Book

Naturalistic inquiry

Authors:
... In addition, reliability in qualitative research means the stability of data sets among researchers. The criteria of Lincoln and Guba (1985) are accepted in today's qualitative research. ...
... According to Lincoln and Guba (1985), credibility (internal validity), long-term participation and observation, activities that provide access to reliable findings and interpretations such as data diversity; hypotheses updated in the process; It consists of activities that include comparing raw data with findings and participant control. While transferability (external validity) corresponds to relatively precise statements such as statistical confidence intervals in quantitative research, it includes working hypotheses defined according to time and context in qualitative research. ...
... In the study, credibility (internal validity), transferability (external validity), adapted to qualitative research by Lincoln and Guba (1985); the terms consistency (internal reliability), confirmability (external reliability) was used. ...
... c) All transcripts were emailed to the participants to verify their wording and responses, but only sixteen out of a total of twenty-two interviewees responded, and in the data validation phase only one out of three responded. This satisfied member-checking requirements as a strategy to enhance credibility (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). Since the student interviews were conducted in Arabic, responses were transcribed in Arabic and ...
... The quality of the research is reflected in the richness of evidence obtained and in offering justifications of credibility (i.e., internal validity, truth value), dependability (i.e., reliability or auditability), transferability (i.e., external validity, generalisability), and confirmability (i.e., objectivity) (Cohen et al., 2007;Lincoln & Guba, 1985;Miles & Huberman, 1994). Probably the biggest criticism of the interpretivist methodology concerns these four areas (Shenton, 2004). ...
... This was done through consulting supervisors, experts, colleagues, and a sample from the intended study population. Furthermore, member checking was utilised by (a) emailing all interview transcripts to participants to check the details they provided, (b) conducting expert member-checking of the thematic analysis, (c) returning a synthesised analysis of the data to participants, and (d) conducting one-to-one interviews and convening a focus group to validate the research outcomes (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). ...
Thesis
Constructivist learning pedagogies are gaining attention and primacy in educational policy framings in Oman, which parallels a growing emphasis in the global pedagogical landscape and the changing sociocultural demands of the 21st century context towards nurturing suitable and adaptable learner competencies. However, the transition from mainstream to constructivist practice is a widely recognised challenge in literature, especially in light of heavily structured educational systems, prominence of teacher-centric pedagogies, the primacy of conceptual and abstract learning, and predispositions toward teaching-for-the-test. These concerns are most relevant to the Higher Education (HE) context in Oman. While this continues to be a rich area of research in the local context, evidence on utilising Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to nurture constructionist learning proved to be scarce in the Omani higher education, particularly in the context of Initial English Language Teacher Education (IELTE). To address this gap, this thesis explores Authoring Multimedia Artefacts (AMA) as a constructionist learning approach in the context of IELTE. The thesis is underpinned by Papertian constructionism as a theoretical and conceptual framework and draws on a qualitative case study design to explore Student-Generated Podcasting (SGP) as a case of AMA-based learning in relation to three areas of inquiry: (a) learner engagement in AMA-based learning, (b) key pedagogical design principles of AMA-based learning, and (c) key learning environment design principles of AMA-based learning. This research study focuses on students’ and academics’ perspectives regarding the three areas of inquiry in an Omani IELTE context and was conducted in four phases. The first phase included a quantitative investigation (using questionnaires) of students and academics’ experiences, views, and perspectives regarding AMA-based learning, drawing on key areas of inquiry from the wider relevant literature. The second phase included a qualitative investigation (using semi-structured interviews) with nineteen students and three teachers to explore their personal experiences, attitudes, insights, and perspectives regarding the three areas of inquiry and to reveal in-depth accounts that take into consideration the interplay of personal, institutional, contextual, and sociocultural factors that influence this area of practice. The third phase included a qualitative analysis of students’ reflective journal entries of their AMA authoring experiences to reveal their experiences and views concerning AMA engagement and AMA pedagogy. The fourth phase included a two-part validation of the research analysis, interpretations, and outcomes by study participants, which consisted of one-to-one interviews and a focus group discussion. This aimed at taking the research outcomes back to participants, involving them in validating the accuracy of the research report and outcomes, allowing them to revisit their views by refining and adding to them, and encouraging them to challenge the analysis by proposing alternate accounts. The study findings revealed a comprehensive attribution of AMA-based learning and challenges associated with the different areas of inquiry: AMA engagement, AMA pedagogical design principles, and AMA learning environment design principles. Both students and academics generally held positive views towards AMA-based learning and suggested valuable implications for sustaining constructionist learning in this context. However, a number of personal, technical, pedagogical, infrastructural, educational, and sociocultural challenges were also identified, suggesting these issues need to be considered to improve AMA-based learning and constructionist learning at large. While the quantitative findings corroborated findings from the wide theoretical and empirical literature, the qualitative findings were especially significant on grounds of their depth, scope, and relevance, especially considering this study of SGP presents pioneering evidence in the IELTE context and the Omani HE context at large. Based on this, the findings from qualitative analysis consequently fed into the development of an operational framework for AMA-based learning to help in the systematic design and implementation of this approach, and by doing so the study findings contribute to filling a current gap in research regarding conceptualising and empirically analysing AMA-based learning enablers and inhibitors. The outcomes of this research are particularly significant in the context of constructionist learning environments, pedagogies, as well as strategies. The most notable significance is attributed to the orienting model and framework for AMA-based learning, which is necessary to fill the relative gap in orienting frameworks grounded in Papert’s theory of constructionism. The findings of the study have significant implications for integrating AMA-based learning into pedagogical practice, facilitating constructivist-constructionist pedagogical approaches, promoting active and deep learning, and harnessing the constructivist-constructionist potentials of ICT-mediated learning. They also have implications for teacher-education programmes in Oman, especially where developing active, deep, and productive learning skills is concerned, all of which are areas highly emphasised in the goals and objectives of educational policy and reform. As such, the study underscores a need to promote constructionist learning in the IELTE programme by considering the key enabling factors of AMA-based learning and the potential challenges that could inhibit this endeavour.
... They also updated the coding manual when necessary. The approach to coding that the authors employed is in line with the trustworthiness criteria proposed by Lincoln and Guba (1985), and will further be discussed in the trustworthiness section of this article. ...
... To ensure credibility during the data analysis process, two researchers analysed transcriptions and created a code manual to guide them in the analysis (Lincoln & Guba, 1985;Crabtree & Miller, 1999). The analysed transcriptions were emailed to participants for them to review for member checking. ...
... The researchers also engaged in peer debriefing when analysing the transcriptions, which also enhanced the study's credibility (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). The discussions during these meetings were also noted. ...
Article
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Background: Speech-language therapists and audiologists (SLT&As) may encounter difficulties when confronted with patient death and dying, which may conflict with their moral beliefs and result in moral injury. Furthermore, South African SLT&As practice in a country with a high mortality rate, which may add to the complexity of their experience. Moreover, they may be influenced by African philosophies promoting care, which might conflict with their experiences of patient death and dying. Aims: To explore the moral injury experienced by South African SLT&As in patient death and dying, and how they overcame the injury. Methods & procedures: This article forms part of a larger qualitative study that explored SLT&As' experiences of patient death and dying in South Africa. Thematic analysis was conducted on the transcripts of 25 episodic narrative interviews conducted with South African SLT&As on their experiences of patient death and dying. Outcomes & results: Findings suggest that South African SLT&As experienced helplessness, guilt and anger in patient death and dying. However, with support from the allied team, engaging in self-reflection and religious practices, they reported alleviation of moral injury. Conclusions & implications: In order to mitigate moral injury in South African SLT&As, they require professional education, self-care strategies, guidelines and support from the teams in which they work and their supervisors. Research is needed that explores how SLT&As' biographical characteristics and interactions with significant others of dying and deceased patients, may result in moral injury. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS?: What is already known on this subject? Moral injury and measures used to overcome the injury have been explored in military personnel, doctors and nurses, but not in SLT&As. However, studies that explored the perceptions of SLTs and/or audiologists regarding providing palliative care and of death and dying, particularly that by Rivers et al. in 2009, suggested that these professionals may be at risk of experiencing emotional trauma due to patient death, particularly when not receiving undergraduate education on this subject. However, the extent of this trauma and the support needed to overcome it is unknown because the participants in these studies may have not experienced patient death, and were only students or just SLTs. What this article adds? This article highlights the complexity of speech-language therapy and audiology practice when confronted with patient death and dying. South African SLT&As may have to make decisions that conflict with their morals and professional practice standards, especially as the helping nature of their profession is characterized by African philosophies that promote care, which may result in moral injury. Clinical implications of this article This article indicates that in addition to undergraduate education on patient death and dying, SLTs and audiologists require continuous professional education on this topic, self-care strategies, support from the teams in which they work, and their supervisors and guidelines for when they encounter patient death and dying.
... Despite the widespread acceptance of action research in organizational research, it has fallen under criticism within the social scientific community (Schwandt, 2015). Many of these criticisms come from the conventional research paradigm, where a positivist approach to research has been the dominating paradigm (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). The conventional research paradigm includes a rigor criterion that contains reliability and validity when assessing data collection. ...
... Field activities that increase the probability of credible findings and interpretations are prolonged engagement, persistent observation, and triangulation. Prolonged engagement includes extensive involvement at the inquiry site to avoid misinformation and create and build a rapport with the participants (Guba & Lincoln, 1989;Lincoln & Guba, 1985). Persistent observation entails adequate observation to enable the researcher to uncover the characteristics of the situation that are relevant to the issue or problem being studied. ...
... Persistent observation entails adequate observation to enable the researcher to uncover the characteristics of the situation that are relevant to the issue or problem being studied. (Guba & Lincoln, 1989;Lincoln & Guba, 1985). Triangulation can occur in the sources, methods, and researchers utilized in the study (Anfara et al., 2002;Lincoln & Guba, 1985;), allowing for complex perspectives of the issue of concern (Glense, 2016, p. 152). ...
Article
The purpose of this proposal is to understand adolescent students’ perceptions of self-regulated learning in a flipped learning environment. This qualitative action research study addresses how the adoption of self-regulating learning (SRL) strategies is one research-based method for transitioning to a student-centered learning environment (flipped learning environment) (Matsuyama et al., 2019) where students can take more responsibility for their learning. In this environment, the teacher is responsible for maintaining the focus of the class, facilitating the learning process, and providing productive feedback (Gordan et al., 2001; Keiler, 2018) in order to positively affect academic and nonacademic outcomes (Dignath & Buttner, 2018). A six-week action research study, focusing on making instructional changes based on the perceptions of students in a high school math class was be conducted at my home school. Data from interviews, observations, and documents were be used and analyzed for common themes. The observations focused on the students’ engagement with the feedback from their teacher, their peers, and the self-regulated learning strategies. The student interview questions focused on the student’s experiences with the self-regulated learning strategies, perceptions of feedback provided and their interaction with the teacher and peers. The results are useful for teachers that are interested in creating a flipped learning environment, providing valuable self-regulatory feedback and implementing self-regulated learning strategies.
... Ultimately, the main themes (i.e., husband satisfaction and self-confidence) were formulated as the expression of the latent content of the text. The accuracy and robustness of the data (i.e., validity, reliability, and transferability) were examined utilizing the criteria proposed by Cuba and Lincoln (1985) [11]. ...
... Accuracy and clarity in explaining the phenomenon and conducting all phases of the study should ensure the reader that data record and other phases have been carried out accurately [12]. Four scales of credibility, dependability, conformability, and transferability related to qualitative studies are considered to be equivalent respectively to internal validity, reliability, objectivity, and external validity by qualitative researchers like Guba and Lincoln (1985) and Polite and Beck (2013) [11,13]. Therefore, the present study employed the four criteria proposed by Guba and Lincoln to investigate the scientific accuracy of the results. ...
... Accuracy and clarity in explaining the phenomenon and conducting all phases of the study should ensure the reader that data record and other phases have been carried out accurately [12]. Four scales of credibility, dependability, conformability, and transferability related to qualitative studies are considered to be equivalent respectively to internal validity, reliability, objectivity, and external validity by qualitative researchers like Guba and Lincoln (1985) and Polite and Beck (2013) [11,13]. Therefore, the present study employed the four criteria proposed by Guba and Lincoln to investigate the scientific accuracy of the results. ...
Article
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Background Nowadays, Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery is quite prevalent, resulting in a wide range of medical and cultural implications. The majority of women who undergo this operation suffer from anxiety, depression, and other emotional symptoms. The present study was carried out in order to explore women’s perspective on and experience of genital cosmetic surgery given their special context and cultural aspects. Methods The qualitative study applying content analysis examined the experiences of nine women who received genital cosmetic surgery in Erbil, Kurdistan-Iraq, between 2021 and 2022. Each of the semi-in-depth face-to-face interviews lasted between 40 and 60 min and was conducted at the physician's clinics. Results Semi-structured interviews led to emergence of two main themes, namely “husband satisfaction” and “self-confidence”. Interpreting the participants’ stories resulted in some relevant subthemes and meaning units like “ugly appearance”, “anxiety related to husband undesirable intercourse”, and “dyspareunia”. Finally, the related conclusions of each theme were explored. Conclusion As suggested by the study findings, female genital cosmetic surgery improves the women’s body image and sexual function and the couples’ sexual satisfaction, especially that of husbands. Because of the people’s sociocultural aspects in Kurdistan region, their awareness of female sexual needs and marital relationship needs to be raised.
... Trustworthiness is used as an equivalent for internal/external validation and internal/ external reliability in qualitative research (Guba & Lincoln, 1985). Trustworthiness, used by Guba and Lincoln (1985), was achieved by credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability in the present study. ...
... Trustworthiness is used as an equivalent for internal/external validation and internal/ external reliability in qualitative research (Guba & Lincoln, 1985). Trustworthiness, used by Guba and Lincoln (1985), was achieved by credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability in the present study. For credibility (internal validity), preparation of the questions of the interview based on the grief and mourning literature, requesting opinions of experts on the interview questions, participant confirmation on the transcribed data, and warm-up conversation with participants to make the participants more comfortable and create an atmosphere of trust at the beginning of the interview were ensured (Creswell, 2014;Guba & Lincoln, 1985;Miles & Huberman, 1994;Patton, 2014). ...
... Trustworthiness, used by Guba and Lincoln (1985), was achieved by credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability in the present study. For credibility (internal validity), preparation of the questions of the interview based on the grief and mourning literature, requesting opinions of experts on the interview questions, participant confirmation on the transcribed data, and warm-up conversation with participants to make the participants more comfortable and create an atmosphere of trust at the beginning of the interview were ensured (Creswell, 2014;Guba & Lincoln, 1985;Miles & Huberman, 1994;Patton, 2014). For transferability (external validity), a purposive sampling method was used to recruit the participants, and study design, preparation of interview questions, data collection stage, and data analysis (creating codes, subcategories, and categories) were described in detail. ...
Article
The measures, restrictions, and death-related rituals in the COVID-19 pandemic have affected the mourning-related routines of individuals. Moreover, mourning processes have been affected by the restriction of death-related cultural rituals, funeral ceremonies performed only by the officials, and the prohibition of visiting graves. This study aims to investigate the experiences of individuals who lost their loved ones in Turkey during the COVID-19 pandemic. For that purpose, the phenomenological method is employed in the design of the study. Individual interviews were conducted with nine participants who lost their relatives during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were collected through semi-structured interview forms prepared by the researchers. The study participants described the various factors contributing to the grief and mourning process in the COVID-19 pandemic. These factors were categorized into three following main categories: grief and mourning responses of the individuals lost loved ones, including cognitive, emotional, and behavioral responses; risk factors including the expectation of harm, unfinished business, and restriction of death-related religious-cultural rituals; and protective factors including relative support (i.e.
... In order to identify common themes in programme experience, verbatim transcriptions of parent feedback were analyzed qualitatively through a cross-case analysis procedure (i.e., following thorough reading, coding, and theoretical notetaking on text responses within each participant case, themes were generated through identification of common codes and content across cases). 45,46,49,50 Transcriptions were analyzed separately by two members of the research team to ensure consistency and accuracy. Six of 10 (60%) transcripts were double coded. ...
... Coders met on four occasions to collaboratively discuss emergent themes, resolve discrepancy, and enhance trustworthiness of findings. 50 Codes and overarching themes were developed in the same language and terminology utilized by participants in order to minimize researcher bias. Only prevalent themes with high-agreement were retained and reported. ...
Article
Objective: In this study, we examined feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a telepsychological positive parenting intervention (I-InTERACT-North, Internet-basedInteracting Together Everyday: Recovery After Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury) during the COVID-19 pandemic among Canadian families of children at-risk for neurodevelopmental challenges given congenital or neonatal conditions. I-InTERACT-North was developed to improve behavioral and emotional outcomes in children with neurological conditions by utilizing and adapting parenting strategies from several established family-focused programmes. Methods: A pragmatic prospective pre-post single-site pilot study design was used to assess feasibility, acceptabilty, and preliminary efficacy of I-InTERACT North during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: Thirty-five families of children ages three to nine years were referred between March 2020 and January 2021. Eighteen families enrolled, and 12 (67% adherence) completed the programme. Parents reported strong therapeutic alliance and programme acceptability with barriers due to competing time demands. Therapists reported high acceptability but perceived parental burnout. Parenting confidence (d = 0.70), and child behavior (d = 1.30) improved following the intervention. Conclusions: Results demonstrate the programme's value to families during the pandemic, while underscoring unique participation barriers. Future research and clinicial implications are discussed.
... To ensure the study's trustworthiness, we relied heavily on triangulation methods (Lincoln & Guba, 1985), using multiple researchers, methods, and sources of information. ...
... Consequently, the child might benefit from several positive processes (Hall et al., 2016). For example, the child might experience an elevation in mood, resulting in a Although our data demonstrate primarily positive outcomes, we focus on transferability rather than generalizability (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). Teasing out the impact of canine-assisted literacy programs while students actively learn in school is complex. ...
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In this multiple case study, the researchers examined the impact of a short-term canine-assisted literacy program on reading engagement and literacy growth for seven second-grade students. Current research findings on canine-assisted literacy programs are promising. Reading to a dog is perceived as an enjoyable and motivating experience for young readers and contributes to improved reading skills. To recruit participants, the researchers asked every second-grade teacher to identify one student who was struggling as a reader. All participants struggled with confidence as readers. The program was limited to one school term and consisted of weekly sessions in which the students brought a self-selected book to read to a therapy dog in the presence of a trained handler. Data sources were comprised of pre and post student interviews, teacher interviews, parental questionnaires, and systematic observations of the child-animal interactions and reading behaviors. A student interview and parental questionnaire were also completed four months after the program. The varied data sources suggested that the program supported children’s literacy development by providing sustained time for students to engage in appropriate and meaningful reading activities. Specifically, the students developed self-confidence as readers. Although the children interacted with the dog in different ways, all sources revealed a positive, emotional response to the animal and the overall experience, which extended beyond the duration of the program. The promising results of this study contribute to the growing body of evidence asserting the advantages of canine-assisted reading programs.
... The term "trustworthiness" is used instead of the positivist theoretical perspectives of validity and reliability. It is defined as strategies and methods for convincing readers that research results are trustworthy and accurate [23]. We used a number of strategies to ensure the quality and reliability of the research procedures and results. ...
... To ensure dependability and transferability, Audit Trail was used to maintain a complete record of applicable procedures, including raw data (e.g., observation field notes, audio recordings, and transcripts of interviews and focus groups), and in-depth descriptions of the data collection and analysis methodologies were provided to show how the data ultimately led to the construction of the findings [23]. ...
Article
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The health, social, and economic challenges we have faced have contributed to the improvement of educational styles and learning environments. Globally, the reflections of COVID-19 have contributed to the re-perception of the future of education and the anticipation of new scenarios. This qualitative study aims to deeply examine and understand the repercussions of distance education—specifically K–12 education (kindergarten to twelfth grade) during the pandemic in Saudi Arabia—and, with the findings, build anticipated scenarios for future post-pandemic digital education. This study adopts an ethnographic approach to investigate the cultural perspectives of those whose education was and has been greatly affected by this transition. Qualitative large scale data (comprising 36 observations, 387 individual interviews, and 177 focus groups) were collected for 7 months in 2021 from 600 participants, all of whom were connecting in various ways to the K–12 educational system and varied by gender, age, profession, and academic degree. The findings were categorized into four themes: (1) educational outcomes, (2) teaching landscape, (3) parental involvement, and (4) societal and life aspects. The findings are discussed in a style that presents the most crucial aspects that we must consider for anticipated scenarios of future post-pandemic education. Each presents critical implications for teachers, students, parents, researchers, and educational authorities.
... Attention to the elements of trustworthiness (credibility, transferability and dependability) as set out by Lincoln and Guba [49] are important in establishing the value of qualitative research methods. This is particularly true for methods that are novel within a particular field. ...
... This is particularly true for methods that are novel within a particular field. With this in mind, medical education researchers creating composite narratives should consider steps such as prolonged engagement with their subjects, triangulation of data, peer debriefing, archiving of raw data for future comparisons and member checking as vital components in establishing credibility [49]. Transferability in the constructivist context is not directly comparable with the external validity expected in the positivist paradigm. ...
Article
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Narrative research approaches provide the opportunity for constructing a detailed understanding of lived experiences relevant to medical education, in areas such as illness narratives, explorations of doctor-patient relationships, and the development of professional identities in students and educators. The benefits of the depth of data gathered in narrative research are, however, counterbalanced by possible weaknesses relating to a focus on individual cases and the risk of identification of participants where subjects are sensitive or unique. To address these concerns, researchers from a variety of social science disciplines, carrying out research employing a range of methodological approaches, have begun to use ‘composite narratives’ in which the commonalities in the experiences of research participants are combined to create joint narrative or narratives which illustrate participants’ shared experiences. Composite narratives have been used both as a component of the methodological approach and as a method of presenting the results of research in a variety of methodologies. This A Qualitative Space paper explores the role, strengths, and weaknesses of narrative research, before outlining the ways in which composite narrative has been defined within existing research. Distinctions between the various approaches to creating composite narratives are discussed, highlighting the differences in the types of data utilised, and the approaches taken to data analysis and presentation. A key distinction is identified between the use of composite narratives as part of an integrated methodology and as an approach to the presentation of data. Finally, issues relating to trustworthiness, reflexivity, and implications for researchers are considered.
... Credibility refers to the trust given to accurately describe participants' perspectives, in that it "rings" true for them (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). It is similar to internal validity in quantitative research, assuming that facts are viewed as valid (Morse & Field, 1995). ...
... It means that if another researcher repeats the interview with the same participants, the findings should be similar/consistent. This can be checked by external audits (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). In this study, a detailed audit trail of how the data were coded and changes formed to the codes was created in MAXQDA. ...
Thesis
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ABSTRACT Background Due to a transitional demographic change in population growth globally and an increase in life expectancy, the need for palliative care (PC) has increased, and this approach is urgently required for adoption and integration into healthcare systems (HCSs). The integration of PC services into mainstream HCSs and national policies has been identified as a core foundation for PC development. Despite the significant benefits of PC and the successful introduction of PC services in many countries worldwide, there is so much more to be done in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where these services are still largely inaccessible or unavailable. There are no PC services provided in Palestine - a country that experiences a significant increase in cancer diagnosis, population density, economic and financial shortages, drug shortages, and fragmented HCS. The unavailability of PC services in most LMICs, including Palestine, seems incongruous and unacceptable, given the importance of PC services. The unavailability of PC services is attributed to multiple challenges that continue to create obstacles to their availability and development. Considering that other countries have successfully developed PC for their HCS, there are lessons to be learned from them on how to integrate PC services into an existing HCS. Palestine may follow the innovations pioneered in other countries that have successfully integrated PC into their HCS. No research studies have been done focusing on the development of PC. It is apparent that high-level documents from governments or large organisations focus on the implementation and evaluation of PC strategies and models. Aim and objectives The objective of this doctoral research thesis is to explore the factors and needs associated with the development of a PC programme in the Palestinian HCS from different key stakeholders’ perceptions. Based on the WHO Public Health PC Model and the socioecological, this doctoral thesis is accomplished through three separate specific studies. Study One aimed to identify the unmet service needs of patients with advanced cancer, with the following five objectives: 1) to determine the prevalence of unmet supportive care needs of patients with advanced cancer; 2) to determine the level of emotional/psychological distress, pain, and other symptoms of patients with advanced cancer; 3) to assess the quality of life (QOL) and spiritual well-being of patients with advanced cancer; 4) to assess the sociodemographic and clinical variables that influence unmet needs; and 5) to examine the association between unmet needs and pain, symptoms, QOL, and the spiritual well-being of patients with advanced cancer. Study Two aimed to assess PC knowledge, attitude, educational needs and HCS-related issues from the perspective of physicians and nurses, with the following six objectives: 1) to assess the physicians’ and nurses’ knowledge of PC; 2) to explore physicians’ and nurses’ attitudes about end-of-life-care and care of the dying; 3) to assess the needs for PC educational programmes from the perspective of physicians and nurses; 4) to ascertain how far PC services are available in hospitals from physicians’ and nurses’ perspectives; 5) to identify the key barriers to the provision of PC into the HCS from the perspective of physicians and nurses, and 6) to determine the factors that influence their knowledge and attitudes toward PC and care of the dying. Study Three aimed to explore the perspectives of decision- and policy-makers on the provision of PC services, with the following five objectives: 1) to understand the extent to which PC has been identified as a priority from policymakers' perspectives; 2) to discuss with policymakers existing and new policies (strategies, plans, resources) that support the integration of PC into the structure of national HCSs; 3) to explore policymakers’ perspectives about policies/work being done regarding strengthening human resources, such as training and education; 4) to identify which essential medicines for pain and symptom management are available in the HCS, their cost, and prescribing related-issues from policymakers' point of view; and 5) to identify the challenges and facilitators to the provision of PC from policymakers' perspective. The findings of these three studies will serve as a point for a discussion on how to move forward in the provision of a PC programme into the HCS of LMICs (Palestine). Methods A multi-method research design was employed in this doctoral research study to fulfil the overall study aim through three specific studies. The first two studies adopted a quantitative approach (survey), while the third study adopted a qualitative approach (interviews). In Study One, a hospital-based cross-sectional quantitative design was applied on a convenience sample of 379 patients aged 18 or above who had been diagnosed with advanced-stage cancer. Participants were recruited from two hospitals in the Gaza Strip (Al- Shifa Hospital and the European Gaza Hospital), which provide cancer care services to adult patients. A modified Supportive Care Framework for Cancer Care (SCNF) was adopted to guide the study's design and the selection of the outcome variables. The unmet needs of patients were assessed using the Arabic version of the short form of the Supportive Care Needs Survey (SCNS-SF34). Other instruments were utilised to examine their distress [The Arabic version of the Distress Thermometer (DT)], anxiety and depression [The Arabic version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)], physical symptoms [The Arabic Questionnaire for Symptom Assessment (AQSA)], QOL [The Arabic version of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT-G)], and spirituality [The Arabic version of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy—Spiritual Well-Being Scale (FACIT-Sp)]. In Study Two, a cross-sectional quantitative study design was also applied on a convenience sample of 169 professionals working in medical and oncology departments at one of the abovementioned two hospitals, where cancer patients are more likely to be treated, and follow-up care is provided. The Palliative Care Knowledge Test (PCKT), Bradley attitude questionnaire of end-of-life care, Frommelt Attitudes Towards Care of the Dying (FATCOD Form B), and PC Needs Assessment instrument were utilised for data collection. The WHO steps (forward translation, expert panel Back-translation, pre-testing, and final version) were adopted to translate and adapt all study instruments into Arabic-the mother tongue of study participants. Overall, all instruments' item-level content validity index and scale-level content validity index showed a high content validity. The Cronbach’s α coefficient for all instruments was also acceptable. In Study Three, a descriptive, exploratory qualitative design was employed on a purposive sample of 12 decision and policymakers. Participants were identified as having a policy-making role in the HCS and were responsible for making executive and legislative decisions about matters related to services (including PC). These policymakers had prior experience, either clinical and/or managerial positions in health services developments. Face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were employed to collect the data. The Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) software version 25 was used to enter and analyse data of the first two studies. Missing data were replaced with multiple imputations. Descriptive statistics were utilized to summarise the personal characteristics of the participants as well as all instruments and their domains. A generalised linear regression analysis was employed to test the relationship between the variables. All statistical tests were two-tailed, and p values of less than 0.05 were treated as significant. A qualitative content analysis approach was adopted for analysis of the interview data of Study Three. Results Of the 379 advanced cancer patients recruited in Study One, 96.8% stated they had at least one ‘moderate to high’ level of unmet service needs. The most frequent unmet needs were those in the physical aspects of daily living (Mean 58.94; SD ± 20.93) and psychological (Mean 58.84; SD ± 19.49) domains. Most of the patients (91%) were physically ill and reported experiencing physical symptoms. About 86.3% had a high level of distress. Almost 90% reported signs of depression and anxiety. Although they felt that their spiritual well-being was good, their QOL was poor. Regression analyses identified that educational level, age, gender, marital status, cancer stage, cancer type, physical symptoms, depression, anxiety, distress, QOL, and spirituality were independently associated with unmet service needs. A total of 169 healthcare professionals (137 nurses and 32 physicians) participated in Study Two. Professionals had insufficient knowledge of PC (Mean 42.8; SD±11.02), but had positive attitudes towards end-of-life-care (Mean 3.32; SD±0.38). Nurses had significantly higher scores on attitudes towards the care of dying than physicians (t= -4.980, p <0.001). A total of 75.1% of professionals would like to learn more about PC. Patients'/families’ avoidance of discussing issues around dying and a lack of training for staff related to PC were the two significant barriers in providing PC. Educational level and previous training were found to be associated significantly with knowledge and attitudes towards PC. For Study Three, 12 decision and policymakers participated in the semi-structured interviews. The participants' ages ranged from 35 to 57 years. Most had more than 20 years of experience at the Ministry of Health. Four primary categories were identified from the interviews: 1) nature of current PC healthcare services; 2) potential benefits of PC; 3) challenges to PC provision; and 4) considerations for PC integration into the HCS. Each category had two or more subcategories. The current PC healthcare services provided to Palestinian patients with life-threatening illnesses and their families are not comprehensive and limited to symptomatic management. There is a Palestinian national strategic plan for developing PC; however, the goals of development are not clearly defined in the plan, and capabilities to implement the plan are inadequate. Education and training-related challenges were frequent challenges in the GS, followed by funding allocation and medication availability. Conclusion Palestinian advanced cancer patients exhibited a significantly high prevalence of unmet needs. Increasing unmet needs have contributed negatively to patients' physical and psychological well-being, and QOL. The high prevalence supports the argument that there is a need to develop a PC programme within the HCS, which would likely help enhance the care provided in the future. High unmet supportive care needs are attributed to insufficient PC knowledge and training of HCPs. Integration of formal and informal education on PC within care services and health curricula is a priority. Educational and training programmes should be comprehensive, covering PC's basic and advanced principles. The findings also help policymakers to build and implement the PC programme in the Palestinian HCS. Although PC is clearly stated in the Palestinian national strategic plan, the goals of development are not clearly defined in the plan, and capabilities to implement the plan are inadequate. Developing policies and plan to align with national laws could help enhance health services for patients and their families and resolve several challenges. Integration of PC into Palestinian universities’ educational curricula as an obligatory course and establishing advanced degree programmes in PC to overcome the shortage of PC specialists is required. The Palestinian government should collaborate with national and international partners to overcome the challenges of PC provision and implement PC into the Palestinian HCS.
... Geçerlik ve güvenilirlik, başta veri toplama ve analizi olmak üzere, araştırma aşamalarının değerlendirilmesinde en önemli ölçütler arasında yer almaktadır . Birçok açıdan nicel araştırmalardan farklı olan nitel araştırmalarda, iç geçerlilik yerine inandırıcılık, dış geçerlilik yerine aktarılabilirlik, iç güvenilirlik yerine tutarlık, son olarak dış güvenilirlik yerine teyit edilebilirlik kavramları kullanılmaktadır (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). Bu araştırmada inandırıcılığın, aktarılabilirliğin, tutarlığın ve teyit edilebilirliğin sağlanması için aşağıda açıklanan çalışmalar yapılmıştır. ...
... However, alternative criteria are used to judge the soundness of qualitative research since the nature of qualitative research is different from quantitative research from numerous perspectives. That is, internal validity is replaced with credibility, external validity is replaced with transferability, internal reliability is replaced with dependability, and, lastly, external reliability is replaced with confirmability (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). Some measures were taken to enhance the quantitative validity and reliability of the study throughout the research process. ...
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Giriş: Okulların amaçlarından biri de öğrencilerin karakter gelişimini desteklemek ve onlara karakter eğitimi vermektedir. Yaşıtlarından farklı özellik ve ihtiyaçlara sahip olan üstün yetenekli öğrencilere karakter eğitimi, bu öğrencilerin sosyal ve duygusal iyi oluşlarını olumlu yönde etkilemektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, üstün yetenekli öğrencilerin karakter gelişimleri ve karakter eğitimine ilişkin öğretmen görüşlerinin incelenmesidir.Yöntem: Bu çalışma, nitel araştırma yöntemlerinden olgubilim deseni ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmanın çalışma grubu, amaçlı ölçüt örnekleme yöntemiyle belirlenmiştir. Çalışmanın amacına uygun olarak, üstün yetenekli öğrencilerle çalışan 15 öğretmenle görüşme yapılmıştır. Bu çalışmada veri toplamak için nitel veri toplama yöntemlerinden yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme tekniği kullanılmıştır. Elde edilen veriler içerik analizi ile çözümlenmiştir.Bulgular: Verilerin analizi sonucunda; üstün yeteneklilerin özellikleri ve ihtiyaçları, üstün yetenekli öğrencilerin karakter gelişimi ve bu öğrencilere karakter eğitimi olmak üzere üç temaya ulaşılmıştır. Üstün yetenekli öğrencilerin özellikleri ve ihtiyaçları temasında hızlı öğrenme/kavrama kodunun öne çıktığı görülmektedir. İkinci temada, katılımcı öğretmenlerin bir kısmı, üstün yetenekli öğrencilerin karakter gelişiminde akranlarından daha önde olduğunu, katılımcıların bir kısmı ise bu öğrencilerin akranlarına göre geride kaldıklarını belirterek iki farklı görüş ortaya koymuştur. Üçüncü temada katılımcı öğretmenlerin çoğu, Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı (MEB) tarafından uygulanan değerler eğitimi programının üstün yeteneklilerin karakter gelişimi için yetersiz olduğunu belirtmiş ve uzaktan eğitim yoluyla karakter eğitiminin verimsiz olduğunu ifade etmiştir.Tartışma: Okullarda üstün yetenekli öğrencilerin eğitiminde karakter eğitiminin ihmal edilmesi büyük bir eksiklik olarak kabul edilmektedir. Bu araştırmada elde edilen bulgular doğrultusunda, üstün yetenekli öğrencilerin ihtiyaçlarına ve özelliklerine uygun olarak karakter eğitimi programlarının hazırlanması gerektiği söylenebilir. Ayrıca MEB merkez örgütü tarafından üstün yetenekli öğrencilerin karakter eğitimine ilişkin öğretmenlere ve okul yöneticilerine yönelik hizmet içi eğitimlerin düzenlenmesi önerilebilir.
... Asimismo, se utilizó la técnica de análisis del discurso (Van Dijk, 2002;Fernández, 2006;Santander, 2011) creando códigos de codificación abiertos y después axiales, de donde emergieron las categorías de codificación central, que dan título al trabajo. Para determinar la credibilidad cualitativa se optó por la elección del criterio de dependencia (Lincoln y Guba, 1985). ...
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El trabajo explora, desde un abordaje ecológico, la comprensión de la violencia de género en las relaciones de (ex)pareja vivenciada por mujeres de la sierra ecuatoriana, poniendo el foco en el discurso cultural atribuido a esa violencia, y las implicaciones que el mismo tiene sobre las identidades femeninas y sobre el sufrimiento, en tanto tecnología de dominación y opresión. La metodología empleada es de corte cualitativo a través del método etnográfico y entrevistas semiestructuradas realizadas a ocho mujeres, utilizando el análisis de discurso y la dependencia como criterio de credibilidad. Los resultados apuntan hacia la invisibilización social de la violencia, las múltiples formas de control y presión social, así como la falta de apoyo de sus redes primarias para escapar de la misma. Se proponen algunas estrategias orientadas a la transformación de dichos patrones culturales involucrando las redes de apoyo primarias.
... In accordance with Johnson, Adkins and Chauvin (2020), the authors also applied reflexivity and safeguarding against possible biases. The researchers also applied the principles of credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability to ensure the trustworthiness of the research (see Lincoln & Guba, 1985). In this research, credibility was achieved by providing a true reflection of the findings and the phenomenon under investigation in line with reality. ...
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Orientation: Despite promising legislative frameworks and policies to eradicate gender imbalances in the workplace, women have yet to earn their rightful place as senior business leaders. Research purpose: The primary goal of this study was to investigate the factors that prevent women from advancing to senior leadership positions in a variety of South African business contexts. Motivation for the study: More research is required to understand the unique challenges that senior women leaders experience in various South African business contexts. Research approach/design and method: This research followed a qualitative approach. Data were gathered using semistructured interviews with nine women (n = 9) who made significant inroads in their respective professions. Theme analyses were applied to analyse the data. Main findings: The findings revealed six factors that hinder the career advancement of women to senior leadership positions: societal perceptions and stereotypes, a lack of mentorship, masculine corporate cultures, leadership identity distortions, inadequate training and development and poor work-life balance. Practical/managerial implications: Organisations are encouraged to create more feminine workplace cultures that allow women to realise their full potential and establish their identity as senior leaders. Mentoring, networking, and professional development opportunities can all assist women in advancing their careers. Senior female leaders play an essential role in fostering workplace cultures that promote equal opportunity and combat unfair discrimination on various grounds. They pave the way for younger, upcoming female talent to move into senior management positions more quickly. Contribution/value-add: This study fills important gaps in the global understanding of the factors limiting women’s career advancement to senior leadership positions. The findings of this study emphasise the importance of recognising and embracing women’s leadership competence in the modern workplace.
... Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corp., USA) was used to organize data by codes, and arrange by themes and sub-themes. Lincoln and Guba's [23] framework was used to enhance the rigour and quality of the study. Thematic saturation was determined using the method validated by Guest and colleagues [24] (Additional file 7). ...
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Abstract Background Evidence supports loneliness and social isolation as a strong risk factor for poor mental and physical health outcomes for older adults. The COVID-19 pandemic necessitated older adults isolate themselves for a prolonged duration. The Faculty of Medicine at the University of Toronto established the Student-Senior Isolation Prevention Partnership (SSIPP), a volunteer program involving telephone calls between medical students and older adults. Methods A mixed methods pre-post study design included collecting quantitative data from older adults using the UCLA Loneliness Scale and the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale. The study included 29 medical students and 47 older adults. The medical students filled out a questionnaire on self-perceived knowledge of social isolation, perception of seniors, attitudes towards seniors, and likelihood to engage in specialties focusing on older adults. Interviews were conducted with both the older adults and the medical students to understand each groups’ experiences and perspectives with taking part in the SSIPP program. Results Participation in the program resulted in significant changes for medical students in areas such as increasing their likelihood to engage in care for older adults (p
... The trustworthiness of the research was established using the four pillars of Lincoln and Guba (1985). The trustworthiness may be impacted by students completing the Likert scale and critical incident timelines retrospectively at the end of the year because of recall bias. ...
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Background: Understanding the learning experiences of first-year speech–language pathology (SLP) students during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is essential to ensure that academic staff are able to support and enhance the transition from secondary to tertiary education. An understanding of the student experience could lead to improved support strategies that could be beneficial for the blended learning environment that the University of the Witwatersrand will be entering from 2022. Objectives: This research explored the experiences of first-year SLP students in online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: An exploratory mixed-method concurrent triangulation design was employed. Quantitative data were collected from likert scales. Qualitative data were collected from critical incident timelines. Themes were identified from both the Likert scales as well as the critical incident timelines using bottom-up thematic analysis. Results: The majority of participants reflected that their online learning through the pandemic in 2021 was successful. The themes that emerged from this year pertain to 2021 and the specific participants however, it provides an important insight that the students’ needs change during a year. As a lecturer, one needs to consider these evolving needs to ensure students have the support that they require to be successful in their learning. Conclusion: This research provided insights into the evolving nature of the support first-year SLP students require in the online learning space during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... The development of this paper was supported by adhering to the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative studies checklist (Tong et al., 2007), which has supported the rigour of the information presented. Elements of rigour, such as credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability reflexivity as described by Lincoln and Guba (1985) have been addressed. First, credibility was established by ensuring the findings represented the developing thoughts and beliefs of participants over time by maintaining close proximity to the data. ...
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Aims To explore how older people's experiences of COVID‐19 restrictions influenced their decision to receive a vaccine and to support nurse–patient vaccination conversations. Design A longitudinal hermeneutic phenomenological study. The application of the COREQ checklist informed the reporting of this study. Methods Data were collected through semi‐structured telephone interviews with older people (age ≥70) during two national restrictions implemented in England due to COVID‐19. Phase one of interviews occurred between April and July 2020 (six interviews), and phase two of interviews between January and April 2021 (four interviews). Data analysis was performed through content analysis. Results Thirteen older people (mean age 78) worked through six stages about their thoughts and beliefs about receiving a vaccine, which encompassed four of the five elements of the 5C model of vaccine hesitancy, confidence, convenience, calculation, collective, but not complacency. Stages included ‘our only hope is a vaccine’; ‘understanding and acceptance of an effective vaccine’; ‘social responsibility to protect others’; ‘organized but left with unanswered questions’; ‘need to feel secure’ and finally ‘vaccination alone is not enough’. Conclusion The experience of COVID‐19 restrictions by older people informed their approach of engaging with scientific information to inform their decisions to be vaccinated but also developed their sense of collective responsibility to younger generations and those at risk, which informed their adherence to restrictions and the vaccination programme. Impact Nurses are optimally placed to support older people to implement and adhere to national government restrictions as appropriate and prevent obsessive routines, and support discussions and the provision of scientific information on COVID‐19 vaccinations, whilst being inclusive of older peoples' sense of collective responsibility.
... While it is understood how PMS influence strategy implementation, it is not understood how the linkage of strategic objectives with financial and non-financial measures and measures with rewards affect strategy development. To deepen the understanding of strategy development process under PMS, the research was designed as a type of "naturalistic inquiry" in which inductive reasoning was used to obtain insights (Lincoln and Guba 1985). During the field study, interview data were gathered from top managers and some key employees, including middle managers, directly involved with the organizational PMS as well as from relevant archival documents accessible in each organization. ...
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that reflect organizational expectation and delineate performance ; (2) a measurement comprising of the metrics used to operationalize performance; (3) a review referring to the evaluation and feedback of performance information; (4) a performance-related reward system, and (5) a "refresh-ing" phase (Franco-Santos and Otley 2018). "Refreshing" of PMS is a crucial element since the environment and the organization itself changes over time and, thus, a constant re-evaluation of the existing performance measures as well as PMS as a whole must be rendered (Schleicher et al. 2018). PMS is an important tool in operations and strategic management since it allows for the integration of sets of met-rics, namely, quantitative and qualitative data. Such data is used to quantify strategic objectives both on the operational and business level, so as to make it possible for decision making to better formulate (and adapt) a business model of efficiency and effectiveness of an organization's actions (Glas et al. 2018). Additionally, it must be flexible to adapt to strategic changes that otherwise may affect performance and overall success.
... Organizational research faces the challenge of 'paradigm soup' as the adoption of mixed-method approaches leads researchers to reserve the epistemological and ontological divisions that formerly divided researchers and because this questions the appropriateness of conventional research best practices in addition to qualitative alternatives (Lincoln and Guba, 1985). The field of organizational research is fragmented, with no central core of traditions, frameworks, and concepts (Buchanan and Bryan, 2007). ...
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The review study was based on understanding the traditional role of organizational research in its evolution andthe intended improvement in organizational performance. The review expands on empirical provocative articleon publication bias in medical journals which concluded that most in most research designs the researchfindings are false. This is a serious threat to cumulative knowledge development and is injurious to the academicenterprise. Organizational research is seemingly contaminated by a widely shared prescription for research tobe ‘interesting’ while eliminating philosophical quality. This contributes to the mismatch between the objectivesof the research and organizational practices. The field of organizational research is experiencing disruptivetrends since it is the meeting point for numerous disciplines. Organizational research should strive to beinformed by responsible research than to focus on being merely ‘interesting’. This requires paying attention tothe research paradigm components: ontology, epistemology, methodology, and methods to resolve thecredibility challenge. The study provided a basis for harmonizing philosophical and organizational research toclose the discovered gaps. Addressing the credibility dilemma in organizational research is crucial to ignitingtransformation conversations; maintaining public confidence, and guarding the authority of those in academics.The scientific claims of organizational research should be beyond reproach. This article advocates for the needto shun the current over-reliance on formulaic conformity, instrumental research, and a partisan approach toresearch.
... Thematic analysis of the participants' responses to the anonymous survey was conducted in QDA Miner Lite, utilizing a constant-comparative method [21][22][23]. ...
Article
Fostering relational understanding of science concepts requires that students engage in meaningful practice and consideration of content both inside and outside class. Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) is a text-based academic intervention that has improved students' essay writing skills, content understanding, and critical thinking skills across many disciplines. We investigated whether the Assessment-Calibration-Explanation-Re-Assessment (A.C.E.R.) Learning Cycle intervention, a symbolic-based intervention inspired by CPR, could enhance students' utilization of symbolic content, such as electron pushing arrow formalism in Organic Chemistry. Participants were administered formative assessments after reaction mechanisms were taught, calibrated by performing reflection exercises to score the electron pushing mechanism accuracy of carefully-selected examples from their peers, required to explain how they would rank the anonymous samples from best to worst, and answer related electron pushing mechanism questions. Participants' course grades were higher than control group's course grades. Paired samples t test indicated that participants' Re-Assessment samples were significantly better than their Assessment samples. Moreover, participants expressed that the intervention had helped them understand electron pushing arrow mechanisms to a greater degree. Implications for instructors are suggested, including selection of meaningful mistakes for students' analysis and modification of the CPR intervention for graphically-represented concepts.
... We applied purposeful sampling combined with the snowball technique to progressively identify these informants (Corley and Gioia, 2004). Concerning purposeful sampling, we followed Lincoln and Guba's (1985) guidelines and started our interviews by choosing informants most able to offer a broad rather than localized or partial perspective that could help inform our research questions and help identify other key informants. The direct connections of one of the authors facilitated both identification and access. ...
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This paper examines brokerage dynamics in technology transfer networks (TTNs), i.e., hybrid networks of different actors operating in the transitional area between knowledge and business ecosystems (i.e., innovation ecotones), with research organizations as anchor tenants. This particular type of network is gaining increasing attention. However, despite evidence of the importance of brokerage dynamics for knowledge mobility anchored in science and technology research, three main questions remain open: Who acts as network broker in TTNs? What are their specific functions? What mechanisms do they adopt to support these functions? To answer these questions, we conducted an in-depth multi-case study focusing on three European centers of excellence in scientific research, namely the University of Cambridge (UK), the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland), and the Italian Institute of Technology (Italy). We find that institutional actors as well as individuals act as network brokers in TTNs, and that brokerage manifests with varying degrees of formalization related to the TTN's level of maturity. We also identify six network brokerage functions, namely conflict resolution, spreading knowledge, linking idea fragments, connecting problems to solutions, expanding the network, and strengthening the network, and five mechanisms, namely endorsement, mediation, events, antennas, and digital support systems, that support these functions.
... Using trustworthiness criteria of Lincoln and Guba for qualitative research, we put in place the following steps to ensure rigour [32]. Credibility was achieved using audio-recording to accurately and integrally secure data. ...
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Background Nurses and midwives role in sexual healthcare is essential to help patients, particularly women, ensure a satisfactory sexual wellbeing. Yet, these professionals often overlook this aspect of patients’ health. Little is known regarding nurses and midwives’ attitudes, views and experiences concerning sexual healthcare. Using a naturalistic inquiry approach, this qualitative study was conducted to overcome this limitation and gain insights into nurses and midwives' role in the delivery of sexual healthcare. Methods A purposive sample of nurses and midwives was chosen from different clinical sites. Data generated by focus group discussions were were analysed using the Framework Analysis while adopting different strategies to ensure rigour. The study aligns with the consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research checklist. Results Five themes illustrated the participants’ views and experiences. These are: ‘Perceptions of sexuality’, ‘Appreciating the discussion around the individuals' sexual issues’, ‘Muting the discussion around the individuals’ sexual issues, ‘Coping with embarrassment’, and ‘Promoting nurses’ and midwives’ roles sexual healthcare’. Nurses and midwives discussed the importance of sexuality in the couple's life. They reported controversial views and highlighted many challenges that make them reluctant in playing an efficient role in sexual healthcare. They discussed many suggestions, mainly getting a solid sexual health education to become better equipped to meet patients’ sexual health needs. Conclusion Findings are critical to empower nurses and midwives, break the barriers in discussing sexual healthcare and integrate this aspects of care more actively and confidently in daily practice.
... Trustworthiness of the current work focused on the areas described by Lincoln & Guba [31] including credibility, dependability, confirmability, and transferability. Credibility was established through engagement with the participants for a duration of their choosing in order to provide fulsome responses to the interview questions. ...
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Background For many allied health disciplines, pre-professional clinical education takes place in student-led, on-campus clinic environments. In these environments, pre-professional students undertake patient care under the supervision of qualified health professionals. Literature exploring the benefits of the student-led clinical learning environment is limited and little is known about the role student-led clinics play in preparing pre-professional osteopathy students for professional practice. Aim To explore the perceptions of osteopathy clinical educators about the role of the student-led clinic at Victoria University (VU) in preparing pre-professional students for professional practice. Methods A qualitative collective case study methodology was utilised to explore clinical educator perceptions. Individual interviews were conducted with clinical educators employed in the university osteopathy clinic. Interview questions were framed around the Capabilities for Osteopathic Practice which set the Australian osteopathy practice standards. Data were assessed by two of the authors using thematic analysis. Results Nine clinical educators out of 31 employed at the university clinic (29%) agreed to participate. Qualitative analysis generated three themes: perceptions of the student-led clinic (SLC) as a learning environment; clinical educator perception of their role in the SLC; and, challenges to and of the SLC environment. Conclusions Clinical educators perceived that the student-led osteopathy clinical learning environment develops pre-professional learners to meet some, but not all, of the capabilities for professional practice as an osteopath in Australia. The environment may be improved through faculty development, fostering a proactive learning approach, addressing system-based issues, and providing opportunities to interact with other health professions.
... These also stem from the present study and its findings. (Creswell & Poth, 2018;Lincoln & Guba, 1985). ...
Article
Generativity expresses one’s level of care and concern for the next generation (Erikson, 1950, 1963). Initially established as a middle adulthood phenomenon, generativity has long been rooted in a middle adulthood framework both conceptually and through its psychometric dimensions. However, many studies have found generativity to be present in other stages of life, particularly young adulthood. This then raised the question of whether the traditional model used for generativity’s manifestation represents young adults’ experiences. This study sought further to explore generativity’s manifestation in a way that is specific to young adults. Applying traditional grounded theory techniques, the present research reanalyzed secondary data from four original studies to explore how generativity is manifested within young adults. A new conceptual model of generativity was developed from these studies, and a theory depicting how generativity is manifested among this age group was generated. The new conceptual model was also compared to the traditional framework of generativity, showcasing similarities and differences in how generativity manifests among middle-aged and young adults. This study establishes foundational insight into the uniqueness of generativity’s development in young adulthood and encourages future research to explore this construct further. Advisor: Lindsay Hastings
... In keeping with measures of validity and reliability for qualitative research, Lincoln and Guba's (1985) criteria for rigor was used: credibility and dependability, confirmability, transferability, authenticity, and auditability. Credibility was ensured by using thick descriptions of the text to give the experiences of participants, and to make sure the results of the research reflected those experiences. ...
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This case study examines the implementation of a multi-disciplinary course to prepare students for living overseas. The same instructor taught this course to over 1000 students over a period of four years. Teaching evaluations and written comments were used discovering that a traditional course was preferred over an online course. Findings suggest that colleges carefully consider the target markets and curriculum before deciding whether the curriculum should be Internet-based.
... Established Reliability and Validity of Study ToolsPurposive sampling, thick description, and robust data Dependability: Use of overlap methods (triangulation) Confirmability: Audit trail, reflexive journaling.38,39 Mp3 digital files transcribed word-for-word with audit trail using https://doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S361032 ...
... Also, in order to conduct peer review, three faculty members familiar with qualitative research examined the codes and categories and agreed on interpretations. Clear and distinct descriptions of culture and context, selection and characteristics of participants, data collection, and analysis process were presented (22,23,25). ...
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Nurses play a key role in providing rehabilitation care. In this regard, identifying the factors that affect their practice can be useful in planning to improve the quality of rehabilitation nursing care. This study aims to explore the experience of nurses and members of the rehabilitation team about barriers and facilitators of rehabilitation nursing care of patients with disability in the rehabilitation hospital. This qualitative study was conducted in the main public rehabilitation hospital in Tehran, Iran. Eighteen persons including 12 nurses in clinical and managerial positions, an occupational therapist, a physical medicine specialist, a patient, and an informal caregiver participated in this study. Participants were selected based on purposeful sampling. Data were collected through 18 in-depth semi-structured interviews and analyzed based on qualitative content analysis principles. Three themes were derived from the data analysis, which represented Barriers and facilitators related to nurses (specialized knowledge and skills, psychological status, mentoring, professional communication), barriers and facilitators related to the work environment (nurses' performance evaluation, nursing workforce, comprehensive care facilities, workplace design, specialized unit), barriers and facilitators related to patients and caregivers (patient's participation in nursing care, patient adaptation, efficiency of formal caregivers). The experiences of the rehabilitation team shows that not only nurses, but also the environment, patients, and caregivers can affect the provision of care and change the quality of care. Identifying these factors can help managers, researchers, and clinical nurses to facilitate and improve rehabilitation nursing care by modifying the influencing factors.
... Although the analysis was conducted in the participants' native language (Arabic) to avoid meaning being lost in translation the accounts related to the codes were translated from Arabic into English by bilingual expert who checked the accuracy of the translations. Lincoln and Guba (1985) guided the study's trustworthiness, maintaining credibility, dependability, consistency, and transferability. The credibility was assured through purposive selection of participants which ensure that maximum variations of age, different types of cancer, and the settings. ...
Article
Purpose To describe the experiences of family support from the perspectives of patients newly diagnosed with cancer. Methods Descriptive qualitative phenomenological design was undertaken, including in-depth individual interviews with 13 newly diagnosed cancer patients from two hospitals in Jordan. Results Three themes emerged: ‘being there,’ ‘family reunion and connectedness,’ and ‘gratified with family support.’ Being there includes the compassion of family together, support by encouragement, and using religious rituals and traditional remedies. A cancer diagnosis brings family reunions and connectedness and strengthens relationships between spouses. The patients expressed gratitude that their families were compassionate, active listeners, and willing to help, which helped them make decisions related to cancer treatment and overcome their fears. Conclusions Findings show the strength and priority of family support in Jordanian Arabic culture during an initial cancer diagnosis. In cultures where family members take the burden of care, religion and cultural practices play a vital role in directing patient care. Understanding the experiences of family support from the patients’ view could help nurses provide comprehensive and culturally sensitive care and requires adopting a family-centered approach in preparing care plans for patients.
... Then, we named the clusters for the generic skills. We tried to secure the validity of the study in terms of consistency and neutrality (Guba and Lincoln, 1985) and tried to maintain objectivity by seeking opinions on data analysis and results through a continuous consultation process so that the results derived through data collection and analysis were consistent, excluding any bias in the research process. ...
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The purpose of the present study was to explore significant learning experiences of Korean university students and examine associated generic skills. The study implemented a document analysis approach to investigate essays collected from 33 students in a 4-year university in Seoul, South Korea. A total of 102 excerpts were coded, forming 14 sub-themes which were categorized into five themes that describe students’ significant learning experiences. The five themes are interacting with others, learning by oneself and about oneself, realizing applicability to real-life, venturing into advanced learning, and experiencing a respectful learning atmosphere. Also, 18 generic skills were identified which were categorized into four clusters, namely comprehensive thinking skills, information utilization skills, interpersonal skills, and personal attributes. The results of the present study provide the groundwork for understanding students’ perceptions of significant learning experiences and associated generic skills.
... The scope of the research is limited to VS individuals located in one country to control for social, political, and economic potential factors are relatively comparable. Interviews were conducted until the last interview did not elicit any new information, so theoretical saturation was achieved (Lincoln and Guba, 1985), and the data collection process terminated at this point. Interviews were tape-recorded and demographic information is shown in Table 1. ...
Article
Although there is an increase in research on different aspects of voluntary simplicity (VS), there is less understanding of the trajectories that individuals follow when adopting a voluntary simplicity lifestyle, and how transitioning to this lifestyle relates to inner growth. The aim of the paper is to examine the role of inner growth on differentiating voluntary simplicity from other lifestyles. We draw on the framework of resonance by Rosa (2019), who claims the need to move from a state of permanent search for material resources, to develop a resonant relationship with the world. Resonance is a way of relating to the world, where individuals and the world mutually affect each other in an interactive way. Seventeen in-depth interviews were held with voluntary simplifiers living in Chile. The findings propose a model that identifies three different trajectories that people follow to achieve a voluntary simplicity lifestyle and the implication for inner growth as a result of more resonant relationships with the world.
... Participants were informed of the research purpose and of my previous and current association with the program to avoid biased self-reporting from the participants. As a former insider with outsider status, I took a preventative approach by writing in a reflexive journal to record research logistics and examine my own personal reflections to overcome potential disadvantages due to my positionality as a researcher (Lincoln and Guba 1985). I also considered the study within the current body of literature to confront any deficiencies. ...
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Internationalisation is now a prominent feature of the higher education landscape, with many institutions integrating international, intercultural and global dimensions inside and outside the classroom. In this paper, I examine the long-term outcomes of international faculty mobility on individual pathways at home institutions framed within the context of internationalisation. I find that the current mode of internationalisation neglects the role of how abroad activities contribute to subsequent institutional internationalisation at home and abroad. My retrospective tracer study with eight qualitative in-depth interview participants finds that formerly internationally mobile faculty integrate international, intercultural, and global dimensions related to the host country, host region and wider world at their home institutions into their teaching, research and service after returning from abroad. In doing so, I propose a new way of understanding how the complementary pillars of abroad and at home internationalisation maintain an ongoing , synergetic process that react and contribute to each other and the way in which internationalisation can be re-visited and re-imagined meeting broader goals.
... Categories were developed that were used to group common responses (e.g., structural/environmental reasons; cost of equipment and implementation). The credibility and trustworthiness of all aspects of the qualitative analysis and the categories selected or generated were established through peer-debriefing amongst the authorship team and member checks with CRDC representatives [36]. ...
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The future of work is influenced by the digital transformation of industries, including agriculture. The current study aimed to understand the social drivers of automated technology acceptance and adoption in Australian cotton farms. The study employed a mixed-methods approach to compare those who were (a) currently using automated technology, (b) not currently using automated technology but considering adoption, and (c) not currently using automated technology and no intention to adopt. The research found that social factors and workforce considerations influence growers’ motivation to adopt automated technology on farms. Furthermore, differences on appraisals of perceived usefulness were observed when comparing growers with no intention to adopt automated technology with those considering adoption or who have adopted automated technology. Both perceived usefulness and ease of use barriers are challenges for those considering adoption of automated technology. Support that improves ease of use for those who have adopted automated technology is important for continued appraisals of perceived usefulness of automated technology. Further research to understand antecedents to appraisals of perceived usefulness and ease of use, and how these interact to influence acceptance and automated technology, is required to inform strategic workforce interventions that support the digital transformation of cotton farms.
... The quantitative questionnaire was composed of validated scales. The rigor of the qualitative data was ensured using Lincoln and Guba's trustworthiness criteria, including dependability, credibility, confirmability, and transferability [34]. The second author (BB) conducted and coded all interviews and continuously discussed them with the first author (MP) throughout the analysis process to increase dependability and credibility. ...
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Background The positive effects of cardiac rehabilitation are well established. However, it has an inherent challenge, namely the low attendance rate among older vulnerable patients, which illustrates the need for effective interventions. Peer mentoring is a low-cost intervention that has the potential to improve cardiac rehabilitation attendance and improve physical and psychological outcomes among older patients. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a peer-mentor intervention among older vulnerable myocardial infarction patients referred to cardiac rehabilitation. Methods The study was conducted as a single-arm feasibility study and designed as a mixed methods intervention study. Patients admitted to a university hospital in Denmark between September 2020 and December 2020 received a 24-week peer-mentor intervention. The feasibility of the intervention was evaluated based on five criteria by Orsmond and Cohn: (a) recruitment capability, (b) data-collection procedures, (c) intervention acceptability, (d) available resources, and (e) participant responses to the intervention. Data were collected through self-administrated questionnaires, closed-ended telephone interviews, semi-structured interviews, and document sheets. Results Twenty patients were offered the peer-mentor intervention. The intervention proved feasible, with a low dropout rate and high acceptability. However, the original inclusion criteria only involved vulnerable women, and this proved not to be feasible, and were therefore revised to also include vulnerable male patients. Peer mentors ( n = 17) were monitored during the intervention period, and the findings indicate that their mentoring role did not cause any harm. The peer-mentor intervention showed signs of effectiveness, as a high rate of cardiac rehabilitation attendance was achieved among patients. Quality of life also increased among patients. This was the case for emotional, physical, and global quality of life measures at 24-week follow-up. Conclusion The peer-mentor intervention is a feasible and acceptable intervention that holds the potential to increase both cardiac rehabilitation attendance and quality of life in older vulnerable patients. This finding paves the way for peer-mentor interventions to be tested in randomized controlled trials, with a view toward reducing inequality in cardiac rehabilitation attendance. However, some of the original study procedures were not feasible, and as such was revised. Trial registration The feasibility study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov ( ClinicalTrials.gov identification number: NCT04507529 ), August 11, 2020.
... The methodology is rooted in naturalistic inquiry; specifically, a basic interpretivist study was conducted. Naturalistic researchers conducting field research go through a common sequence of steps: (a) gaining access to and entering the field site, (b) gathering data, (c) verifying and cross-checking findings to ensure accuracy and trustworthiness, (d) analyzing data immediately and throughout the study, (e) making interpretations, (f) writing up findings, (g) sharing conclusions and conferring with participants, and (h) leaving the field site [17]. These similar steps were followed during the study by collecting artifacts, taking field notes of observations, and interviewing participants. ...
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In this qualitative study, young adults with visual impairments aged 18–27 and family members were studied to determine the effects of state-mandated high school driver’s education on independent travel, self-efficacy, and the transition to adulthood. A young person’s ability to travel independently can determine whether he or she transitions successfully from one life stage to another. Concepts from different social theorists are used to form the theoretical frame for data analysis. The author finds that in spite of curricular and pedagogical intervention, regardless of technological advances, and despite low-vision/blind youth’s accomplishments and determination to succeed, young people with low vision/blindness nevertheless continue to be challenged in the realms of the transition to adulthood, securing employment, and independent living due to persistent, societal-level discrimination and perceived incapability. These persistent, unwarranted forms of discrimination profoundly affect young adults’ perceptions of self-efficacy and more often than not close doors to their success. The author posits that societal-level intervention is required to effect meaningful, equitable change designed to dismantle the current systemic discrimination plaguing youth and young adults with visual impairments.
... ti software version 8.1. Later, the analyzed data underwent a peer examination method in ensuring the credibility of the research, especially concerning the bias issue (Lincoln & Guba, 1985;Creswell & Poth, 2018). ...
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We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue.
... A descrição densa tem sido apontada como procedimento analítico por outros autores. Para Lincoln e Guba (1985), a descrição densa é um modo de ter validade externa fornecendo detalhes que permitem avaliar a validade das conclusões. Descrição densa é um termo inicialmente usado por Ryle (1949) e depois por Geertz (1973) na etnografia. ...
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Given the increased popularity of HR analytics, a particular focus has been placed on its enactors ‐ HR analysts. Their capabilities are believed to entail analytical and storytelling skills. While we acknowledge the importance of analytical skills, this study utilises an exploratory and qualitative approach to extend our understanding on the storytelling of HR analysts, which remains less understood in the HR analytics research. Data from HR analysts shows they engage in storytelling as showcasing, incorporating a narrow approach to translating and selling. The latter is a broader form of institutional work to gain legitimacy for HR analytics on a general level. New insights are also offered on how HR analysts engage in storytelling as curbing, a form of institutional work linked with decoupling HR analytics policy from daily practices and projects. HR analysts engage with these two seemingly contradictory aspects of storytelling to develop sustainable and legitimate HR analytics.
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Natural hair bias, the targeting of people based on their hair or hairstyle, is an emerging but recurring barrier Black women face in the workplace. The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate whether early‐career Black women perceived that their ability to advance occupationally was compromised by wearing natural hair. Semi‐structured interviews were conducted with nine Black women with less than 2 years of work experience in various professions. Using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA), the researchers extracted five main themes: appearance and professionalism, double standards, natural hair journey, identity, and invisible rules of engagement at work.
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The ability to demonstrate the validity and reliability of research findings is one of the important factors that determine the value of scientific research. Validity and reliability or trustworthiness are fundamental issues in scientific research whether qualitative, quantitative, or mixed research. It is a necessity for researchers to describe which criteria they have taken into consideration for the findings obtained during the validity and reliability of the research process. Even though currently, the validity and reliability of qualitative research findings are still controversial in some academic environments, particularly among positivists, qualitative research has lately gained momentum among researchers. Conceptual complexity in literature and unclear statements are misleading to the researchers who are interested in qualitative research, particularly those are new and yet learning qualitative research. Based on this viewpoint, the current study is aimed to present the specific information on validity and reliability in qualitative research, from an analytical perspective. In this context, the concepts of internal validity and external validity, internal consistency reliability, and external reliability used in quantitative research that are equivalents to credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability concepts in qualitative research are scrutinized. In addition, techniques to provide each criterion that researchers can use are also detailed.
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Even though children are natural scientists, many preschools isolate and limit science, which can cause children to miss out on valuable learning experiences and school readiness skills. Additionally, minimizing science at the preschool level fails to set a solid foundation for K‐12 science education. In this single case study, we focused on the experiences and daily work of one constructivist‐oriented preschool teacher who utilized science‐based guided play and emergent curriculum as vehicles for important aspects of preschool learning. Findings demonstrate that with careful planning and intention, science can be utilized as a context for nonscience preschool learning objectives outlined by the National Association for the Education of Young Children, such as socioemotional development and early literacy. Further, being purposeful about taking up children's ideas about science can lead to rigorous engagement in the three dimensions of science found in the A Framework for K‐12 Education as well as the Nature of Science. What is notable in this case study is that the teacher did not fundamentally alter her instruction, nor did she take up a prescribed science curriculum; rather, she utilized children's science noticings and wonderings about the world to build meaningful learning experiences. In this way, we see the efforts and outcomes of this teacher being attainable by other preschool teachers. From these findings, we put forward the Integrated Preschool Science Framework that can be used by researchers and teacher educators to think more deeply about how placing science at the center of preschoolers' learning can provide rich opportunities for supporting preschools in multiple learning domains.
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Child maltreatment (CM) is a social and public health issue with a high global prevalence. However, sibling dynamics in the context of CM remain understudied. The present study aims to shed light on sibling relationships in the context of parental CM. The sample included 20 Israeli adult CM survivors who grew up with at least one sibling. In‐depth interviews explored their experiences as children, with a focus on their relationship with their siblings. A thematic analysis identified the main theme of the formation, or lack thereof, of sibling coalitions in childhood and adulthood. Some participants described comforting and protective sibling relationships in childhood, whereas others told of conflictual or distant childhood relationships that developed into adulthood alliances. Others described perpetrating parents who attempted to disrupt the sibling relationship. The sibling relationship comprises complex dynamics and emotions, which can vary within a single sibling subsystem. The findings highlight the need to examine sibling dynamics throughout the lifespan and their relation to CM survivors' wellbeing. Regarding the spillover and compensation hypotheses, there is a need to explore the role of the perpetrating parent and their attempts to sabotage the sibling dynamic.
Chapter
This chapter addresses the underrepresentation of students of African descent and Latinx heritage by offering a model that supports inclusion into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) pipeline via research competitions. The 5P Model is a social justice framework designed to redress the exclusion of underrepresented students by providing a support structure for success in research competitions. The model includes conducting research, performing a research experiment, creating a poster board presentation, writing the research paper, and the oral presentation. These elements develop research skills and strategies which are foundational for overall academic success and preparation for most career pathways. Drawing from a qualitative study of 120 middle school 6th and 7th grade students from a middle/high charter school in New Mexico, the data reveals evidence that, as self-efficacy increased, persistence and positive attitudes toward participation increased.
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Background. Dengue is the most common and widespread mosquito-borne arboviral disease globally estimated to cause >390 million infections and >20,000 deaths annually. There are no effective vaccines or preventive drugs. Control of dengue transmission relies primarily on mosquito vector control. Although most vector control methods currently used by national dengue control programs may temporarily reduce mosquito populations, there is little evidence that they affect transmission. There is an urgent need for innovative, participatory, effective, and locally adapted approaches for sustainable vector control and monitoring in which students can be particularly relevant contributors and to demonstrate a clear link between vector reduction and dengue transmission reduction, using tools that are inexpensive and easy to use by local communities in a sustainable manner. Methods. Here we describe a cluster randomized controlled trial to be conducted in 46 school catchment areas in two townships in Yangon, Myanmar. The outcome measures are dengue cases confirmed by rapid diagnostic test in the townships, dengue incidence in schools, entomological indices, knowledge, attitudes and practice, behavior, and engagement. Conclusions. The trial involves middle school students that positions them to become actors in dengue knowledge transfer to their communities and take a leadership role in the delivery of vector control interventions and monitoring methods. Following this rationale, we believe that students can become change agents of decentralized vector surveillance and sustainable disease control in line with recent new paradigms in integrated and participatory vector surveillance and control. This provides an opportunity to operationalize transdisciplinary research towards sustainable health development. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and political instability in Myanmar the project has been terminated by the donor, but the protocol will be helpful for potential future implementation of the project in Myanmar and/or elsewhere. Registration: This trial was registered in the ISRCTN Registry on 31 May 2022 ( https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN78254298 ).
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Teachers’ professional identity is multifaceted and fluctuating, and while it is formally developed during initial teacher preparation, it is influenced by experiences before and beyond teaching programmes. The aim of this paper is to investigate the extent to which a module on language curriculum development may influence the professional identity formation of international and UK student-teachers enrolled in a master’s programme in teaching English to speakers of other languages at a UK university. The study was carried out with 30 student-teachers in 2021, and data were collected from an ecological perspective as data sets came from the regular module delivery. Findings show that the student-teachers articulated four spheres of professional identity. Located in the past, the language learner identity helped them reflect on good practices. Their present student-teacher identity was characterised by their acknowledgement of language education as a research-informed area. Drawing on these two spheres, they displayed two future spheres of professional identity: teacher identity and curriculum developer identity. The latter demonstrates that the module not only enabled the participants to imagine a new career path but also helped them reflect on their anticipatory agency and self-efficacy.
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The purpose of this comparative case study, conducted with eight engineers in different firms who specialized in different disciplines of engineering, was to identify and describe the patterned ways in which they used written genres in the context of object‐oriented activity, as well as to describe their evaluative frameworks and literacy practices. The research team used descriptive coding to analyze field notes from twelve two‐hour observations per engineer; they also used categorical thematic analysis to analyze transcripts from six interviews and retrospective protocols per engineer. The analyses indicated that, to some extent, engineers read and wrote distinct written genres that varied according to their role (e.g., quality assurance manager versus test designer) and the traditions of their discipline (e.g., electrical versus mechanical). However, across sites, roles, and disciplines, they used common evaluative frameworks when they evaluated texts’ accuracy, consistency, adherence to standards, currency, executability, reproducibility, concision, and clarity. In conjunction with these evaluative frameworks, engineers also enacted common literacy practices, such as cross‐checking, peer review, using templates when composing, and verifying with the physical world. The study concludes with implications for transformative, rather than reproductive, disciplinary literacy pedagogies in which students can use expansive disciplinary literacies in engineering to address issues that are important to them. As part of these pedagogies, students can articulate why common evaluative frameworks and literacy practices are important to producing safe outcomes in engineering, while they simultaneously expand these frameworks and practices to reflect values and cultures that are important to them. The purpose of this comparative case study, conducted with eight engineers in different firms who specialized in different disciplines of engineering, was to identify and describe the patterned ways in which they used written genres in the context of object‐oriented activity, as well as to describe their evaluative frameworks and literacy practices.
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Background: Nursing home hospital avoidance programmes have contributed to a reduction in unnecessary emergency transfers but a description of the core components of the programmes has not been forthcoming. A well-operationalised health-care programme requires clarity around core components to evaluate and replicate the programme. Core components are the essential functions and principles that must be implemented to produce expected outcomes. Objectives: To identify the core components of a nursing home hospital avoidance programme by assessing how the core components identified at one nursing home (Site One) translated to a second nursing home (Site Two). Methods: Data collected during the programme's implementation at Site Two were reviewed for evidence of how the core components named at Site One were implemented at Site Two and to determine if any additional core components were evident. The preliminary updated core components were then shared with seven evaluators familiar with the hospital avoidance programme for consensus. Results: The updated core components were agreed to include the following: Decision Support Tools, Advanced Clinical Skills Training, Specialist Clinical Support and Collaboration, Facility Policy and Procedures, Family and Care Recipient Education and Engagement, Culture of Staff Readiness, Supportive Executive and Facility Management. Conclusion: This study launches a discussion on the need to identify hospital avoidance programme core components, while providing valuable insight into how Site One core programme components, such as resources, education and training, clinical and facility support, translated to Site Two, and why modifications and additions, such as incorporating the programme into facility policy, family education and executive support were necessary, and the ramifications of those changes. The next step is to take the eight core component categories and undertake a rigorous fidelity assessment as part of formal process evaluation where the components can be critiqued and measured across multiple nursing home sites. The core components can then be used as evidence-based building blocks for developing, implementing and evaluating nursing home hospital avoidance programmes.
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Aims To explore nurses' experiences and perceptions of career growth and its influencing factors, as career growth is more closely associated with individual attitudes and behaviours in the new career era. Design A qualitative descriptive design was used. Methods Thirty‐one nurses from 10 secondary and 8 tertiary hospitals in Sichuan Province of China were purposively selected to participate in this study. The data were collected using individual semi‐structured face‐to‐face interviews. Two researchers independently reviewed the transcripts and emergent coding. The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Findings The nurses' perceptions of career growth fully described the nurses' experience and occurred in five dimensions: career promotion, career goal progress, professional ability and quality improvement, professional identity development and increase in personal prestige. The factors influencing career growth were identified at the organizational, individual and social levels. Career growth in nursing was complex, changed over time and showed several specific characteristics compared with other careers. The nurse‐specific symbol of career growth was professional identity development, which reflected career progression characteristics. Conclusions Career growth is a multi‐dimensional concept with varying influencing factors. The meaning of career growth for nurses is distinct from that for employees in other careers. Impact Nursing managers should guide nurses to comprehensively assess their career growth from multiple perspectives, and professional identity development deserves more attention. Both organizations and individuals should take responsibility for career management to pursue career growth.
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The concept of invisible support (Bolger et al., 2000) has sparked interest among social support researchers. Theoretically, invisible support avoids negative support outcomes related to face threats and, therefore, should lead to better outcomes than traditional support. Unfortunately, empirical tests of invisible support have yielded inconsistent results, potentially due to a lack of conceptual and operational clarity in defining invisible support. The present study addresses this issue, advocating for the inclusion of provider intention to reduce support visibility in the definition of invisible support and establishing the foundation for a typology of invisible support by eliciting participants' experiences with its provision.
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This investigation compares how COVID-19 vaccination supporters and refusers make use of rhetorical strategies to judge the credibility of information sources in online discussion. To this end, the Aristotelian tripartite approach to rhetoric, that is, ethos, pathos and logos was utilized. The empirical findings draw on the analysis of 2257 posts submitted to Suomi24—a Finnish online discussion in May—October 2021. The findings indicate that both vaccine supporters and vaccine refusers mainly drew on the pathos- and ethos-related rhetorical strategies such as appeal to blameworthiness and ad hominem arguments while judging the credibility of information sources. Coronavirus vaccination appeared to be a highly contested topic giving rise to polarized debates, deep mistrust and mutual accusations between opposing parties. The rhetorical strategies were used to attack opponents’ views on the credibility of information sources, rather than making attempts to create mutual understanding of their value for arguments used in online discussion.
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