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Designing and conducting mixed methods research

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... This study follows a convergent mixed methods design in which qualitative and quantitative data were collected within the same phase of the study. Specifically, a data transformation variant of the convergent design was used (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2018). In such studies, the qualitative data is collected first and analyzed before transforming it into quantitative data for statistical analysis via a process Creswell and Plano Clark (2018) term quantitization. ...
... Specifically, a data transformation variant of the convergent design was used (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2018). In such studies, the qualitative data is collected first and analyzed before transforming it into quantitative data for statistical analysis via a process Creswell and Plano Clark (2018) term quantitization. This quantitization allows for statistical analyses to be interpreted more robustly as they are informed through findings from the qualitative analysis. ...
... In the present paper, the quantitized variable of PSTs' noticing was the dependent variable and PSTs' assigned condition was the independent variable (0=video-first; 1=hologram-first). Quantitization of qualitative themes served as the mechanism for merging data in the present study (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2018). Given the nature of data in this exploratory study, both qualitative and quantitative data were given equal prioritization in interpreting findings and results. ...
... Research approaches are broadly classified into two categories, namely, quantitative and qualitative methods, and when combined, they are referred to as a mixed-method approach (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2018). This study adopted a mixed-method approach. ...
... By using this methodology, the reliability and internal consistency of the data were also measured using Cronbach's coefficient alpha (Cooper & Emory, 1995;Field, 2009). Overall, the primary intent of a mixed methods explanatory sequential design is for the qualitative phase to explain the initial quantitative results (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2018 Creswell and Plano Clark (2018) posited that the qualitative phase typically explores and elaborates on the statistical tests from the quantitative phase. ...
... By using this methodology, the reliability and internal consistency of the data were also measured using Cronbach's coefficient alpha (Cooper & Emory, 1995;Field, 2009). Overall, the primary intent of a mixed methods explanatory sequential design is for the qualitative phase to explain the initial quantitative results (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2018 Creswell and Plano Clark (2018) posited that the qualitative phase typically explores and elaborates on the statistical tests from the quantitative phase. ...
Article
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Purpose of the study: The purpose of the study was to develop and assess whether a leadership skills development model, which integrates six valid conceptual constructs, will develop enhanced leadership skills in an African-based fast-moving consumer goods business network. Design/methodology/approach: The six-construct model is predicated on the literature review, which was empirically tested. Thus, the study selected a pragmatic approach and followed up with an explanatory sequential design typology. Moreover, this study adopted a quantitative, cross-sectional survey research methodology, while an online survey was administered to collect primary data from the Kwaden Group. Inferential statistics were also employed so as to appropriately examine the validity and reliability of the constructs. Finally, a qualitative phenomenological research approach was utilised to collect primary data from key decision-makers within the African fast-moving consumer goods business network via structured face-to-face interviews. Findings: The study provides a theoretically relevant and empirically validated leadership skills development model amendable to an African fast-moving consumer goods business network. Additionally, a confirmatory factor analysis confirmed a good model fit for the leadership skills development model. It was also established that leadership skills development should be multilevel, which infers that participants should have the opportunity to develop multifaceted leadership skills and that such leadership capabilities should be a primary company objective.
... I employed a convergent mixed methods approach because it allowed for a more complete understanding of factors that contribute to self-efficacy in emerging outdoor leaders. By collecting both quantitative and qualitative data, I could obtain different but complementary data on the same topic, which allowed me to examine relationships between variables that would not have existed with just one form of data (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2018). For this research, solely using the quantitative ORSE scale would have provided a measure of self-efficacy with no explanation for participant differences. ...
... Therefore, I chose to collect and analyze both forms of data to support my understanding of each. A convergent mixed methods design additionally allows for corroboration and validation between data and brings together the strengths and weaknesses of each methodology (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2018). Specifically, I could provide more explanation and context for quantitative results and triangulate the qualitative responses with a validated measure of self-efficacy (Creswell & Creswell, 2017). ...
... While I employed different methods to analyze the raw data, as a convergent mixed-methods research project, quantitative and qualitative data analysis also happened simultaneously and congruently. The intent of conducting a convergent mixed-methods study was to allow for a richer analysis of perspective and determine to what extent the different forms of data converge or diverge (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2018). ...
Article
Being a leader in the outdoors requires the competence and confidence to act and make decisions in high-risk situations. However, female leaders may experience an incongruence between the assertive decision-making expected of their leadership role and the passivity expected of their gender role, which can impact their leadership self- efficacy. The purpose of this study was to explore how gender role congruence influences the self-efficacy of male and female emerging outdoor leaders. A convergent mixed- methods design was used by triangulating self-efficacy survey data with in-depth interviews, observations, and reflective drawings from eight student outdoor leaders at a large Midwestern university’s outdoor recreation program. Multiple themes emerged from this study, with the primary result being that participants had highest self-efficacy with gender role congruent behaviors. Both engrained perceptions of gender roles in outdoor leadership and prior experiences contributed to these feelings of self-efficacy. Additionally, the results of this study indicated that women experienced low self-efficacy more often than men and faced specific challenges leading in a male-dominated space. No other known study examining gender and self-efficacy in the outdoors has used such a design, so this research brings a novel contribution to the literature and to outdoor leadership development programs. Advisor: Lindsay Hastings
... Due to multifactors and complex pathways towards the development of aggression, a pragmatic worldview of research is required to answer the rising questions through the application of multiple data collection methods (26). Therefore, this study employs the mixedmethod research methodology with an explanatory study design. ...
... Both the quantitative survey and qualitative interviews which produce different types of data have been combined and integrated in the Results and Discussion section to address the research questions. The participant selection model variant of explanatory mixed method design was chosen in the second phase of qualitative study as it is related to the findings of the quantitative study (26). ...
... Field notes which include the descriptions or details of the interview sessions will be recorded as part of the information recording process during and/or after the interview sessions. The field notes contain the initial brief notes and the daily and descriptive summaries of the researcher during the data collection process (26). They serve as an important documentation for qualitative data analysis and interpretation as they record the contextual details and non-verbal expressions of both the informants and researcher. ...
Research
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Introduction: Adolescent aggression is an important public health concern with escalating prevalence of juvenile cases and violence among these age groups including robbery, homicide, and gang fights. The objectives of this study protocol are to determine the biopsychosocial predictors and explore the contextual factors of adolescent aggression among secondary school students in Hulu Langat. Methods: Explanatory mixed method study design will be used, consist of quantitative cross-sectional study followed by basic qualitative study. Proportionate population sampling among Form 4 secondary school students from selected public secondary schools in Hulu Langat will be executed. Questionnaires will be distributed to 481 students on aggression as the dependent variable, and several independent variables: demographic (ethnicity, family income), biological (sex, head injury, nutritional deficiency, breakfast skipping), psychological (attitude and normative beliefs, personality trait, emotional intelligence), and social factors (family environment, single parent status, domestic violence, peer deviant affiliation, alcohol, smoking, substance abuse). Subsequently, participants with moderate to high aggression scores will be further explored on the contextual factors of adolescent aggression by in-depth interview. Multiple linear regression will be executed using SPSS to determine significant predictors whereas thematic analysis will be applied for qualitative data analysis on the context of adolescent aggression. Both findings will be further integrated and discussed to give comprehensive description on the phenomena. Conclusion: Better knowledge and understanding on adolescent aggression may generate new framework to drive more effective preventive strategies and unravel adolescent aggressive related Public Health problems.
... This study used a mixed methods design, which involves a mixture of qualitative and quantitative approaches. Creswell and Clark (2018) state that mixed methods design is characterized by the collection and analysis of both qualitative and quantitative data rigorously in response to research questions and the combination of the two forms of data and their results. Investigating creative thinking in the EFL classroom is supported by exploring the elements of the EFL educational system especially educational policy documents, the textbook and teachers' beliefs and practices to give a more holistic view of the phenomenon. ...
... A mixed methods approach is important to cross-verify the results and draw conclusions which help investigate the match between the aims and the objectives outlined in educational policy documents and their implementation through the textbook and teaching practices and identify gaps for improvement in policy and practice. Convergent design is used to incorporate the strengths and weaknesses of quantitative and qualitative methods and compare the two kinds of data in order to get a full understanding of the problem as emphasized by Creswell & Clark (2018). This design involves the collection, analysis and mixture of quantitative and qualitative data in order to get a full understanding in response to the study's overall purpose which is investigating the development of creative thinking in Moroccan EFL classrooms. ...
Article
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The present paper reports on an evaluation study investigating the extent to which Moroccan EFL high school classrooms encourage the development of creative thinking skills. Our objectives were: to explore the extent to which educational policy documents, namely the National Charter for Education and Training (1999), the White Paper (2002) and the Guidelines for teaching English (2007) promote the development of creative thinking; to find out whether Ticket to English 2 textbook has the potential to support students to think creatively; to investigate teachers’ perceptions and attitudes towards developing creative thinking and to discover insights into the nature of classroom environment with regard to the development of the skill. The study used a mixed methods design which involves a mixture of qualitative and quantitative approaches. The purpose behind this choice is to investigate the match between the aims and objectives outlined in educational policy documents and their implementation through the textbook and teaching practices. The study employed five research instruments namely documents analysis, textbook evaluation, questionnaires, classroom observation, and a semi-structured interview. The results revealed that the importance of creative thinking has been emphasized in policy documents, yet the textbook and teaching practices focus on lower-order thinking skills, such as remembering and understanding. The study concludes with practical recommendations for policy makers, textbook designers, teachers, and teacher development programs.
... Surprisingly, mixed-method approaches were also used fairly frequently, accounting for 8% of all studies. The mixed-method design is currently the most advocated approach, as it has the advantages of being data-rich, objective, and reliable [42]. For example, a recent study by Wen (2020) conducted a mixed-methods study to investigate whether and in what ways AR features promote young learners' cognitive engagement with vocabulary learning [43]. ...
... Some design studies explored the feasibility of AR through case study designs, whereas some relied mainly on survey results to draw conclusions. approach, as it has the advantages of being data-rich, objective, and reliable [42]. For example, a recent study by Wen (2020) conducted a mixed-methods study to investigate whether and in what ways AR features promote young learners' cognitive engagement with vocabulary learning [43]. ...
Article
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With its capacity to support student-centered learning through digital transformation and shared experience, augmented reality (AR) has received increasing attention from both researchers and practitioners as an emerging technology to achieve innovative and sustainable education. Therefore, this study systematically reviewed the literature on the application of augmented reality in K–12 education settings between 2000 and 2020. After two stages of screening, 129 articles were selected, and the key research results were analyzed and integrated by adopting a coding scheme including basic information, instruction contexts, technical features, instructional design, and research results. The results revealed interesting findings regarding the augmented reality literature in terms of publication patterns, application fields, technological affordances, instructional designs, and methods. Furthermore, a meta-analysis was conducted to examine the effectiveness of augmented reality-based instruction, and the results showed a large overall effect size (g = 0.919) with three significant moderators. Finally, the practical significance of AR-based instruction and a future research agenda are discussed.
... Results also indicated that research self-efficacy was significantly predicted by positive team research experiences. Using the mixed-method research design was one of the strengths of this study since integrating the quantitative and qualitative approaches provides a better and deep understanding of a complex phenomenon or research problems than using either method alone (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007). ...
... One of the strengths of this study is using the mixed method design since integrating the quantitative and qualitative approaches provides a better and deep understanding of a complex phenomenon or research problems than using either method alone (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007). In addition, this study contributed to the literature recommending that PBL as a useful strategy in different engineering courses can improve students' ability to design practical systems and solving difficult problems (Mills & Treagust, 2003). ...
... Results also indicated that research self-efficacy was significantly predicted by positive team research experiences. Using the mixed-method research design was one of the strengths of this study since integrating the quantitative and qualitative approaches provides a better and deep understanding of a complex phenomenon or research problems than using either method alone (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007). ...
... One of the strengths of this study is using the mixed method design since integrating the quantitative and qualitative approaches provides a better and deep understanding of a complex phenomenon or research problems than using either method alone (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007). In addition, this study contributed to the literature recommending that PBL as a useful strategy in different engineering courses can improve students' ability to design practical systems and solving difficult problems (Mills & Treagust, 2003). ...
Thesis
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The trend of growing online learning enrollments leads to a significant change in American higher education. It has caused numerous universities to study how to offer their curriculum online to maintain attracting students. Several research studies show that distance learning environments could play a significant role in developing graduate students’ research self-efficacy beliefs. The aim of this study was to identify differences in the perception of distance learning environments, and achievement goal orientations, and to research the self-efficacy of graduate students that might exist between different demographic groups. Additionally, this study investigated the relationship between the distance learning environment, achievement goal orientations, and research self-efficacy for graduate students at a large university in southwest Texas. To fulfill those aims, a cross-sectional survey research design was used. An online survey, including several instruments and demographic questions, was used to collect data. Findings demonstrated that distance learning environments positively predicted graduate students’research self-efficacy. However, achievement goal orientations did not mediate the relationship between distance learning environments and research self-efficacy.
... This study provides insights into current perceptions and possible improvements for the use of electronic accounting applications (EAAs) by micro-enterprises, in addition to identifying the impact on financial inclusion, which aims to promote the use of financial and banking services among various groups of society (Central Bank of Jordan [CBJ], 2018). A sequential exploratory mixedmethod was adopted in this research (Creswell & Clark, 2017) where the qualitative phase was conducted first to help gather in-depth information about possible factors influencing the non-adoption of EAAs in addition to aiding in the design of the quantitative instrument, followed by the quantitative phase to test the posited catalysts that affect the adoption of EAAs by micro-enterprises. Thematic analysis revealed that costs associated with the use of EAAs and the need for qualified personnel to operate EAAs along with a lack of interest in and awareness of e-commerce culture were the main reasons for the lack of adoption and use of EAAs. ...
Article
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This study provides insights into current perceptions and possible improvements for the use of electronic accounting applications (EAAs) by micro-enterprises, in addition to identifying the impact on financial inclusion, which aims to promote the use of financial and banking services among various groups of society (Central Bank of Jordan [CBJ], 2018). A sequential exploratory mixed-method was adopted in this research (Creswell & Clark, 2017) where the qualitative phase was conducted first to help gather in depth information about possible factors influencing the non adoption of EAAs in addition to aiding in the design of the quantitative instrument, followed by the quantitative phase to test the posited catalysts that affect the adoption of EAAs by micro-enterprises. Thematic analysis revealed that costs associated with the use of EAAs and the need for qualified personnel to operate EAAs along with a lack of interest in and awareness of e commerce culture were the main reasons for the lack of adoption and use of EAAs. On the other hand, the quantitative analysis showed a set of measures that promote the use of EAAs, in addition to a positive relationship in increasing the scope of financial inclusion. This study presents a number of policy implications for regulators such as 1) the central bank and social security as expanding financial inclusion means adequately providing financial support to affected enterprises; 2) Ministry of Digital Economy and Entrepreneurship to sponsor the development of customized, free, and easy-to-use accounting applications; 3) activating the social responsibility of local universities in promoting the financial culture through holding free training courses for micro-enterprises.
... We also analyzed demographic information about participants, such as gender, years of experience, and population they currently worked with to see whether there were connections between the reasons they gave and their background information. This was a Triangulation Design: Data Transformation Model in which the qualitative data (QUAL) was quantified (QUAN) [25]. Specifically, for the present study, the answers to the open-ended question referring to the reasons for choosing a clientele were qualitatively analyzed to form categories. Once the categories were formed, we then counted the number of participants that chose each category and analyzed these numbers quantitatively with descriptive statistics. ...
Article
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(1) Background: Throughout their career, music therapists make decisions regarding the clinical population they choose to work with. Though such decisions can have broad implications on the professional development of the music therapist, not much is known about the reasons for making these decisions and whether they are affected by demographic or professional factors. (2) Methods: In this pilot study, we surveyed 439 music therapists from six countries (i.e., Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Israel, Spain, and Switzerland) using an online questionnaire. We asked the respondents to explain why they chose to work with their main clienteles, and we examined whether their reasons were connected to demographic factors such as country of origin, gender, and seniority, and professional factors such as experience as a music therapist and population one works with. (3) Results: The category analysis of these responses pointed at nine distinct reasons that could be grouped into “practical reasons”, “reasons of connection”, and “innovation”. There were differences in reasoning between music therapists from different countries, and with different degrees of seniority, but not between male and female music therapists. (4) Discussion: The implications on training programs and on policy makers are discussed as well as the importance of this subject to the development of music therapists’ professional identity.
... From an academic administrative perspective, the PLE scale was developed using an exploratory sequential mixed-method approach (PLES-AA). Minor revisions were made based on Creswell and Clark's scale development framework [33]. The initial PLES-AA item pool was developed using the literature review approach, taking into account the aforementioned rubrics and frameworks. ...
Article
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The study aims to construct and validate a rubric to assess the effectiveness of PLEs from an academic administrative perspective (PLER-AA) in tertiary education in China. A qualitative-quantitative sequential mixed-method design was used for the scale validation. A total of 206 teachers and administrative staff participated in the Confirmative Factor Analysis (CFA), which supported the 4-dimensional scale, with policy (n = 4), program design (n = 4), curriculum/instruction (n = 4), and capacity (n = 4). Meanwhile, another 189 teachers and administrative staff participated in the current sequence of PLE applications in higher education surveys, revealing a developing phase in China. Consequently, the rubric can be used as a benchmark that provides insight to educators and administrators in developing PLEs in tertiary education in China and worldwide.
... This study adopted a qualitative case study design, which offered an in-depth knowledge of the risks of climate variability and change on mango seedlings and the associated adaptation strategies from the natural setting of seedlings producers (Creswell, 2014;Creswell and Plano Clark, 2018). According to Yin (2004), the strength of the case study approach lies in its ability to collect detailed and in-depth information in a natural setting. ...
Article
While adaptation interventions offer a window of opportunity to mitigate the susceptibility of mango seedlings to adverse impact of climate variability and change, there is a scarcity of information on how mango seedlings producers respond to climate variability and change in Ghana. Using a qualitative case study with 20 mango seedlings producers selected through purposive and snowball sampling techniques, this study investigates participants’ knowledge and experience of climate variability and change, the effects of the observed changes on mango seedlings and the adaptation strategies employed to counter the risks associated with climate variability and change in a mango production zone of Ghana. Results indicate that floods, droughts, rising temperature, erratic rainfall and windstorm have been observed among the participants, which negatively affect the survival, growth, establishment and quality of mango seedlings. Adaptation strategies, such as creating gutters, applying agrochemicals, grafting and improved seed varieties, planting of trees as shades, irrigation and soil improvement techniques including mulching, have been implemented by the participants to mitigate climate variability and change effects. The practical and policy implications of the results are discussed and recommendations provided.
... The study used a mixed-methods approach to collect quantitative and qualitative data in order to identify cases with a lot of information and capture different points of view (Creswell & Plano Clark 2018). The necessary data were gathered using both primary and secondary data sources. ...
Article
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This study was conducted in the Harshin District of the Somali Region, Ethiopia, to understand the climate change trends, their consistency with pastoralists’ perceptions and their effects on pastoral households. The study used both qualitative and quantitative data collected from 143 households through household surveys. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews were also employed to triangulate and substantiate the reports from household surveys. Data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and chi-square tests to test a degree of significance between the pastoral and agropastoral households for the impact of climate change. Mann–Kendall’s trend test and Sen’s slope estimator were employed to determine climate change trends of the study area. The result showed that pastoral households perceived an increasing trend in annual temperature and a decreasing trend in annual and seasonal rainfall. Mann–Kendall’s trend analysis confirmed pastoral communities’ perceptions of higher temperatures and rainfall variability, with the exception of a long-term decline in rainfall. The findings further indicated that six droughts (one severe and five moderate) were observed for the period 1983–2017. The result indicated that the significant increase in temperature along with high interannual and seasonal rainfall variability have been causing adverse impacts on crop and livestock production. Therefore, there is a need to provide drought-tolerant and early-maturing crops and improved livestock breeds for pastoral households. Water-related interventions such as small-scale irrigation farming and water harvesting during good rainy seasons is also paramount to enhance climate resilience of the local people.
... Qualitative research, in a mixed-methods study, is often included when quantitative results alone are not adequate to explain the outcomes. Qualitative data also provide an opportunity to enhance the inclusion of participants' voices, which can enrich and help explain the quantitative results (Creswell & Plano-Clark, 2007). Two groups were compared: Group A consisted of alumni or students who completed a capstone in an MBA program that included a service-learning experience, and Group B consisted of alumni or students who completed a capstone in an MBA program that did not include a service-learning experience (Wickam, 2017). ...
... Further, combining different data sources which is the case for mixed methods studies allows for corroboration of different data and also brings different perspectives to a study (Creswell & Plano, 2006). In terms of the specific design, the study used the explanatory sequential mixedmethod design (Creswell, 2014). ...
Article
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Reducing the spread of COVID-19 depends on easy access to water to ensure adherence to good hygienic practices. However, most communities in developing countries like Ghana face a series of challenges in accessing improved water sources. This study seeks to examine water access and its associated challenges in the Yilo Krobo Municipality of Ghana during the early periods of the COVID-19 pandemic. The study also examines the various strategies adopted by households to cope with challenges in accessing improved water sources. The study relies on a sample survey of 400 households in the study localities and proceeded with the collection of qualitative data which were mainly interviews with selected participants. The findings show that about 68.5% of households have access to pipe-borne water during COVID-19 compared to 8% who use unhygienic sources like rivers, dams, and ponds. Most households (54.5%) depend on pipe-borne water sources outside their dwellings. The main water accessibility challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic were water shortage when needed (38%) and an increase in the cost of water (41%) even though, water was supposed to be free at the time of the study. The main coping strategy adopted to ensure water is available in the house is to store water in buckets, drums, or jerry cans. Due to the small size of the storage facilities, people had to depend on water vendors to supply their households with water which is more expensive compared to getting water directly from the pipe. People also resort to unhygienic sources like rivers, ponds, and dams due to lack of water. The study recommends the formation of water and sanitation board and an increase in the capacity of the pumping station to ensure adequate provision of potable water for the communities on a sustainable basis.
... It is important to directly or purposively select participants who have experienced the central phenomenon (Creswell & Clark, 2017;Maxwell, 2013). Also known as selective or judgement sampling, this form of non-probability sampling allows for researchers to rely on their own judgment when choosing members of the population to participate in a study. ...
Thesis
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The COVID-19 pandemic has had profound effects on Institutions of Higher Education throughout the world. The unprecedented impact on university campuses were diverse and complex as universities shutdown and adapted their operations to address the threat. Many universities mobilized their research competencies to contribute to managing the risk beyond the campus environment. Numerous institutions were unprepared for the consequences and struggled to respond to the demands. To better manage the pressures, crisis response teams were setup overnight. The Oklahoma State University, in the United States, established two incident management teams using the incident command system, to manage the response. The initial short duration response aimed to establish and increase the diagnostic microbiology testing capacity for SARS-CoV-2 in the state of Oklahoma. The extended duration response focused on reopening a college after the lockdown and implementing the pandemic precautions required for the return of staff, faculty, and students. The aim of this qualitative exploratory study is to critically evaluate the IMT member perceptions, attitudes and experiences, and the use of the ICS, during the IMT’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic, in the pursuance of providing recommendations for improved IHE usage of the ICS. As a result of the qualitative analysis of both IMT responses, numerous findings contributed to shaping the nineteen recommendations emanating from this study.
... To gain an in-depth understanding of how school counselors identified and adjusted services in response to COVID-19induced disparities, we utilized a convergent parallel design, a type of mixed-methods design. In this design, the researcher concurrently conducts the quantitative and qualitative elements in the same phase of the research process, weighs the methods equally, analyzes the two components independently, and interprets the results together (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2011). ...
Article
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We utilized a mixed-methods design to understand how a national sample of 589 school counselors adapted their approach to address K–12 students’ academic, social/emotional, and career development during the COVID-19 pandemic. More specifically, we examined how COVID-19–induced disparities influenced school counselors’ delivery of services. We identified six themes using thematic analysis and conducted a t test to further understand what services and strategies counselors were actively using 6 months after the onset of COVID-19. Our findings suggest that school counselors continued to adjust their comprehensive school counseling programs to address pandemic-induced disparities.
... Previous work by Crede and Borrego [1] and Kajfez and Creamer [2] examined mixed methods publications across popular venues in the field like the Journal of Engineering Education and ASEE conference proceedings. Crede and Borrego [1] focused primarily on the issue of mixing and priority (i.e., quantitative or qualitative dominance) using thematic analysis using criteria established by Creswell and Plano Clark [3], whereas Kajfez and Creamer [2] focused on evaluating a selection of 16 articles using Creamer's Mixed Methods Evaluation Rubric. Both reviews focused on the concept of mixing, which is the fundamental quality of mixed methods research used synonymously with the term integrationthe point where qualitative and quantitative procedures interface with one another [4,5]. ...
Conference Paper
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This work-in-progress paper introduces an emerging method for conducting a systematic methodological review of mixed methods publications, which we apply to engineering education research. Although a smattering of methodological reviews exists, studies to understand how researchers approach integration, the central feature of mixed methods designs, in engineering education are scarce. By applying a network-analytic model to visualize design procedures, specifically ego network analysis, and typologies of integration strategies, we can map the mechanisms by which engineering education researchers perform integration in their studies. From these networks, ego networks of integration strategies can be generated that can inform scholars inside and outside the field how previous studies have combined different methods. The direct impact on the field is a comprehensive examination of integrative procedures in engineering education research adaptable to various mixed methods designs.
... Thematic analysis is a method of evaluating information to gain a deeper insight into the participants' perspectives. Furthermore, thematic analysis exposes data patterns, helping the researcher fully comprehend the research findings (Altinay et al., 2016;Bryman and Bell, 2015;Creswell, 2013;Creswell and Plano, 2007;Field, 2009;Zikmund et al., 2013). The researchers categorized the open-ended questions as follows: (1) supporting locally grown food products, (2) environmentally friendly tourism practices and (3) sustainable tourism experiences. ...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the trend toward purchasing locally grown food and evaluate if tourists visiting Hawai'i are willing to pay more for locally produced foods that are more ecologically sustainable. Design/methodology/approach A research questionnaire was developed in order to investigate the attitudes and behaviors of tourists from the continental United States visiting Hawai'i in purchasing locally grown food in Hawai'i. The final sample includes 454 valid survey responses collected via Momentive, a market research services company. Findings According to the findings of this study, there are economic prospects to expand the use of locally cultivated food into the tourists' experience, as well as a willingness for tourists to support these activities financially. The Contingent Valuation study revealed that tourists from the continental United States were ready to pay a higher price to purchase food that is locally grown, signifying that tourists to Hawai'i are willing to aid the local agriculture business by increasing their restaurant/hotel meal bill, which will help Hawai'i become a more sustainable tourist destination. Research limitations/implications While tourists from the United States mainland, which is the “an islands” top tourist market, have agreed with paying extra or an additional fee for locally grown food products, this study might not accurately represent the attitudes and behaviors of international tourists visiting Hawai'i. Future research should focus on the international tourist markets which may have different social norms or cultural differences thus could provide a broader spectrum of the current study's findings. Originality/value The results of this study provided quantitative evidence that tourists from the United States are interested in purchasing locally grown food items in Hawaii in addition to their willingness to pay an additional fee for these locally grown food products at a restaurant or a hotel dining room, thus addressing a gap in the tourism research.
... The themes predetermined in the current paper were based on Moskowitz's (2021) quantitative findings, thus confirmatory data analysis was used. The analysis is hypothesis-driven, guided by patterns and ideas the researchers wanted to further explore (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2011 ...
... Because the population size for MOTAC officers is unknown, estimating the sample size will be difficult. However, it is advised to reach at least six informants (Morse, 2000) or between five and 25 informants (Creswell & Clark, 2007) for phenomenological research. More specifically, it was claimed that data saturation occurred when there were twelve data collecting points (Guest, Bunce, & Johnson, 2006). ...
Article
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Previous research studies from many nations have piqued interest in individuals' and organisations' environmental behaviour (EB). EB is defined in this research as any action that is safe or causes insignificant destruction to the environment. There is a shortage of research examining environmental supervision by governing bodies as external stakeholders towards smaller-scale businesses, for instance, the Homestay business. There is still a considerable divergence about environmental behaviour interaction between internal and external stakeholders in the Homestay context. Moreover, it is believed that small businesses like Homestay may face pressures differently from other larger accommodation establishments. By proposing a conceptual diagram relating stakeholder theory (ST) and environmental behaviour (EB), this study consolidates key elements within both contexts, hence proposing the idea that the stakeholder interaction may crucially influence the EB among Homestay operators. It is believed that by observing pertinent research in this emerging field, an in-depth qualitative study to discover EB's real in the Homestay setting can be proposed for future research.
... There has been a debate in the literature for many years over a paradigm that is scientifically sound and compatible with mixed methods research: some call it "paradigm wars" (Creswell, 2007;Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2010). To clarify, I do not use "paradigm" with the qualitative, quantitative, or mixed method approaches. ...
Article
In providing health services, it is important not just to follow good care pathways but also to recognise the diversity in the population and adapt the way we care for patients to reflect this. If health professionals do not recognise the cultural needs of patients this is likely to result in poorer health outcomes for those patients. Whilst education is seen as the method of enhancing intercultural competence of future pharmacists, the diversity of the academic environment in which students learn can affect their development of intercultural competence. Ensuring students appreciate the impact of interculturally competent practice and providing them with the knowledge, skills and attitudes needed to be interculturally competent health professionals can result in better patient care. The literature suggests that pharmacists in the United Kingdom (UK) are not always competent in providing services to a diverse patient population. Few studies in the literature have considered the role of cultural education in pharmacy schools in the UK. This thesis aims to understand the cultural intelligence of pharmacy students and test an educational intervention at the University of Nottingham (UoN). The thesis employed a mixed methods approach through conducting a series of studies. Firstly, a questionnaire was distributed to all final year pharmacy students at the UoN (UK campus). Ninety-eight out of 241 (40%) students completed the questionnaire for the academic year 2017/18. Results suggest a lack of cultural knowledge and the need for cultural training. This was followed by semi-structured interviews with 35 final year pharmacy students, which found that students from different cultures had different attitudes towards their peers and raised student-chosen racial segregation as a barrier to effective intercultural contact. Finally, a novel educational intervention was designed and tested with 14 final year pharmacy students for the academic year 2018/19. The intervention focused on two areas, interaction with peers, and with patients. Results provide convincing evidence that suggest the need for wider testing of the effectiveness and duration of effect of the educational intervention. Despite the opportunities provided during their time at the UoN, students identified some challenges for educational providers in that their intercultural interactions and capability were affected by prior experiences, speaking more than one language, and sharing accommodation with people from different cultural backgrounds. This research was only implemented with one cohort of students in the School of Pharmacy at the University of Nottingham and so needs to be tested in other schools and institutions to provide a knowledge base that can direct future research and policies. Work also needs to be done at the organisational level to develop policies and practices that lead to positive outcomes in the community. The findings provide educators, researchers, students, and pharmacists with insights about factors that may facilitate or hinder the development of cultural intelligence among pharmacy students. These insights can be used to improve the academic environment and also training for pharmacists providing pharmaceutical services.
... The purpose of the present study was to analyze educators' interactions with and use of design thinking for change efforts. To accomplish this purpose and answer our two research questions, we employed a convergent mixed-methods design (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2011). This approach leverages "methodological triangulation" (Morse, 1991, p. 120), which calls for using at least two different types of methods to examine the same research questions and to enrich the interpretation of results. ...
Article
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Many of today’s educational organizations around the world contend with complex challenges. Yet, longstanding practices and norms in educational systems can hamper educators’ abilities to identify and address these challenges, such as only principals leading change efforts or the use of misaligned “quick fixes” for ill-defined challenges. A design-based approach to organizational change, on the other hand, holds promise to reframe change in local educational agencies like schools. Design thinking is one way to enact a design-based approach, but little research has investigated the process’s use to help educators conceptualize and implement change. Drawing upon transformational learning theory, this United States-based mixed-methods study examined a year-long professional learning workshop sponsored by a state education agency that used design thinking to reframe how participants orchestrated change in their contexts. Results indicated that design thinking helped participants devise more nuanced understandings of themselves and the change process in their contexts, yet, most participants’ actions continued to be influenced by longstanding practices and norms of the U.S. educational system. We close by discussing implications for practice and policy, particularly the need for professional learning experiences that prompt educators to critically reflect upon their mindsets and how their actions may differ from those mindsets. This greater understanding can better position educators to engage in change efforts that address increasingly complex challenges in education.
... In a first step, the mixed method core of this research explores the above-explained hypothesis and open questions, based on a cross-sectional study with a sample of immigration detainees (see Fig. 1). An embedded design (Creswell, 2007) combines both the quantitative and qualitative data which explores different aspects of the detention environment and mental health. The mentioned dataset is collected in semi-structured interviews which were organised along the dimensions of the TES. ...
Article
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Mexico’s role in the US-Central American migration regime is threefold: not only is it a country of origin, and a transit country, but also increasingly becoming a receiving country for migrants who flee from violence, insecurity and poverty. The Mexican state responds with detention enforcement. Clinical research usually puts emphasise on the negative impact of detention enforcement on the detainees‘ mental health. Yet, it often disregards the spatial configurations of detention centres and their socio-political context. This study aims to fill this gap by analysing how such factors create harmful environments that affect both the detainees‘ mental health and their social life in Mexico’s migration detention centres. The study’s mixed method approach builds on semi-structured interviews with a sample of N = 56 migrants of diverse nationalities and varying socioeconomic status of whom 22 were still detained while 34 had been released. The interviews include the Torturing Environment Scale (TES), a novel instrument for the analysis of detention environments, as well as clinical psychological measures of emotional distress. Additional n = 10 in-depth interviews with human rights advocates to explore the interconnections between the detention environments, their impact on mental health, and Mexican migration politics. Facultative counter-mappings of the detention centres complement the interviews. Without exception, all interviews of detainees underline that the manipulation of detention conditions creates torturing environments that cause harm to basic physiological and psychological needs. A comparison between detained vs. released interviewees revealed lasting feelings of fear and shame. The study emphasises that immigration detention immobilises migrants in a necropolitical limbo, which destroys hope as much as human integrity. It indicates that detention is part of deterrence politics, which perpetuates harm and inequality through detention and deportation. Highlighting structural human rights violations, the findings stress the need to review current migration policies.
... Pengumpulan data menggunakan pendekatan gabungan bertujuan untuk mendapatkan maklumat tambahan yang terperinci bagi menyediakan kefahaman mendalam kepada permasalahan kajian berbanding menggunakan satu pendekatan (Creswell & Clark 2007). Menerusi pendekatan ini, data secara kuantitatif dan kualitatif dapat dihubungkan agar dapat membina satu set data yang lain. ...
Book
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Kajian ini dijalankan untuk meninjau pelaksanaan pembelajaran secara atas talian dalam kalangan siswa guru. Fokus kajian terhadap tiga aspek iaitu persepsi terhadap pembelajaran secara atas talian, isu utama dalam aspek pembelajaran, isu utama dalam aspek pentaksiran dan kesesuaian pembelajaran secara atas talian terhadap siswa guru. Sampel kajian ini terdiri daripada 496 orang siswa guru dari IPG kampus Ilmu Khas, Kuala Lumpur.yang berada di pelbagai peringkat pengajian dan pengkhususan pengajian. Kajian ini menggunakan pendekatan gabungan dengan menjadikan pendekatan kuantitatif melalui instrumen soal selidik sebagai rujukan utama. Sebagai rujukan kedua untuk memperkukuhkan dapatan aspek kesesuaian pembelajaran secara atas talian terhadap siswa guru, satu temuduga separa berstruktur telah diberikan kepada 5% sample kajian iaitu seramai lima peserta. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan bahawa sebanyak 445 orang siswa guru (89.8%) menggunakan google meet untuk mengikuti pembelajaran secara atas talian. Selain itu perspektif siswa guru terhadap pembelajaran secara atas talian berada pada tahap sederhana tinggi (min 3.38; sp= .46). Seterusnya dapatan kajian menunjukkan bahawa tahap pembelajaran siswa guru semasa mengikuti proses pembelajaran secara atas talian juga berada pada tahap sederhana tinggi (min 3.67; sp= .36). Di samping itu dapatan kajian menunjukkan bahawa isu utama dalam aspek pembelajaran yang dihadapi oleh siswa guru semasa mengikuti proses pembelajaran secara atas talian adalah masalah untuk akses kepada rangkaian internet (336 orang; 67.7%). Kajian juga mendapati antara isu utama dalam aspek pentaksiran yang dihadapi oleh siswa guru semasa mengikuti proses pembelajaran secara atas talian adalah kesukaran untuk menyempurnakan tugasan dengan lebih baik (min 3.27; sp= .91). Dapatan kajian seterusnya menunjukkan bahawa 286 orang (57.6%) daripada siswa guru menyatakan bahawa pembelajaran sesara atas talian adalah tidak sesuai untuk dilaksanakan di IPG. Seterusnya pengkaji mencadangkan supaya pensyarah menggunakan pelbagai medium elektronik agar pembelajaran secara atas talian menjadi lebih menarik dan kemudahan rangkaian internet perlulah dipertingkatkan untuk membolehkan semua siswa guru akses kepada rangkaian internet. Selain itu pensyarah juga digalakkan untuk memberikan pendedahan terperinci terhadap setiap tugasan agar siswa guru dapat menyempurnakan tugasan yang diberikan. Bilangan kerja kursus dan tugasan dalam aktiviti tutorial perlu dikurangkan agar tidak terlalu membebankan siswa guru.
... To the best of our knowledge, a sensible approach for combining the two worlds is missing. Ideas for bridging the gap could be taken from mixed methods research (Creswell and Plano Clark, 2017;Hesse-Biber, 2010), where quantitative and qualitative research methods are combined in order to maximize the strengths and minimize the weaknesses of each type of data. Integration, i.e. the interaction between the different components of the study, is an essential aspect in mixed methods research (O'Cathain et al., 2010). ...
Preprint
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Method comparisons are essential to provide recommendations and guidance for applied researchers, who often have to choose from a plethora of available approaches. While many comparisons exist in the literature, these are often not neutral but favour a novel method. Apart from the choice of design and a proper reporting of the findings, there are different approaches concerning the underlying data for such method comparison studies. Most manuscripts on statistical methodology rely on simulation studies and provide a single real-world data set as an example to motivate and illustrate the methodology investigated. In the context of supervised learning, in contrast, methods are often evaluated using so-called benchmarking data sets, i.e. real-world data that serve as gold standard in the community. Simulation studies, on the other hand, are much less common in this context. The aim of this paper is to investigate differences and similarities between these approaches, to discuss their advantages and disadvantages and ultimately to develop new approaches to the evaluation of methods picking the best of both worlds. To this aim, we borrow ideas from different contexts such as mixed methods research and Clinical Scenario Evaluation.
... The goal of this study was to establish feasibility of facilitating art therapy at a burn center, with a primary focus on implementation and acceptability, and exploratory aim on assessing the impact of art therapy on self-reported outcomes on anxiety and mood among 5 individuals (aged 18+ years) with acute burns (i.e., burns that are referred to and treated at a designated burn center upon hospitalization). A mixed methods within-subjects small N design was adopted wherein both quantitative and qualitative data are gathered and then integrated 34 and an individual served as his/her own control and was assessed before and after art therapy. 35 The quantitative arm was one group pre-/post-test design and the qualitative arm included an aim to understand the experiences of patients, their caregivers, and healthcare providers on contributions of art therapy. ...
Article
This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of facilitating four sessions of art therapy intervention with a primary focus on implementation and acceptability. The exploratory aim was on assessing the impact of art therapy on self-reported outcomes on anxiety and mood among 5 individuals (aged 18+ years) hospitalized for burn injuries and to understand their perceptions of engagement with art therapy. A convergent mixed methods small N design was adopted wherein both quantitative and qualitative data are gathered and then integrated, and an individual served as his/her own control when assessed before and after art therapy. Anxiety was assessed using Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Anxiety short-form of the emotional distress bank, and mood was assessed using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). There was a statistically significant decrease in anxiety scores and negative mood scale. Positive mood scale scores tended to improve after art therapy though were not statistically significant. Thematic analysis of qualitative data indicates that art therapy improves a) symptom management, b) facilitates emotional expression and c) insight, d) brings out symbolic and metaphorical representations, and e) allows tactile and sensory exploration of art media. This study demonstrated that art therapy can be successfully implemented with acute burn patients and can have promising psychosocial benefits. More research in needed to determine the impact and effectiveness of art therapy with burn patients, in ways that is meaningful to the patients.
... To answer the research questions, we conducted four "Ensemble" groups throughout a school year and applied mixed quantitative and qualitative methods [17]. Specifically, we used a simultaneous design applying quantitative and qualitative analyses on data that we collected in the same timeframe. ...
... After providing their informed consent, participants were randomly assigned to one of three theory-based intervention workshops (AWD, LWD, and control workshop on cognitive biases, see Table 2) and took part in a twohour training. Two weeks before (T0), and two (T1), four (T2), and eight (T3) weeks after the intervention workshops, we captured participants' PWD with twelve items (six items for LWD and AWD, respectively) (Scharp et al., 2022a) as well as their autonomous motivation with six items from the subscales for identified regulation and intrinsic motivation of the Multidimensional Work Motivation Scale (Gagné et al., 2015) via a questionnaire that also included open-ended qualitative questions (Morse, 2009;Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007;Creswell J. W. et al., 2003;Lambert et al., 2022). ...
Conference Paper
Proposal presented at the Professional Development Workshop on Workplace Play at the Academy of Management Annual Meeting 2022 in Seattle, Washington.
... This study adopted a mixed method approach to investigate student support services as a factor that impacts on distance students' progress and completion of studies at the University of Namibia's Centre for Open, Distance and eLearning. According to Creswell, Plano and Clark (2011), a mixed method research is a method that focuses on collecting data and analysing by a way of mixing both quantitative and qualitative data with the aim of providing a better understanding of a research problem and overcoming the limitation which might be brought by a single design. The researcher believes that the mixed methods enabled the gathering of the necessary data for answering the research questions of the study. ...
Thesis
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This study examined student support services as a factor that impacts on students' progress and completion of studies at the University of Namibia's Centre for Open, Distance and eLearning. The Centre for Open, Distance and eLearning (CODeL) at the University of Namibia (UNAM) was established through a merger between the Centre for External Studies (CES) and the Centre for eLearning and Interactive Multimedia (CeLIM) in 2016 to provide and strengthen distance education in Namibia. However, one of the major challenges experienced by CODeL has been on support services which impacts on progress and completion of studies of students. The study adopted a mixed method approach to analyse student support services as a factor that impacts on distance students' progress and completion of studies at the University of Namibia's Centre for Open, Distance and eLearning. The research questions for the study were: To what extent do student support services impact on distance student's progress and completion of studies? How effective are student support services to distance students at CODeL of the University of Namibia? This study also followed a case study research design to present a real-life situation and to provide a better insight pertaining to student support services as a factor that impacts on students' progress and completion of studies at the University of Namibia. The data was collected from a sample size of 15 staff members at CODeL and 60 students. The findings of the study revealed that student viewed vacation school as extremely effective followed by administrative support. The study concluded that in-dead student support services impacts on students' progress and completion leading to delays in students' progress and completion of their studies. Students view on the types of student support services were that lecturer not turning up for classes during vacation school, short days for the vacation school and administrative support such as staff members not answering student's inquiries on time. The study recommends more attention should be given to student support services such as vacation school, administrative support and as they are the ones viewed by students as extremely effective.
... This current study adopted convergent mixed methods design procedures (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2018) to investigate chemistry students' conceptual understanding of organic qualitative analysis at the SHS level. A cross-sectional survey design was employed to collect both quantitative and qualitative data on students' conceptual understanding on organic qualitative analysis using an achievement test in the form of two-tier diagnostic test. ...
Article
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Organic qualitative analysis is one of the challenging chemical concepts in students learning of chemistry. The West African Examinations Council chemistry chief examiners for years, have lamented on students’ poor performance in organic qualitative analysis at the senior high school level. This study, therefore, investigated chemistry students’ conceptual understanding of organic qualitative analysis. Convergent mixed methods procedure was used to collect both quantitative and qualitative data from 263 chemistry students. The 263 students were selected through multistage sampling technique to respond to organic qualitative analysis diagnostic test for students. Quantitative data was analyzed using percentages, means, and standard deviations to determine students’ level of conceptual understanding on organic qualitative analysis. The results from the study showed that, students demonstrated no scientific understanding on organic qualitative analysis. The qualitative data was open-coded and constantly compared to establish students' conceptual difficulties on organic qualitative analysis. Students demonstrated conceptual difficulties were in the form of alternative conceptions and factual difficulties. It was, therefore, recommended that chemistry teachers should select and use appropriate conceptual change instruction approaches in their teaching to help students conceptualize organic qualitative analysis contents in organic chemistry.
... The study adopted mixed method approach by employing survey and focus group discussions as research methods. The rationale for adopting mixed-method research design was to compensate the weakness of qualitative or quantitative research method with the advantage of its alternative (Creswell and Plano Clark, 2018). ...
Article
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The advancement in technology has changed the workflow and the role of human translator in recent years. The impact from the trend of technology-mediated translation prompted the ratification of technology literacy as a major competence for modern translators. Consequently, teaching of translation technology including but not limited to Computer-aided Translation (CAT) and Machine Translation (MT) became part of comprehensive curricula for translation training programs. However, in many institutions, the teaching of translation technology was haunted by issues such as: narrow scope of curriculum design, outdated technologies, and unbalance between theories and practices in teaching. The study was the pilot evaluation of a tailored course to foster translation trainees’ knowledge and abilities of data science. The course was designed to be a fundamental step toward sophisticated translation technologies. During the pilot evaluation of the 8-week course, 85 students (n = 85) were recruited as participants. The study adopted a mix-method design by employing a survey to investigate student’s level of satisfaction toward the course and focus group discussion to understand students’ attitudes and perceptions of key aspects of the course. By interpreting the results from statistical analysis of the survey (5.39/7) and thematic analysis of the focus group discussion, the course of data science for translators was well received among participants. The evaluation project manifested the feasibility and effectiveness of a translator-oriented data science course.
... Appendix A. In explanatory design, researchers make decisions regarding what quantitative results need to be further explored through the qualitative data collection.Creswell and Plano Clark (2011) suggest "the researcher should identify the results that need further information and use these results to guide the design of the qualitative phase research questions" (p. 186). After the survey, the researcher reviewed the data and then added questions informed by the survey for an interview to collect qualitative results. A similar p ...
Article
At the time of this study, very little research existed concerning transgender people and educational leadership. The Synergistic Leadership Theory (SLT) was developed by researchers at Sam Houston State University in 1999. While previous researchers found the SLT to be gender-inclusive, the only studies to date had been conducted with cisgender participants. Thus, this study incorporated a non-cisgender subject to examine the professional experiences of an educational leader who is transgender through the lens of the SLT. By utilizing a qualitative descriptive case study, the researcher sought to answer two questions: (a) What are the lived professional experiences of a transgender superintendent? and (b) Does the SLT offer a reasonable explanation of how a transgender superintendent does his work? Lark Doolan was the first openly transgender public-school superintendent in the country after coming out to his staff, students, and school board in 2017. Data was collected through the completion of the Organizational and Leadership Effectiveness Inventory (Bamberg, 2004) followed by a semi-structured open-ended interview with the researcher. The researcher mined data from documents and artifacts that were readily available online. The findings indicate the lived professional experiences of Doolan offer an example of the how the SLT is a plausible lens through which a transgender leader does his work. Doolan’s lived professional experiences reflect interactive factors of the SLT. This study affirmed that the SLT is a plausible lens through which a transgender leader does his work and affirmed that the SLT is a useful tool for examining leaders and leadership regardless of gender identity because it gives voice to a queer person and expands and enriches the body of academic work around a leadership theory that has not been associated with gender non-conforming/non-binary persons. Implications for practice and areas for further research are included in Chapter 5. Adviser: Nicholas J. Pace
... This current study adopted convergent mixed methods design procedures (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2018) to investigate chemistry students' conceptual understanding of organic qualitative analysis at the SHS level. A cross-sectional survey design was employed to collect both quantitative and qualitative data on students' conceptual understanding on organic qualitative analysis using an achievement test in the form of two-tier diagnostic test. ...
Thesis
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This study investigated the development and implementation of methods and procedures as generic administrative function, with specific reference to issuing drivers licences in the Driving Licence Testing Centre of the Madibeng Municipality. The contribution of the study to the discipline, Public Administration, is found in the basic framework for the development of standard operating procedures. Furthermore, a set of standard operating procedures to issue drivers licences was developed. In essence, the systems theory inspired the design of the basic framework for the development of standard operating procedures, while the phases of the ADDIE instructional design model simplified the drafting of the standardised procedures to issue drivers licences. Although the empirical data collection commenced with a quantitative research methodology, a qualitative dimension was required to fully understand the problem why the Driving Licence Testing Centre at the Madibeng Municipality lacks contemporary and relevant standard operating procedures to issue drivers licences. A mixed methods research design was eventually adopted to explore the phenomenon because a second research method was needed to strengthen the primary research method. Data was initially collected through a questionnaire, and follow-up personal interviews were conducted to clarify issues that were not responded to or unclear from the self-administered questionnaires. This conforms to pragmatism  the research philosophy adopted for this study because predetermined research questions dictated the path towards realising the research objectives. Since this study utilised a mixture of qualitative and quantitative research designs, the research methodology was shaped by various strategies, techniques and data collection instruments, such as literature reviews, document analyses to draft the standardised procedures, case study (Driving Licence Testing Centre of the Madibeng Municipality), a structured questionnaire and semi-structured personal interviews. In this study, the administrative generic function of determining and revision of methods and procedures was referred to as ‘methods and procedures’. Within the context of Public Administration, the study revealed that methods and procedures specify the sequence, processes and techniques necessary to execute certain actions and operations during service delivery. Moreover, it states how tasks must be exercised within the public sector, as well as indicate who must take action. Consequently, methods and procedures are built into all public service activities, regardless whether these are administrative, functional or auxiliary activities. It was concluded that methods and procedures form an indispensable part of any public institution’s activities. However, the study focused on methods and procedures to issue drivers licences at the Driving Licence Testing Centre of the Madibeng Municipality. The study realised its overall aim when recommendations were made to the Driving Licence Testing Centre of the Madibeng Municipality of how to develop and implement standard operating procedures to issue drivers licences. In essence, it was recommended that the basic framework for the development of standard operating procedures be applied when updating and/or developing methods and procedures. Moreover, it was recommended that the set of newly developed standard operating procedures be adopted and implemented. It was also suggested, amongst other proposals, that the management and the staff at the Centre engage from the initial stages in the procedure development process, that clear steps and instructions of how to reach organisational short-term objectives, be specified, and caution be taken by the Madibeng Municipality against the implementation of an overly multifaceted internal control system at its Driving Licence Testing Centre.
Article
Financial education is an approach financial professionals use with their clients to build effective money management skills across the life cycle. Financial professionals conceptualize and identify their role in providing financial education in various ways. This study used a triangulation mixed methods design from a 2013 national survey to understand how financial professionals articulate their role and to determine the delivery methods used when working with clients. The survey was first included in the analysis piloted with nine financial professionals, followed by a revised survey sent to memberships of various professional organizations resulting in 251 responses. When financial professionals were asked about the financial delivery method used with their clients, their response indicated it depended on the context of the client and the content of their financial concerns. Therefore, findings suggest that the process or relationship between the practitioner and client must have elements of flexibility and adaptability woven into their delivery method based on what the client brings to the session and/or workshop.
Article
Introduction Coproduction is a term which refers to how customers and service-users contribute to the planning, design, delivery, and implementation of goods and services, with service providers. Contemporary coproduction literature reflects a paternalistic perception of service-users with lower socioeconomic status and their interactions and relationships with specialist and non-specialist health professionals. Background Within the contemporary coproduction literature there is a suggestion that that individuals living within a context of socioeconomic deprivation are less equipped to coproduce care. Whilst service-users living with LTCs may have the knowledge, skills to manage their LTC despite socioeconomic disadvantage, there is a lack of research exploring these experiences. This study explored how coproduction is operationalised, and the impact of socioeconomic position and social capital, within the context of ongoing care across hospital and home settings. Theories of coproduction were applied, to explore shared-decision making, the implementation of care “at home”, and the dynamics of power between service-providers and service-users living with long-term conditions (LTC). Methods A mixed methods study was undertaken using, in-depth, face-to-face interviews of service-users from two Lymphoedema Clinics (City and rural) within a regional service; overt non-participant observations within the clinics, to observe the dynamic between the service-users and specialist health professionals. Service-users, partial postcodes and the addresses of General Practitioner” (GPs) were documented to identify the distribution of service-users attending the clinic 1, and to contextualise socioeconomic position of the study setting. NHS ethical approval for the study was obtained through the Regional Ethics Committee, and permission was gained to access all study Sites within the NHS organisations. Findings The findings of this study indicate that socioeconomic status does not prevent service-users from coproducing their care, in terms of their skills and knowledge or the “operant resources” they uses to engage in shared-decision making. However, a lack of economic resources and social capital, or “operand resources”, makes the coproduction of care more challenging for service-users; especially when treatment options are limited, and the implementation of care is within the “home”. In addition, service-users often perceived that non-specialist health professionals lacked the skills, knowledge and expertise to meet their care needs. Care was described by the participants as based upon a traditional, hierarchical and often biomedical model of care. This approach did not always align with the daily life of the participants, which involved balancing condition management against the desire to maintain normality, and achieve the goals that they identified as important The mitigating factor for many of the participants was the social capital and network of support they developed with the SHPs and their significant others; this evolved as an “operand resource”, in terms of trust and reciprocity and the tangible effect of co-implementing and co-delivering care. Conclusion This study addresses the research gaps related to exploration of coproduction for people with LTC, between hospital and home, and the need for more research to empirically evidence service-users’ experience. Social capital, trust, accountability, responsibility, and reciprocity are perceived as essential to operationalise the coproduction of care and actualise a more equitable partnership between service-users and service-providers.
Article
Although the principles and strategies outlined in Cline and Fay’s (1990) Parenting with Love and Logic have been the foundation for several parent and educator training curricula over the last 30 years, there has been a dearth of empirical research to evaluate these programs (Fay, 2012). Prior research has documented the impact of cumulative family risk factors on parenting skills and child outcomes (Repetti et al., 2002, 2012), but few studies have examined the impact of parenting education courses within unemployed, low-income families. This study investigates perceived parental efficacy across the four program domains of connection, autonomy, regulation, and parental stress management within a sample (n = 267) of unemployed parents from several counties across a western state. Analyses show consistent retrospective-pre to post improvement across all four domains. Additionally, reported gains did not vary significantly by gender, age, ethnicity, education level, prior divorce, or financial strain. Small group differences were found according to income level, the age of the participants’ oldest child, and dosage (amount of prior relationship education exposure as well as the number of class sessions attended). Qualitative results are included to illustrate further the thoughts and experiences of program participants.
Article
Introduction Health professionals in rural settings encounter a wide range of medical conditions requiring broad knowledge for their clinical practice. This creates the need for ongoing continuing professional development (CPD). In this study, we explored the barriers that health professionals in a rural healthcare context faced participating in CPD activities and their preferences regarding educational strategies to overcome these challenges. Methods This mixed-methods (exploratory sequential) study in a community hospital in rural Mexico includes 22 interviews, 3 focus groups, 40 observational hours, and a questionnaire of healthcare staff. Results Despite low engagement with CPD activities (67% not motivated), all participants expressed interest and acknowledged the importance of learning for their practice. Barriers to participating include a disparity between strategies used (lecture-based) and their desire for practical learning, institutional barriers (poor leadership engagement, procedural flaws, and lack of resources), and collaboration barriers (adverse interprofessional education environment, ineffective teamwork, and poor communication). Additional barriers identified were inconvenient scheduling of sessions (75%), inadequate classrooms (65%), high workload (60%), ineffective speakers (60%), and boring sessions (55%). Participants’ preferred learning strategies highlighted activities relevant to their daily clinical activities (practical workshops, simulations, and case analysis). The questionnaire had an 18% response rate. Discussion The barriers to CPD in this rural setting are multifactorial and diverse. A strong interest to engage in context-specific active learning strategies highlighted the need for leadership to prioritize interprofessional education, teamwork, and communication to enhance CPD and patient care. These results could inform efforts to strengthen CPD in other rural contexts.
Article
Este artículo indaga cómo la gestión institucional, el involucramiento docente y familiar se amalgaman para el logro escolar sostenido. Se desarrolló en una escuela primaria ubicada en una comunidad marginada en Las Choapas, Veracruz. Los estudiantes obtuvieron puntajes superiores a la media nacional en las pruebas ENLACE 2012, PLANEA 2015 y 2016. Mediante un estudio de caso cualitativo se recabó información con docentes, directivos y familias. Luego del análisis de las interacciones entre los actores educativos, encontramos que la gestión institucional está basada en un liderazgo distribuido, consolidado, con eficiencia técnico-pedagógica; los docentes son experimentados, autónomos, creativos, con arraigo en la comunidad. Las familias se involucran activamente en la escuela, la que perciben como un espacio de interés público y de responsabilidad común. Concluimos que es un centro educativo eficaz y resiliente, los actores asumen con compromiso la tarea de ofrecer una educación de calidad, pese a sus condiciones adversas.
Article
This mixed methods study aimed to investigate weight cutting practices of female taekwon-do athletes internationally and explore their experiences of “making weight.” A survey of weight loss practices and eating behaviors was completed by 103 taekwon-do athletes from 12 countries, which illustrated that 72.5% of athletes engage in both acute and chronic weight loss practices prior to competition and that there were higher levels of disordered eating within this athletic population than nonweight cutting athletes. Semistructured interviews were conducted with five international-level competitors; thematic analysis of the interviews identified that the women in general felt weight cutting was “horrible—but worth it” and the women believed that (a) weight cutting is unpleasant, difficult, and challenging; and (b) weight cutting provides a competitive advantage. The implications of this study are that weight cutting is widespread among high-level competitive female taekwon-do athletes and this is unlikely to change given the perceived advantages. Efforts are needed to make sure that the women are knowledgeable of the risks and are provided with safe and effective means of making weight.
Article
Background The positive effects of cardiac rehabilitation are well established. However, it has an inherent challenge, namely the low attendance rate among older vulnerable patients, which illustrates the need for effective interventions. Peer mentoring is a low-cost intervention that has the potential to improve cardiac rehabilitation attendance and improve physical and psychological outcomes among older patients. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a peer-mentor intervention among older vulnerable myocardial infarction patients referred to cardiac rehabilitation. Methods The study was conducted as a single-arm feasibility study and designed as a mixed methods intervention study. Patients admitted to a university hospital in Denmark between September 2020 and December 2020 received a 24-week peer-mentor intervention. The feasibility of the intervention was evaluated based on five criteria by Orsmond and Cohn: (a) recruitment capability, (b) data-collection procedures, (c) intervention acceptability, (d) available resources, and (e) participant responses to the intervention. Data were collected through self-administrated questionnaires, closed-ended telephone interviews, semi-structured interviews, and document sheets. Results Twenty patients were offered the peer-mentor intervention. The intervention proved feasible, with a low dropout rate and high acceptability. However, the original inclusion criteria only involved vulnerable women, and this proved not to be feasible, and were therefore revised to also include vulnerable male patients. Peer mentors ( n = 17) were monitored during the intervention period, and the findings indicate that their mentoring role did not cause any harm. The peer-mentor intervention showed signs of effectiveness, as a high rate of cardiac rehabilitation attendance was achieved among patients. Quality of life also increased among patients. This was the case for emotional, physical, and global quality of life measures at 24-week follow-up. Conclusion The peer-mentor intervention is a feasible and acceptable intervention that holds the potential to increase both cardiac rehabilitation attendance and quality of life in older vulnerable patients. This finding paves the way for peer-mentor interventions to be tested in randomized controlled trials, with a view toward reducing inequality in cardiac rehabilitation attendance. However, some of the original study procedures were not feasible, and as such was revised. Trial registration The feasibility study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov ( ClinicalTrials.gov identification number: NCT04507529 ), August 11, 2020.
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This study investigated the academic staff’s motivation for online teaching in Nigerian universities using a mixed-methods case study research design. The main instrument used for this study was a questionnaire named ‘Academic Staff’s Motivation for Online Teaching Survey (SMOTS)', which was complemented by in-depth interviews. A total of 195 academic staff across various academic faculties and units in the University of Ibadan participated in the study. Data analysis was done using frequency count, simple percentages, mean and standard deviation, while the in-depth interviews were thematically analysed. The result of the study revealed that the majority of the academic staff have not taught using online platforms before and their frequency of online teaching consideration is occasional. Additionally, they have a high perception of online teaching in terms of helping to learn new technology and encouraging intellectual challenges. The academic staff indicated that individual training opportunities, personal decisions and group training opportunities are among the major resources that can motivate them for online teaching. Likewise, the introduction to new technology for teaching, institutional expectation, and students’ enrolment are the major external motivating factors for online teaching. It was further revealed that most of the academic staff feel motivated to teach online. However, erratic power supply, work overload, and limited knowledge of e-learning stand as major hindrances to online teaching adoption among academic staff. This study has discovered the need for Nigerian university managements to vigorously embark on capacity building of academic staff for online teaching. This will help them to cultivate or enhance basic information and communication technology skills and other essential competencies needed to manage online learning environments.
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The actions of whistleblowers are potentially beneficial in a developed society but it may not be the case in a developing and underdeveloped society. In a developing society like Pakistan, the scenario of whistle blowing is very much different from the other countries. In an atmosphere of massive corruption, citizens have low confidence in public sector organizations when they are in a need to report wrong doings to the authorities. But one, who takes an initiation for it, has to face certain problems and consequences. This paper aims at investigating the problems and consequences of a whistle blower in a public sector organization at micro level. To explain the said issue, this study was conducted by using qualitative case study method and involved the study of a case in real life. The single instrumental case study was conducted with a woman (daily-wage employee) in a public sector university. The overall procedure for conducting a case study was opted from Creswell’s model (Creswell, 2013). Major derived themes from data were catch 22, hydra-headed administrative system, whistle blower protection and individual problems. It is concluded that in the absence of a proper mechanism for whistle blowing, one has to face the consequences so the researchers suggests that every institution might address the said issues by legislating and implementing whistle blowing to secure the whistle blower rights.
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The BUILD initiative is part of the Diversity Program Consortium, which the National Institutes of Health funded to increase diversity in biomedical research. This chapter aims to identify implications for the field from the multisite evaluation of BUILD initiative programs by reviewing the work undertaken by the authors of the other chapters in this issue. Given the complexities involved in multisite evaluations, innovative approaches and methods were used to balance the needs of each site with the overall objectives of the broader initiative. These approaches included a flexible orientation to the evaluation, mixed‐methods designs that prioritized understanding the context before measuring it, and innovative analytic techniques (e.g., meta‐analysis) to recognize the uniqueness of each site while providing insights about their cumulative impact. The BUILD initiative evaluation also offered many other valuable lessons about engaging stakeholders, focusing on use, and responding to changing priorities over time.
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This volume contains papers from the research workshops at XP 2021, the 22nd International Conference on Agile Software Development, held online during June 14– 18, 2021. XP is the premier agile software development conference combining research and practice. It is a unique forum where agile researchers, practitioners, thought leaders, coaches, and trainers get together to present and discuss their most recent innovations, research results, experiences, concerns, challenges, and trends. XP conferences provide an informal environment to learn and trigger discussions and welcome both people new to agile and seasoned agile practitioners. The XP 2021 research papers were published in the conference proceedings (LNBIP, volume 419). This companion volume, published after the conference, contains selected revised workshop papers and workshop summaries. The research workshops provide a highly relevant, friendly, and interactive platform to share and discuss emerging and late breaking research findings as well as educational experiments and experiences. They represent smaller, close communities of passionate, emerging, and established researchers and a psychologically safe environment to provide and receive feedback. The publication of the post conference proceedings allows the researchers and educators to fold into their papers the feedback and lessons learned from their participation in the conference and workshop sessions. In 2021, the following five workshops took place: • 4th International Workshop on Software-Intensive Business • 9th International Workshop on Large-Scale Agile Development • 3rd International Workshop on Agile Transformation • 2nd International Workshop on Agility with Microservices Programming • 1st International Workshop on Agile Sustainability In addition to the workshop papers and summaries, these post conference proceedings include abstracts from poster presentations. Finally, we include a summary of the two panel discussions. We would like to extend our sincere thanks to all the people who contributed to XP 2021: the authors, reviewers, chairs, and volunteers. Finally, we would like to express our gratitude to the XP Conference Steering Committee and the Agile Alliance for their ongoing support.
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Background: Effective and efficient implementation of the Collaborative Care Model (CoCM) for depression and anxiety is imperative for program success. Studies examining barriers to implementation often omit patient perspectives. Objectives: To explore experiences and attitudes of eligible patients referred to CoCM who declined participation or were unable to be reached, and identify implementation barriers to inform strategies. Design: Convergent mixed-methods study with a survey and interview. Participants: Primary care patients at an academic medical center who were referred to a CoCM program for anxiety and depression by their primary care clinician (PCC) but declined participation or were unable to be reached by the behavioral health care manager to initiate care (n = 80). Interviews were conducted with 45 survey respondents. Main measures: Survey of patients' referral experiences and behavioral health preferences as they related to failing to enroll in the program. Interview questions were developed using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research version 2.0 (CFIR 2.0) to identify implementation barriers to enrollment. Key results: Survey results found that patients were uncertain about insurance coverage, did not understand the program, and felt services were not necessary. Referred patients who declined participation were concerned about how their mental health information would be used and preferred treatment without medication. Men agreed more that they did not need services. Qualitative results exhibited a variety of implementation determinants (n = 23) across the five CFIR 2.0 domains. Barriers included mental health stigma, perceiving behavioral health as outside of primary care practice guidelines, short or infrequent primary care appointments, prioritizing physical health over mental health, receiving inaccurate program information, low motivation to engage, and a less established relationship with their PCC. Conclusions: Multiple barriers to enrollment led to failing to link patients to care, which can inform implementation strategies to address the patient-reported experiences and concerns.
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