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Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes

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... Noe av min motivasjon bak avhandlingen er en interesse for språklig samhandling, og en teoretisk antakelse om at språket og samtalen har en sentral rolle i laering og utvikling (Vygotsky, 1978;. I forbindelse med profesjonsutvikling nevnes dette ofte som vesentlig. ...
... Valget av samtalene som primaerdata er også begrunnet i avhandlingens forankring i et sosiokulturelt og dialogisk perspektiv med Vygotsky (1978; og deler av tradisjonen etter ham som inspirasjonskilder (Bakhtin, 1984a;Linell, 2001;. I dette perspektivet sees virkelighetsforståelse som skapt og gjenskapt gjennom menneskers sosiale virksomhet (Berger & Luckmann, 1996;Crotty, 1998). ...
... Konstruksjonistiske laeringsteorier representerer ulike syn på hvordan kunnskapskonstruksjonen foregår. Der Piaget Vygotsky (1978) hevdet at internaliseringen av sosialt rotfestede og historisk utviklede aktiviteter er den saeregne faktor i menneskelig psykologi. Det er slik internalisering som fører til utvikling av høyere psykologiske funksjoner. ...
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The idea of a public school for all students has long been a tradition in Norway and inclusion is an important part of Norwegian educational policy. At the same time, there are several challenges to the realisation of an inclusive school, some of which are part of the framework, such as finances and competence, but there are also traditions and mindsets that can stand in the way of all students experiencing an inclusive school environment. After the turn of the millennium, there has been a comprehensive political investment in the area of professional development within schools. The introduction of a new curriculum in august 2020 further strengthened the expectation that the teaching profession itself would contribute to an increase in quality within education. As a result, everyone who works in schools can now count participation in collective professional development among their work tasks. With this as a starting point, this dissertation examines professional development focused on inclusion in a primary school which has worked systematically with Lesson Study (a method for professional development) over a four-year period. The overall research question is, How can teachers’ conversations in professional development with Lesson Study contribute to inclusive practice? The research is particularly interested in conversations taking place within teaching teams. For this reason, the study’s data consists of audio recordings of the conversations teaching teams had while planning their teaching. Through content analysis of the conversations, the dissertation provides insight into the teachers’ mindsets: How the teachers perceived the students and their challenges, how they understood their own role and obligations to the students, and how conversations about these topics changed during the four years of the project. The findings show developmental changes that can contribute to inclusion. In the beginning, difficulties were presumed to be simply characteristics of students, but were eventually understood as being dependent on the circumstances in the classroom to a much greater extent. This shift increased teachers’ awareness of and experience in positively influencing student learning and development. The teachers also greatly adapted their regular teaching in ways that made it possible for all students to participate in joint activities instead of providing specific students with individual adaptations, as had been done previously. Features of the conversations that contributed to the change were that the teachers tried to understand the students’ situations, they discussed their own opportunities to exert influence within the classroom, and became aware of some of the unfortunate aspects of their own practice. This dissertation contends that Lesson Study contributed to these positive developments by not only encouraging teachers to anticipate student responses and closely observe students during teaching, but also through the perceived social and professional safety of teachers sharing joint responsibility for lessons.
... Social interaction plays a fundamental role in the process of cognitive development. Vygotsky (1978) emphasized the fact that learning occurs first interpersonally, by the relationship between two or more people, and then intra personally, in the mind of the individual. Vygotsky felt social learning precedes development. ...
... How does this approach take part in the teaching-learning process of a foreign language? The first content Vygotsky (1978) talks about on his investigations, is precisely language, and parallel to it is also thinking, conceptualizing how the language comes up in children. ...
... The theory of the Zone of Proximal Development is also one idealization from Vygotsky (1978) and accompanies his Socio-Cultural approach. The definition this author gives to his theory would be that the ZPD is: "the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem-solving under adult guidance, or in collaboration with more capable peers" (p. ...
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Este libro abarca las memorias del 2do Congreso Internacional de Didáctica de la Lengua Inglesa, convocado por la Escuela de Lingüística Aplicada de la PUCESE. El congreso es una iniciativa importante para mejorar la calidad de la enseñanza del inglés en la provincia de Esmeraldas. En este congreso se han abordado aspectos importantes como el de la motivación para aprender la lengua inglesa, relevante para el desarrollo formativo de los estudiantes, más necesario en la medida que se avanza en el nivel de estudios, en una provincia que se visibiliza a sí misma con gran potencial turístico. Se aborda también la importancia de hacer uso de la tecnología para mejorar la motivación y la didáctica, así como experiencias concretas que permiten subrayar la necesidad de actualización de los docentes. También se ha abordado la inclusión en la enseñanza del inglés en ámbitos de interculturalidad, señalando que las metodologías de aprendizaje tienen que ser adecuadas al contexto cultural y social.
... The learner development approach in Spiro's (2014) reading-to-writing cycle contains relatively welldocumented concepts in social learning such as sociocultural theory (SCT) (Lantolf, 1994;Vygotsky, 1978) and community of practice perspectives (Lave & Wenger, 1991). Within SCT, Vygotsky's concepts of a more knowledgeable other (MKO)-students learning from someone who has a higher abilityand a zone of proximal development (ZPD) are at play in the community of practice (Lave & Wenger, 1991) of creative writing workshops and the discourse community (Bazerman, 1979;Swales, 1990) of student publications. ...
... Within SCT, Vygotsky's concepts of a more knowledgeable other (MKO)-students learning from someone who has a higher abilityand a zone of proximal development (ZPD) are at play in the community of practice (Lave & Wenger, 1991) of creative writing workshops and the discourse community (Bazerman, 1979;Swales, 1990) of student publications. ZPD is defined as the space that exists between what a learner can do alone and what a learner can do with guidance or in collaboration with peers (Vygotsky, 1978). In Spiro's (2014) reading-to-writing cycle, L2 novice writers are asked to enter the intercommunication (Swales, 1990) of the L2 poetry discussion and participate in a group ZPD (Poehner, 2009). ...
... The Seasons publications created scaffolding and acted as a static MKO within the individual and the group's ZPD (Vygotsky, 1978) as well as a small but integral discourse community (Bazerman, 1979;Swales, 1990) for learners to participate and work within. This discourse community looked to the past, present, and future simultaneously as students in the course considered what was written before them, and presently strived to create texts of merit so that future L2 poets will consider their poems as influential to the writing process. ...
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This study explored language learning as a transformational event in which success is not measured in terms of cognitive and communicative ability, but rather allows learners to reflect on experiential identity forming moments through writing. The pedagogy attached to the action research portion of this study attempted to access learners' identity and agency through L2 poetry writing that fostered the ability for an individual to create an authentic authorial voice. The creative writing pedagogy acted as the frame in which a qualitative multiple case study was carried out to examine the effects of authorial voice on learners' agency. The case study was conducted at a university in Japan with three EFL learners and traces their development as L2 writers and language learners. Results showed that the presence of authorial voice alone did not necessarily increase a learner's sense of agency; however, if a learner believed they had achieved authorial voice, then an increased level of agentic behaviors was observed. The negative counterpart was also found to be true. Therefore, a relationship of mutual causation was identified between a learner's agency and the learner's personal belief in the achievement of authorial voice. In the authorial voice and agency system (AVAS) of mutual causality, the considerations acted interdependently in which change in one effected change in the other, either positively or negatively. Additional factors such as community of practice, discourse community, the teaching of literary devices, and translingual writing strategies were found to effect authorial voice and thus generate changes in learner agency.
... While some studies suggest that student-initiated on-demand hints lead to better learning (Razzaq and Heffernan 2010), other studies suggest that tutor-initiated proactive help is better (Arroyo et al. 2001;Murray and VanLehn 2006). The conflicting results from different studies highlight the need to explore tutor-initiated assistance in more detail, especially because educational psychology suggests that tutor is an active participant in scaffolding (Wood et al. 1976), where learning first occurs at a social level (Vygotsky 1980;Stone 1993) when a tutor brings a concept within students' zone of proximal development (Vygotsky 1980). A study by Brawner on unsolicited assistance showed that while humans naturally intervene when students need help, it is not as easy to incorporate in ITSs, and that unsolicited assistance is relatively unexplored for ITs because they need additional resources (Brawner et al. 2011). ...
... While some studies suggest that student-initiated on-demand hints lead to better learning (Razzaq and Heffernan 2010), other studies suggest that tutor-initiated proactive help is better (Arroyo et al. 2001;Murray and VanLehn 2006). The conflicting results from different studies highlight the need to explore tutor-initiated assistance in more detail, especially because educational psychology suggests that tutor is an active participant in scaffolding (Wood et al. 1976), where learning first occurs at a social level (Vygotsky 1980;Stone 1993) when a tutor brings a concept within students' zone of proximal development (Vygotsky 1980). A study by Brawner on unsolicited assistance showed that while humans naturally intervene when students need help, it is not as easy to incorporate in ITSs, and that unsolicited assistance is relatively unexplored for ITs because they need additional resources (Brawner et al. 2011). ...
Article
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Research on intelligent tutoring systems has been exploring data-driven methods to deliver effective adaptive assistance. While much work has been done to provide adaptive assistance when students seek help, they may not seek help optimally. This had led to the growing interest in proactive adaptive assistance, where the tutor provides unsolicited assistance upon predictions of struggle or unproductivity. Determining when and whether to provide personalized support is a well-known challenge called the assistance dilemma. Addressing this dilemma is particularly challenging in open-ended domains, where there can be several ways to solve problems. Researchers have explored methods to determine when to proactively help students, but few of these methods have taken prior hint usage into account. In this paper, we present a novel data-driven approach to incorporate students’ hint usage in predicting their need for help. We explore its impact in an intelligent tutor that deals with the open-ended and well-structured domain of logic proofs. We present a controlled study to investigate the impact of an adaptive hint policy based on predictions of HelpNeed that incorporate students’ hint usage. We show empirical evidence to support that such a policy can save students a significant amount of time in training and lead to improved posttest results, when compared to a control without proactive interventions. We also show that incorporating students’ hint usage significantly improves the adaptive hint policy’s efficacy in predicting students’ HelpNeed, thereby reducing training unproductivity, reducing possible help avoidance, and increasing possible help appropriateness (a higher chance of receiving help when it was likely to be needed). We conclude with suggestions on the domains that can benefit from this approach as well as the requirements for adoption.
... The zones of development become essential in the sociocultural theory of learning, as they emphasize that learning focused on human development justifies the learning process of the human being through interpersonal actions in different environments. In the Vygotsky's (1978) proposal of zone of proximal development (ZPD), there is a huge connection between what the learners are able to do with the support of other people to jump to a larger stage where the person is capable to control and regulate several activities by himself or herself, and finally the activities that definitely the person cannot carry out easily. ...
... It also shows that pre-service teachers learn from the performance of their colleagues, which contribute to the construction of new strategies. For instance, the excerpt above can be contrasted with the theory of the (ZPD) (Vygotsky, 1978) because individuals learn by interacting and observing others doing the same around them, which gives them insight and understanding of what they need to do to overcome limitations and become better. In the same line, it ratifies pre-service teachers are learners exposed to build knowledge from previous experiences, beliefs and practices (Johnson, 2009) that could contribute to broaden or reconfigure their knowledge about language teaching. ...
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This paper presentsthe pre-service teachers’learning of didactics and language teaching methodologies during their participation in a virtual learning community. Three main concepts were defined: Virtual Learning Communities (VLCs), reflective practice, and learning from a sociocultural perspective. 25 pre-service teachers from a bachelor’s degreein language teaching participated in the VLC. A focus group and the pre-service teacher’sreflection in the VLC were used to collect information. The results show pre-service learned to reflect onand use effective teaching materials; to select, adapt and combine language teaching methodologies, and to criticize themselves, their lessonsplan,and their performance in order to improve their teaching practice.
... Over the recent past years, research has been suggesting the adoption of learner-sensitive instruction within which the learner is more active and interactive in the teaching-learning process, in their own meaning-making and knowledge construction (Wells, 1999). Learning, in this case, happens through assistance from a more knowledgeable other (MKO) and also through collective interactional activities that support learning and facilitate it to learners (Kumpulainen & Wray, 2002: 10;Vygotsky, 1978). (Uljens, 1997: 24) It might be obvious for some that learning is for improvement and amelioration, for skill and competence building, though not that obvious to many school students who complain of it and who do not seize why they have to wake up early every weekday, join classes, and do homework. ...
... The Russian constructivist psychologist and educator Vygotsky added the social dimension to constructivism after its establishment by Piaget who stressed cognitive growth and how it shapes learning. Vygotsky (1978) accentuated the primordiality of social interaction in the process of learning, constructing ideas, and cognitive development. Meanwhile, Kolb (1984), a contemporary American educational theorist, besides the American educator John Dewey (1916,1938) looked into experiential learning and inquiry-based education. ...
Thesis
Many observers and educators highlight the importance of the quality of teaching. They say it determines the quality of learning. Learners’ achievement relies on many factors, the most important of which are family and teachers. The more qualified the teacher is, the better learning gets. Indeed, the sphere of impact of teaching on learning can be glorious which is why this work seeks to understand teachers’ impact on learners. It also attempts to explore the profiles and making of great teachers. The study is about teachers and for them. It sheds light on their characteristics and qualifications. To reach these objectives, an exploratory research method was used with a mixed approach of both quantitative and qualitative ends. Five research tools were employed: questionnaires, interviews and classroom observation with teachers, plus questionnaires and writing tasks with students. The sample consisted of 35 Algerian university EFL teachers and teacher trainers and 200 EFL students who are also pre- service teachers or teachers-in-the-making. The findings revealed that 75% of the sample consider teachers’ impact on learners to be permanent and strong. At the same time, 96% view teaching as both a science and an art, meaning that they accentuate both types of qualities in teachers’ profiles: personality / charisma traits and competence / ability features. The profile of a great teacher, according to the findings, is made up of an amalgam of criteria and roles on top of which is mastery of the subject matter, followed by care, motivation, and encouragement to students. Passion and talent have also been stressed by the sample as crucial qualities in the making of an excellent teacher. Meanwhile, the quality of a teacher’s performance can be measured or recognized chiefly through their teaching methods, how they treat students, and how much pleasant is their classroom atmosphere. On another hand, 87.50% of teachers and 65% of students deem continuous development, learning, and training to be the main dynamic in becoming a qualified teacher. A sophisticated teacher training program is of substantial value, too. This implies that stakeholders are invited to improve, enrich, and update both teacher training programs and continuous teacher development agendas in order to professionalize good teaching. Recruiting very good members into teaching would also engender the amelioration of teaching. With that, enhancing teachers’ professional, social, and economic statuses can lead to the enhancement of their teaching. For their part, teachers are advised to care more about their teaching, learners, and well-being, and to keep learning.
... The current study is underpinned by a Vygotskian perspective of Sociocultural Theory that highlights how children's language and literacy learning is supported through mediated interactions (Vygotsky, 1978). Sociocultural Theory is framed by Vygotsky's concept of the Zone of Proximal Development, i.e., the difference between a child's independent ability and what they can achieve when provided with guidance (Vygotsky, 1978). ...
... The current study is underpinned by a Vygotskian perspective of Sociocultural Theory that highlights how children's language and literacy learning is supported through mediated interactions (Vygotsky, 1978). Sociocultural Theory is framed by Vygotsky's concept of the Zone of Proximal Development, i.e., the difference between a child's independent ability and what they can achieve when provided with guidance (Vygotsky, 1978). A child's independent ability includes what they can achieve by themselves without the support of others and their potential ability encompasses their achievement with the help of somebody knowledgeable (Fellowes & Oakley, 2020;Pentimonti & Justice, 2010). ...
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The use of shared book reading is regarded as valuable to support young children to build their oral language and emergent literacy skills in preschool classrooms. Quantitative and qualitative features of early childhood teachers’ (ECTs’) shared book reading practices are important contributors to quality shared book reading experiences. The aim of this study was to gain in-depth insights about the range and frequency of extratextual oral language and emergent literacy utterances (utterances beyond the story text) used by ECTs during shared book reading with preschoolers as well as their use of paralinguistic and nonverbal features. Video-recordings were made of 32 ECTs engaging in shared book reading with their four-year-old preschool class. ECTs’ extratextual utterances and their paralinguistic and nonverbal features were classified using a validated observational checklist: The “Emergent Literacy and Language Early Childhood Checklist for Teachers” (ELLECCT). Results showed ECTs frequently used responsive statements such as commenting on the story or acknowledging or imitating children’s utterances in book-related talk. ECTs most commonly asked closed questions during shared book reading and regularly used paralinguistic and nonverbal features such as prosody and volume in order to engage children. In contrast, ECTs used only a limited range of dialogic reading prompts and explicit vocabulary strategies and only infrequently expanded children’s utterances. Notably, ECTs rarely used strategies to target children’s print knowledge or phonological awareness. Although extratextual dialogue was used regularly by ECTs during shared book reading, targeted techniques that are known to build oral language and emergent literacy were not consistently demonstrated. These results suggest missed opportunities for preschool children to benefit from shared book reading.
... Moreover, I introduce what has been a main line of discourse in didactical research on the subject, including in the Norwegian context, namely, Grimmitt's (1987) well-established distinction between learning from and learning about religion (Andreassen 2016;Bråten 2009Bråten , 2015Vestøl 2017). After identifying what has been seen as both the strengths and limitations of such a distinction, I then turn to conceptions of critical and experiential learning in the tradition of Freire (2005), Dewey (1961Dewey ( , 1963, and Vygotsky (1962Vygotsky ( , 1978 and ask how an objective, critical, and pluralistic approach to the teaching of RE may be interpreted from such a perspective. ...
... The concept of experiential learning has inspired a wide range of international research and has materialized in a variety of educational practices (Fleming and Walter 2004;Dodman et al. 2022;Kolb 2015). Characterized by its attention to the social and dialogical sides of educational processes and the deliberate link between learning and reflection, the concept is rooted in the works of classic education thinkers, such as Freire (2005), Shor and Freire (1987), Dewey (1961Dewey ( , 1963, and Vygotsky (1962Vygotsky ( , 1978Vygotsky ( , 1987. While the philosophies of education introduced by Freire and Dewey have experienced revitalization in recent years due to their elaboration on the connections between learning in everyday situations and in school (Carter 2013), Vygotsky's attention toward the social and dialogical preconditions for children's development has continued to challenge simplified understandings of teaching and learning. ...
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In Norway, religious education (RE) is a non-confessional and common core subject that should be taught in an objective, critical, and pluralistic manner. As a primary school subject, students learn about a variety of religions and worldviews together in the same classroom. The inclusive framing intends to provide an intercultural space in which the students can enhance their understandings of the beliefs of people whose worldviews differ from their own. Consequently, the subject has privileged an outsider approach, wherein students should learn about religion in a non-partial way, that is, not from religion. However, the claim for objective, critical, and pluralistic teaching still calls into question the role of learning from religions. First, an outsider approach has been criticized for promoting a dated view on learning, ignoring pedagogical knowledge on how students learn. Second, the latest national curriculum states that RE should not only provide students with in-depth knowledge about world religions, but also foster personalized learning experiences. Against this background, the paper asks how the concept of experiential learning in the tradition of Freire, Dewey, and Vygotsky invites a reflection on the ways by which the Norwegian RE subject is passed on most meaningfully in a diverse learning context.
... This theory has its origin in Vygotsky's (1978Vygotsky's ( , 1980 Social Development Theory, which is built on three concepts -Social Interaction; the More Knowledgeable Other; and the Zone of Proximal Development. Vygotsky argues that together, these principles advocate for a social approach to learning that involves a kind of academic apprenticeship. ...
... The current study examinedfrom a Social Development Theory perspective (Vygotsky, 1978;1980) and by using the Funds of Knowledge theorythe learning of multilingual teacher education students in a science course at a university in Zimbabwe. Considering these theories, language and learning are regarded as action-situated in a historical, cultural and social context, irrespective of the learning area (MacSwan, 2017). ...
Article
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Technology use can introduce fundamental pedagogical changes that are integral to achieving significant academic improvements in higher education. When used to support learning, technology permeates higher education with digital learning mechanisms; enlarges course offerings and instructional alternatives; facilitates learning 24 hours a day; develops 21st century skills; enables greater student motivation; and facilitates deeper comprehension of concepts. The use of technology also has the potential to modify learning by instituting a new model of intertwined instruction. Present-day multilingual technology has transcended the debate about language dominating the educational space. Instead, it is now a question of how progressive multilinguals act differently as they take part in current opportunities offered by the various languages on the web. The appreciation and embracing of heteroglossic perspectives in e-learning repudiate inscribed ideologies that posit monolingualism as the default norm in education.Through a sociolinguistic lens focusing on the Funds of Knowledge theory, this article seeks to explore the role language plays in e-learning and how educators can use multilingualism as a teaching/learning resource in higher education. The study presents results from a mixed methods approach in which 42 purposively sampled distance teacher education undergraduate students were taught through English and Shona. Data was collected through focus group interviews and a written assessment activity. Quantitative data suggests an improved performance while qualitative data presents an acknowledgement by students of the efficacy of multilingual pedagogy.The article recommends the use of multilingual approaches in today’s linguistically diverse e-learning higher education classrooms. It further justifies acknowledging that multilingualism is not new, even if the dramatic secularisation of the term seems recent.
... To fully examine how Chinese international students' high school experience informed their participation in a foreign English-speaking country, we use Activity Theory (Engeström, 1987(Engeström, , 2001Leont'ev, 1978) as it provides us with a useful lens to unpack the interactions within the socioenvironmental contexts that these students are within. Leont'ev (1978) developed activity theory based on Vygotsky's (1978) ideas regarding how an individual interacted with their social reality in relation to their mental understanding. This understanding occurs through mediated action. ...
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As the higher education landscape transforms into an international and borderless market (Altbach, 2012), the number of international students continues to grow within the United States, increasing by 67% since the turn of the century (Bound et al., 2016: 2). According to the Institute of International Education (2019), China sends the largest number of international students to the US, with Chinese students accounting for 33.7% (369,548 students) of all international enrollments (1,095,299 students) in the US. To meet the demand of this large influx of Chinese citizens wishing to receive education abroad, many international high schools and international education programs in public high schools have been established in the last twenty years. These schools prepare students explicitly for the college application process and for higher education by exposing them to the curricula found in the US and in Britain (S. Liu, 2018), which cater to both students’ desires and parents wanting their child(ren) to study abroad. Driven by the need to understand how pre-study abroad education received in Chinese international high schools impacts the life and academic achievement of Chinese international students studying in the US, and how they employ their linguistic and learning resources to overcome adversity, the current study focuses on two tertiary students who attended international high school in China before entering a university within the United States. Adopting an activity theory framework (Engeström, 1987, 2001), we analyzed data from multiple sources (e.g. background survey, interviews, observations of both classrooms and writing center consultations, media artifacts) to understand how the educational experiences of these two Chinese international students shaped the ways in which they went about navigating social encounters at their US university.
... Learners may build on prior knowledge and attempt to synthesize new information, but this construction is not always a straightforward process. Incorrect perceptions may lead to cognitive conflict, and it is in this period of conflict where growth occurs (Vygotsky, 1978). The "zone of proximal development" (ZPD) describes the space between what students can complete on their own and what they can do with the assistance of an instructor. ...
Article
Instructors use a variety of online formative assessment (FA) activities to support learning outside of class. Previous studies have revealed barriers for students in online courses, but little is known about the barriers students experience when completing online FA assignments. Understanding these barriers to access is critical to fostering more inclusive learning for all students. Using a framework from previous work in online learning, we examined student perceptions of online FA access with respect to five barrier categories: technical resources, instructor organization, social interactions, personal engagement, and learning environment. We developed and administered a survey to over 1200 undergraduate biology students at two-year and four-year institutions. Students responded to statements using Likert scales and open-ended prompts. Statistical models indicated differences in access across the barrier categories and revealed that demographic characteristics were associated with certain barrier categories. Furthermore, technical resources, instructor organization, and personal engagement barriers were associated with lower course performance. In open-ended responses, students most frequently suggested that changes to scheduling logistics, course delivery, and FA format would improve their online FA experience. We discuss how these findings and student suggestions can inform instruction, particularly how instructors can alter their FA characteristics to better suit their student population. Advisor: Brian A. Couch
... Constructivism: Constructivism refers to one's perspective and position within educational contexts with the philosophical meaning of constructivism described by Piaget (1967), social constructivism drawn by Vygotsky (1978), radical constructivism advocated by Von Glasersfeld (1995), and constructivist epistemologies, and informative constructivism (Mathews, 1998). Constructivism is assumed that learners must construct their knowledge independently and cooperatively. ...
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This literature review shows different types of Active Learning Frameworks (ALFs). It includes behaviorism, constructivism, connectivism as a learning theory, universal learning design, deductive and inductive teaching techniques, debates, discussions, microlearning, and digital storytelling techniques, improving student engagement and participation, enhancing the learning environment, and building knowledge structure. The literature shows that the classroom environment of the 21st century differs from the traditional teaching environment. The Internet and modern research-based teaching models have created fundamental, long-term changes in the classroom teaching environment, technologically, socially, and psychologically. As the norm of traditional teaching models has slowly eroded, ALFs have taken their place across junior colleges, 4-year colleges, and graduate-level universities. This replacement represents significant changes in educational pedagogy. Although using a new teaching framework is generally difficult in the classroom, a blended teaching method will facilitate active learning. This study's findings suggest future research possibilities for an ALF that can benefit the classroom. Ultimately, using an ALF can lead to a more comprehensive active learning process, thereby helping students and institutions of higher education. There is a need to explore educators who have experienced ALFs regarding how different ALFs have affected student engagement and participation in the structure of building knowledge. Quantitative survey data may then help generalize the research results.
... It is vital that drama therapists craft intentional entry points to embodiment based on the particular needs of an individual client and the group as a whole. Scaffolding, a concept from educational theory that builds on Vygotsky's (1978) zone of proximal development, emphasizes the effectiveness of introducing new challenges that are just slightly beyond an individual's ability and providing support to modulate frustration. If a task is too easy, a learner will lose interest. ...
... Provided that personalisation is associated with student-centred learning, when in a broad sense every learner is an agent of continuing education, an important question arises -are students ready to implement personalised learning paths? According to Kearney et al (2012), personalisation is based on motivational theory (Pintrich and Schunk, 2002) and sociocultural theory (Vygotsky, 1978). The authors suggest a methodological framework (a model) for mobile learning comprising three distinctive characteristics -personalisation (agency and customisation), authenticity (situatedness and contextualisation), and collaboration (conversation and data sharing). ...
Conference Paper
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When companies decide to promote their workers, one of the options for the latter is training. Based on game theory concepts, this paper derives a threshold that determines the conditions under which a firm can promote an employee; threshold identified after the worker sends a signal that he has finished his college studies. Once the threshold is deducted and from the reports on training and characteristics of the workers such as education, the result shows that companies are willing to promote the worker, as long as the additional benefits for the promotion of the worker are twice as high as the investment made. Although this paper shows a cost-benefit requirement, which could be useful for companies to identify whom to promote, the application is limited as it only considers approximate values rather than data from institutions.
... Consideration of field experiences in these virtual and hybrid spaces where the boundaries defining a Zone for Proximal Development (Vygotsky, 1978) are increasingly less discernible calls for a conceptual framework for thinking about the extent to which multiple complex factors push student teachers and university supervisors to the "edge of chaos." Complexity theory supports the notion that individuals and their interactions within and around educational organizations can all be understood as dynamic systems (Morrison, 2008). ...
Article
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This study investigated the experiences of preservice secondary English language arts (ELA) teacher candidates (n=12) as they attempted to complete their crucial student teaching field experience during the 2020–2021 pandemic crises. In addition, it looked at their university supervisors’ (n=3) experiences as they sought to mentor and guide the teacher candidates through a virtual environment. Findings indicated both positive and negative consequences for participants. Overall, the student teachers and university supervisors remained optimistic about the internship experience and found value in it. Yet the complexities of schedules, digital platforms, and expectations took a heavy toll with one student dropping out and another deciding to go to law school after finishing their education degree. Implications for supporting student teachers and mentors in virtual environments are included, along with recommendations for future research on promoting the cultivation of digital pedagogy in ELA preservice coursework.
... Activity theory is one of the latest perspectives to work on analyzing and redesigning collaborative activities and social networks [81]. The Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) can be traced back to the work of Vygotsky in 1978 [82] and has been increasingly cited in multidisciplinary research, such as in education, workplace learning and transformation, and human-computer interaction, in past decades [83]. Vygotsky conceptualized the activity theory as a combination of a subject, mediating artifact (tools), and an object (the task or activity) and thereby introduced the concept of a mediated act. ...
Article
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The research and innovation activities at higher education institutions (HEIs) are considered essential in driving forward sustainability in order to facilitate future decision-making. However, a systematic approach regarding sustainability research through administrative efforts is still lacking in HEIs worldwide. Therefore, this manuscript aimed to explore contradictions embedded in the activity systems that hamper the internalization of sustainability research in HEIs. The current study conducted semi-structured interviews with faculty members at a leading research university in Taiwan. The lens of activity theory was used to explore and analyze tensions rooted in the activity systems involved in research and innovation. We found that resources to undertake sustainability-related research have not been allocated in a desirable manner. Moreover, the stakeholders are lacking agency, motivation, and perceived urgency to play their roles in supporting sustainability-related research through their practices. The propositions concluded from this study would help the involved actors to reconfigure their activity systems to make a contribution toward sustainability. This study also serves as a fundamental step towards conducting future empirical studies in contextual theory building directed at co-creating value through sustainability-related research and innovation practices.
... This allows a player to master skills and develop expertise at his or her own pace and level. Within this space, games provide scaffolded, instructional feedback targeted at what sociocultural theorists would note as the player's "zone of proximal development" (Vygotsky, 1978). Feedback is provided frequently and repeatedly, at just the right time, in just the right amount, at the exact level needed by the individual player. ...
... First, contextualized questions are generally helpful for the beginning Mandarin learners. These low cognitive demanding questions may be within young learners' zone of proximal development (Vygotsky, 1978). Consequently, they encourage children to use gestures, facial expressions, and verbal production to participate in the story plots with the concurrent happenings during the interactive book reading experience, thereby enhancing their word production and meaning explanation (Justice et al., 2005). ...
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Little is known about the impact of teachers’ questions on child bilingual’s heritage language reading process and outcomes. This study examined the role of adults’ questions in English-Mandarin bilingual preschoolers’ Mandarin word learning, story comprehension, and reading engagement. Ninety-nine 4- to 5-year-old preschoolers in Singapore were assigned to one of the three reading conditions: (a) reading with contextualized questions (e.g., labelling), (b) reading with decontextualized questions (e.g., inference), and (c) reading without questions. The experimenters read three storybooks to the children three times over 2 weeks. Children’s general Mandarin proficiency was tested before the intervention, and their target words knowledge and story comprehension were tested before and after the intervention. Children’s reading engagement in each reading was assessed with a modified Child Behavior Rating Scale. The results demonstrate that not all aspects of Mandarin performance and reading engagement have benefitted from the experimenter’s questions. Contextualized questions were found to significantly enhance children’s word meaning explanation and story retelling. Contextualized and decontextualized questions lead to higher increase in social-cognitive engagement but resulted in faster decrease in behavioral and affective engagement over repetitive readings. Furthermore, children’s initial Mandarin proficiency influences their reading process and outcomes. Generally, the better their Mandarin vocabulary knowledge was, the more they could enjoy and benefit from the reading, whether they were asked questions or not.
... Kollektive utviklingsprosesser i denne sammenhengen forstår vi som laereres profesjonelle utvikling i team og i samhandling med elever og skolens ledelse. Her vil vi benytte oss av sosiokulturelle tilnaerminger til laering og utvikling, og mediering av konsepter (Vygotsky, 1978(Vygotsky, , 1986) -teorier som er grunnlag for utvikling av aktivitetsteorien. Medierende artefakter kan både vaere fysiske verktøy, skriftlige kilder og mentale prosesser (ideer, meninger eller tanker). ...
... Accelerated learning programmes are also commonly grounded in the use of learner-centred pedagogy and practice, and interactivity (Akyeampong, et al., 2016;Randall, et al., 2020;Menendez, et al., 2016), which is itself grounded in social constructivist theory (Vygotsky, 1980;Dewey, 1986). Conceptualisations of learner-centred pedagogy vary across the literature, with some conceptualisations of it being narrower than others, or even somewhat contradictory (Bremner, 2020). ...
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This eBook is an edited collection comprising eight Rapid Evidence Reviews undertaken by the EdTech Hub in response to the educational disruption caused by the Covid-19 pandemic.
... It on the one hand requires students to engage cognitively in the learning process by actively identifying what help they require and how to seek help, on the other hand situates the student in a social activity. Only with the involvement of the helper, the help-seeking process can succeed (Puustinen et al., 2015), and the questioner could move beyond the zone of proximal development (Vygotsky, 1978). Meanwhile, even if helpers are not more knowledgeable than questioners, their different conceptualizations contribute to the co-construction of knowledge (Koszalka & Ntloedibe-Kuswani, 2010). ...
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Large classroom configurations and lecture-centered pedagogy discourage student engagement. The advances in educational technology have empowered instructors to fill the gap. This study designed a digital question board (DQB) on digital canvas to facilitate student engagement in large lecture classes. A mixed-methods study with a quasi-experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of such intervention. The study was situated in an introductory research methodology course in a large comprehensive university in eastern China (n = 253). The quasi-experiment lasted for six weeks. The data from surveys, interviews, observations, and online posts were collected and analyzed. This study mainly presented qualitative analysis results from the exploratory approach. Eight themes emerged from 12 interviews, 161 survey responses and 457 student posts were discussed. It was found that following the proposed design principles, the presence of a DQB effectively facilitated students’ cognitive and emotional engagement. The enhanced self-regulation and co-construction of knowledge all led to the improved cognitive engagement. The reduced social pressure of questioning and increased interactivity contributed most to their emotional engagement.
... This course was designed as a collaborative learning course by the interdisciplinary research team. Grounded upon the social perspectives of learning (Vygotsky 1978), collaborative learning is defined as a small group of people participate in coordinated activities to maintain mutual understandings of problems, to advance joint meaning-making, and to create new knowledge or relevant artifacts (Dillenbourg 1999;Goodyear et al. 2014;Roschelle and Teasley 1995). In engineering education, learning to be an engineer means learning to participate in engineering discourses: the words, discourses, and narratives through which engineers think and communicate (Betser and Martin 2018;Rojas 2001). ...
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Online education has been facing difficulty in predicting the academic performance of students due to the lack of usage of learning process, summative data and a precise prediction of quantitative relations between variables and achievements. To address these two obstacles, this study develops an artificial intelligence-enabled prediction model for student academic performance based on students’ learning process and summative data. The prediction criteria are first predefined to characterize and convert the learning data in an online engineering course. An evolutionary computation technique is then used to explore the best prediction model for the student academic performance. The model is validated using another online course that applies the same pedagogy and technology. Satisfactory agreements are obtained between the course outputs and model prediction results. The main findings indicate that the dominant variables in academic performance are the knowledge acquisition, the participation in class and the summative performance. The prerequisite knowledge tends not to play a key role in academic performance. Based on the results, pedagogical and analytical implications are provided. The proposed evolutionary computation-enabled prediction method is found to be a viable tool to evaluate the learning performance of students in online courses. Furthermore, the reported genetic programming model provides an acceptable prediction performance compared to other powerful artificial intelligence methods.
... An important step in helping students to 'see' the abstract ideas hidden behind the symbols (Sfard & Linchevski, 1994) is helping them identify the important relational properties of the algebraic examples they meet, such as in equations with (•) as unknowns. Indeed, meanings cannot be considered separately from the ways in which we represent them (e.g., Sfard, 2000;Vygotsky, 1978). It has been found that many students need a transition from 'any number' to 'unknown number', a change that corresponds to the correct meaning of a variable in an equation (Boulton-Lewis et al., 1997). ...
... This study is seen through the lens of constructivist social learning theories of Vygotsky (1978). This theory dictates that individual and social aspects are responsible in the process of learning. ...
... Collaborative writing is in line with Vygotsky's (1978) sociocultural theory of learning. That is, the process which language learners go through during a collaborative writing task is compatible with the two main tenets of sociocultural theory-scaffolding and Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). ...
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The beneficial role of collaborative dialogue in second language (L2) writing has been established, with considerable research investigating the role that collaborative writing tasks play in facilitating language learning by promoting language-related episodes (LREs). However, when compared to that of commonly taught languages, research investigating the role and function of collaborative dialogue in less commonly taught languages (LCTLs) contexts is scarce. Therefore, this study explored the collaborative dialogues in an LCTL, Turkish as a Foreign Language (TFL), with a focus on the TFL students’ interactional dynamics (i.e., LREs and scaffolding patterns) during collaborative writing activities. The interactions of two fourth year TFL students during the collaborative revision activities were analyzed for LRE types and scaffolding patterns. The results indicated that the TFL students focused more on grammatical structures than on lexical items during LREs. Specific grammatical features of Turkish (e.g., definite and indefinite past tense suffixes, case markers) dominated the grammatical LREs. Moreover, the results revealed that students adopted three different stances (i.e., expert/novice, expert/expert, and novice/novice) during collaborative dialogues, with expert/novice being the most common. Additionally, the TFL students clearly expressed the need for, and importance of, teacher-fronted feedback and comments in LCTLs contexts.
... Various sociocultural scholars (Walqui, 2006) have established that learners are more likely to succeed when teachers and peers provide targeted help when required. Vygotsky claimed that socially situated learning, combined with scaffolding, resulted in better knowledge development and retrieval outcomes (Vygotsky, 1978;Dewey, 1986). ...
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This study examines the influence of the COVID-19 crisis on academic expectations among international students from north-western China. According to past studies, academic expectations are multifaceted, making it critical to test the methods employed to assess this fundamental trait. The outbreak of COVID-19 has resulted in various significant changes in education, which have shifted from traditional to online or mixed formats. As a result, examining international students’ academic expectations along with their interactions with adopted technologies is a topic that addresses the current situation and issues. A mixed approach, comprising two dierent instruments (questionnaire and interview), was followed to achieve this primary objective. While a survey with a questionnaire was undertaken with 551 international students, divided into two groups, ten students were interviewed during and after the lockdowns. The findings revealed that COVID-19 had a significant impact on the academic expectations of students as well as many elements such as training for employment, personal and social development, international student mobility, motivation, social pressure, and social interaction with the help of supporting technologies. In terms of gender, men outperformed women in motivation, social interaction, training for employment, and personal and social development factors. Similarly, as per the grade variable (undergraduate& postgraduate), the same higher trend was seen in postgraduates. Based on these findings, a set of recommendations was put forward. In the future, technology will be helpful in China’s educational sector, such as online group collaboration, open education, managing student retention, and supervising teachers’ recruitment.
... Because this program offers mutual benefits to both generations (i.e., older participants learn technology; younger participants gain professional experience and course credit), we have designed the program to tap into people's desires for reciprocity and, ideally, their desires to learn from and about those with diverse perspectives from their own (Wan & Antonucci, 2016). Our program, from a learning and development standpoint, is also guided by Knowles theory of andragogy (1980), sociocultural learning theory (Vygotsky, 1978), and contact theory (Allport, 1954), placing emphasis on the importance of drawing on personal experience and knowledge, providing social interaction personally tailored to people's interests and capabilities, and building trust and confidence across generations. ...
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Intergenerational programs have long been employed to reduce ageism and optimize youth and older adult development. Most involve in‐person meetings, which COVID‐19 arrested. Needs for safety and social contact were amplified during COVID‐19, leading to modified programming that engaged generations remotely rather than eliminating it. Our collective case study incorporates four intergenerational programs in five US states prior to and during COVID‐19. Each aims to reduce ageism, incorporating nutrition education, technology skills, or photography programming. Authors present case goals, participants, implementation methods, including responses to COVID‐19, outcomes, and lessons learned. Technology afforded opportunities for intergenerational connections; non‐technological methods also were employed. Across cases, programmatic foci were maintained through adaptive programming. Community partners’ awareness of immediate needs facilitated responsive programming with universities, who leveraged unique resources. While new methods and partnerships will continue post‐pandemic, authors concurred that virtual contact cannot fully substitute for in‐person relationship‐building. Remote programming maintained ties between groups ready to resume shared in‐person programming as soon as possible; they now have tested means for responding to routine or novel cancellations of in‐person programming. Able to implement in‐person and remote intergenerational programming, communities can fight ageism and pursue diverse goals regardless of health, transportation, weather, or other restrictions.
Article
Existing research indicates a qualitative difference between Second Language Learning and Third Language Acquisition, and certain psycholinguistic and developmental aspects of multilingual learners merit investigation. The present article examines stages in receptive learner acquisition of English as a Third Language at Italian medium primary schools in South Tyrol (Italy) employing a picture selection task and implicational scaling analysis. It highlights the role that processing approaches to acquisition proposing constraints on developmental readiness and cross-linguistic influence may play in the emergence of receptive competence in morphosyntactic structures.
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A skilled music education workforce is essential to ensure longevity of music-making for future generations of young learners. According to the Review of Music Education in England (Henley, 2011), conservatoires have a responsibility to contribute to this workforce development. However, little is yet known about how undergraduate conservatoire students learn to teach. Through an eclectic methodology (Chapter 2) (Rossman and Wilson, 1994; Aluko, 2006), this doctoral thesis uncovers challenges faced by the conservatoire sector in preparing students for careers that involve instrumental teaching, with main reference made to a case study at Royal Birmingham Conservatoire (RBC) where the pedagogical training of undergraduate students was investigated across Levels 4–6 of the Framework for Higher Education Qualifications (Chapters 5, 6). Findings were triangulated with perspectives obtained from academics at six other English conservatoires, as well as from senior leaders across Music Education Hubs in England and RBC alumni (Chapters 3, 4, 7). Thus, the research was underpinned and influenced by multiple communities of practice involving both ‘newcomers’ and ‘old-timers’ (Lave and Wenger, 1991) who, between them, offered numerous ‘insider’ and ‘outsider’ perspectives (Reed-Danahay, 2016). These findings revealed that hegemonic assumptions associated with conservatoire education create barriers to developing the future music education workforce in several ways (Chapter 8). While many RBC students’ outlooks towards teaching as a potential career path were transformed as a result of their engagement with various communities of practice throughout their undergraduate studies, alumni who benefited from similar training as students still considered that they could have been prepared more effectively for their early professional careers. Furthermore, institutional challenges have resulted in inconsistent pedagogical provision across the conservatoire sector and a mismatch between students’ pedagogical training and employer expectations. Recommendations include closer collaboration and dialogue between institutions, employers and alumni, to ensure that conservatoire graduates are trained appropriately to meet the needs of the modern music education sector, both during their studies and as they transition into employment.
Article
The transition to fully or partially online instruction for K–12 students necessitated by the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the current lack of understanding of practices that support K–12 student learning in online settings in emergency situations but also, more troublingly, in K–12 online teaching and learning more generally. A systematic review of literature regarding K–12 online teaching and learning in the United States was therefore conducted to begin to fill this gap and to inform the work of policy makers, researchers, teacher educators, teachers, and administrators as they negotiate the changing role of online instruction in our nation’s educational systems. The review revealed a set of contextual conditions that are foundational to student learning in K–12 online settings (prepared educators, technology access and autonomy, students’ developmental needs and abilities, and students’ self-regulated learning skills). The literature also pointed to seven pillars of instructional practice that support student learning in these settings (evidence-based course organization and design, connected learners, accessibility, supportive learning environment, individualization, active learning, and real-time assessment).
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Forest schools are distinctive outdoor spaces that are often regarded as an alternative to mainstream education. Their increasing popularity in the United Kingdom is often attributed to a perceived decrease in children’s outdoor play, due to a concomitant increase in children’s use of digital technologies in the home; further compounded by the Covid-19 pandemic. This study explores how iPads can enhance outdoor learning activities. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 32 Key Stage 2 children selected from two UK primary schools. The interviews explored the experiences and opinions of the children about the role of iPads in the forest school space using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Findings suggest that Forest School spaces can accommodate new technologies through accommodation of the outdoor environment and technology. Suggestions for future research include the meaningful integration of iPads into Forest School practice while considering the relative influences of space and place.
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A presente obra compõe a subsérie “Ensino Fundamental”, que tem como foco abarcar a riqueza da diversidade de experiências pedagógicas, estudos, práticas e pesquisas que se materializam e se efetivam no âmbito da Educação Básica. Os estudos dentro dessa subsérie trazem o rigor científico para o debate de temáticas importantes para o contexto da educação básica, tais como a implementação da inclusão escolar, o desenvolvimento do currículo e o reconhecimento do lugar da afetividade e da subjetividade no desenvolvimento e na aprendizagem na escola. Seguindo esse enfoque, mas adotando uma perspectiva mais ampliada, trazemos nesta primeira obra experiências e reflexões também referentes a outros dois segmentos da Educação Básica – a Educação Infantil e o Ensino Médio.
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Artificial intelligence (AI) has surpassed humans in a number of specialised intellectual activities-chess and Go being two of many examples. Amongst the many potential consequences of such a development, I focus on how we can utilise cutting edge AI to promote human learning. The purpose of this article is to explore how a specialised AI can be utilised in a manner that promotes human growth by acting as a tutor to our champions. A framework for using AI as a tutor of human champions based on Vygotsky's theory of human learning is here presented. It is based on a philosophical analysis of AI capabilities, key aspects of Vygotsky's theory of human learning, and existing research on intelligent tutoring systems. The main method employed is the theoretical development of a general-ised framework for AI powered expert learning systems, using chess and Go as examples. In addition to this, data from public interviews with top professionals in the games of chess and Go are used to examine the feasibility and realism of using AI in such a manner. Basing the analysis on Vygotsky's socio-cultural theory of development, I explain how AI operates in the zone of proximal development of our champions and how even non-educational AI systems can perform certain scaffolding functions. I then argue that AI combined with basic modules from intelligent tutoring systems could perform even more scaffolding functions, but that the most interesting constellation right now is scaffolding by a group consisting of AI in combination with human peers and instructors.
Article
Purpose Children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) are at increased risk for neurocognitive delays, which can have cascading effects on development. Associations between neurocognition and the content of parental language—specifically the use of mental state vocabulary—have been observed in typically hearing (TH) children. This study investigated the role of parental use of mental state language (e.g., vocabulary related to thought processes, desires, and emotions) in explaining variability in neurocognition in children who are D/HH. Method Dyads of 62 TH and 69 D/HH children who wear hearing aids or cochlear implants (ages 3–8 years) and their primary parent were videorecorded during a 20-min play session. Specific mental state words used by parents were extracted. Child neurocognition (specifically, inhibitory control) was assessed using norm-referenced measures. Results Parent use of mental state language predicted child inhibitory control differentially based on hearing status, with a significant relation in the D/HH but not the TH group. Mental state vocabulary related to cognition (e.g., “think,” “know”), but not to desire (e.g., “want,” “like”) or emotion (e.g., “feel,” “frustrated”), predicted child inhibitory control in the D/HH group. Finally, there was a significant relation between the use of first person, but not second or third person, mental state verbs (e.g., “I think”) and child inhibitory control. Conclusions Parental use of cognitive mental state vocabulary models language around thought processes, and parents' use of first-person referents models “self-talk.” Modeling of these linguistic forms is likely foundational for developing self-regulation. Children who are D/HH often experience reduced auditory access and/or language delays and thus rely on high-quality parental language input for longer periods of development than their TH peers. Continued support from interventionists is indicated to coach parents to be high-quality models of more abstract, decontextualized language, supporting complex language development and inhibitory control in children who are D/HH.
Article
Developing and enhancing societal capacity to understand, debate elements of, and take actionable steps toward a sustainable future at a scale beyond the individual are critical when addressing sustainability challenges such as climate change, resource scarcity, biodiversity loss, and zoonotic disease. Although mounting evidence exists for how to facilitate individual action to address sustainability challenges, there is less understanding of how to foster collective action in this realm. To support research and practice promoting collective action to address sustainability issues, we define the term “collective environmental literacy” by delineating four key potent aspects: scale, dynamic processes, shared resources, and synergy. Building on existing collective constructs and thought, we highlight areas where researchers, practitioners, and policymakers can support individuals and communities as they come together to identify, develop, and implement solutions to wicked problems. We close by discussing limitations of this work and future directions in studying collective environmental literacy.
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Clinicians develop as teachers via many activities, from on-the-job training to formal academic programmes. Yet, understanding how clinicians develop the sensibilities of an educator and an appreciation of the complexity of educational environments is challenging. Studies of teacher development have maintained a relatively narrow definition of educational practice. A more expansive view encompasses clinical teachers’ roles in relation to elements beyond learners or content, such as the cultures and other structures of healthcare institutions. In our online Postgraduate Certificate in Clinical Education, space and structure are intentionally created for teachers to think and talk about education with colleagues in other disciplinary contexts. We interviewed 17 students about how their approaches to teaching had changed over a year of part-time study, using their teaching philosophies, written at the start of the programme, as points of contrast. We took an abductive approach to data analysis, drawing on the literature and, unavoidably, our own reflexive interpretations of our practice outside of the research context, such as conversations with students and colleagues; our experiences of teaching and our concurrent research and scholarship. Our themes of repertoire building, perspective shifting, embodied practice, and appreciation of context, describe the increasing complexity of individuals’ considerations of teaching. We use our analysis as the basis for a discussion of the blurring of boundaries between staff and students on such programmes as both groups are engaged in an ongoing continuum of development as all teachers, continue to be learners of educational practice. These insights can inform the ways in which postgraduate programmes can make space for clinical teachers to share and reflect on practices, perspectives and contexts.
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Μετά τις τρομοκρατικές επιθέσεις του 2015 στο Παρίσι και την Κοπεγχάγη, οι Υπουργοί Παιδείας της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης και η Ευρωπαϊκή Επιτροπή υπέγραψαν τη Διακήρυξη του Παρισιού. Η Διακήρυξη αυτή, προβλέπει τη λήψη μέτρων σε ευρωπαϊκό, εθνικό και τοπικό επίπεδο για την ενίσχυση της εκπαίδευσης (σε όλες τις βαθμίδες) στην ιδιότητα του πολίτη και την προώθηση των κοινών αξιών της ελευθερίας, της αλληλεγγύης και της ισότητας (European Commission, 2016). Φυσικά, η εκπαίδευση στην ιδιότητα του πολίτη δεν είναι πανάκεια ενάντια σε όλα τα κοινωνικά προβλήματα, ωστόσο, αναμένεται ότι μπορεί να συμβάλλει στην ευημερία της κοινωνίας και στην ειρηνική συνύπαρξη των λαών. Ως εκ τούτου, τα παιδιά θα πρέπειαπό πολύ νωρίς να καλλιεργήσουν τις κοινωνικές, διαπροσωπικές και πολιτικές δεξιότητες, αλλά και να συνειδητοποιήσουν τον ρόλο των θεσμών στη σωστή λειτουργία της κοινωνίας (European Commission / Eurydice Brief, 2017). Επομένως, σκοπός της εκπαίδευσης του πολίτη είναι η καλλιέργεια βασικών, γνώσεων και στάσεων που θα βοηθήσουν τους/τις μαθητές/ήτριες μελλοντικά να γίνουν υπεύθυνοι και ενεργοί πολίτες που θα συμμετέχουν στα κοινά του τόπου και στις δημοκρατικές διαδικασίες. Ειδικά στην προσχολική ηλικία, η έμφαση δίνεται περισσότερο στις ικανότητες που σχετίζονται με την εποικοδομητική αλληλεπίδραση με τους άλλους και την προσωπική ανάπτυξη των παιδιών. Προς αυτήν την κατεύθυνση, φαίνεται πως το παιχνίδι -που αποτελεί πηγή χαράς και ευχαρίστησης για το παιδί- μπορεί να συνδράμει, ώστε η εκπαίδευση του πολίτη να επιτύχει τον σκοπό της και τα παιδιά να αναπτύξουν τις απαραίτητες δεξιότητες και στάσεις που θα οικοδομήσουν τον «πολιτικό εαυτό» τους.
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Group work has found to be a useful tool for teaching especially in the traditional classroom. Students learn to assimilate disparage ideas and merge them into a single solution, while simultaneously learning to work and communicate within a group in a constructivist environment. Group work can improve cognitive learning among its students. However, the online classroom has made group work more challenging. Thus, this study investigates the experiences of learners from different levels of study in online group work. In addition to that, some learners had more experience being in online classes than their peers and that can be of some difference. Three aspects were reviewed in terms of teaching presence, social presence, and cognitive presence. Specifically, this study is done to explore group interactions during online learning across experience. 175 respondents were purposively chosen to answer the survey. The survey has 4 main sections. Section A has items on the demographic profile. Section B has 8 items on teaching presence. Section C has 8 items on social presence and section D has 8 items on cognitive presence. A general overview of the findings reveals the importance of having more experience in the online class environment in order to gain most of what is taught. Findings for each of type of the presence bear interesting implications for the teaching of learning of online classes using group work approach.
Article
Education policy in the Global South often focuses on two areas: learner‐centred education (LCE) and language of instruction (LoI). For over a decade, LCE has been promoted throughout sub‐Saharan Africa and has been referred to as a ‘policy panacea’. The basic premise of LCE is that it offers learners substantial control over what and how they learn through active engagement. Pair and group work involving talk are key aspects of LCE; however, in contexts where teachers and students are not proficient in the official LoI, the efficacy of this pedagogic approach is brought into question. Drawing on vignettes based on observational data of early years and primary classroom practice in South Africa and Zambia, this paper offers a discursive exploration of how valuing oracy and legitimising multilingualism alter classroom dynamics and interactions between teachers and children. Encouraging translanguaging as a pedagogical approach enables more effective meaning‐making through talk and supports pedagogic shifts to more learner‐centred classrooms. Exploring the potential of professional development to inspire change, we critically draw out some of the observable shifts in practice, alongside the challenges, for practitioners moving to a more multilingual classroom whilst simultaneously operating within the LoI policy.
Chapter
Lived theology is the scholarly attempt to bracket and study theology and theologizing shaped by ordinary people's experiences in everyday life. The spatial turn has brought attention to theological situatedness. The spiritual turn has signified unorganized and non‐institutionalized religious practice. The very name “lived theology” is a continuation of “lived religion,” an established field of research within religious studies. Lived theology is as the attempt to make everyday life theologically meaningful – or to flip the phrase – to make theology meaningful in everyday life. Lived theology – at least for research purposes – could be seen as a negotiation of theological participation and reification. The term “theological wiggle room” emerged in an ethnographic study of vital youth ministries. Tracking down theology in and through lived participation or lived reification, or even more exciting, tracking down theology production in the dynamics between participation and reification, feels like an inexhaustible source of lived theology.
Article
The purpose of this comparative case study, conducted with eight engineers in different firms who specialized in different disciplines of engineering, was to identify and describe the patterned ways in which they used written genres in the context of object‐oriented activity, as well as to describe their evaluative frameworks and literacy practices. The research team used descriptive coding to analyze field notes from twelve two‐hour observations per engineer; they also used categorical thematic analysis to analyze transcripts from six interviews and retrospective protocols per engineer. The analyses indicated that, to some extent, engineers read and wrote distinct written genres that varied according to their role (e.g., quality assurance manager versus test designer) and the traditions of their discipline (e.g., electrical versus mechanical). However, across sites, roles, and disciplines, they used common evaluative frameworks when they evaluated texts’ accuracy, consistency, adherence to standards, currency, executability, reproducibility, concision, and clarity. In conjunction with these evaluative frameworks, engineers also enacted common literacy practices, such as cross‐checking, peer review, using templates when composing, and verifying with the physical world. The study concludes with implications for transformative, rather than reproductive, disciplinary literacy pedagogies in which students can use expansive disciplinary literacies in engineering to address issues that are important to them. As part of these pedagogies, students can articulate why common evaluative frameworks and literacy practices are important to producing safe outcomes in engineering, while they simultaneously expand these frameworks and practices to reflect values and cultures that are important to them. The purpose of this comparative case study, conducted with eight engineers in different firms who specialized in different disciplines of engineering, was to identify and describe the patterned ways in which they used written genres in the context of object‐oriented activity, as well as to describe their evaluative frameworks and literacy practices.
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