine their long-term effects. Key conclusions and implications for practice Parental well-being was shown to improve using the following intervention components: educational resources on perinatal and infant care, psychotherapy, and support from peers and healthcare professionals. Hence, future interventions could aim to include these components and evaluate all inter-related parenting outcomes (parenting self-efficacy, stress, anxiety, depression, social support, and parent-child bonding). Parents could be provided with experiential learning exposure by using computer animations and virtual reality. Future research could be conducted on more fathers and parents from varied geographical regions.
Article
This research explores the eudaimonic environmental pursuit of Generation Zers. Although how they can contribute to the environment has gained traction, extant tourism research in this regard largely lags behind. Drawing on self-determination and self-efficacy theories, this inquiry fills this void by proposing a model that delineates a motivation–behavior–goal mechanism to illuminate how pursuits for environmental sustainability can develop into self-actualization. Using an explanatory sequential design, we first undertook a survey-based investigation with data acquired through purposive sampling to sample Generation Zers who had attended a minimum of one green volunteer trip in the prior year. Results first unravel how eudaimonic environmental motivation can induce green travel involvement, leading to environmental citizenship. Exhibiting environmental citizenship presents an avenue to foster environmental goal attainment and subsequent self-actualization, synthesizing a path that depicts behavior-goal-actualization of oneself. The moderating effect of environmental self-efficacy is also warranted. A post-hoc study was followed using semistructured interviews to explore Generation Zers’ eudaimonic environment pursuits and goal attainment. Our findings pave the way for a better understanding of behavioral engagement and pursuits of this rising cohort towards a greener tomorrow. It lays the groundwork to bring personal growth needs for environmental goal attainment to light.
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