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Symbolic interactionism: Perspective and method.

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... Underwood et al. (2011) posit that the identity transformation of the Muslim community implies a new assessment of the self and others regarding the events Fig. 2 The Muslim community of chanting the call to prayer and lafadz Rawi barzanji at the altar of Immanuel Church of the pela gandong the celebrate the first Advent held in Immanuel Church, Moluccas Island, Indonesia individuals experience relating to social life. Self-involvement identity is related to the negotiation theory of social identity (Dorjee & Ting-Toomey, 2020;Mitha & Jaspal, 2017;Seto, 2020;Ting-Toomey, 2017;Toomey et al., 2013), ritual and social transformation (Bigger, 2009;Kapferer, 2019aKapferer, , 2019b and symbolic interactionism (Blumer, 1969;Nilgun et al., 2009;Sulaeman, Rijal, Malawat, et al., 2021a). According to Ting-Toomey (2017), identity negotiation is unique compared to its two predecessor theories-labeling (Timol, 2020;Wood, 2014) and social identity (Montenegro, 2018;Ridwan et al., 2020). ...
... This dimension also influences the experiential (feeling), intellectual (knowledge), and consequential (social effects) dimensions. Religion as a system of local wisdom used symbolically (Blumer, 1969;Nilgun et al., 2009) offers a way to perceive the world. Religion as a "model for reality" provides a method or framework for seeing reality. ...
... Consciousness is attained when, after communication rituals, involvement is also transformed. These changes occur in communication patterns that, from the perspective of symbolic interactions (Blumer, 1969;Nilgun et al., 2009;Sulaeman, Rijal, & Ridwan, 2021b), involve symbols. After individuals participate by taking the role of the other to understand new symbols based on the beliefs, the beliefs hold (Mead, 2008). ...
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This study focuses on the phenomenon that arose from the involvement of the Muslim community in the pela gandong ritual communication on December 2, 2018. Religious symbols were used to celebrate the first Advent held in Immanuel Church, Moluccas Islands, Indonesia. Symbols included chanting the call to prayer, lafadz Rawi barzanji, and the call to worship, singing hymns of praise, and lighting Advent candles. Using qualitative methods and subjective interpretive paradigms with data collected through interviews, observations were made from a phenomenological perspective, especially ritual, social transformation, social identity negotiation, and symbolic interactionism theory. The results showed that the involvement of the Muslim community in communication rituals has beliefs and values as central principles of kindred equivalence and social-community concerns. In addition, implementing cross-religious kinship in the subjective experience impacts proof of self-identity, human kinship, relationship creation, treatment acceptance, and joint worship labels. The last leads to a developed case of civic pluralism in the pre-conflict era that had been shattered by the conflict. It is likely that cross-religious civic pluralism is a necessary precondition for efforts to build theological pluralism. This article contributes to understanding Muslim communities’ subjective experience regarding cross-religious pela gandong ritual communication and encourages further research in this area.
... In CGT, it is possible to consider how social structural issues are associated with school bullying, as these questions can serve as analytical lenses throughout the research process that the researcher can use "with a critical and analytical eye" (Charmaz, 2021, p. 160; see also Thornberg, 2012) to explore how they might be relevant. This connects to the symbolic interactionist underpinnings and the idea of sensitizing concepts (Blumer, 1969). Sensitizing concepts involve the researcher incorporating questions and theoretical concepts as possible lenses. ...
... By utilizing symbolic interactionism as a perspective, attention is drawn to how perspectives on a phenomenon are constructed in social interaction and in processes. It also assumes that people act toward the world based on how they interpret and define it (Blumer, 1969). This perspective can also address how perspectives, processes, and interactions connect to wider social structural concerns and negotiated orders (Charmaz, 2014(Charmaz, , 2021Duckels et al., 2019). ...
... A prerequisite for this is that the researcher has knowledge, self-awareness, and is sensitive in not dismissing issues related to social justice (Green et al., 2007). In the CGT approach, social justice issues may be explored by incorporating previous knowledge as sensitizing concepts (Blumer, 1969;Charmaz, 2014;Thornberg, 2012). I find that incorporating questions related to issues of gender or ethnicity, in combination with the analytical questions offered by Charmaz (2006Charmaz ( , 2021, can spark theoretical insights into these issues. ...
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School bullying is a complex social phenomenon in need of further exploration regarding its connections to contextual aspects, group norms, and societal structures. This calls for research approaches that can get closer to participants’ experiences and the different social processes involved in school bullying. One such approach is the constructivist grounded theory (CGT) approach, which aims to be attentive to participants’ main concerns and social processes through both analysis and data collection. This approach comes as a theory-method package with its use of a symbolic interactionism perspective. In this paper, I will show how CGT as a theory-method package, as well as symbolic interactionism and sociology of childhood, has been helpful in my research on school bullying (focusing on social structures, norms, and processes). More specifically, I give different examples from the whole research process, e.g., maintaining a focus on participants’ main concerns, the coding process, being guided by sensitizing concepts, addressing issues of social justice and equity — and overall forming and maintaining a theoretically and ethically prepared researcher role. I also suggest that this approach is helpful in dealing with ethical and theoretical challenges when researching topics known to negatively affect people’s lives and wellbeing — and when the social context makes it difficult for participants to address victimizing structures, positions, and processes.
... The approach is anchored on the idea that people do not respond directly to the world around them, but to the meaning they bring to it. Furthermore, the approach assumes that society, its institutions and social structure exist as a result of human interaction (Blumer, 1969). This means that reality is what members of society agree to be reality and this is shaped in social interaction. ...
... This means that reality is what members of society agree to be reality and this is shaped in social interaction. During such interactions, objects and symbols are developed and used (Blumer, 1969), which denotes things in the real world whose meaning is defined by the actor. Therefore, different objects have different meanings for different individuals. ...
... Couples interact based on their childlessness ascribing either sociocultural undertone or mare acceptance of their fate of childlessness believing the two of them are responsible their predicament; they ascribe meaning to their childlessness through interactions with their immediate communities and society. The couples admit that they are both responsible for their childlessness trying to make meaning of the socio-cultural interference on their compatibility especially when dealing with things in specific circumstances (Blumer 1969). If you love books, for example, a symbolic interactionist might propose that couple learn how they can interact on bases of their position and cultural acclimatization with family, friends, school, or church; maybe their family had a special perception about their childlessness, getting your library card was treated as a special event, or bedtime stories were associated with warmth and comfort. ...
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Marriage is a union between a woman and a man which may produce offspring or children. The emphasis is becoming more pronounced in recent time, especially among Christian couples who have agreed that marriage is for-better and for worse‖, thus suggesting that marriage is not necessary for procreation of children. In the case of barren couples, children may be adopted. However, this situation raised cultural implications. This study therefore, examined the relationship between childlessness and social cultural impact among married couples in Egor Local government Area of Edo state, using cross sectional research design. Random sampling techniques was used to draw data from 100 respondents in four communities in the LGA. The findings revealed the existence of a relationship between childlessness and social incompatibility; which often result in separation and/or abandonment of wives in the community, poor communication among married couples; lack of knowledge on adoption; and other socio-cultural consequences, including abuse on the woman, social stigma, and divorce. Based on these findings, the study recommended among others that: the Social Welfare Department should intensify awareness campaign on adoption; such information should be complemented by community advocacy and mobilization through the media, as well as Healthcare Providers playing their role in counseling. ABSTRAIT Le mariage est une union entre une femme et un homme qui peut produire une progéniture ou des enfants. L'accent est de plus en plus prononcé ces derniers temps, en particulier parmi les couples chrétiens qui ont convenu que le mariage est «pour le meilleur et pour le pire», ce qui suggère que le mariage n'est pas nécessaire à la procréation des enfants. Dans le cas des couples stériles, les enfants peuvent être adoptés. Cependant, cette situation a des implications culturelles. Cette étude a donc examiné la relation entre l'absence d'enfant et l'impact culturel social chez les couples mariés dans la région de gouvernement local d'Egor
... Within one learning environment, the teacher's instructions are perceived and interpreted differently, as students ask themselves: "What is the personal relevance of learning mathematics for me?" (Kilpatrick et al., 2005;Vollstedt, 2011b). Dependent on their biographical lens, each learner actively constructs a subjective personal relevance for the school subject mathematics that fits their own personal life story and identity (Blumer, 1969;Cobb et al., 1992;Mason & Johnston-Wilder, 2004). The individual world that is constructed in this fashion functions as a mental compass providing students with their own meaningful learning orientation in the mathematics classroom. ...
... The individual world that is constructed in this fashion functions as a mental compass providing students with their own meaningful learning orientation in the mathematics classroom. Hence, it does not matter how well prepared mathematics educators and their concepts of teaching styles are as long as they fail to connect to those individual "worlds" that direct students in the classroom (Blumer, 1969). Accordingly, teachers should not just understand how they personally perceive the subject of mathematics and then assign their own perspectives to students; rather, they should understand how mathematics learning appears to those students, so that the stimuli they provide can successfully match the individual mental compass that each student uses to study mathematics. ...
... Accordingly, teachers should not just understand how they personally perceive the subject of mathematics and then assign their own perspectives to students; rather, they should understand how mathematics learning appears to those students, so that the stimuli they provide can successfully match the individual mental compass that each student uses to study mathematics. To stress this notion, Blumer (1969) stated: ...
... (2) The meanings of mythologies are developed via social interaction, and (3) these meanings are modified through an interpretive process [18]. Inhabited Institutionalism expects the people within organizations to have varied understandings of myths rather than assuming formal structures are homogenously implemented and understood across organizations. ...
... Adapting Blumer's three famous premises, inhabited institutionalism presupposes that people in organizations (1) act toward institutional mythologies based on the meanings they have to them. (2) The meanings of mythologies are developed via social interaction, and (3) these meanings are modified through an interpretive process [18]. Inhabited Institutionalism expects the people within organizations to have varied understandings of myths rather than assuming formal structures are homogenously implemented and understood across organizations. ...
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Inhabited Institutionalism is a meso-level theoretical approach for evaluating the recursive relationships among institutions, social interactions, and organizations. This theoretical framework offers organizational scholars a multi-faceted consideration of coupling configurations that highlight how institutional processes are maintained, challenged, and transformed without reverting to nested yet binary arguments about individual agency and structural conditions.
... This study was hinged on the basic premises of the Symbolism Interactionism Theory (SIT). According to [2], symbolic interactionist thought posits that people give or attach meaning to things and that meaning shapes and controls their behaviour. In line with this, authors [8] add that Symbolic Interactionism is a theory that focuses on exchanging meanings through native language and symbols. ...
... George Herbert Mead (1863-1931) is considered the founder of symbolic interactionism even though he never published his work on it. The author [2], Mead's student, coined symbolic interactionism. He outlined these basic premises: that humans interact with things based on meanings ascribed to those things; that the ascribed meaning of things comes from our interactions with others and society. ...
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This study takes an empirical dive into the enormous use of ethnic and cultural appeal as an emerging advertising trend in Nigeria, using Ebonyi state and the Hero Lager as case studies. A survey research method was adopted, and a structured questionnaire was used to gather responses from 383 respondents. The purposive sampling method was used to select the respondents who filled out the questionnaire. The study's findings reveal that most Hero Lager consumers are significantly aware of the use of ethnocentrism by the brand in their billboard advertising and agree they patronise the Hero beer brand based on ethnocentricity. This study establishes that ethnocentric billboard advertising messages significantly influence product consumption in Nigeria, especially on the Hero Lager beer brand. As a result of the findings, the researchers recommend that manufacturers should adopt the ethnocentric advertising approach to increase product sales and that since the brand's use of ethnocentric advertising messages has recorded huge success in Ebonyi state-an Igbo-speaking part of Nigeria, they should extend the application of this advertising strategy to other ethnic regions as a way of enhancing brand awareness and ensuring optimal dominance in the Nigerian market.
... In the health sciences in general there is a broad variation regard to the use and valuation of methods (qualitative or quantitative) and in the analysis of data (such as statistical tests in relation to the scale length, procedure for analyzing responses of openended question) [30]. These different research approaches also differ in their epistemological grounding, as they are anchored in different theories of science and knowledge cultures (e.g., natural science versus social science) [31][32][33][34]. This also holds true for the Delphi technique. ...
... Thus, a consensus among the participants can be interpreted as an approximation of ''true" knowledge. From a constructivist perspective [33], there is no ''true" knowledge, only ''situated" knowledge which is produced, applied and further developed in social interactions. For example, Campbell [39] showed in a methodological study on the Delphi technique that different stakeholder panels in primary mental health care ''have diverse views of quality of care and these differences translate into how they rate quality indicators" [39]. ...
... Using inductive ethnographic methods sensitized by a complexity science theoretical perspective, we approached data gathering through the lens of symbolic interactionism with the understanding that participants create reality and express culture through "a system of meaningful symbols" in which "humans act toward things on the basis of the meanings that the things have for them" (Blumer, 1969, p. 2;Spradley, 2016Spradley, [1979, p. 6). Culture and social meaning can be found in the interactions that individuals have based on these systems of symbols (Blumer, 1969). Iterative collection of data through participant observation and interviews allows for ongoing analysis and synthesis of a shared culture revealed through interactions from the participants perspective as informed through the researcher's inductive ethnographic methodology (Rock, 2001). ...
... Signal when ready. According to Blumer (1969), people act based on ascribed meanings of objects and people. Thus, the placement of the APRNs in the back or front of a facility had meaning. ...
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Advanced practice registered nurses are successful in improving quality outcomes and filling provider care gaps in long-term care. However, little is known about the nurse’s transition to practice in this setting. A 12-month ethnography was conducted via participant-observation with nine advanced practice registered nurses in five long-term care facilities to understand practice environment influence on the nurses’ transition and on the reciprocal influence of the nurse on the practice environment. Transition was fraught with uncertainty as documented by five themes: where’s my authority, institutional acceptance, personal role fulfillment, provider relationships, and individual versus organizational care. These findings suggest that transition in this setting is complex, characterized by insecurity whether the individual is new to advanced practice or experienced. Transition in long-term care could be strengthened by formal programs that include clinical practice, reconceived mentorship for advanced practice registered nurses, and education designed to improve comfort and expertise with indirect care.
... Therefore, this paper explores how we as researchers can think with posthumanism both within and against social constructionism and poststructural concepts to produce methodological creativity. More specifically, I plug translanguaging pedagogy into three such concepts: Blumer's (1969), Foucault's (1972), and Barad's (2007), focusing on the implications for what counts as data and the role of the researcher for translanguaging inquiry. This is not a form of triangulation to ask questions about some stable truth or coherent narrative about translanguaging, but rather is an attempt to provoke possible analytic questions and methodological avenues. ...
... In other words, translanguaging is emphasized as a communicative, strategic practice of meaning making. In a similar way, Blumer's (1969) framework of Symbolic Interactionism centers the collaborative and interactional nature of such practices, while focusing more closely on the ways in which meaning and action are coordinated. Blumer offers an interactional lens that fits well with translanguaging as a theory of multilingual practice, as they both decenter language as a stable object of inquiry in favor of a practicebased understanding of language. ...
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A translanguaging lens in educational research focuses on social, cultural, and power dynamics of language and multilingualism in practice. It also represents a potentially transformative pedagogical practice that centers the languaging practice, power, and agency of multilingual learners to transgress classroom language borders. However, translanguaging research that focuses on only the social aspects of classroom languaging can be subject to critique for failing to disrupt material inequities related to language and power in the classroom. This conceptual paper explores how thinking across multiple frameworks can generate innovative methodological approaches to knowledge production for translanguaging inquiry in the context of EL and multilingual education. Exploring how translanguaging can be plugged into Blumer’s Symbolic Interactionism, Foucault’s Discourse, and Barad’s Agential Realism, this paper thinks within and against these frameworks to highlight important analytic provocations for now only how translanguaging relations emerge, but also what methodological territory is claimed in the process. A central concern of this paper is the methodological implications of posthumanist theories to develop material-discursive translanguaging inquiry.
... What makes the symbolic interactionist perspective so interesting and exciting however, is the dynamic and complex nature of the meanings that individuals generate in interaction. As Blumer (1969), in his summary of the work of George Herbert Mead reports, individuals interact with the symbolic elements they encounter in the world as they consider their meaning and decide how they should act. However, individuals not only interpret the meanings of their own perspectives as they interact with the world, they also construct the perspectives of others as they interpret them and act according to these perceptions (Blumer, 1969). ...
... As Blumer (1969), in his summary of the work of George Herbert Mead reports, individuals interact with the symbolic elements they encounter in the world as they consider their meaning and decide how they should act. However, individuals not only interpret the meanings of their own perspectives as they interact with the world, they also construct the perspectives of others as they interpret them and act according to these perceptions (Blumer, 1969). From this description it can be seen that the symbolic interactionist approach is compatible with a social constructionist ontology because the reality that both relate to is a socially constructed one (Bryman, 2001). ...
Thesis
p>The Department of Health recommends that stroke patients should be encouraged to become ‘expert patients’ to work in ‘partnership’ with physiotherapists in the management of treatment. However, research suggests that this may be difficult to achieve because therapists and patients may have different agendas in treatment and this can hinder shared communication. Focus groups with stroke physiotherapists were conducted to explore these problems and these showed that social power factors in the institution were influencing the understandings and interactions of therapists and patients in some way. Six qualitative case studies of original research were conducted each comprising observation of a stroke physiotherapy treatment session and one follow-up interview each with the therapist and patient involved to examine how therapists and patients understood and used power in treatment interactions to achieve their own aims to clarify how this influenced partnership working. Within and cross-case thematic analysis using the ‘Framework’ method was carried out following a symbolic interactionist approach. Four ‘case studies’ from a previous related study were then subjected to secondary analysis using the same analytic framework. The results showed that the treatment sessions were structured by four interaction forms between the participants: ‘Negotiation of leadership’; ‘Treatment activities interactions’; ‘Communication interactions’; ‘Social interactions’. Patients used skill in social and communication interactions to negotiate ‘good-patient’ behaviour and information to delegate leadership to the therapists and to gain therapists;’ expert attention in pursuit of recovery. Patients’ choice of a compliance role contradicts the ‘expert patient’ model but shows that co-operative working with therapists in the spirit of partnership is possible. However, lack of communication about strategic plans could hinder partnership working and this should be addressed.</p
... una idea siempre flexible y en construcción del proceso de investigación, cuyo objetivo final es construir modelos teóricos, también en este caso, flexibles y no-definitivos.Antes de enfocar la atención en los conceptos orientadores(Blumer: 1986) que han guiado nuestra actividad de investigación durante sus diferentes etapas, vale la pena explicar, brevemente, quién fue el Niño Fidencio y en qué consiste la devoción hacia él.3. Quién fue el Niño Fidencio y en qué consiste el fidencismo.José de Jesús Fidencio Constantino Síntora era originario de Guanajuato y, a principios del siglo XX, se mudó a Espinazo, un pequeño pueblo en la frontera entre el estado de Nuevo León y Coahuila, en el norte de México. ...
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El presente libro se compone de cinco textos que han sido fruto del trabajo del incipiente Cuerpo Académico “Cultura e Identidad” de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Comunicación de la Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila. Estos textos giran en torno a un tema central: las prácticas y discursos identitarios que expresan los actores sociales del Noreste de México, en contextos urbanos físicos y virtuales.
... Manford Kuhn) aim to make a set of universal principles in SI contexts. Naturally, the two schools apply different methodologies from each other; commonly used methods in the Chicago School are a qualitative approach including ethnography, interview, and life history (Blumer 1969;Nancy et al. 2003). On the contrary, the Iowa school applies a quantitative experimental approach. ...
Thesis
p>The main research question is to investigate how perceptions of information provision are associated with the Quality of Life. Three studies were conducted, with participants being recruited from self-help groups in Japan. First a symptom checklist and physical discomfort scale in lymphoedema was developed. Test-retest reliability and the internal structure of the scale were investigated by a prospective study. Second, a qualitative study was conducted in order to explore perceptions of lymphoedema and how they were formed in the society. A dual analytic approach was applied to primary transcripts: thematic analysis and conceptual analysis using symbolic interactionism. Based on the findings of the conceptual analysis, a psycho-social discomfort scale was developed. Psychometric properties were investigated. The WHO QoL-BREF Japanese version was used to check criterion validity in a cross-sectional survey study. Test-retest reliabilities of the check list and physical discomfort scale were acceptable. Perceptions of information provision at diagnosis and loss of strength were associated with reported discomfort. The qualitative analysis revealed cognitive and emotional processes in breast cancer and lymphoedema. Experiences of lymphoedema were often interpreted in breast cancer contexts. The third study showed that the "breast cancer" subscales of the psycho-social discomfort scale had good internal consistency, and good convergent and divergent validity. However, the lymphoedema subscales had a weak internal structure. ‘Perceptions of information provision’ were associated with the ‘resources to live with breast cancer’ subscale. In conclusion, the validity of the symptom checklist, physical discomfort scales and breast cancer subscales were acceptable. Since the lymphoedema subscales had a weak internal structure, further work is needed in the development of the measure.</p
... 19). In addition, it is relevant because symbolic interactionism is usable when looking at everyday life and main concerns, as people always see and make sense of reality through their perspectives and according to what value people, places, and objects have for them (Blumer 1969, Charon 2006, Charmaz et al. 2019. In symbolic interactionism, the focus is on subjective meanings and actions, and as such the theoretical framework rests on the notion of the ongoing process of negotiating positions through constructing meaning from interactional practices. ...
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Constructivist grounded theory has earned a place in research worldwide and been applied in diverse fields. However, in educational research of teachers' work in the classroom from the perspective of the teacher, it has had a lesser impact on research methodology. We argue for the benefits to educational research when using a constructivist grounded theory methodology. Our arguments focus on three concrete benefits: (1) Constructivist grounded theory focuses on participants' perspectives, or main concerns, (2) by using an open, exploratory approach, and, (3) could involve investigating the relationships between the focused codes, preferably by using theoretical coding. We argue that constructivist grounded theory adds an analytical edge to work in classrooms, when skilfully deployed. These benefits with constructivist grounded theory differentiate the approach against other qualitative methods. Another important feature is focusing on the actions, and social processes, and thus making use of several theoretical codes. As we will outline in this paper, these features of constructivist grounded theory could help produce theoretical insights that could be valuable additions to educational research and educational practices. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Before going further, it is crucial to define concepts and terminology used in this dissertation and my studies. According to Blumer (1986), objects do not have a fixed state outside the meanings assigned to them by labeling and definition. As a researcher, I believe that the creation of meanings takes place through human social activity by defining, interpreting, and interacting with each other's interpretations and (re)creating systems of meanings on that basis and that the creation of meanings (i.e., social construction) takes place collectively. ...
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The main contribution of this thesis is the comprehensive and combined-method approach to the topic, which enabled recognition of the nuances of IPC in the context of SRS of dually involved children through the analysis of written assessments, the perspectives of rehabilitation specialists, and, the most important, the viewpoints of children and parents. For this dissertation, my colleagues and I analyzed empirical data from 2010–2013 (written assessments of the juvenile offender rehabilitation plans), 2015–2017 (interviews with specialists, children, parents), and 2016 (court case files), which allows us to learn from previous practices and experiences to better design the system for dually involved children receiving SRS—a process currently occurring. Although the current dissertation uses data from the period of 2010–2016, the researched field has not changed significantly and, therefore, the results of this study can be successfully linked to the current practice and developments, and these links and suggestions for future developments are presented in the sections of discussion and conclusions. The studies integrated into the dissertation are relevant even more so, as the most important developments in SRS are currently at the stage of an intensive development process.
... Open rather than enclosed spaces, the limiting of intervening relationships, and using culturally appropriate language or signs (Al-Homoud & Abu-Obeid, 2003) can foster intergroup interaction between students and career staff. Samura (2016) even found that allowing students to remake their physical space by adding cultural artifacts and resources, created positive symbolic interactionism, the co-creation of meanings and identities (Blumer, 1969). According to Stebleton (2007), by allowing room for immigrant students' identity development, career counselors acknowledge their ability to balance their multiple societal roles and contexts. ...
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Immigrant college students often encounter daunting tasks and obstacles when exploring career paths, seeking employment and experiential learning opportunities aligned with their interests within the dominant US higher education structure. Considering that there is a career services and development literature gap on immigrant students (who comprise a large swath of the college-going population), it is critical to develop meaningful frameworks that support research and practice in this emerging, needed space. This conceptual paper bridges a critical theory of love with funds of knowledge to re-orient the ways in which immigrant students are served at college career centers. Four guiding principles (rooted in the frameworks) are outlined that can support a more collaborative and inclusive experience for immigrant students toward gaining meaningful support at college career centers.
... The information, data and facts provided can be rather effectuated and interpreted when the social framework is reconstructed through the learning procedure [10]. Nowadays, the non-linear model, mostly based on the model of constructivism, is widely used on designing educational systems [3], [9], [16], [18], [21], [22]. ...
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Nowadays, the use of Web based Education (WbE) in distance learning education is considered to be an innovative method of learning. Supportive parties argue that WbE renews the educational practice through the use of computers and their applied methodology, as well as the technologies provided by the use of the internet. These result to consciously renewing the educational material and to creating a flexible structure which promotes the individualization of learning. The proposed model aims at delivering technological classes through the internet, offering a flexible use of means and tools, allowing a synthetic presentation of selected bibliographic texts that cover the whole cognitional object, developing a cooperative spirit and individualising the learning procedure.
... Instead, it is understanding the process of power construction that is principal-how the interactions within the collaborative endeavor construct a power structure; or in other words, how "power is seen as produced in a relationship" (Broer et al., 2011, p. 801). This perspective incorporates the dynamic nature of social interaction between collaborative actors and holds that any meaning derived from interactions and negotiations between actors hinges on context (Blumer, 1986). Thus, analyses adopting this perspective tend to focus on micro-level interactions between actors engaged in a collaborative endeavor. ...
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Power is an important concept in understanding collaborative governance, however, the existing research is largely dominated by the functional and critical perspectives of power. Aided by a conceptual content analysis of power used in collaborative governance literature in the top public administration journals, we viewed power as a family resemblance concept that should be conceptualized through four perspectives: functional, critical, social construction, and pragmatic. We provide elaboration of each of these four perspectives and propose counterarguments to assumptions that have arisen due to the reliance on a functional or critical perspective of power. We conclude that viewing power as a family resemblance concept with at least four perspectives offers collaborative governance researchers the ability to adopt the best perspective that is the most useful for their analysis and most helpful for public administrators to understand power in their collaborative efforts.
... Social identity is made up of several meanings that sustain an individual (Burke and Stets 2009;Stryker and Burke 2000). People also actively participate in the construction of new social roles (Blumer 1969;Stryker and Serpe 1982). Social identities are therefore socially constructed, which result from social events, and are often symbolized as material and non-material culture (Burton 2004;Burton et al. 2008;Butler 1990;Korostelina 2007). ...
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Advances in precision agriculture (PA), driven by big data technologies and machine learning algorithms can transform agriculture by enhancing crop and livestock productivity and supporting faster and more accurate on and off-farm decision making. However, little is known about how PA can influence farmers’ sense of self, their skills and competencies, and the meanings that farmers ascribe to farming. This study is animated by scholarly commitment to social identity research, and draws from socio-cyber-physical systems research, domestication theory, and activity theory. This conceptualization of PA within these theoretical perspectives helps to render visible how big agricultural data and machine learning algorithms can affect meaning, doing, and being for US farmers. Through analysis of data from six focus group discussions and follow-up surveys with stakeholders across the PA value chain, this paper shows that PA tools can necessitate farmers to learn and develop new competencies such as flying drones and interpreting yield maps. At the same time, PA can shape new meaning of farm work and new expectation about a ‘good farmer’, changing what it means to be a ‘successful’ farmer from someone who is not only a data observer or data gatherer but also validators of PA models by using their local knowledge of agronomic and environmental phenomenon. We conclude that PA can alter social expectations about farming by reorienting the role of farmers. Policymakers and agriculture extension and outreach programmers can develop more socially relevant PA knowledge and innovation if they can attend to both new and traditional ‘good farmer’ identities.
... How should we understand the controversies around such symbols? First, we must acknowledge that symbols are important to people, particularly people who believe in the values and meanings with which such symbols are imbued (Blumer, 1969). Consequently, people value symbols, often treating important symbols as sacred objects, and thus tend to avoid desecrating flags, religious symbols, and other items (Durkheim, 2001). ...
... Symbolic Interactionism assumes that human action in the world is based upon the meanings humans attribute to the world which are derived directly from social interactions with others (Blumer, 1969). From a symbolic interactionist perspective a situation must be understood in terms of how the 'actor sees it' such that the actor's 'meanings of objects and acts' are determined in order to see the social world through his eyes (Psathas, 1973, p.6 -7). ...
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The abuse and neglect of adults at risk is increasingly recognised as a social problem in the U.K. Policy development for the protection of at risk adults has seen substantial growth since the publication of the No Secrets (2000) guidance. Despite cumulative evidence that NHS mental health services have been slow to engage with the national adult safeguarding agenda, there is a paucity of research in this area. The aim of this doctoral research was to explore and critically analyse the use and implementation of adult safeguarding practices in NHS mental health services. A Grounded Theory (GT) approach was adopted to develop theory inductively through data collection and analysis. A total of sixteen participants were interviewed from within three NHS mental health trusts, including: 10 (62%) strategic leaders for adult safeguarding and 6 (38%) operational personnel. The results revealed three conceptual components central to the implementation of adult safeguarding in mental health, namely: establishing structures, processes and procedures; challenges to effective implementation; and transition to a progressive future.Barriers invariably hamper the establishment of effective adult safeguarding practice within services, some of which are specific to mental health contexts. The findings of this research demonstrate a need for the development of multi-dimensional strategies that anticipate the contingencies of service contexts with greater consideration of the factors that inevitably impact adults at risk in mental health services.
... From a symbolic interactionist perspective (Blumer, 1969;Patton, 2002), the unease felt about the casualness of the online quizzes represented a more general sense of displacement in adjusting to a different teaching and learning culture from the one with which they were previously familiar. Thus, when they encountered the new assessment formats, they experienced a sense of confusion. ...
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Using a naturalistic inquiry, an ethnographic investigation explored the experiences of transition to an Australian university for 24 volunteer students with English as an Additional Language (IEAL), and eight academic staff members. Through interviews and by analysing the audio recordings, it was found that most of the IEAL students felt content with their decision to study in Australia. However, challenges for IEAL students included adjusting to online learning, and academic expectations and literacies. IEAL students also reported challenges with isolation, finances, and loss of face. Greater effort by Australian universities to prepare IEAL students would benefit their Australian study experience.
... Instead, it is understanding the process of power construction that is principal-how the interactions within the collaborative endeavor construct a power structure; or in other words, how "power is seen as produced in a relationship" (Broer et al., 2011, p. 801). This perspective incorporates the dynamic nature of social interaction between collaborative actors and holds that any meaning derived from interactions and negotiations between actors hinges on context (Blumer, 1986). Thus, analyses adopting this perspective tend to focus on micro-level interactions between actors engaged in a collaborative endeavor. ...
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Power is an important concept in understanding collaborative governance, however, the existing research is largely dominated by the functional and critical perspectives of power. Aided by a conceptual content analysis of power used in collaborative governance literature in the top public administration journals, we viewed power as a family resemblance concept that should be conceptualized through four perspectives: functional, critical, social construction, and pragmatic. We provide elaboration of each of these four perspectives and propose counterarguments to assumptions that have arisen due to the reliance on a functional or critical perspective of power. We conclude that viewing power as a family resemblance concept with at least four perspectives offers collaborative governance researchers the ability to adopt the best perspective that is the most useful for their analysis and most helpful for public administrators to understand power in their collaborative efforts.
... Like the researcher who leaves the field "personally acquainted" (Geertz, 1988, p. 144), so must the readers leave the text. Data, or-more helpfully-empirical material of the sort Geertz is referring to implies a level of involvement put forth by some of the early Chicago ethnographers: to observe human group life in situ (Blumer, 1969;Hughes, 1971;Adler and Adler, 1987). Qualities of intense familiarity with the "mundane things people are actually doing", say Becker (1991, p. 190), may only be understood and conveyed by interacting directly and naturalistically (Denzin, 1989). ...
... While Foucauldian, Gramscian, and other approaches also gained ground, cultural approaches to social movements were frequently inspired by the symbolic interaction school of sociological thought in general (Kuhn 1964;Blumer 1969), and the work of Erwing Goffman (1974) in particular: ...
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It would have been hard to miss the pivotal role debt has played for contentious politics in the last decades. The North Atlantic Financial Crisis, Global Recession and European Debt Crisis - as well as the recent waves of protest that followed them - have catapulted debt politics into the limelight of public debates. Profiting from years of fieldwork and an extensive amount of empirical data, Christoph Sorg traces recent contestations of debt from North Africa to Europe and the US. In doing so, he identifies the emergence of new transnational movement networks against the injustice of current debt politics, which struggle for more social and democratic ways of organizing debt within and between societies.
... This meaning emerges through situational interpersonal interactions and an intersubjective reality based on shared language symbols. 19 For example, the term "medical assistance in dying" may be a social symbol. For some nurses, it may represent the end of suffering, while for others it signifies the end of care and, thus, an ethical conflict emerges. ...
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Background In June 2016, the Parliament of Canada passed federal legislation allowing eligible adults to request Medical Assistance in Dying (MAID). Since its implementation, there likely exists a degree of hesitancy among some healthcare providers due to the law being inconsistent with personal beliefs and values. It is imperative to explore how nurses in Quebec experience the shift from accompanying palliative clients through “a natural death” to participating in “a premeditated death.” Research question/aim/objectives This study aims to explore how Quebec nurses personally and professionally face the new practice of MAID and their role evolution. Research design A grounded theory design was used. Participants and research context We recruited 37 nurses who participated in or coordinated at least one MAID. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted and audiotaped. Data collection and analysis followed Strauss and Corbin steps. Ethical considerations Ethics approval was received from the investigator’s affiliated University. Participants were informed regarding the research goal, signed a written consent, and were assigned pseudonyms. Findings/results Results show that nurses experienced the wide range of paradoxe during MAID centering around the following eight elements: 1) confrontation abouth death, 2) choice, 3) time of death, 4) emotional load, 5) new Bill, 6) relationship with the person, 7) communication skills, and 8) healthcare setting. The shifting of views and values in this new role is presented by the contradiction of opposites. Conclusions A better understanding of the paradox experienced by nurses involved with MAID paves the way for the development of interventions.
... Symbolic Interactionist Theory describes how individuals understand each other by focusing on the environmental context rather than the mental process (Blumer, 1986) The theory states that human psychology is understood through interactive relations. Symbolic interactionists study the relationships of the individuals within the society. ...
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Companies are focused on improving intergenerational diversity in the workplace by making the organizational environment more inclusive. Not only does intergenerational diversity improve organizational competitiveness but also it benefits the employees as they can learn from each other's varied experiences and styles. However, as it is with managing other forms of diversity, coping with intergenerational conflicts can be challenging for the employers. Traditional societies, like Pakistan and China, place great importance on respecting older generations. The academic hierarchy is still based on the seniority of its teachers. Therefore, investigating the perception of employees, of Pakistani and Chinese Universities, on intergenerational working relationships provided better insights into the intergenerational workplace diversity issues. A qualitative study was conducted via 20 semi-structured interviews from faculty members. Findings revealed that although both sets of employees had shown high levels of satisfaction, in terms of the intergenerational working relationships but the old employees were more vocal in terms of how they had to adjust while working with the young employees. On the other hand, young employees were more appreciative of the senior employees and acknowledged their contribution more.
... with regards to what is observed or heard. Blumer (1969) points out: ...
Thesis
p>This thesis examines the role of teachers' initiative in building a culture of innovation in one Portuguese vocational high school in Fine Arts and the relationship between the culture of innovation, teacher's leadership, school culture and the educational community. It also presents the impact of teachers' initiative on: (i) the changing curriculum; (ii) educational practices; (iii) professional development. The research took place in a context of Portuguese educational reform, which stressed change in educational practices and schools. The study was also located in a selected review of literature about change and culture. The study took the form of an ethnographic case study, which characterised the culture of a group of teachers, involved in one mathematics educational project, eliciting their beliefs, values, norms and patterns of behaviour. It also examined the relationship between the culture of the project and the school culture as a dynamic process identifying values, beliefs and ideologies shared by people in the school. Three main findings emerged from this cultural analysis. First, teachers did have the ability to generate an alternative curriculum to the dominant state model for teaching mathematics for Fine Arts students. This was underpinned by democratic values and focused on the process of students' learning rather than teacher-directed instruction. Secondly, this group of teachers formed a distinctive subculture in schools and took an active role in researching their own experience of changing classroom practice. Thirdly, the research demonstrated that it was not possible for this subculture to have major impact on the culture of the whole school. However, the educational community (mathematics educators and state department) acknowledged the innovation, the state department subsequently including it in the national mathematics curriculum.</p
Article
This study aims to obtain new data that will mediate the development of safety culture by investigating the power distance, which is one of the cultural dimensions of communication, which causes accidents in aviation, through the assertiveness levels of the pilots and their social approval needs. The method of this research is quantitative, data were collected through online questionnaires. The population and the sample of the research are consisted of the civilian pilots in Turkey. The questionnaires were applied to 75 pilots. In male pilots participating in the study; The levels of "Instrumental Use of Power" and "Legitimation of Power", which are sub-dimensions of organizational power distance, are significantly higher than female pilots. In addition, it has been revealed that female pilots pay less attention to the judgments of others than male pilots. These results suggest that male pilots need more organizational power than female pilots. One of the results of the research is the strong positive relationship between the assertiveness level of the participants and "Consent to Power", which is one of the sub-dimensions of power distance; it is thought that this relationship stems from the social adaptation capacity of assertive individuals. The study also showed that the main factor determining the behavior of the employees is the organizational culture. Within this scope, sharing the accident reports of Turkish registered aircraft prepared by DGCA with researchers and institutions will contribute significantly to the need for resources.
Thesis
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This thesis investigates how recurrent face-to-face social interactions engender relatively invariant patterns of being together that cause those who instantiate them to act in ways that support their reproduction. Existing accounts within both cognitive science and sociology offer important insights into the consideration of patterns of being together. However, given their explanatory strategies, they struggle to integrate both ‘social’ and ‘individual’ levels of explanation. Herein a compatibilist account is developed, intended as a ‘third way’ that obviates the limitations of existing accounts. This compatibilist account — by integrating insights from across disciplines and theoretical frameworks — develops a philosophical vocabulary with which to maintain explanatory consistency when articulating patterns of being together and moving between individual and social levels of explanation. It relies heavily on an extension of the enactive notion of autonomous habits to the social domain, redescribing patterns of being together as habituated participatory sense-making frames. Participatory sense-making frames result from processes of coenhabiting, i.e. processes of ongoing social habit making implicit in the dynamics of recurrent social interactions. Such processes are one primary means by which we produce and reproduce the relatively stable forms that characterise our shared worlds. These habituated frames embed much of the normativity of social life, and can serve our felicitous coordinations therein, allowing us to feel well situated, particularly in contexts within which we have some history of interacting. However, when they are not well aligned, they lead to tensions that result in either the production of novel frames or breakdowns in social interaction. The account developed has implications for many domains of human action, from psychotherapy to epistemology, and from critical studies to the development of political and ecological praxes.
Chapter
The purpose of this chapter is to address possibilities and missing links by looking into some contemporary knowledge management research. For this aim we analyse and compare all the papers in the proceedings of European Conference on Knowledge Management (ECKM) in Barcelona (2017), Padua (2018), Lisbon (2019), and the digital conference in 2020. The approach uses a philosophy of science framework and compares this to the content of the research papers. We will discuss the findings in four representations of knowledge, two typologies of concepts, and four paradigmatic classifications to open up for creative future explorations in knowledge management research. The results indicate a conference based upon as-is knowledge and less upon new and often unsolvable problems. There are however more critical and green papers in the 2020 conference opening up for new perspectives in the choice of methodology, problems, and knowledge.
Thesis
p>Previous research into young men's sexual behaviour, use of contraception and sexual health services is sparse. With sexual health campaigns promoting use of the condom (a male method of contraception), the need for more understanding of these topics is vital. This thesis uses data from 43, semi-structured, long interviews with men aged 16-29 from southern England. The interview schedule encouraged discussion of current sexual and contraceptive behaviour, and family, social and learning influences in childhood and teenage years. For data on impression of, and best ways of promoting, sexual health services, 9 focus group discussions were held with men aged 13-21 around England. Even though the interview respondents have similar demographic and social backgrounds, they exhibit diverse sexual and contraceptive experiences. Stereotypes of irresponsible, prestige-driven sexual behaviour generally are not borne out. The emergence of the HIV virus dramatically changed the contraceptive environment, illustrated by the comparative experiences of the younger and older respondents. However, respondents of any age may not feel at risk of HIV infection. Good school education, non-sexual social interaction with young women and an emotionally 'warm' family environment are tentatively associated with positive contraceptive and communication outcomes. Problems with current sexual health promotion messages are highlighted. Nationally, men are in the minority of sexual health service clients, and their sexual health needs are neglected. However, the 1990s have seen increased service uptake from young men. Services have the potential to increase their number of male clients by offering appropriate, male-friendly services and using well designed, tested and located methods of promotion.</p
Article
Whistleblowing is recognised as part of solving wrongdoing. It requires individual reasoning as it is a potentially complicated process with a risk of possible negative consequences for oneself. Knowledge on how individuals reason for whistleblowing in healthcare context is lacking. This study aimed to create a theoretical construct to describe individual reasoning for whistleblowing. The methodology was grounded theory, with 244 nurses as informants. The data consisted of nurses' written narratives in response to a wrongdoing situation presented in a video vignette. To ensure the heterogeneity of the population and variation in nurses' professional expertise, experiences and geographical locations in health care to capture the multidimensionality of the responses, nurses were invited to participate, and data were collected electronically from the membership register of the Finnish Nurses' Association on a national level. Constant comparison was used to analyse the open data. The core category of the theoretical construct, ‘The formation of morally courageous intervening’, was discovered, reflecting individual's values and beliefs. It forms mentally as an integration of cognition and emotion for recognising one's own strengths and limits to act to do the right thing despite the risk of negative consequences for oneself. The core category consists of three dimensions of reasoning: (1) Reasoning Actors, (2) Reasoning Justifications and (3) Reasoning Activities, their categories and three patterns of reasoning connecting the dimensions and their categories with each other: (I) Individual Reasoning, (II) Collaborative Reasoning and (III) Collective Reasoning. The theoretical construct indicate that reasoning is a multidimensional phenomenon. In future, a theoretical construct could be further developed. In health care, managers could use the theoretical construct to support employees in their whistleblowing.
Thesis
Cette thèse porte sur la production d’espaces sociaux au sein des jardins collectifs urbains dans le contexte de la métropole de Lyon. L’approche théorique mobilisée est celle de Henri Lefebvre : l’espace est un produit social et la ville est le produit de pratiques et de représentations de classes dominantes (les acteurs publics) où les habitants ont bien peu de marges de manœuvre pour agir. Nous considérons ainsi chaque espace de la ville comme multi facettes, c’est-à-dire pouvant revêtir une multiplicité de spatialités (géographiques, démographiques, écologiques, politiques...). L’espace n’est ainsi pas le simple réceptacle d’activités au sein de la ville, mais aussi un analyseur des forces et de la société dans laquelle il s’insère. L’objet jardin collectif urbain renvoie à toutes les pratiques de jardinage qui se font de manière collective en ville, c'est-à-dire impliquant plusieurs individus qui vont aménager un espace public pour en faire un lieu de verdure. Cette verdure prend la forme de fleurs d'ornements, d'arbres jeunes, d'herbes hautes, mais aussi de potagers avec des arbres fruitiers, des plants de tomates, de courges, etc. Nous usons d’une méthodologie qualitative mêlant observations régulières sur les jardins et entretiens avec des acteurs jardiniers et des acteurs institutionnels chargés du développement de ces jardins. Au cours de nos travaux, nous avons identifié deux principales formes de jardinage collectif sur la ville de Lyon : les jardins partagés et les jardins de rue. Le jardinage renvoie ainsi à toutes les pratiques liées au travail de la terre : bêcher, arroser, retourner le sol, établir un plan de culture et bien entendu planter. Cependant, d'autres pratiques quotidiennes sont mises en œuvre par les jardiniers qui ne se limitent pas au jardinage, faisant ainsi émerger différentes spatialités. En analysant l’histoire de ces jardins collectifs, nous pointons un ensemble de spatialités produites, qui nous permettent ensuite d’interroger la production d’espaces sociaux sur les jardins partagés et jardins de rue. Nous montrons que les pratiques de ces acteurs engagés sur les jardins collectifs ainsi que les pratiques des acteurs institutionnels sur ces jardins (financements, soutiens divers...) produisent différents espaces sociaux tels qu’environnemental, collectif, citoyen, institutionnel, individuel, qui se superposent sur ces lieux. Ces espaces sociaux produits par les jardiniers peuvent être complémentaires ou rentrer en conflit produisant ainsi des pertes de sens pour les acteurs impliqués.
Article
Much contemporary public debate focuses on food consumption. Societal and individual health, risk, climate change, sustainability, animal welfare and food quality are all issues which influence the culturally established or traditional food routines practised in every day life. This cultural contestation and debate suggests that consumption in everyday life is already a site of normative action. Yet existing research has focused largely either on political and ethical consumption, or on tacitly reproduced routines in consumption. The mundane processes in which explicit and implicit ways of handling normative issues are entangled have received little attention, either empirically or theoretically. This article seeks to consider these issues in detail, suggesting a new framework for empirical investigations of processes of reproduction and change in consumption patterns. It introduces two new terms in mundane normativity – expectable and acceptable consumption – and uses examples to show how these terms can help better understand mundane normativity from a practice theoretical perspective. Material from four different Danish research studies on contested food consumption exemplifies these new terms. The article suggests that the terms expectable and acceptable consumption can enable consumption researchers to examine more variety in relation to the normative in consumption and investigate the intertwined processes of reproduction and change in consumption better. Furthermore, the article argues that analysing mundane normativity points towards an issue in consumption that practice theoretical research has not yet addressed sufficiently – social hierarchies.
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The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the relationship between primary caregivers and their adolescents who have bipolar disorder and the caregivers’ coping and adapting skills in handling their adolescents’ behaviors. The caregivers’ perceptions of their coping and adapting skills were interpreted and analyzed through transcribing, coding, and mapping processes by using Creswell’s six-coding step strategy [1]. The data were analyzed using Blumer’s [2] symbolic interaction, and constructs from R. Lazarus’s [3] stress and emotion theory, Selye’s [4] stress theory, and R. Lazarus and Folkman’s [5] transactional model of stress and coping provided the foundation of this phenomenological study to explore the stress and emotions of the primary caregivers of adolescents with bipolar disorder. Sixteen caregivers from North Carolina were selected by purposive sampling (snowball sampling) to share their stories during semi-structured interviews. The results of this qualitative analysis were examined using a phenomenological approach that took advantage of narrative inquiry and symbolic interaction that looked for emergent themes. Primary thematic results indicated that the primary caregivers of adolescents with bipolar disorder encountered stress, physical alignments, and emotional problems that often led to damaged marriages; strained or broken family relations; employment problems; and negative associations with neighbors, law enforcement, social services, and the school system. An unexpected finding was that the men in the study who were caring for adolescents with bipolar disorder were more likely than women in similar circumstances to prefer physical methods such as jogging and walking as ways to reduce their stress. No other studies found this specific finding. Results will be used to enhance the current literature by providing empirical insights that support the need for further research into bipolar disorder among adolescents. ess. No other studies found this specific finding. Results will be used to enhance the current literature by providing empirical insights that support the need for further research into bipolar disorder among adolescents.
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This study which identifies and reviews selected artefacts of the Akwamuhene royal regalia was conducted at the Bogyawe palace in Akwamufie. The research tools employed were questionnaire, observation and interviews to collect and investigate relevant cultural knowledge on the royal regalia of the Akwamuhene. Using the appropriate research instruments, for purposeful analysis and interpretation, the artefacts were documented hence, served as a means of preservation. There were 65 respondents who were interviewed using an interview guide and 30 of respondents were given questionnaire. The respondents for the study provided names, myths, history, philosophies and significance of the artefacts that make up the royal regalia. The study thus focused on selected royal regalia belonging to the Akwamuhene comprising a variety of royal artforms and monuments such as
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We investigated female high school senior year students’ conformity with feminine roles in society to understand how the role of being a woman has an impact on career indecision along with other factors such as maximizer parents/daughters, and over parenting. Our sample consists of Turkish female high school senior students living in Turkiye’s Western Region. We conducted two rounds of questionnaires sent out in 4-week intervals. Female role stress, over-parenting, and parents’ maximizing tendencies positively and significantly predicted career indecisions of daughters while conformity to feminine norms was predicted negatively and significantly. Overall, parents’ maximizing tendencies had an impact on their daughters maximizing tendencies.
Conference Paper
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Bidayuh is an indigenous group living in Sarawak, Malaysia. The study examined the perceptions of Bidayuh people on the importance of the Bidayuh language. The specific aspects studied were the reasons for the importance of the Bidayuh language and the connotative meanings of the language. Questionnaire data were obtained from 61 Bidayuh participants from Sarawak. Results showed the participants felt that the Bidayuh language is important because of government agencies and non-governmental organisations looking after the customary laws, culture and language of the Bidayuh. They also felt that the presence of highly-educated Bidayuh and Bidayuh leaders in the community, as well as the Bidayuh population in Sarawak, contributed to the importance of the Bidayuh language. These could have led to perceptions of Bidayuh as a prestigious language. The participants felt that the Bidayuh language will be stronger if it is taught in school because there are currently inadequate written materials in Bidayuh. The Bidayuh language is valued as an ethnic marker but not for instrumental purposes. The Bidayuh language is not seen as a language for rural and old people, suggesting that there is room for the intergenerational transmission of the Bidayuh language to the younger generation in urban areas.
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India as a country is rapidly changing due to an influx of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). The impact of ICTs has been felt on far-flung areas ranging from agriculture to industry. In this chapter, we highlight possible ways in which ICTs can be included in the trucking sector from the bottom-up. In order to accomplish our goal, we present an ethnography with a sociotechnical dimension. Specifically, we recognize that large-scale social systemic challenges shape individual actions in the technological trucking sector. The ethnographic study comprised of semi-structured interviews with over 30 stakeholders, was conducted in the metropolitan port city of Mumbai, India. It was aimed at understanding the functioning of the sector, current practices, roles of stakeholders involved, and the challenges faced by them. The results are followed by a discussion that deals with the impact new information technology is having on the sector and identifies areas for future intervention.
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Globalization has transformed local contexts through increasing intercultural and intergroup contact across geographical distance. Such transformations have disrupted the traditional sociocultural order and made people’s sense of self and belonging more uncertain and negotiable. In contemporary societies, people are reacting to the growing sociocultural uncertainty and diversity, as well as to new cultural interactions and negotiations. While such reactions to globalization can initiate positive outcomes such as creativity and global unification, they can also challenge the individual’s sense of self and belonging. That is, accelerating intercultural and intergroup contact can cause exclusionary reactions to globalization in various sociocultural contexts. Moreover, the globalized disruption of the existing social hierarchy and belief system can lead to political polarization and intergroup conflict, motivating extremism as a defensive reaction to preserve one’s religious, cultural, and ethnic purity. Most defensive reactions to globalization are characterized by an essentialist understanding of a prescriptive ideal life and society. Such perceptions are evolving around an ethnic-centered point of view, among both majority and minority groups, and driven by experiences of globalization-based fear and contextual insecurity. Overall, globalization can initiate radicalized defensive reactions to perceived threats to one’s privileges as well as to ethnic, religious, and cultural identity.
Thesis
p>Policy-makers, clinical geneticists and the Royal College of General Practitioners recognise general practitioners will identify patients with genetic susceptibility to common cancers. They recommend most patients' enquires about genetic susceptibility to common cancers, such as breast cancer, should be managed by general practitioners (GPs). Since the ratio of consultant geneticists to general practitioners is roughly 500 to one general practitioners will necessarily have a role. This research explores GPs' ideas of their role and their responses to roles identified for them by policy-makers and experts. I used qualitative and quantitative methods. Grounded theory guided open-ended interviews with a purposive sample of GPs. Interviews explored GPs' ideas, beliefs and experiences of genetic medicine in general, and more specifically, in relation to breast cancer. As data collection and analysis proceeded a theoretical sample (selection guided by the emerging analysis) was generated to explore categories further, and to test the integrity and credibility of the emerging analysis. Two core themes were identified: 1) genetics in the generalist context , which included appropriate generalist intervention, the ethical dilemmas implicit in the therapeutic gap and the familial-hereditary distinction in primary care, and 2) the implications for the generalist identity, including the potential marginalisation of generalism. The category familial-hereditary distinction was used to construct a hypothesis and a questionnaire which was applied to a random sample of 200 GPs in the Wessex area. A descriptive statistical analysis and factor analysis of the questionnaire data supported the findings of the qualitative study. Both studies revealed inconsistencies between policy-makers' and GPs' definitions of general practitioners' role in implementing genetic advances. General practitioners' emphasised the need to build on current practice, whereas policy-makers focused on transforming practice to include new and specialised roles.</p
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The character and underlying causes of global consumer culture (GCC), and the effects of globalization on self-concept and cultural identity have been the subject of much debate. After recapping the literature on globalization, I review social psychology theories that are pertinent for determining how self-concept and cultural identity are fashioned by globalization. I elaborate on the nature, acquisition and evolution of GCC, and then consider the circumstances that nurture or hinder the preservation, amalgamation and vacillation of particular cultural identities. These include examining the roles played by formal institutions, informal movements, geopolitical events and crises and meta-trends, and appraising how these separately and jointly foster pro-global and anti-global sentiments. Implications for theory, practice and policy are discussed.
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“Este é um livro não apenas para investigadores, mas para profissionais que trabalhem ou se interessem pela intervenção social com jovens e crianças, quaisquer que sejam as suas linguagens e ferramentas artísticas. (...) Sarrouy presenteia-nos, assim, com um excelente contributo para a investigação e a intervenção na área da educação cultural e artística em territórios urbanos objeto de ‘desqualificação social’.” (Prefácio de Lígia Ferro. FLUP) - - - Resumo: Este livro resulta de vários anos de investigação etnográfica, tendo como temas transversais a música, os territórios, as populações, o encontro entre culturas e as suas interações sociais. Incide sobre três núcleos inspirados no programa de educação musical El Sistema situados na Venezuela, no Brasil e em Portugal. A corrente pragmatista e as metodologias que derivam da Escola de Chicago servem de pilares estruturais para este trabalho. Inserindo cada núcleo no seu contexto cultural, no tempo e no espaço, o autor propõe-se identificar as dinâmicas interacionistas entre os atores de educação musical e evidenciar a complexa subtileza do ensino e da aprendizagem da música sinfónica em ambientes socioeconomicamente desfavorecidos.
Article
Drawing on a preschool digitalization project, this article presents the findings from a survey of 75 Swedish preschool heads. One main question guided the survey: how do Swedish preschool heads describe the use and usefulness of digital tools for interaction with parents? These findings are discussed in regard to intercultural differences, intercultural communication competence, and discursive blind spots, where two additional questions are addressed: (1) what preunderstandings and discursive blind spots are found in preschool heads’ accounts of the use of digital tools for preschool staff–parent communication, and (2) what implications does the use of digital technology have for (intercultural) communication? Findings from the survey show that preschool heads take little consideration of their own or the parents’ cultural background when understanding and promoting the use of digital tools. The conclusion is that overrelience on digital communication may increase the risk of miscommunication – for all Swedes but particularly with regard to communication between native and “new” Swedes.
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Over the past years Nigerians have been experiencing different forms of violence, the major one being inter-ethnic or tribal conflicts. The first tribal conflicts since the return to civilian government occurred in May 30th-June 9th1999 in the Warri region of Delta state where an estimated twelve to two hundred people were killed and over 6000 forced to flee their homes. Also, in July 18th 1999 an estimated 120people died and many more were made homeless in ethnic clashes between OPC and Hausa traders in Sagamu. Similarly, the ethnic clashes on 25th November 1999, between OPC and Hausa traders in Lagos, where several people lost their lives and many more fled their homes. A structured questionnaire was used for personal interviews, a focus group discussion guideline was used for focus group discussions, listed discussion topics guide was used for an in depth interviews with key informants, a check list was used for observation. A total of 105 respondents participated in the research. The findings revealed that women had been working together in groups and had made significant achievements in improvement of their individual standards of living and in development of Wukari local government area. Most of the respondents were actively involved in self-help groups work. The study found out that the inter-ethnic conflicts in the area had negatively affected participation of women in livelihood activities. Most of the respondents had experienced inter-ethnic conflicts and were unanimous that no livelihood activities could take place in times of conflicts. People were displaced from their homes and lost their properties. The findings also proved that fear and tension in Wukari, will permanently affect the relationship between women from the warring communities. The major recommendation was that the government should intensify its efforts in restoration of peace and unity in the area. Future studies should address a permanent solution to the inter-ethnic conflicts in wukari and in the whole country.
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A través del método fenomenológico, desde una reflexión filosófica y teniendo como refe rente la participación de 30 estudiantes de 8 Universidades pertenecientes al Sistema de Instituciones de Educación Superior de Norte de Santander, sobre las experiencias estudiantiles en el contexto de la pandemia provocada por el COVID – 19. Estas experiencias se analizaron bajo el instrumento de una entrevis ta abierta cuya finalidad fue analizar las verba- lizaciones de los estudiantes a través de 3 categorías: la brecha digital, las metodologías remotas del aprendizaje y el aprendizaje autónomo y la identidad universitaria desde un contexto relacional. Los resultados ratifican la atipicidad de las experiencias con las apuestas investigativas de la bibliografía abordada, además nos abren a nuevas preguntas de investigación y a la relevancia que tendrán estos- tiempos para nuestras Instituciones de Educación Superior en los contextos remotos que nos planteó la pandemia.
Article
Across phenomena and areas of inquiry, social psychology often emphasizes social categories as the unit of explanation. However, the primacy of categories often leads social psychologists to neglect contextual features that might shape people’s psychologies and behaviour, limiting social psychology theories and their real-world applications. In this Perspective, we urge researchers to move beyond categories and incorporate context more deeply into their theorizing. To make this call actionable, we introduce social constructionism, assemblage theory and dynamic systems as alternative frameworks and present examples of how these frameworks already inform social psychology research. The work featured is not an exhaustive review of research emphasizing context in psychological theorizing, but rather serves to highlight the importance of alternatives to category-based or pseudo-universal frameworks. Social science that considers context must focus on psychological, structural and material features (rather than classifications), their interconnections, and temporal dynamism. Social psychology often emphasizes social categories as the unit of explanation. In this Perspective, Cikara et al. argue that the primacy of categories leads to neglect of contextual features that shape behaviour; they describe alternative frameworks for incorporating context into social psychology theorizing.
Article
Couple Relationship Education (CRE) programs are a prevention resource used to assist adult individuals, couples, and families reduce relationship distress and improve prosocial behaviors. Regional Extension agents (REAs) and other community family life educators (FLEs) who teach CRE are involved in a facilitation process that develops relationships and rapport with their participants similar to other helping relationships. To date, no published research has focused on how CRE may affect the REAs/FLEs who provide the programs through community adult education programs. Informed by relational-cultural theory and the ecological systems perspective, the current study focused on assessing change in ten outcomes measuring REAs/FLEs’ (N = 54) individual, couple, and co-parenting functioning and whether that change differed by gender. Results from repeated measure ANCOVAs indicate REAs/FLEs experience gains across several domains of functioning. There were no differences by gender. Implications for REAs/FLEs and suggestions for future research are described.
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