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Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches

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... Early cultural geography, according to (Creswell, 2013), was focused upon the ranking, description and classifying of cultural regions (areas) and the analysis of the ways in which cultural groups impacted and changed their habitats (Hartshorne, 1959). This focus on the macro view of cultural representations was eventually challenged (Gregory, 2009), with Relph (1976) identifying the need to distinguish between place and individual human experience as well as the concepts of region and area -although Creswell (2013) notes that the term 'place' ...
... Early cultural geography, according to (Creswell, 2013), was focused upon the ranking, description and classifying of cultural regions (areas) and the analysis of the ways in which cultural groups impacted and changed their habitats (Hartshorne, 1959). This focus on the macro view of cultural representations was eventually challenged (Gregory, 2009), with Relph (1976) identifying the need to distinguish between place and individual human experience as well as the concepts of region and area -although Creswell (2013) notes that the term 'place' ...
... With the development of different perspectives, geographers focused attention on the individual or individualised inhabitant (see Section 2.2) and focused on the role of people, events, and environments in spatial-temporal situations to help map behavioural spaces in ways useful to planning and urban research (Merriman, 2012). For this to happen, qualitative methods of enquiry (Creswell, 2013) were employed, to engage with the feelings and experiences of people. In the following examples, a broad cultural context for the individual apprehension/perception of towns and cities is provided. ...
Thesis
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The UK high street is constantly changing and evolving in response to, for example, online sales, out-of-town developments, and economic crises. With over 10 years of hourly footfall counts from sensors across the UK, this study was an opportunity to perform a longitudinal and quantitative investigation to diagnose how these changes are reflected in the changing patterns of pedestrian activity. Footfall provides a recognised performance measure of place vitality. However, through a lack of data availability due to historic manual counting methods, few opportunities to contextualise the temporal patterns longitudinally have existed. This study therefore investigates daily, weekly, and annual footfall patterns, to diagnose the similarities and differences between places as social activity patterns from UK high streets evolve over time. Theoretically, footfall is conceptualised within the framework of Territorology and Assemblage Theory, conceptually underpinning a quantitative approach to represent the collective meso-level (street and town-centre) patterns of footfall (social) activity. To explore the data, the periodic signatures of daily, weekly, and annual footfall are extracted using STL (seasonal trend decomposition using Loess) algorithms and the outputs are then analysed using fuzzy clustering techniques. The analyses successfully identify daily, weekly, and annual periodic patterns and diagnose the varying social activity patterns for different urban place types and how places, both individually and collectively are changing. Footfall is demonstrated to be a performance measure of meso-scale changes in collective social activity. For place management, the fuzzy analysis provides an analytical tool to monitor the annual, weekly, and daily footfall signatures providing an evidence-based diagnostic of how places are changing over time. The place manager is therefore better able to identify place specific interventions that correspond to the usage patterns of visitors and adapt these interventions as behaviours change.
... 3.3 Data charting: qualitative literature analysis, coding of signi cant statements and horizontalization in order to identify global CIMIC key concepts Identi ed publications were analyzed through a qualitative, mixed narrative-phenomenological approach as proposed by Creswell, and as applied in previous projects of similar scope published in the peerreviewed literature (3,4,13,14). This approach was considered best for providing the highest exibility for identi cation of pertinent key topics rather than analyzing data automated with pre-speci ed terms which would potentially miss signi cant statements. ...
... This approach was considered best for providing the highest exibility for identi cation of pertinent key topics rather than analyzing data automated with pre-speci ed terms which would potentially miss signi cant statements. Speci cally, narrative-phenomenological qualitative information in the articles was identi ed by transcribing articles into a plain text format that were assessed for signi cant statements as the narrow unit of analysis (13,14). These signi cant statements were then horizontalized and grouped into clusters of meaning (13,14). ...
... Speci cally, narrative-phenomenological qualitative information in the articles was identi ed by transcribing articles into a plain text format that were assessed for signi cant statements as the narrow unit of analysis (13,14). These signi cant statements were then horizontalized and grouped into clusters of meaning (13,14). ...
Preprint
Background: In the context of a holistic and comprehensive disaster response effort to the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries across the globe mobilized their military forces in order to cope with sudden and exponential surges of critically ill patients with COVID-19 in stretched healthcare systems. Objective: The purpose of this work is to identify, map, and render world-wide key concepts of civil-military cooperation (CIMIC) in disaster management during the COVID-19 crisis visible.Material and Methods: Literature was systematically searched in three databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library) on 26 January 2022, and analyzed with qualitative, mixed narrative-phenomenological methods in compliance with PRISM-ScR and SRQR.Results: Forty-five publications were included in the analysis; pertinent authors were from 22 countries covering five continents. We identified three key thematic clusters in the published literature: Cluster 1) Medico-scientific contributions with the participation of military medical personnel or institutions: members of the military acted as subject matter experts, clinical and experimental (co-) investigators as well as co-founders for enabling COVID-19 relevant research. Areas covered were relevant to the COVID-19 patient’s clinical journey from prevention, exposure, diagnostics, and treatment and included pertinent fields such as digital health and telemedicine, global and public health, critical care, emergency and disaster medicine, radiology, neurology, as well as other medical specialties, i.e., respiratory care, pulmonology, burn medicine, and transfusion medicine, in addition to environmental and occupational sciences as well as materials science. Cluster 2) CIMIC field experiences or analyses included areas such as political framework, strategy, structure, nature of civil-military interaction and concrete mission reports in selected countries. Themes covered a broad spectrum of pandemic disaster management subjects such as capacity and surge capacity building, medical and pharmaceutical logistics, patient care under austere circumstances, SARS-CoV-2 testing support, intelligent and innovative information management, vaccination support, and disaster communication. Cluster 3) The military as a role model for crisis management. Conclusion: civil-military cooperation made a significant contribution to the level of resilience in crisis management on a global scale, positively impacting a broad spectrum of core abilities during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... Despite the fact that varied sample sizes have been suggested for phenomenological research, Ellis (2016) believes that a sample of 6 to 20 individuals is sufficient. For a phenomenological investigation, Creswell (2013) suggested long interviews with up to 10 people. The participants of this study involved seven pre-service science teachers who were in their final year in their undergraduate education. ...
... In qualitative research, it is crucial to expose personal ties to the subjects, as well as the potential assumptions and biases (Creswell, 2013). The researcher in this study was the instructor of the Practice Teaching courses of I and II during the two semesters of the academic year. ...
... 114). There are two main aspects that need to be focused on for data collection in phenomenological studies: the experiences of the participants in terms of the phenomenon, and the contexts and situations influencing these experiences (Creswell, 2013). The researcher performed a sequence of three separate interviews with each participant based on Seidman's (2006) model of indepth, phenomenological interview. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of secondary science preservice teachers while designing and implementing SSI-based instructional processes, as well as their interpretations from these experiences. Phenomenological research that relies upon how individuals live out meanings in our everyday life was employed in this study. The participants of this study involved seven senior pre-service science teachers. Based on Seidman’s (Interviewing as qualitative research: A guide for researchers in education and the social sciences, 2006) phenomenological interview model, three in-depth interviews were conducted with each participant. The data analysis procedure of this study was done inductively via thematic analysis. The analysis of the interviews revealed the following themes: (1) Transformation, (2) Dilemmas, (3) Critiques, (4) Struggles, and (5) Change. This study demonstrated that pre-service science teachers’ views, ideas, and practices were transformed and changed during the 8 months of involvement in this phenomenological study. It was, therefore, fair to claim that the nature of phenomenological methodology provided opportunities for not only improvements on the participants but also observing and illustrating these changes.
... Lankshear and Knobel (2014) state, "a good research question is clear, focused, of personal interest, doable, and not already answered" (as cited in Castle, 2012, p. 3) In a qualitative research study, the researcher starts with a research statement of what he or she wants to look for. Creswell (2012) insists, "qualitative research questions are open-ended, evolving, and nondirectional" (p. 138). ...
... In education, case study has been applied to expand field knowledge and appeal for practical policies. Yet, case study research can be challenging as the researcher has to decide the number of the cases and which bounded system to explore (Creswell, 2012). Besides, the researcher may be discouraged as case studies cost time and money to attain deep analyses and thick descriptions. ...
... Additionally, we examined how the accounting information, which is generated by the accounting systems, has been mobilised within the SCM practices. Many fields of social and business research have used the case study approach given that it allows researchers to obtain an in-depth understanding of issues for the consumption in the research under investigation (Creswell, 2007). According to Urban & Czerska (2016), such understanding relies heavily on the data obtained through the fieldwork. ...
... This triangulation prompted interesting analysis, as contrasting views allowed us to elaborate further. More importantly, the triangulation tended to enhance the validity of this study's empirical findings as suggested by Creswell (2007). ...
Article
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Manuscript type: Research paper Research aims: This study aims to explore the interplay between accounting information and supply chain management (SCM) practices of a Malaysian subsidiary whose shares are largely owned by a Japanese parent company. Design/Methodology/Approach: This study follows a qualitative, case study methodology. The major sources of this study's data were collected through semi-structured interviews, documentary reviews and informal observations. Research findings: Influenced by its parent company's management style that concerns aligning business practices with the fourth Industrial Revolution (IR 4.0), the case company has subscribed to a set of accounting systems and SCM practices to manage its complex business activities. As much as accounting systems influence its SCM
... The field data were analyzed through qualitative data-processing activities carried out simultaneously (Creswell & Cheryl, 2017;Sulaeman, Rijal, & Ridwan, 2021b); namely, data reduction, data presentation, the drawing of conclusions, and verification according to the context of the research question and related research objectives (Creswell & Cheryl, 2017). The conclusions regarding the ...
... The field data were analyzed through qualitative data-processing activities carried out simultaneously (Creswell & Cheryl, 2017;Sulaeman, Rijal, & Ridwan, 2021b); namely, data reduction, data presentation, the drawing of conclusions, and verification according to the context of the research question and related research objectives (Creswell & Cheryl, 2017). The conclusions regarding the ...
Article
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This study focuses on the phenomenon that arose from the involvement of the Muslim community in the pela gandong ritual communication on December 2, 2018. Religious symbols were used to celebrate the first Advent held in Immanuel Church, Moluccas Islands, Indonesia. Symbols included chanting the call to prayer, lafadz Rawi barzanji, and the call to worship, singing hymns of praise, and lighting Advent candles. Using qualitative methods and subjective interpretive paradigms with data collected through interviews, observations were made from a phenomenological perspective, especially ritual, social transformation, social identity negotiation, and symbolic interactionism theory. The results showed that the involvement of the Muslim community in communication rituals has beliefs and values as central principles of kindred equivalence and social-community concerns. In addition, implementing cross-religious kinship in the subjective experience impacts proof of self-identity, human kinship, relationship creation, treatment acceptance, and joint worship labels. The last leads to a developed case of civic pluralism in the pre-conflict era that had been shattered by the conflict. It is likely that cross-religious civic pluralism is a necessary precondition for efforts to build theological pluralism. This article contributes to understanding Muslim communities’ subjective experience regarding cross-religious pela gandong ritual communication and encourages further research in this area.
... The lead author subsequently used input from the team to transform the descriptive categories into more analytically consolidated themes to construct an overarching account of the COVID-19 pandemic's impacts on trans and non-binary people in Canada, including those in domains such as healthcare, housing, employment, and social networks. Of note, qualitative analyses of survey data can be either descriptive and/or interpretive, depending on the scope and aims of a study [30,33,34]. In this study, our aim was primarily to describe the range of the pandemic's impacts on trans and non-binary populations, but we engaged in a preliminary interpretation of the data to consolidate a larger number of descriptive categories into a smaller number of higher order themes. ...
... Most importantly, as this is a qualitative analysis of free-form responses provided on a survey, we acknowledge that we were unable to incorporate certain measures typically used by qualitative researchers to enhance rigour in research design. First, we were not able to verify our initial understanding of participant experiences using live prompts, which is common practice in the collection of qualitative interview data [34], and typically used to enhance the fidelity of researchers' interpretations of the data to meanings originally intended by participants. Relatedly, while we did include several open-ended questions in our survey, this study focused exclusively on responses to one question to which respondents provided particularly detailed and rich responses. ...
Article
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Background Emerging international evidence indicates the COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated socioeconomic and health challenges faced by transgender (trans) and non-binary populations globally. This qualitative study is among the first to characterize impacts of the pandemic on these groups in Canada. Methods Drawing on data from the Trans PULSE Canada survey (N = 820), we used thematic analysis to examine the free-form responses of 697 participants to one open-ended question on impacts of the pandemic. We first organized responses into descriptive themes, and then used this preliminary analytical process to construct more refined, higher order themes that provided a rich account of the pandemic’s impacts. Results Our results are organized into five themes that highlight the pandemic’s impacts on trans and non-binary populations in Canada. These include: (1) reduced access to both gender-affirming and other healthcare, (2) heightened financial, employment, and housing precarity, (3) strained social networks in an era of physical distancing and virtual communication, (4) an intensification of safety concerns, and (5) changes in experiences of gender affirmation. Conclusion Our findings highlight the pandemic’s systemic impacts on the lives of trans and non-binary people in domains such as healthcare, employment, and housing, and on the social networks of these groups, many of which reflect an exacerbation of pre-existing inequities. Based on our analysis, we recommend that public health researchers, policymakers, and practitioners attend to the structural impacts of the pandemic on these groups as primary sites of inquiry and intervention.
... A generic qualitative research design was used for this study, an approach which is not informed by any one known qualitative methodology and its explicit or established set of philosophical assumptions [58]. A constructivist epistemology [59,60] guided the study to explore the unique perspectives of adolescent girls using one-onone in-depth interviews to elicit their thoughts, knowledge and experiences [61,62]. ...
... The coding frame for thematic analysis included both inductive codes generated from the data itself and deductive codes present in the existing research literature [59]. Codes that did not reflect the data were amended to fit the data. ...
Article
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Background Adolescent girls appear more vulnerable to experiencing mental health difficulties from social media use than boys. The presence of sexualized images online is thought to contribute, through increasing body dissatisfaction among adolescent girls. Sexual objectification through images may reinforce to adolescent girls that their value is based on their appearance. This study explored how sexualized images typically found on social media might influence adolescent girls’ mental health, in positive and/or negative ways. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with girls aged 14–17 years (n = 24) in Perth, Western Australia. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Participants identified body image as a major concern, reporting negative appearance comparisons when viewing images on social media. Appearance comparisons were perceived to exacerbate adolescent girls’ appearance-based concerns. Comparisons also influenced adolescent girls’ efforts to change their appearance and seek validation on social media. The importance of awareness and education from a younger age about social media and its influence on body image was emphasized, as was the need for strategies to promote positive body image and counteract negative body image. Conclusion The findings of this study have important implications for professionals working with adolescent girls and for the development of health promotion programs addressing social media use and body image concerns.
... A case study is the qualitative format of research and is based on the bounded system, which mainly focuses on one case or an issue that is illustrated by the case. A case study provides a full in-depth study of this system, based on a different and diverse data collection material (Creswell, 2013). This cases study methodology is more focused on using a holistic approach, and, further, it will use a data collection spiral (Creswell, 2013). ...
... A case study provides a full in-depth study of this system, based on a different and diverse data collection material (Creswell, 2013). This cases study methodology is more focused on using a holistic approach, and, further, it will use a data collection spiral (Creswell, 2013). Moreover, data are also collected through in-depth interviews from related actors. ...
Conference Paper
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This paper analyzes the effects of sanitation and access to education in slums, also known as favelas, from Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, bringing insides about the importance of regional development policy. Whether or not people have the right to have access to sanitation is one of the factors that ensures greater or lesser protection against the COVID-19. Residents of peripheries and favelas, as well as homeless people, are those who suffer most from such inequality. Some of the measures to fight the COVID-19 depend on the local, state, and federal government policies to help the population’s needs. Being significant to call attention to each locality's distinct necessities which end up requiring the government a different effort. The municipalities and local governments are more properly able to identify, according to the citizens’ living conditions, what lead these people into poverty. Some may need cooperatives, training programs, labor intermediation, or credit. Thus, to be able to overcome poverty, the Brazilian government will have to go beyond cash transfers to lift millions out of the poverty line. For a well-defined social policy, Brazil needs to guarantee access to basic services and help with the inclusion of the poor population into the labor market. More than mitigating the country's current poverty situation with money from social programs, Brazil's main challenge is to overcome medium and long-term poverty.
... The phenomenological design, which is one of these methods and expressed as focusing on the facts that we are aware of but do not have a deep understanding, was used (Yıldırım & Şimşek, 2011). The main purpose of phenomenological studies is to bring personal experiences about a phenomenon to a more general level (Creswell, 2007) and to interpret by revealing individual perceptions about that phenomenon (Yıldırım & Şimşek, 2011). ...
... In this study, which is a qualitative research, the phenomenology pattern, which is expressed as focusing on the facts that we are aware of but do not have a deep understanding, was used (Yıldırım and Şimşek, 2011). The main purpose of phenomenological studies is to bring personal experiences about a phenomenon to a more general level (Creswell, 2007) and to reveal and interpret individual perceptions about that phenomenon (Yıldırım and Şimşek, 2011). ...
Chapter
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Features of Rubrics Used in Scoring Open-Ended Questions
... The resultant 19-item survey (see Appendix 1) consisted of 12 scaled items on a 4point Likert scale from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (4) and seven shortanswer questions to allow participants to express their perceptions and add more explanatory data to the research design (Creswell, 2013). Cronbach's Alpha was used to measure instrument reliability on the scaled items and found to be .896 ...
... For the scaled-survey items, descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were conducted considering frequency, percentages, and the variables of gender and prospective college via an independent sample t-test and one-way ANOVA. For the short-answer responses, qualitative analysis, including coding responses and identifying recurring patterns in the data (Creswell, 2013), was performed to inductively explore participants' perceptions on the communication course and its relevance to the students. Based on the recurring patterns, common themes emerged, which were then rechecked with the data and aligned with the scaled items to answer the research questions, as shown in the results. ...
Book
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We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue.
... This study employed a mixed-methods, sequential, explanatory research design, which consisted of a dominant quantitative approach (quan) followed by a qualitative approach (qual) (Creswell, 2015). In this study, a quasi-experimental, non-randomised, pre-test-post-test post-post-test control group and semistructured interviews were used in a sequential design. ...
... The overarching goal of quasi-experimental research lies in attempting to find the effectiveness of a treatment or intervention (Creswell, 2015). ...
Book
Full-text available
We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue.
... Coding reliability was calculated based on Miles and Huberman's (1994) reliability formula. The calculations produced a satisfactory reliability rate (0.91) according to Creswell (2013). Finally, the coders discussed any discrepancies and resolved them via consensus. ...
Article
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Educators sometimes effect changes in education through the implementation of new ideas, and sometimes extraordinary circumstances force them to change their educational approaches, as during the COVID-19 crisis. Although we live in a digital age, the limited use of technology in education, particularly prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, and teachers' insufficient experience with online or hybrid learning and teaching approaches resulted in several countries being unprepared for education during the pandemic. The flipped classroom (FC) is an innovative pedagogy with the potential to engage students in mathematics education using hybrid education combined with online and face-to-face learning, which is especially important during a pandemic. However, despite the high expectations surrounding this innovative approach, to date, no systematic literature review has discussed the opportunities and pitfalls of FCs in mathematics education regarding pandemic-related issues. In the present systematic review, we aim to bridge this gap and highlight the importance of flipping mathematics instruction during the pandemic and beyond. The results, which are based on textual analysis of 97 eligible articles, demonstrate that FC is a promising pedagogy that has numerous benefits for mathematics teaching and learning, although it is not a panacea for pandemic-related issues, as it also has several significant pitfalls. Overall, if the mechanism of mathematics education is to be crisis-ready, we should learn from experiences during the pandemic. In this regard, the current review contributes to research in mathematics education with the aim of gaining insight into successful implementations of FC pedagogy, not only during the pandemic but also beyond the crisis era of a pandemic. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11858-022-01388-w.
... La investigación cualitativa es una corriente que tiene varios exponentes, entre ellos los más difundidos y enseñados en la formación en investigación del Trabajo Social en Chile son Valles (1996), Flick (1998) y últimamente Creswell (2009Creswell ( , 2015 a propósito de sus propuestas sobre diseños de investigación mixtos (Veliz, 2021). No obstante, en este artículo nos centramos en las aportaciones de Denzin (2002de Denzin ( , 2015de Denzin ( , 2017 y sus colaboraciones con Giardina (2015aGiardina ( , 2015bGiardina ( , 2016Giardina ( , 2018 y Lincoln (1994Lincoln ( , 2008 Se quiso poner énfasis en Critical Qualitative Inquiry, ya que esta corriente dialoga articuladamente con los debates sobre producción de conocimiento en tiempos críticos, promoviendo transformaciones en la manera de pensar y hacer investigación en contextos de crisis marcados por el influjo neoliberal. ...
Article
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Este artículo analiza y discute la posición de las/los investigadores en tiempos críticos, haciendo referencia a aquellos períodos caracterizados por procesos de transformación social y por un quehacer investigativo que aborda temáticas sensibles, como las que surgen en contextos de violencia política, pandemia y transformación. Para ello se exponen los elementos centrales de una corriente investigativa denominada investigación cualitativa crítica, los vínculos de esta con el trabajo social crítico y sus debates en torno a la producción de conocimiento en temas sensibles. Posteriormente se analizan tres encuadres para situar la reflexión acerca de las actorías, autorías y autoridad; cada uno de ellos activa distintas experiencias investigativas empíricas con el propósito de ilustrar los elementos que se ponen en cuestión en el contexto de la investigación actual, tomando como foco los debates en torno a generación de conocimiento y el papel de las/los investigadores en este proceso. Los resultados de este artículo nos indican que en tiempos críticos se precisa potenciar estrategias reflexivas para la discusión de asuntos considerados “sensibles” para la investigación y para las/los investigadores. Esto implica desarrollar dispositivos para visibilizar no solo las voces de las/los participantes de los trabajos investigativos, sino de sus contribuciones singulares a la producción de conocimiento, generando estrategias de resistencia y democratización de acceso a los productos que se derivan de las investigaciones en Trabajo Social. En este sentido, desarrollar investigación crítica en contextos neoliberales implica comenzar a plantearse algunas de estas cuestiones y tomar decisiones al respecto, acerca del trabajo académico que se espera realizar y las tensiones que esto supone.
... In addition to receiving the necessary architectural documents regarding the student projects at the end of fourteen weeks, written statements not only about the students' pedagogical approaches but also about the spatial approaches in their projects were also received within their submissions. Therefore, in the qualitative analysis stage of this study (Creswell, 2015), these expressions with a maximum length of 250 words that the students wrote about their projects were discussed. ...
Conference Paper
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Kindergartens are socio-spatial organizations with their social and cultural as well as their spatial structures which prepare children to be responsible members of the society. In the ear ly years of the twentieth century, the issue of how to raise new generations was one of the primary research areas of many educational scientists, especially in Europe, and therefore different progressive pedagogical methods were generated. Among these views, the Waldorf pedagogical approach developed by Rudolf Steiner, Montessori pedagogical approach developed by Maria Montessori, and Reggio Emilia pedagogical approach developed by Loris Malaguzzi became prominent. Although these three pedagogical approaches have a common view that the child should be accepted as an individual with his/her rights, each of them involved different physical environment requirements in the context of their educational philosophies. The projects obtained in an architectural design studio course constitute the focus of this paper and it aims to decipher the semantic and syntactic characteristics based on twelve student projects. The semantic dimension of the study was revealed by coding the related themes through students' project reports while the syntactic dimension of the study demonstrated the prioritized social interaction area through isovist area and variance values. Considering the semantic results, it was revealed that the students not only comprehended the spatial requirements of a specific educational pedagogy but also grasped the transformative power of the methods, in terms of physical, social, and natural characteristics. Considering the syntactic results, the fact that the mean isovist area value was higher in Reggio Emilia schools showed that the piazza dominates the physical setting. The fact that the school cluster with the highest variance value emerged in Montessori draws attention to the changeability of isovist perimeter value within the interiors to orientate the individuals to the classroom units.
... As social research is very dynamic in nature, there are issues of relation and understanding between respondents and researcher. It is essential to follow a specific code of conduct while conducting any study which involves specific data related to respondents (Creswell, 2006). Negotiation with physical access to study areas was a vital concern for the researcher as the area has constraints for visitors. ...
Book
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Violence against women is a violation of basic human rights, but we still witness various forms of gender-based violence across the world. Deep-rooted societal norms, stigma, religious fundamentalism, and patriarchal culture are responsible for the prevalence of gender-based violence in Bangladesh. According to Human Development Report (2020), 54.2% of women aged 15 years and old witnessed violence by intimate partners, and 3% of women witnessed violence by a non- intimate partner. The BBS (2015) survey found that 70% of married women or girls have faced any sort of intimate partner abuse and half of them have been physically abused by their partner, and 3% took legal action against it. According to the report of Ain-o-Salish Kendra in (2020), a total number of 1,627 reported cases of rape were filed, which was 1413 in 2019 and 732 in 2018. Since Bangladesh witnesses frequent natural disasters every year, many people lose their homes and migrate elsewhere. Displacement of the populace owing to adverse climatic events triggers vulnerability and insecurity in the context of socio-economic well-being. Each year, extensive river erosion coupled with cyclonic disasters & salinity intrusion leads to climate displacements in Bangladesh. After natural disasters, there is a growing trend of women being subject to violence. Domestic violence may be exacerbated by prejudice that remains even after a disaster and undermines physical and social well-being, increasing the likelihood of domestic violence. Job loss, poverty, and the loss of loved ones cause tremendous mental stress, which leads to frustration and domestic violence. The study is aiming to look into climate-induced displacement and its effect on violence against women in Bangladesh. The study will seek the consequences of climate change and the vulnerabilities, insecurity & psychological distresses they give rise to, along with the socio-cultural, economic, and political factors that gradually trigger violence against women among the displaced populace. Major findings of the study are following: a) Displacement, financial crisis, gender-based violence, early marriages are the most critical and common disaster impacts in disaster-prone areas b) Family violence escalate during any natural disaster, especially gender-based violence c) Economic crisis and financial insecurity are the main reasons behind gender-based violence d) Displacement as a result of natural disasters is a common occurrence, and one of the main reasons for this is to find a new economic activity e) When men find it difficult to find work in new places, they become frustrated and distressed. This frustration and misery lead to violence against women in their families f) In disaster-prone communities, dowry is another significant determinant of violence against women. The major cause for prevalent dowry practices, along with existing societal customs, is abject poverty. Those who lose their homes and other possessions due to a disaster put pressure on their spouses to get money from their families g) Women in these areas are subjected to a wide spectrum of violence. They, particularly married women, are the most extreme victims of physiological assault. Physical violence against women is also frequent in these communities, with most cases perpetrated by their spouses or in-laws. Furthermore, women do not object to this due to fear, shame, or other social factors. Sexual violence is more common among young unmarried women and women with disabilities h) Most families have faced difficulties adapting to a new place after being displaced, especially building new shelters and looking for new jobs i) Child marriage is a common phenomenon in disaster-prone areas due to climate-induced displacement. Furthermore, this has adverse effects on women’s physical and mental health of the child bride. It often leads to death, the leading cause of which is early pregnancy j) The main reasons for child marriage are the economic condition and prevailing social norms of the family k) Unmarried women are not allowed to work outside; married women are allowed sometimes. Most women work in brick mills. Women are not concerned about menstrual hygiene due to lack of awareness. The study suggests for inclusion of displaced people in existing policies to work on the betterment of these communities. Besides, violence against women in coastal areas should be addressed properly, and intervention of multiple stakeholders is necessary.
... We used a multiple-case design with a qualitative research paradigm to understand the differences and similarities of leadership responses to the COVID-19 pandemic within higher and K-12 education in the USA and India. A multiple-case design explores a real-life multiple-bounded system through detailed, in-depth data collection (Creswell 2013). ...
Article
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As the COVID-19 pandemic overwhelmed the world, educational leaders needed to implement crisis management plans to mitigate its impact on their students, faculty, staff, and their families. Our research studied five cases in the education sector in the world's largest democracies: the United States of America and India. We conducted semi-structured interviews to investigate the responses of educational leadership in these institutions, specifically on the topics of school shutdowns-pre-shutdowns, during shutdowns, and school reopenings. Our findings indicate that leaders were creative and diligent in their means of communicating to gather information as well as for its dissemination. Their leadership teams had to think out of the box to meet the needs of, not only their students and faculty but the communities in their immediate areas as well. Resource identification and distribution, overcoming the digital divide between rural and urban areas, and the acquisition and appropriate allocation of safety equipment are just a few of the challenges addressed by the academic leaders in these case studies. By focusing on crisis leadership competencies, this study offers insights for HRD practitioners, specifically in the education sector.
... Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) allows detailed analysis of lived accounts of a specific event and affords insight into a person's interpretation of a specific event, with exploration of the significance of that event. Consistent with Creswell [18] (p. 161), ten participants is considered a sufficient number for studies of this nature. ...
Article
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Suicide is a leading public health concern. Research studies have identified significant associations between loneliness and suicidal ideation/behaviour both cross-sectionally and prospectively. Despite this, research specifically focusing on identifying the nature of loneliness experienced prior to suicide, and the role it has in association with other preceding factors, has not been fully explored. The current study recruited ten participants with a history of suicide attempts (five female, four male and one non-binary; mean age: 22.5, range: 20–25 years) to take part in one-to-one, semi-structured interviews via remote video conferencing to explore experiences of social support and loneliness prior to suicide attempt. Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, several aspects of loneliness emerged as important themes that were present prior to participants’ suicide attempts. Additional themes identified were patterns of social support, personality traits, emotional secrecy and social transition. Evidence suggests that a positive relationship with parents, knowing someone with similar experiences or having membership in more than one friendship group may reduce feelings of loneliness and/or intentions to die. This research makes an important contribution to understanding the role of loneliness in relation to suicide attempts by highlighting the importance of social supports being emotionally available to those experiencing distress.
... Case study is a design of inquiry found in many fields, especially evaluation; the researcher develops an in-depth analysis of a case, often a program, event, activity, process, or one or more individuals (Creswell, 2014). It explores the study of an issue through one or more cases within bounded systems (Creswell, 2013). Also, it seeks to provide an in-depth understanding of the cases in which in the case of this study, the language needs of teachers in industrial-technical degree programs. ...
... He further found that IPA helps better understand the more profound insights into the underlying phenomenon than a quantitative method (Smith, 1996). The IPA literature advocates that the sample size may vary from 1-15 or more (Smith, Osborn, 2008), or it could range from 2-25 (Creswell, 2013). ...
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Women entrepreneurs face many obstacles while managing their businesses and developing successful ventures over time. The long-term sustainability of their business reflects their entrepreneurial skills. Specific forces empowered the entrepreneurial drive of women entrepreneurs, keeping them satisfied and engaged in their ventures. Purpose. The study aims to examine the issues and challenges women entrepreneurs face in rural areas and the motivational factors that drive a woman to stay on the path of entrepreneurship. Method. This study examined the motivational factors and challenges by investigating 20 women entrepreneurs of Uttarak-hand. This study has employed a qualitative approach known as Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) to analyze the data. A semi-structured questionnaire was prepared, and data is collected through in-depth interview. Findings. Four major themes emerged as significant findings of this study, i.e. individual and family-related Challenges; Challenges posed by Society, Challenges due to Location and Motivators for woman entrepreneurs.
... The researcher also made field notes which entailed observational notes, theoretical notes, and methodological notes. The transcriptions and field notes were then analyzed using Tesch's eight steps of thematic data analysis by the researcher [33][34]. The data was then sent to an independent coder who holds a doctoral degree in nursing and is well-versed in qualitative research. ...
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Objective: This article aimed to present a developed model for nurse anaesthesia practice in South Africa and then to evaluate the model by national and international anaesthetist experts. Methods: For the model development, a theory-generative research design was used as guided by Chinn & Kramer. The study included four steps to develop and evaluate the model: step one, concept analysis; step two, placing the concepts into relationships; step three, description and critical reflection of the model; step four, evaluation of the model. For evaluation of the model, data were collected using individual, in-depth interviews. Four South African medical specialist anaesthesiologists and four international nurse anaesthetists were interviewed. Transcribed interviews were analyzed using Tesch's eight steps of thematic data analysis. Results: The model was described in four phases: relationship phase, working phase, termination phase, and independent phase. The model shows a development process of a student nurse anaesthetist by a nurse anaesthetist facilitator to the mastery of the scope of practice of a nurse anaesthetist. Two themes (six categories) emerged through thematic analysis: the model and guidelines for implementation were found to be appropriate (model and guidelines for implementation are important because of the need for nurse anaesthetist, the model is applicable because it is described as comprehensive, the relationship phase was found to be important and the interdependence between disciplines is imperative, the affirmation that mastery has to be attained by nurse anaesthetists due to the complexity of services rendered), anticipated limitations to the South African nurse anaesthetist (the need to identify complex patients and limitations on the setting and refer to higher level of care, limitations due to red tape). Conclusions: This model provides fertile soil to inform and outline the education (curriculum) and practice (scope of practice) and research for nurse anaesthesia practice in South Africa.
... This study used a qualitative case study of enquiry to gather thorough information from the participants. Creswell (2007) confirmed that in qualitative research, the researcher is interested in obtaining in-depth information about an event, an activity, individual or process to define the situation naturally. This is important where the researcher is interested in acquiring detailed information and understanding of a social phenomenon and also, interested in finding answers to why, how and what questions (Ellinger, Watkins, & Marsick, 2005). ...
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The emergence of the Covid-19 pandemic created the need for the use of dissimilar remote teaching methods and strategies in many subject areas including Physical Education (PE). While this was somewhat successful in developed countries, little is known about the use of technological tools to deliver PE lessons online in developing countries. This study examined the perceptions and experiences of colleges of education PE tutors in adopting technological tools for remote teaching during the Covid-19 pandemic. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data from 12 tutors (4 females and 8 males) in Ghana. Content analysis was employed as the tool for the analysis of the data. Based on the results, the PE tutors perceived that accessibility was a major challenge to the successful teaching of practical PE lessons online. The tutors further posited that they were motivated to deliver practical lessons online because of the Covid-19 pandemic as they don't want students to be left idle. In furtherance, the participants recommended Transforming Teaching, Education and Learning and colleges' management for assisting them to participate in an online course and providing them with ICT support and data. Again, the participants agreed that they prefer face-to-face to online lessons as the latter do not promote socialisation, develop only the cognitive domain and even certificates acquired online are not given due recognition. It is recommended that theory lessons should be held online while face-to-face interaction is better for practical lessons in PE due to accessibility issues connected to poor internet connectivity and difficulty in performing some of the skills online.
... This study was designed as a qualitative study which was well suited for the study as it investigates teachers' experiences and opinions on differentiated instruction, and the factors behind these experiences and opinions. In this sense, participants' personal experiences, opinions and feelings are the main data as suggested by qualitative studies (Creswell, 2013;Merriam, 2009). It was decided that qualitative approach was appropriate to learn teachers' perspectives and practices first-hand. ...
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This study investigates teachers' experiences and opinions on differentiated instruction, and the factors behind these experiences and opinions. Thus, findings are expected to be the voices of the teachers regarding differentiated instruction. This research is designed as a qualitative study consisting of 537 teachers. Structured open-ended questions were used to collect the data via e-mail. Content analysis was applied to analyze the data. As a conclusion, the majority of teachers define differentiated instruction in its true form, that is, addressing the diverse needs and interests of students; differentiating the context, material, activities and process. Most of them from both public and private schools stated that the implementation of differentiated instruction made students happy and supported permanent, meaningful learning. However, it was found out that teachers mostly do not implement differentiated instruction in their lessons. Some teachers couldn't practice it because they do not know what it is, most of the teachers stated that because of the central exam pressure, lack of material and class size, they cannot practice it. As for the teachers who can practice the differentiated instruction in their classes, they emphasized that it has a positive effect on the student, they know and implement the method; the school implements an education model based on differentiation.
... This qualitative research study used an exploratory case study research design to explore a real-life, contemporary bounded system (a case) or multiple bounded systems (cases) over time through detailed, in-depth data collection involving multiple sources of information and reports a case description and case themes (Creswell, 2013 ...
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We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue.
... Research is defined as a detailed study of a specific problem or phenomenon examined by a researcher with the purpose of resolving it (Brewerton and Millward, 2001;Creswell, 2007;Bryman and Bell, 2007). Myers (2009, p.6) defines research as "An original investigation undertaken in order to contribute to the knowledge and understanding in a particular field". ...
Thesis
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Financial institutions including banks play an important role in national economies through providing liquidity to both businesses and households by playing a role as an intermediary between surplus and deficit holdings. When this role is not performed efficiently, economic growth slows down. Banks, as a major component of the financial industry, can have a positive impact on the economic growth of any country. In countries in politically unstable and or developing regions if banks are not seen as trustworthy and positively supportive of their people their usage is likely to be very limited. The banks in the Kurdistan Region (KR) are characterised by being inefficient, therefore, their current role in economic development is very limited. Due to political and security instability, most people in the KR prefer to keep their money in their houses instead of putting it in banks. At present, there is little research into how this distrust of the banking system could be reversed, enabling it to contribute to economic recovery in the region. This study merged qualitative and quantitative approaches in sequential and equal weight. The primary data collection for this study started with the collection of qualitative data through conducting semi-structured interviews with bank managers and government officials at the ministry of finance in order to identify the main obstacles that they believed faced the current banking system in the KR. Analysis of these results led to the design of a questionnaire survey involving 520 current and potential bank customers to identify the main barriers which cause a continuing lack of trust amongst KR people in the banking system. The study confirmed that the banking system in the KR has either never gained or completely lost the trust of the KR. It has identified several reasons for this including inertia amongst national banks, limited literacy in certain sections of the population and a risk-adverse culture. One of the other major factors preventing the use of banks within the KR is the lack of trust in banks. However, the study has also identified sections of the population who do have a positive interaction with banks, these are mainly younger adults who have been exposed to western banking systems including e-banking. The contribution of this study is to suggest that trust in banks could be developed if, in a hierarchical and mainly rural society, the national government were to actively promote the use of banks, including international banks in a transparent and fair way. However, the results also suggest that this would only work if those who had positive experiences were permitted to continue their interactions with international banks when in their home country. That is to say, in reflecting and building upon the jump into mobile phone technology in developing countries, those who do have trust in banking systems should be allowed to retain and or expand usage of those trusted companies upon their return to their home via the use of modern technology. Their positive interaction would encourage take up by other members of their households and social groups.
... The qualitative approaches utilised interpretive phenomenological research design to acquire a broad understanding and intersubjective exploration of the lived experiences of how others made sense of their worlds (Creswell, 2013;Creswell, 2018;Eatough & Smith, 2008;Hesse-Biber & Leavy, 2011;Noon, 2018;Pietkiewicz & Smith, 2014;Reiners, 2012). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten participants and two key informants. ...
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Social work in health care delivers essential services to South Africa's vulnerable populations. The social development approach attempts to address inequalities and uplift vulnerable people. An explanatory-sequential mixed methodological study explored the application of the social development approach to social work in health care in the Gauteng Department of Health. The findings indicated that social workers in health care deliver a diverse service in attending to patients' needs and are ideally situated to address and implement the social development approach. However, challenges are experienced in the absence of strategic policies regarding the implementation of the social development approach in health care.
... The data discussed in this article are drawn from my doctoral thesis (Goopy, 2020) that investigated adolescent boys' music values, uses, and identity work in a single-sex independent school. This qualitative study adopted a social constructivist view (Creswell, 2013) and sought to "understand the world from the perspectives of those living in it" (Hatch, 2002, p. 7). A single case study research design (Yin, 2014) was constructed employing narrative inquiry (Clandinin & Connelly, 2000) and teacher-researcher reflexivity (Lincoln et al., 2011). ...
Article
Adolescents require meaningful and achievable musical possible selves to imagine a future that includes music. Previous research has investigated how to support tertiary music students in their career identity development; however, adolescents make consequential decisions regarding future music study and career intentions in secondary school. This article reports on the intersections and conflicts between adolescent boys’ musical possible selves, university study intentions, and parent values. Research was conducted at an Australian independent K-12 boys’ school using one-on-one semi-structured interviews incorporating a “draw and tell” artifact elicitation technique with Year 12 students and their parents. Two resonating narratives of adolescent boys studying class music are presented as a means of examining their developing musical identities. Findings reveal the vulnerability of students’ musical possible selves at the end of secondary school as they re-evaluate the role of music in their lives. The mothers of these two students did not highly value music university study and careers and actively intervened to disrupt their sons’ developing musical possible selves. This article proposes the development of specialized school music pathway education, enabling adolescents and parents to make more informed decisions on prospective university music study, careers, and the role of music in their futures.
... All audio/video-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim. As data for case studies need to be recursively reviewed throughout the data analysis process (Creswell, 2013;Merriam, 1998) and the analytic cycles of a qualitative study do not follow a linear sequence but rather they are recursive and iterative (Yin, 2015), I read through the whole data repeatedly and cyclically. ...
Article
As one of the solutions to the economic stratification of English education opportunities and resulting in inequalities, there is a newly emerging global trend of bilingual parenting in Korea called ‘maternal English education (Eommapyo yeong-eo)’. The purpose of this study is to examine challenges of Korean parents in practicing Korean–English bilingual home practices as nonnative speakers of English and micro- and macro-factors contributing to the difficulties in a monolingual context of Korea. To explore the challenges of the parents in bilingual parenting in a monolingual context, several semi-structured interviews were conducted for one Korean family. From the study, three main parental difficulties emerged: (1) lack of Korean parents’ English proficiency as nonnative English speakers, (2) prevalent myths about bilingualism and early bilingual education, and (3) spousal’s different perspectives toward children’s bilingual development. The findings suggest that bilingual parenting requires consistent familial cooperation, language-friendly home environment, and constant parental self-reflections on the whole process of bilingual parenting.
... We adopted an approach that emphasises collective inquiry grounded in the experience of the participants [15,18]. As 'insider researchers' we were aware of the need to be reflexive and cognisant of how one's assumptions might differ from those of others who are not included in the work [19]. The diversity of the group's background and experience meant we often viewed information from a range of perspectives which promoted participation, active discussion and collaboration before reaching any agreement. ...
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Background Reporting on the effect of health humanities teaching in health professions education courses to facilitate sharing and mutual exchange internationally, and the generation of a more interconnected body of evidence surrounding health humanities curricula is needed. This study asked, what could an internationally informed curriculum and evaluation framework for the implementation of health humanities for health professions education look like? Methods The participatory action research approach applied was based on three iterative phases 1. Perspective sharing and collaboration building. 2. Evidence gathering 3. Development of an internationally relevant curriculum and evaluation framework for health humanities. Over 2 years, a series of online meetings, virtual workshops and follow up communications resulted in the production of the curriculum framework. Results Following the perspective sharing and evidence gathering, the InspirE5 model of curriculum design and evaluation framework for health humanities in health professions education was developed. Five principal foci shaped the design of the framework. Environment: Learning and political environment surrounding the program. Expectations: Graduate capabilities that are clearly articulated for all, integrated into core curricula and relevant to graduate destinations and associated professional standards. Experience: Learning and teaching experience that supports learners’ achievement of the stated graduate capabilities. Evidence: Assessment of learning (formative and/or summative) with feedback for learners around the development of capabilities. Enhancement: Program evaluation of the students and teachers learning experiences and achievement. In all, 11 Graduate Capabilities for Health Humanities were suggested along with a summary of common core content and guiding principles for assessment of health humanities learning. Discussion Concern about objectifying, reductive biomedical approaches to health professions education has led to a growing expansion of health humanities teaching and learning around the world. The InspirE5 curriculum and evaluation framework provides a foundation for a standardised approach to describe or compare health humanities education in different contexts and across a range of health professions courses and may be adapted around the world to progress health humanities education.
... Our analysis technique consisted of multiple steps (Creswell 2013). First, the data were prepared, organised, and anonymised. ...
... The respondents were categorised into five samples as indicated in Table 1 and the semi-structured Interview Schedules were designed and varied to suit the various categories of respondents. The researchers adopted an interview guide designed by Creswell [27]. The guide among other things comprised the following information; the time of the interview, the date for the interview, the venue for the interview, the interviewer's name, the name of the interviewee, the position of the interviewee during the interview, brief description of the study and the interview questions. ...
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The Akan are historically an important ethnic group in Ghana who have beliefs on wide range of practices including orthopaedic therapy. The treatment is referred to in indigenous circles as 'bone setting'. It is a specialised branch of traditional medicine which is quite popular among the Akan in Ghana. Unfortunately, most studies on the subject have focused on benefits of the treatment without placing premium on the philosophy that produced those results. The study seeks to examine the belief systems associated with indigenous orthopaedic therapy among the Akan of Ghana and also investigate the extent to which the belief systems have influenced the diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of indigenous orthopaedic therapy. The study is qualitative and the Case study approach was adopted. The population for the study comprises the orthopaedic centres in the Akan Regions of Ghana, patients and cured patients from the selected indigenous orthopaedic centres, Western Medical Practitioners associated with the centres and knowledgeable people on the subject in the communities visited. Purposive sampling procedure was adopted for this study. Observation, and interview were used to collect data from the centres visited. The study revealed that the Akan belief informs the therapists' choices of tools and materials for their therapeutic processes. Their mode of diagnosis and treatment are also influenced largely by this belief. These processes are approached from two levels; the spiritual and the physical. Spiritually, they deal with the spirit that caused the bone injury and physically use various substances to treat the injury. The indigenous practice therefore makes room for rehabilitation of cured patients in order to address all social and psychological imbalances the injury brings to the cured patients.
... Case study research operates with the elements of existing data collection, scenario observation, and combining multimedia or oral histories to provide triangulation through the analysis and synthesis of different sources [29]. Creswell [30] distinguished between three types of case studies, explanatory, exploratory and descriptive perspectives. This study used a descriptive research design for the analysis of the scientific papers and articles [31]. ...
Article
Technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT), cloud computing, and Smart Systems (SSs) have become an important focus for industry, especially in the manufacturing and retail sectors. The aim of this paper is to analyse the importance of SSs and their related technologies in improving business performance. Through an initial systematic review of sixty-one papers, the authors identify six key determinants that lead to the effective application of SSs in business systems, namely, the application of effective managerial skills, supply chain integration, financial analysis, business performance, strategic and operational capabilities, and technologies. The work then goes on to develop an industry case study that informs thinking on the capabilities of smart technologies in collaborative working environments and then onto the development of a practice-focused framework for future research. This study identifies that the implementation of SSs within organisations not only improves business performance but also their supply chains through the effective integration of business activities and systems, and through the degree to which communication and decision-making is facilitated between humans and devices. This leads to the improvement of quality, speed of information, and information sharing. This study also finds that there is a lack of systems standards that currently govern IoT and SSs integration and data security within businesses
... Based on the research purpose, individual interviews and document analysis were utilized as instruments to collect data from multiple perspectives and sources. After obtaining the IRB approval, I started with purposeful sampling and then utilized snowball sampling to recruit more participants (Creswell, 2017;Glesne, 2016;Marshall & Rossman, 2016). Finally, I sent invitation emails to around 35 instructors from diverse academic backgrounds who met the criteria. ...
Article
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The purpose of the qualitative study was to investigate instructors’ experiences of engaging non-traditional learners in eCampus. Online education was rapidly growing in many higher education institutions, especially during the pandemic. However, a high attrition rate could negatively impact student success. Research findings showed that engagement was a significant factor to increase students’ online retention. Due to the flexibility and accessibility of online education, there was a high demand among non-traditional learners. However, limited research has been conducted to explore instructors’ experiences while engaging non-traditional learners in eCampus. In the general qualitative study, twelve online instructors were recruited, and interviews and document analysis were used to collect data. The findings showed that instructors faced both challenges and opportunities while increasing engagement among non-traditional learners in online programs. These indicated the need for the diversity of course design, relationship and community building, the flexibility of engagement criteria, and the unpredictability of emotional engagement. Institutional support and resources were recommended to improve the future teaching practices and the success of online learners with underrepresented backgrounds.
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When the reflections of postmodernism on education are examined, the issue of "uncertainty and unpredictability in education" draws attention. Managing uncertainty and unpredictability in social sciences with classical approaches is no longer effective. Therefore, this requires the need for a postmodern perspective. Chaos theory and approach is one of these perspectives. This study aimed to examine the factors that cause chaos at school and the effects of this chaos. The participants of the research consist of 18 teachers who have 10 years or more professional seniority and have been working in the same school for 10 years in Gaziantep, Turkey in 2016-2017. Research data were obtained through semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The qualitative data obtained within the scope of the research were analyzed and subjected to thematic analysis. According to the results obtained, 4 categories (prerequisites, educational environments and situations, negative behaviors, internal-external factors) that cause chaos in school emerged. As the starting point of the chaos in the school, two important effects were identified, and these are the butterfly effect and the behaviors of getting rid of the chaos. This study reveals the result that at schools butterfly effect and chaos somehow affect students and teachers. It is important to gain experience about starting point issues for school administrators and teachers. It has been noted that the behaviors and situations that create a butterfly effect at school are at the forefront. In the light of these findings, various recommendations have been presented for school administrators, educators and researchers.
Chapter
This chapter provides an in-depth study of the teaching practices of instructors who primarily guide and facilitate learning in a makespace. With a close look at the pedagogical practices that govern teaching and learning in the maker classroom, this study presents instructors who modeled these frameworks. In addition to their own knowledge base and expertise, they were able to efficiently and effectively integrate multi-resources in a unique learning environment while helping learners succeed and adopt the maker mindset. Makerspaces are changing how we perceive learning and teaching. Instructors highlighted in this chapter put forth activities and learning goals that were learner centered and interesting to various learning needs. They designed and created a learning environment that safeguarded learners and allowed them to experiment with ideas and materials, creating different iterations of learning and redefining what success and failure means.
Article
Bu çalışma teknolojinin özel eğitim bağlamındaki yerine odaklanmış ve özel eğitim öğretmenlerinin teknolojiye yönelik algıları metafor analizi aracılığı ile incelenmiştir. Çalışma verileri 164 özel eğitim öğretmeninden elde edilmiştir. Olgu bilim kapsamında yürütülen bu çalışmada katılımcıların teknolojiye yönelik algıları olarak bir metafor ve bu metaforun gerekçesi çözümlenmiştir. Özel eğitim öğretmenlerinin teknolojiye yönelik belirttikleri metaforlar (1) Süreç, (2) Materyal, (3) Gereklilik ve (4) Yaklaşım olmak üzere dört kategoride toplanmıştır. Özel eğitim öğretmenlerinin ilk sırada gelişen, geliştiren, değişen, değiştiren, üreten, büyüyen özelliklerini atfederek teknolojiyi süreç olarak algıladıkları görülmüştür. Materyal kategorisinde araç gereç, bilgisayar, ansiklopedi gibi metaforlar sıklıkla aktarılmıştır. Gereklilik kategorisinde ise, öğretim sürecini, öğretmeni ve öğrenciyi zorlayan ve bu zorlamanın güncel gelişmeleri takip etmek, ek eğitimler almak, sertifika programlarına katılmak, kişisel hobiler edinmek gibi alanlarda olduğu vurgulanmıştır. Yaklaşım kategorisi ise teknolojinin bir yaşam biçimi, bir felsefe ya da inanç olarak ifade edilmesini kapsamıştır.
Article
The Indivisible Self Model of Wellness undergirded this mixed methods phenomenological exploration of the conceptualizations and experiences of wellness among nine Black gay men who had not tested positive for HIV. Data sources included in‐depth semistructured interviews and participant responses on the Five Factor Wellness Inventory. The following themes emerged from the thematic analysis of the interview transcripts: holistic self‐love, spiritual journey, kinship, social responsibility, sexual literacy, and approaches to HIV prevention. Additionally, cross‐validation of the qualitative and quantitative data revealed the central roles that social connectedness and spirituality played in these men's lives. Findings from this study provide a detailed picture of wellness within this sample and indicate considerations for expanding wellness to account for sexual health and wellness practices.
Article
Recent instructional reforms in science education aim to change the way students engage in learning in the discipline, as they describe that students are to engage with disciplinary core ideas, crosscutting concepts, and the practices of science to make sense of phenomena (NRC, 2012). For such sensemaking to become a reality, there is a need to understand the ways in which students' thinking can be maintained throughout the trajectory of science lessons. Past research in this area tends to foreground either the curriculum or teachers' practices. We propose a more comprehensive view of science instruction, one that requires attention to teachers' practice, the instructional task, and students' engagement. In this study, by examining the implementation of the same lesson across three different classrooms, our analysis of classroom videos and artifacts of students' work revealed how the interaction of teachers' practices, students' intellectual engagement, and a cognitively demanding task together support rigorous instruction. Our analyses shed light on their interaction that shapes opportunities for students' thinking and sensemaking throughout the trajectory of a science lesson. The findings provide implications for ways to promote rigorous opportunities for students' learning in science classrooms.
Article
Türk üniversiteleri kalite ve akreditasyon süreçlerinde hızlı bir değişim, dönüşüm yaşamaktadır. Sürecin paydaşları birçok yeni kavram, yöntem ve teknikle karşılaşmaktadır. Planla, Uygula, Kontrol Et, Önlem Al (PUKÖ) döngüsü Türkiye’de yükseköğretim kalite süreçlerinde kullanılması sıklıkla önerilen bir tekniktir. Çalışmanın amacı, PUKÖ döngüsünün kavramsal ve kuramsal çerçevesini tanıtmak; kalite süreçlerine katılan değerlendiricilerin görüşlerine göre Türkiye’de yükseköğretim kurumlarında PUKÖ döngüsünün uygulanma durumunu incelemek; döngünün yükseköğretimde uygulama alanlarını tespit etmektir. Çalışmada, nitel araştırma desenlerinden durum çalışması kullanılmıştır. Yükseköğretim kalite süreçlerinde dış değerlendirici olarak görev alan 42 katılımcıdan elde edilen veriler analiz edilmiş, üniversitelerde bilgi yetersizliklerinin olduğu; döngüyü bir zorunluluk gereği kullandıkları, Planla ve Uygula aşamalarının başarıyla gerçekleştirildiği ancak Kontrol Et ve Önlem Al aşamalarının yetersiz düzeyde gerçekleştirildiği görülmüştür. Bazı katılımcıların izleme sürecinde veri toplama sorununa işaret etmelerine rağmen genel olarak PUKÖ döngüsünün kullanımında yararlanabilecek araçlara dikkat çekmemiş olmaları, döngüyü kendi başına yeterli bir iyileştirme aygıtı olarak algılıyor olmaları şaşırtıcıdır. Sonuçlar, PUKÖ döngüsünün teknik açıdan kullanma yeterliliği konusunda önemli eksikliklerin olduğunu göstermektedir. Katılımcılar, döngünün kullanımıyla ilgili eğitim gereksinimini belirtmekle birlikte hangi araçlarla desteklenmesi gerektiği, ne gibi yöntemsel veya teknik eksikliklerin olduğu konusunda herhangi bir görüş bildirmemişlerdir. YÖKAK ve üniversitelerin PUKÖ uygulamasında kullanılan yardımcı araçlarla ilgili eğitim desteği sağlaması, döngünün etkin şekilde kullanılmasına katkı sağlayacaktır.
Thesis
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The introduction of technologies in our lifetime necessitates transformation in our lifestyles. This expectation is not an exception to the education system. The curriculum and the ways of teaching and learning are affected the most by new technologies. It is therefore imperative that schools, educational officials and teachers change in tandem with these new technologies. The transitioning to technologies, therefore, tends to make it obligatory for schools, principals, deputy principals, heads of departments and teachers to be competent in these new innovations and the accompanying digital strategies. The aim of this study is to investigate the implementation of blended learning as one of the technological platforms in Sekhukhune District schools in Limpopo Province, South Africa. The study was guided by blending Connected Learning Theory (CLT), Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Connectivism Theory (CT) frameworks. The theories assisted in the formulation of research questions which led to the study findings. The research questions of the study included How do teachers perceive the usefulness of blended learning approaches in teaching and learning? How do teachers connect information using technology resources in blended learning? “To what extent do teachers display the necessary skills for successful implementation of blended learning?” What are teachers’ recommendations for the introduction and improvement of blended learning in rural schools? and What are the elements to be considered for the designing of blended learning model? The study used mixed methods research (MMR) to achieve the aim of the study. Convergent parallel design was used to collect, analyse and interpret data. The study was guided by a pragmatic paradigm where 10 schools were purposively sampled for the QUAN strand while 4 schools were purposively sampled for the QUAL strand. The participants of the study comprised principals, deputy principals and teachers. For the QUAN strand 10 principals, 9 deputy principals, 35 heads of departments and 123 teachers participated while for the AQUAL strand 4 principals, 4 head of departments and 4 teachers took part in the investigation. The total sample for the QUAN was 177 participants and 12 participants for the QUAL strand. A questionnaire was used to collect data in the QUAN strand while for the QUAL strand interviews and document study were used. Data gathered through questionnaires was analysed through the IBM SPSS version 28. Thematic, content and narrative analyses were used to assess data collected from the interviews and document study. The results of the two strands were merged to obtain the final results of the study. The study established that teachers embraced the introduction and implementation of blended learning in schools. However, challenges such as lack of e-technological supply and internet connection; inadequacies in the use of classroom technologies; lack of e-tech policies; lack of teachers’ digital training; insufficient teachers′ technological competencies; and inadequate teacher support in technologies impede the effective implementation of blended learning in Sekhukhune-Limpopo schools. The study therefore recommends that the Limpopo Department of Education (LDE) should prioritise the supply of e-tech in Sekhukhune-Limpopo through fiscal policies. The study further recommends that the Department of Basic Education, through the provincial education departments and districts, train and develop officials and teachers in digital technologies for the successful implementation of blended technologies in teaching and learning. The study also suggested a proposed Blended Learning Model (BLM) which might assist in the implementation of blended learning in schools. Keywords: blended learning, blended learning model, E-Tech, E-Education policy, teachers’ digital framework
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Chapter
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Article
The purpose of this study is to investigate the social justice awareness levels of middle school students in relation to various variables, as well as to reveal the students' views on social justice. The quantitative dimension of the research was formed by 421 students studying in secondary schools of different socioeconomic levels in Denizli, and the qualitative dimension was formed by 24 students using criterion sampling in the research that used the explanatory design, which is one of the mixed-method designs. The researcher's "Social Justice Awareness" scale was employed as a quantitative data collection tool in the study. A semi-structured interview form was used to collect qualitative data. Quantitative data of the study were analyzed with the Mann Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis test. The data collected from the interviews were presented in the form of codes, categories, and themes. Direct quotations are used to demonstrate the students' observations and views. As a result of the research, it was determined that female students had higher levels of social justice awareness, and there were significant differences in the social justice awareness levels of the students in terms of their grade level, their parents' educational status, and their families' monthly income levels. The qualitative findings of the study support the quantitative findings. What the students understood from the concept of social justice was gathered under a single theme as "Social Justice in terms of Social Order". This theme includes the categories of democracy, psychological needs, economy, education, and personal development. It is seen that most students explain their social justice perceptions through the concepts of injustice, inequality, and unequal treatment resulting from income distribution, and they do not address components of social justice such as race, multiculturalism, politics, and gender issues. As a result, it is evident that the students understand the concept of social justice, but they lack more precise information about the subject's content.
Book
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We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue.
Article
Aim/purpose – This paper aims at examining the value propositions of tourism market- ing for smartphone marketing and the value perceptions of tourists of using smartphone applications by investigating the National Tourism Organization (NTO) of Hong Kong and South Korea, respectively. Design/methodology/approach – Through conducting in-depth and focus group inter- views, the present study explored and compared the value proposition of smartphone destination marketing of the NTOs in Hong Kong and South Korea. Findings – Findings of the present study indicate seven value propositions of the NTO, including aesthetic, functional, hedonic, organizational, social, technological, and user experience values. Research implications/limitations – An increasing number of destination marketing organizations have been adopting smartphones to meet the demands of the competitive marketing environment. Hence, tourism organizations must enhance the delivery of quality travel-related information to improve tourists’ perceived value. A conceptual framework was proposed based on the findings of the present study, and valuable practi- cal implications were provided. Originality/value/contribution – The originality of the present study lies in the integra- tion of the value proposition concept in the consumption value theory to the mobile context in tourism. Keywords: smartphones, smartphone marketing, National Tourism Organization (NTO), value propositions, perceived value, Hong Kong, South Korea. JEL Classification: M31, N70, Z33.
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