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Qualitative Research and Case Study Applications In Education

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Abstract

Rev.& expanded from Case study research in education,1988.Incl.bibliographical references,index
... Relevant documents, such as the R2T grant program, ESSA legislation, the New York State ESSA Plan, and the School Quality Review Report were collected and reviewed by the researcher to get more descriptive background data on the policy environment reflected at the time principals led their schools (Merriam, 2001). However, the primary method used to collect information was semi-structured interviews of 12 retired NYCDOE principals. ...
... Rich, thick descriptions were used to strengthen the validity of the study and to diminish the threat of misinterpretation; member checking was utilized as well (Merriam, 2001;Morse & McEvoy, 2014). Member checking, also called respondent validation, is when a researcher solicits feedback from the participants to verify the transcripts and tentative interpretations (Schwandt, 2007). ...
... Reflexivity is the act of writing the thoughts related to bias views, feelings, or assumptions as they emerge. This journal writing process helped the researcher to temporarily put aside her views so it would not impact the research process (Chan et al., 2013;Creswell, 2013;Merriam, 2001). In the interest of transparency, the researcher was a secondary school administrator in the NYCDOE but is currently retired. ...
Thesis
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Over the past 20 years with the advent of externally imposed high-stakes accountability policies, there was an increase in principal turnovers, school failures, restructures, closures, and new education business markets in African American and Latinx districts. Public school failures were blamed on practitioners. A historical, socio-political review of the literature showed there was a need for more research that examined the association of external forces’ influence of high-stakes accountability policies on principals in these districts. The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to understand how the use of accountability policies by external forces influenced the experiences and perceptions of 12 retired New York City principals who worked in high-poverty, minority schools. Policy scholarship and organizational control framed the study and highlighted the socio-political, power dynamics, and historical contexts of accountability faced by principals. The analysis of the principals’ experiences led to findings that revealed how these external policies were incoherent and not aligned to the reality of schooling, expanded education inequities and created disadvantaged learning conditions. This study concluded that principals were under increased oversight and restrictive policies that undermined their schools’ improvement efforts. The coercive power of the policies and threats against schools influenced principals’ decision making towards meeting the external policy goals of the system, while they worked to mitigate its effects on their schools’ learning cultures.
... I got two distinct philosophical foundations of case study literatures. More specifically, I recognized that out of the three distinct scholars (Yin, Stake and Merriam) mostly cited in case study literature, Stake (1995) and Merriam (1998) prefer to use a flexible design whereas there is not much flexibility in research design in the approach of Yin (2014). Therefore, some critics have suggested that Yin's research has been situated within a post-positivist paradigm, whereas Merriam's and Stake's have been non-positivist (Boblin, Ireland, Kirkpatrick, & Robertson, 2013;Brown, 2008). ...
... Therefore, some critics have suggested that Yin's research has been situated within a post-positivist paradigm, whereas Merriam's and Stake's have been non-positivist (Boblin, Ireland, Kirkpatrick, & Robertson, 2013;Brown, 2008). I preferred to use the design of Merriam (1998) and Stake (2005) since, as explained above, I used survey design in this study for post-positivist knowledge claim. If I had used Yin's case study, it would be of another post-positivist way of knowledge claims. ...
... If I had used Yin's case study, it would be of another post-positivist way of knowledge claims. In fact, I did not intend to use two methodologies, which used post-positivist knowledge claims and thus I was focused to use Merriam (1998) and Stake (2005) in my study. This does not mean that I did not use Yin (2014) in my study. ...
Thesis
The study of ethical leadership is very important to cultivate professional practices and integrity in schools and their principals. This concern is particularly imperative to the principals of the Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) sector, where there is the need of immediate reform. Therefore, a convergent mixed method study was carried out to explore: (a) the perceptions of principals’ ethical leadership and its level, (b) what contributed to the evolution of ethical leadership in principals, (c) the difference in principals’ ethical leadership across the schools’ locale, their types and principals’ personal characteristics. This study featured a paradigmatic mixing of post-positivism and humanism with two equally prioritized parallel phases of data collection and analysis. Quantitative data were collected from the postal survey of a representative sample of 217 principals and 372 instructors. The qualitative data were collected from 9 TVET schools of 3 districts of Nepal by using case study protocol. “Textual description” and “word tables” were prepared for “within-case analysis” and “cross-case analysis” as the outcome of qualitative data analysis. Additionally, tables were developed as the outcome of quantitative data analysis by using mean, standard deviation, t-test and ANOVA. These analyses were followed by comparisons of quantitative and qualitative results by seeking dis/similarities within the findings. The findings were then interpreted with literature, theories and personal reflection. The findings of this study support the literature’s assertion that care, justice and critique were the key dimensions in the perceptions of ethical leadership in TVET schools. In practice, however, principals did not demonstrate optimal care and justice to exercise their professional judgment fully. The ethics of critique was perceived to facilitate and legitimize ethics of care and justice, but its role was dominated by the culture of obedience and silence. The findings also revealed that ethical sensitivity was not consolidated in principals because it was the outcome of their exposure to social-cultural and educational settings and workplace but not of capacity building. Consequently, principals could not harness the benefits of a constructive critical role. Additionally, ethical leadership differed by gender, age, locale and school types. In conclusion, each principal is unique in ethical decision making and thus she/he decides with his/her own micro model consideration of his/her own personal, interactional and organizational context. The study has two main implications. First, policy makers need to abandon the current way of thinking to find the single and macro model of ethical decision making for every context, and they need to empower each principal to support his/her own unique micro model developed through consideration of personal, interactional and contextual elements. Second, convergent mixed methods researchers, who prioritize both methods equally, need to consider “methodology” as a “fifth decision” along with levels of interaction between the strands, their relative priority, timing, and the procedures for mixing. Additionally, convergent mixed methods can be carried out without cross talk between strands.
... The group relied on community organizing and organizational change strategies to form the antiracism collective (ARC). We employed a participatory evaluative case study (Merriam, 1998) methodology to answer two questions: 1) How has ARC accelerated one social work department's integration of antiracist praxis (theory, reflection, action) into all aspects of the department to support the department's mission?; and 2) How can ARC dismantle structures which impede social workers' ability to confront racism? We find that ARC 1) catalyzed department transformation as evidenced by the increased sense of critical consciousness, struggle, integrity, and community; and 2) achieved primarily individual impact, with small but potentially significant department impact, and small but potentially significant structural impact. ...
... This paper employs a participatory evaluative case study (Merriam, 1998) methodology to answer two questions: 1) How has ARC accelerated the Social Work Department's integration of antiracist praxis (theory, reflection, action cycle) into all aspects of the department to support the department's mission?; and 2) How can ARC dismantle structures which impede social workers' ability to confront racism? The case study methodology is appropriate because we are interested in a bounded system (Merriam, 1998)-an antiracist collective inside one SWEI. ...
... This paper employs a participatory evaluative case study (Merriam, 1998) methodology to answer two questions: 1) How has ARC accelerated the Social Work Department's integration of antiracist praxis (theory, reflection, action cycle) into all aspects of the department to support the department's mission?; and 2) How can ARC dismantle structures which impede social workers' ability to confront racism? The case study methodology is appropriate because we are interested in a bounded system (Merriam, 1998)-an antiracist collective inside one SWEI. A case study is descriptive and heuristic, illuminating a mezzo-level phenomenon (Merriam, 1998). ...
Article
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Dismantling structures that impede social work professional and organizational growth begins with social work educational institutions. In 2020, the convergence of three pandemics – COVID-19, economic injustice, and, notably, structural racism, catalyzed a group of social work staff and faculty at a public Hispanic Serving Institution (HSI) in the Southern U.S. The group relied on community organizing and organizational change strategies to form the antiracism collective (ARC). We employed a participatory evaluative case study (Merriam, 1998) methodology to answer two questions: 1) How has ARC accelerated one social work department's integration of antiracist praxis (theory, reflection, action) into all aspects of the department to support the department's mission?; and 2) How can ARC dismantle structures which impede social workers' ability to confront racism? We find that ARC 1) catalyzed department transformation as evidenced by the increased sense of critical consciousness, struggle, integrity, and community; and 2) achieved primarily individual impact, with small but potentially significant department impact, and small but potentially significant structural impact. We highlight strengths and limitations of antiracism collectives as a pathway to confront racism in other social work educational institutions.
... Marshall dan Rossman (2014), mendefenisikan tujuan melakukan penelitian kualitatitif secara historis adalah untuk menggali, menjelaskan dan mendiskripsikan fenomena yang diminati "to explore, explain, or describe the phenomenon of interest". Juga menurut Merriam (1998), metode penelitian kualitatif adalah metode yang mengutamakan proses, maka pemahaman karena itu produk dari penelitian kualitatif adalah "richly description'' dan sutudi kasus adalah salah satu jenis penelitian kulitatif (Cresswell, 2007;Johnson & Christensen, 2008). Menurut Merriam (1998), metode kualitatif dengan pendekatan studi kasus adalah "an intensive and holistic description, explanation, and analysis of "a bounded system''. ...
... Juga menurut Merriam (1998), metode penelitian kualitatif adalah metode yang mengutamakan proses, maka pemahaman karena itu produk dari penelitian kualitatif adalah "richly description'' dan sutudi kasus adalah salah satu jenis penelitian kulitatif (Cresswell, 2007;Johnson & Christensen, 2008). Menurut Merriam (1998), metode kualitatif dengan pendekatan studi kasus adalah "an intensive and holistic description, explanation, and analysis of "a bounded system''. Or phenomenon such as a person, a program, an institution, a process, a social unit, a group, and a policy (Cresswell, 2007). ...
... Or phenomenon such as a person, a program, an institution, a process, a social unit, a group, and a policy (Cresswell, 2007). Selanjutnya pilihan case study juga didasari oleh apa yang Merriam (1998) ...
Article
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Management has a broad meaning. There are many definitions of management theoretically. For example, according to Terry (2008), management is a process consisting of actions that include planning, organizing, driving, and controlling carried out to determine and achieve the goals set using human resources and other sources. This research is expected to provide benefits both theoretically and practically. Theoretically, this research is expected to contribute to further scientific development, especially those related to management in an organization to produce or improve achievement. The positive results from this research can be used as a guide in carrying out the development of athlete achievement in Jambi Province, especially for archery sports. Practically, the results of this study are expected to be input for policymakers and other stakeholders with interest in the management policy of the archery athlete coaching program, especially KONI and archery branch administrators regarding the management system used in Jambi Province, and as consideration for local government in fostering sports organizations and other public organizations.
... Data collection was undertaken in two-stages, illustrated in Table 1, and content analysis was undertaken, guided by Krippendorff (2013) and Merriam (1998). In the first stage, each annual report was read, including chair reports, annual review, organization purpose and objectives, independent auditor reports, financial and non-financial indicators and financial statements. ...
... The second stage analysis involved reviewing the key drivers and organizational responses to each of the crises in the case study organization, AF (Merriam, 1998). The researchers each undertook this analysis separately, followed by a comparative analysis of the initial set of associational findings and consensus was reached on the Authors: Rentschler, Ruth 1 ; Lee, Boram 1 ; Subramaniam, Nava 2 ; Source: Event Management DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599522X16419948695062 ...
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This paper examines innovation in times of festival crises from a governance perspective using legitimacy theory. We conduct a case study of Adelaide Festival around three crises based on data drawn from annual reports, festival programs and media articles from 1960 to 2021. Each crisis raises questions about the need to innovate, whether due to economic concerns or for new approaches to artistic programming, in order to safeguard legitimacy. However, the type of innovation varies based on internal and external environmental factors. Findings reveal tensions ranging from internal board and external stakeholder use of governance mechanisms, depending on the crisis and perceptions around art forms e.g., elitism and Aboriginality. The findings provide insights on how appropriate use of governance mechanisms can help to balance tensions between maintaining legitimacy and promoting innovation. Innovation, nonetheless, did not reposition the festival in the long-run: it remains elitist, compromising artistic vision.
... A investigação a que nos propomos assenta-se em uma abordagem qualitativa, baseada em um estudo de caso (Bogdan & Biklen, 1994), dada a finalidade de observar e descrever o fenômeno (Merriam, 1998). ...
Article
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Este estudo se insere no âmbito de uma investigação mais alargada, nomeadamente uma dissertação de mestrado. No que tange às insatisfações dos professores, uma das queixas recorrentes refere-se aos sistemas de ensino padronizados, que requerem o exercício da autonomia docente para os atos de transgressão e insubordinação criativa, sob a ótica da justiça social, como modos éticos e corajosos de quebrar paradigmas em prol da melhor aprendizagem dos estudantes. Esta pesquisa tem o objetivo de evidenciar as ações de insubordinação criativa de uma professora de matemática, reveladas em sua prática docente com alunos do 8.o ano do ensino fundamental de uma escola do município de Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, diante de uma intervenção didática com o uso da educação estatística. Para atingir esse objetivo, realizou-se um estudo de caso com a professora sobre seus comportamentos frente à elaboração e o desenvolvimento da sequência didática que ela aplicou aos alunos. A análise dos resultados foi baseada nas entrevistas realizadas com a professora e nos documentos sobre os instrumentos disponibilizados, a saber, o material didático da escola e a dissertação da professora. Dos resultados, ressaltamos a relevância dada à incerteza da matemática e a forma como a professora interpretou, discordou, refletiu e reorganizou a situação de maneira habilidosa e em favor da melhor aprendizagem dos seus estudantes, o que evidenciam ações de insubordinação criativa.
... Әлеуметтік ғылымдарды зерттеу әдістемесіне қатысты заманауи оқулықтарда «зерттеу парадигмасы» термині әртүрлі түсіндіріледі. Мәселен, Мерриам «зерттеу бағдарларын» нұсқаса (Merriam, 1998), Кресуэлл зерттеушінің белгілі бір «философиялық дүниетанымы» мен «ақиқат туралы шешімін, түйінін» атап өтеді (Creswell, 2014). Максвелл мен Миттапалли «зерттеушінің ұстанымы» туралы айтады (Maxwell & Mittapalli, 2010). ...
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Аталмыш монография өз оқырманына зерттеу материалын зерделеудің нақты мақсатын айқындау арқылы, теориялық ережелерді талдап, кейстердің негізінде нақты ұғым-түсініктерді қолдану арқылы білім беру зерттеулерінің әдіснамасын бағдарлауға көмек береді. Монографияда оқытудың рефлексиялық бірлігі ескерілген: әр тараудың соңында оқырманға тақырып бойынша бірқатар сұрақ ұсынылады.
... If in the broad literature there is an extensive discussion on qualitative research and the case study method, including excellent references that are recurrently cited (Corbin & Strauss, 2015;Merriam, 1998;Simons, 2009;Stake, 1995;Tellis, 1997aTellis, , 1997bYin, 2009), the same cannot be said about the case study protocol. Actually, specific references about this theme are scarce. ...
Article
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In operations management field, researches that adopt the case study method are often criticized for lack of rigor. That is worrisome, considering the popularity of this method. Achieving rigor requires some actions from the researcher and one of them is the adoption of a robust research protocol. However, information about the case study protocol is fragmented in literature; in fact, many studies address the method, but those dealing specifically with protocol are scarce. Aiming to assist other researchers, in this study is proposed a case study protocol for qualitative researches in operations management that can be applied in any type of case study, especially in those that study organizations and their internal processes and adopt the interview as the main source of information. The proposal is the result of a protocol tested in the field and an extensive literature review covering different areas of knowledge (focusing on the most classic and important papers on the subject). The protocol was replicated eighteen times in a study about an important organization and evaluated by six researchers in different phases. It comprises a set of recommendations and should be used as a reference guide on how to proceed in data collection step. If planned and used with care, the protocol will guide the researcher, favoring the rigor and quality of the results, eliminating doubts and uncertainties and reducing reworks.
... Çalışma nitel araştırma deseni ekseninde sürdürülmüştür. "Nitel araştırmalar verilerin teker teker okunması yoluyla kod ve kategorilere dayalı olarak araştırma sonuçlarının sunulmasını sağlar" (Merriam, 1998). Çalışmada veriler nitel araştırma yöntemlerinden doküman incelemesi yoluyla toplanmıştır. ...
... Data analysis plans often employ constant comparison of verbatim transcripts (Merriam, 2001). Constant comparison is inductive analysis that the researcher begins with the first interview and then continues by comparing subsequently gathered data to previously analyzed data (Patton, 2015;Percy et al., 2015;Ravitch & Carl, 2021). ...
Article
In this paper we describe the lessons learned when untrustworthy participants were included in a qualitative interview study. In online research, participants can more easily misrepresent their identity and volunteer for studies even if they do not meet inclusion criteria. The term “imposter participant” refers to dishonest participants who completely fake their identities or simply exaggerate their experiences in order to participate in qualitative studies. Untrustworthy participants are a threat to data quality, yet little has been published on how qualitative researchers should prevent and handle this unique methodological challenge. In this paper, we provide a detailed account of how specific issues with the research design create methodological challenges related to participant honesty when participants self-identify as meeting study inclusion criteria and participate in a virtual interview. Through our experiences as a doctoral student and dissertation supervisor, we offer lessons learned relating to recruiting online participants, collecting virtual interview data, and analyzing data for a qualitative study. Our experiences and reflections might help other qualitative researchers, including doctoral candidates and their supervising committees, work with internal review boards to prevent imposter participants and thereby contribute to the trustworthiness of their research.
... The aim of our research is served by qualitative research, as it enables us to study our issues in depth, i.e. to explore participants' experience, values, beliefs and intentions and to produce such an amount of information that gives them richer understanding of the social phenomena (Merriam, 1998). ...
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A descriptive overview of the Turkish context relying on a synthesis of the literature to identify ad hoc educational policy changes that progress towards mainstreaming forced immigrants into public education. As a transit but also high-receiving country, Turkey has had to go through several changes at the policy and practice levels. This chapter provides us with a picture of measures taken to ensure the continuation of education for refugee children.
... From this interpretive research perspective, the study aimed to foreground participants' human experiences and social contexts. The research design was underpinned by the belief that knowledge construction in education is seen to occur on a storied landscape that incorporates social dimensions (Merriam, 1998). ...
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This study investigates common features of a set of diverse schools’ responses to the initial school lockdown period during the pandemic in 2020, with a focus on practices supporting learning, inclusion and wellbeing. It comprises a collective case study of four Australian schools that were selected based on their reputation for impactful support of students and teachers during the emergency remote teaching period. Methods included interviews and focus groups with school leaders, teachers and students. The schools had widely differing contexts, technology access and student needs. Despite these varied contexts, the findings provided important insights into common practices supporting effective remote teaching. Emerging principles of effective practice illuminate ways forward to mitigate the significant risks accompanying emergency remote teaching, and guide practices in a variety of school contexts.
... В современных учебниках по методологии исследований в области социальных наук термин «парадигма исследования» имеет различные интерпретации. Например, Мерриам указывает на «ориентации исследования» (Merriam, 1998), Кресуэлл отмечает определенное «философское мировоззрение» исследователя и «утверждение истины» исследователем (Creswell, 2014). Максуэлл и Миттапалли говорят о «позиции исследователя» (Maxwell & Mittapalli, 2010). ...
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Данная коллективная монография поможет читателю сориентироваться в методологии образовательных исследований посредством постановки конкретных целей изучения исследовательского материала, визуального представления теоретических положений, примеров применения конкретных понятий на основе кейсов. В монографии учтен рефлексивный компонент обучения: в конце каждой главы читателю предлагается ряд вопросов по теме.
... Lincoln and Guba (1986) established several criteria for establishing trustworthiness, which include credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability. In addition, according to Merriam (1998), the six main tools for achieving research rigor are peer debriefing, external audits, triangulation, member scrutiny, and the explanation of research bias. ...
Preprint
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Risk communication is a key element of effective epidemic and pandemic response. The COVID-19 pandemic has underlined the crucial role of risk communication to guide the public health response during this complex, global public health emergency. Recognising the limited research on risk communication in public health emergencies as this applies to migrant and ethnic minorities, this study sought to investigate Laotian New Zealanders' COVID-19 health seeking and health information seeking during Alert Level 4 or "lockdown" conditions in Auckland, New Zealand. The study applied a qualitative descriptive approach which was underpinned by interpretivism and adopted semi-structured interviews as the data gathering method. Despite the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic, face-to-face interviews were carried out with 10 Laotian New Zealanders residing in Auckland in 2021. Thematic analysis and a coding process using NVivo software identified three main themes related to health seeking and health information seeking: 1) the socioeconomic characteristics and family profile; 2) individual capability and self-beliefs; and 3) exposure to diverse information sources. The findings highlighted five important issues. These included the role of socioeconomic factors and family profile in informing participant preferences for specific COVID-19 health information sources. They also reflected the importance of improving certainty and stability in participants' lives through work subsidies to reduce the impact of disrupted employment and income. Study results highlighted the relationship between trust in public authorities and self-efficacy in implementing public health advice, and the importance of preserving and protecting the stability of existing health services in times of public health emergency. They underlined the complex role of transboundary information sources and the need to manage this more effectively. Study results highlight the need for continuing research with migrants and ethnic minorities to strengthen risk communication and community engagement with these vulnerable, but resourceful populations. It also calls for research to examine how online and geographic communities influence information-seeking and healthcare seeking during public health emergencies.
... A purposive sampling technique (Merriam, 1998) or judgement sampling (Mills & Gay, 2019) was followed when contacting panellists for the study to select the most appropriate experts. ...
... This research aims to investigate the communication exchange skill and interpersonal relationship of students in analytical research methods with a qualitative approach to determine how to search, collect, process and analyze data from the research results. This research is employed to assist the researchers to find but people feel and why they feel as they are doing and as Merriam, (1998) explains in qualitative studies, the key concern understands the phenomenon of interest from the participant's perspective, not the researchers. The qualitative analysis aims to get an entire image relating to a matter according to the human point of view studied. ...
... The case study methodology has evolved over the years as a more practical and flexible one, which could cater to explain and generate an in-depth understanding of a diverse range of issues across a number of disciplines (Harrison, 2017). Merriam (1998) 52 presents a step-by-step process of designing qualitative research which includes conducting a literature review, constructing a theoretical framework, identifying a research problem, crafting and sharpening research questions, and selection of the sample using purposive sampling technique. The present study is based on this prescribed approach. ...
Thesis
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The importance of climate action is a topic of no dubiety and demands urgent action from all stakeholders. The integration of climate action with fintech presents a great opportunity to fight climate change and produce an impact in the real world. A preliminary assessment of the concept of climate fintech points out the immense potential it has, but it also indicates the need for a deeper understanding of the concept to draw insights into how exactly the concept could be made use of for the public good. The preliminary review of literature in the area and related research areas shows that green fintech is a small yet growing research area. The literature in this new domain has only emerged recently, and it is mostly characterised by studies on isolated aspects of green fintech and has not been focusing on providing a comprehensive view on the topic yet (Puschmann et al., 2020). Thus, all these point to the need for research in the area, and the present study aims to follow the same. Therefore, the study will contribute to the growth of the body of knowledge in the area of climate fintech. Climate fintechs also call for the digitization of several ordinary financial services, but with the integration of environmental considerations. One of the major financial services that are associated with climate fintech is impact investing. The area of impact investing, in general, has been growing, but research in the area is comparatively less in number. Much of it has concentrated on socially responsible investing, sustainable investing and ESG investing. The present study of climate fintech, with a focus on impact investing also, would enable the present impact investors to compare themselves with their peers, and the current financial 4 return-oriented investors would be able to identify an alternative investment option where they will be able to “do good while doing well”. The study is expected to aid climate activists and people who care for the environment to identify newer technology initiatives and investment avenues where they will be able to generate their, as well as others, wealth as well as interest in climate action and impact the way the world sees finance. The present study would also contribute to identifying a market opportunity by current and new fintech and other enterprises.
... Thus, the initially created research question may also be altered or modified (Hood, 2009;Janusheva, 2017). Regardless of the qualitative research type (ethnography, case study, action research, grounded theory etc.) there is always at least one research question that should be answered (Glaser & Strauss, 1967;Merriam, 1998;Berg, 2001;Yin, 2003;Burns, 2009). ...
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Given that worldwide the research academic community is largely concentrated on the quantitative and qualitative methodological paradigm, and that the quantitative research is seen as dominant, primarily, due to the hypothesis and various statistical procedures used for data analysis, this paper promotes the qualitative inquiry which largely depends on the research question quality and formulation and aims to draw the researchers’ attention to this very significant qualitative research aspect. Thus, the current article is, in fact, a review which indicates the latest qualitative search related to the research question’s diverse aspects. At the same time, the present study offers several techniques for effective research question choice and formulation, in order to increase the researchers’ awareness that the research question moulds all the qualitative research features and that it should be approached very carefully
... The participants' gender, nationality (Nepali and UK), and volunteer role (team leader and volunteer) were equal. I also carried document analysis of 23 published documents such as annual reports and blogs from ICS website (Merriam, 1998). ...
Conference Paper
Politics is observed often as a negative force in school education in Nepal. This article argues that politics is not wholly bad to deteriorate the education system. It depends on how it is used for the school’s welfare. This article adopts the narrative inquiry methodology under the social constructionism worldview. I found that politics in schools has to be viewed differently from party-isation and it can be positively used as generating school leadership, seeking resources for schools, and the professional security of teachers. These initiations support school governance through the lens of New Public Management. However, politics should not be used to earn might and position by the school stakeholders. This article has implications for educational researchers, policymakers, and political activists
... The number of teachers and the teaching during the pandemic set the context's boundaries. The current study was a multi-case study (Merriam, 1998) in order to better understand how junior high school science teachers used inquiry-based strategies during the COVID-19 epidemic. ...
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Numerous dimensions of our social and economic lives have undergone unthinkable transformation as a result of the global COVID-19 pandemic. This study was conducted to investigate and determine the lived experiences of junior high school science teachers amidst the COVID-19 pandemic in the context of based learning inquiry. The participants in the study were the ten junior high school science teachers at the chosen schools, five of whom taught in public schools and five of whom taught in private schools. The study's active participants were all seasoned educators with a combined teaching experience ranging from 5 to 30 years in the science premise. Semi-structured interviews were used for the data collection process. The authors consulted literature and sought advice from experts as they created the interview questions. The researchers began by transcribing every interview's audio recording. The interview data was examined using a thematic analysis process, which was aided by the initial coding of the interview transcripts, the identification of preliminary categories, the second round of coding, the refinement of categories, and the identification of emergent themes. Based on the data findings, during the pandemic, teachers claimed they were unable to teach science via inquiry for a variety of other reasons. Teachers claimed that greater preparation time was necessary for creating effective inquiry-based online lessons and traditional learning. They said that not teaching science through inquiry was due to a lack of preparation time and shorter class periods.
... The interview data were analyzed for emergent themes using the constant comparative method (Merriam, 1998). We used five strategies to maintain credibility of study, as Eisner (1991) stated that establishing credibility within qualitative research "allows us to feel confident about our observations, interpretations, and conclusions" (p. ...
... be one that is selected because it reflects the average…instance of the phenomenon of interest" (Merriam&Tisdell,2015,p.97).Thetypicalcasewasthecourseunderstudywithstudentswhohad similarpriorlearningexperiences;thesamesequenceofMursion®experiences;andwhoengagedin thesamesequenceofMursion®simulationsofconferencingwithaparentinthecourse,inSpring, 2021(n=7).Ofthesevenpreserviceteachersenrolledinthecourse,sixconsentedtobestudy participants(n=6).AccordingtoMerriam(1998),thesample-within-caseneededtobedetermined priortodatacollectionandthisguidancewasfollowedforthepresentresearchstudy,wherebytheone healtheducationmajorwhoelectedtoparticipateinthestudywasdroppedfromthedatacollection process. Because criteria must be established for both levels of sampling, (Merriam, 1998) the criterionforthewithin-case-samplewasthatparticipantsmustbemusiceducationmajors(n=5). ...
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This interpretive case study addressed what the contribution of liminal experiences were to teacher identity formation within the observable context of a series of mixed reality simulations of parent-teacher conferences. Data collected for the study were from a demographic questionnaire, interviews, observations, and documents. Data analysis resulted in one finding statement featuring three key themes, each of which were informed by the various ways in which the theme was manifested in the present study. The finding statement was: Preservice teachers whose identities developed in the liminal space of a series of mixed reality experiences simulating parent-teacher conferences adopted a growth mindset, employed coping strategies in liminality, and made meaning from experiences. A discussion of the findings suggested that adopting a growth mindset enabled preservice teachers to embrace simulations for learning purposes, to learn from peers, and to grapple with complexity. Implications of the study are addressed.
... These students are in the latter stage of their program and have developed more than sufficient mathematical knowledge to understand and extend the mathematics involved in the Sumerian triples task and sufficient in-class and practicum experiences to comment on the task from an education perspective. Merriam (1998) states that "A case study design is employed to gain an in-depth understanding of the situation and meaning for those involved" (p. 19). ...
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Computer programming has permeated many fields as a tool to model phenomena and processes and to make new discoveries. Curricula in many jurisdictions have been revised to use computer languages across K-12, and in some cases in mathematics education. The literature suggests that while digital media in mathematics education can be used as tools that serve our purposes, they also serve to reorganize knowledge. This paper investigates the interactions among computer programming and mathematics teaching and learning. Our data sources are a) Ontario curriculum documents, b) resources developed by our team in Ontario and in Brazil, and c) our research in Ontario and Brazil. diSessa’s idea of computational literacy serves as a theoretical framework and as an analytical lens for conceptualizing how the integration of computer programming may alter the structure and experience of school mathematics.
... According to (Burns, 1999, p.118), "Interviews are used widely, and it is a famous method of collection of qualitative data." The authors use this method to collect a specific type of information (Merriam, 1998). The reason for conducting an interview is to avail knowledge that exists and may be expressed by answers that the researcher can interpret (Flick, 2006). ...
... For this study, the personal interview has been employed. This is because; the interview is the best technique to find out those things we cannot directly observe, like feelings, thoughts, and intentions (Merriam, 1998). All the interviews were conducted in Amharic language and Afaan Oromo (the regional language of Ethiopia), facilitated by one researcher's assistant and the researcher himself. ...
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This study aims to explore the challenges facing the perception of women entrepreneurs in the Bule Hora town administration, Ethiopia, Horn of Africa. Related to the challenges faced in the perception, attitude, and belief of women entrepreneurs, inaction and the potential women are segregated. The researchers used a qualitative research design related to the interpretative approach. The researchers interviewed eight women entrepreneurs involved in the venture start-up. The purposive sampling technique was used to get primary data from the respondent with the help of a structured interview. For qualitative data analysis, the thematic data analysis method was used. The major findings of the study showed that challenges faced by the women entrepreneurs in the study area were lack of finance, working place, training, and social-cultural factors. The implication of the study will help the government to revise its policy to give a solution to individual and organizational-related, legal/administration, economic, social/cultural, and other factors that affect the perception of women entrepreneurs about entrepreneurial activity.
... Of note, however, in order for the participants to relax and talk in a more natural way as possible, the interview guide was not strictly adhered to and was looked at only briefly for guidance. Also, especially when asking about the experience of illness uncertainty, the FA asked interpretive questions (Merriam, 1998) in order to prevent misinterpretation of the data. If participants' explanation about their illness remained general and dictionary-like, additional questions were asked about the more specific content regarding their own treatment experience in order to capture their own experiences. ...
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The aim of this study is to examine the illness uncertainties (IU) that children experience and the ways they manage them in order to construct a long-term, comprehensive developmental care for children with illness. Semi-structured, in-person interviews were conducted with six Japanese female adolescent cancer survivors, all recruited from the same hospital in Tokyo, Japan. Using directed content analysis, all transcriptions that fell under the definition “the person is unable to construct the meaning of an illness related event of her/his self or another, and is aware of the state” were coded with the codes defined from the data, which were then cross-referenced with the existing literature. The results indicated new aspects of children’s IU; uncertainties regarding hospitalization and the necessity to distinguish and examine IU with and without answers. In terms of IU management, we discuss the informative value “role models,” and depict how uncertainty acceptance may be a new form of solution.
... Case studies undertake the qualitative approach when conducting an in-depth study of a phenomenon; this is particularly the case for new phenomena of which researchers have limited understanding (Boyer and Swink, 2008). Stake (2013Stake ( , 1995 and Merriam (1998) highlight that a Case Study is selected for its particularity, and is 'bounded' by physical, temporal, social/cultural, and conceptual features. A case study researches 'interest in the case, not by the methods of inquiry used' (Stake, 2005, p.443). ...
Thesis
Despite efforts over the last 30 years to make tampons more appealing to Chinese consumers, Procter & Gamble and Johnson & Johnson only reach 2.5% of eligible users compared with 70% of consumers in the USA. Besides China, in Italy, most of Eastern Europe and South America, where tampons usage share is also very low. This discrepancy is due, in main, to cultural barriers. Drawing on Behavioural Reasoning Theory and an emic approach, taking the case of tampons in China as example, this study explores the reasons against consuming a specific product category, the cognitive process of reasons, and cultural antecedents underlying these reasons, leading to a ‘reason against’ model, to accomplish the central aim of this research which is to better understand the under-researched national level phenomenon of anti-consumption towards a specific product category which finally categorized as ‘cultural sensitive product’ in this research. This research utilizing semi-structured interview qualitative research method to achieve the research aim and answer the research questions. Randomly sampled 37 Chinese females who are tampons eligible users, 10 in the UK and 27 in China. Of those, 5 of 10 in the UK did follow-up interviews 6-to-9 months after their first interview. Interviewers’ age ranged from 21-50, 21-30 years represented 59% of the samples. 95% is Han Chinese, the main ethnic group in China which accounts for more than 90% of the population and constitutes the world’s single largest racial cultural group. The included native geographic places covered 77% provinces of Han Chinese habitation in mainland of China. Out of 37 participants, just one regularly consumed tampons (2.7%), which is very close the average usage in China at 2.5%. 37 semi-structured interviews result in three key findings: three ‘reasons against’, a set of emic cultural values and a model of ‘reasons against’ which together provide a more accurate insight into antecedents of anti-consumption. The first key finding, three ‘reasons against’ are risk aversion, undesired ‘Ren’ in relationships and situations, the lack of emic cultural recognised symbolic value added on tampons. These reasons are cohesively related to emic culture which confirms the main premise of Behavioural Reasoning Theory. These reasons are important linkages between cultural values and behaviours. The second key finding, a set of emic cultural values suggest that Chinese culture is oriented around ‘Personalism’, ‘personal physical health’ and ‘relational and situational Ren’. This supports the views of Chinese indigenous researchers which counters Western scholars’ view of Chinese collectivism culture. From a total of twenty-five identified emic values, fourteen have not been captured in the literature which updates the list of Chinese cultural values and offers an invaluable resource for future (anti)consumption research. The third key finding, the model of ‘reasons against’ offers a cognitive processing model base to explore and evaluate the relationships of cultural values, product features and categories, along with product (de)benefits and ‘reasons against and for’ (anti)consumption of a specific product category, which theoretically guides further researchers on the intentional and meaningful rejection of the consumption of a specific product category in a specific cultural context. The findings fill the gap with insufficient non-individual level antecedent/predictors, and the national level phenomenon of anti-consumption, to explore anti consumption from multiple perspectives, taking a more comprehensive approach to the various phenomena of consumption. The findings challenge marketing activities of tampons which overlook emic culture elements and are mainly concerned with providing the functional benefits or utilitarian values of tampons to consumers. Instead, the findings suggest emic cultural values-based symbolic added value interventions. This suggestion also serves as a proposal for other culturally sensitive products’ marketing strategy.
... El estudio base de esta comunicación se refiere a una investigación de corte cualitativa basada en el estudio de casos múltiples. De acuerdo con su marco de referencia (Latorre, Del Rincón y Arnal, 2005) es considerada una investigación de campo, al estar basada en registros que han sido tomados en los ámbitos naturales donde se producen (Merriam, 1998). ...
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Este trabajo aborda los procesos de autogestión del cambio, haciendo alusión a una serie de procesos que se desarrollan en centros educativos en fase de cambio. La perspectiva desde la cual se propone su abordaje es la gestión educativa. Las evidencias integradas al documento, son el resultado de un estudio desarrollado en Uruguay, que involucró a siete centros de educación primaria, media y técnica. El abordaje utilizado ha sido el estudio de casos múltiples con la intención de analizar el fenómeno en contextos específicos, integrando la posibilidad de estudiarlo desde una perspectiva global. El objetivo general fue lograr mayor comprensión sobre los procesos de autoevaluación y cambio en centros educativos. Entre los objetivos específicos destacamos el de identificar posibles vinculaciones entre la autoevaluación y la toma de decisiones
... We employed a case study approach (Merriam, 1998) focusing on teachers' perceived contradictions within and between the codesign and classroom teaching activities and how they attempted to resolve these contradictions with actions. The case study design enabled us to provide a "holistic description and explanation" (Merriam, 1998, p.29) of teacher learning and teacher action in the midst of a pandemic. ...
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Collaborative design, or co-design, is an effective form of professional development that promotes teacher learning. In this study, we used cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) to investigate how teachers attempt to resolve systematic contradictions as they co-designed and enacted a four-week science unit on COVID-19. Our findings indicated that the teachers faced significant challenges in implementing the COVID-19 unit. We also found that tensions among teachers and positioning teachers as the ultimate decision-makers were particularly useful for promoting teacher learning in the midst of a pandemic.
... With these factors in mind, it is necessary to begin an empirical investigation that aims to discover the place of the Russian university and lived experiences of students within a bounded university community. Merriam's (1998) naturalistic qualitative research approach in ethnographic case study research assumes that there is no one objective truth and that reality is constructed based on the lived experiences of individuals in their social world. These research questions, however, necessitate a mixed-methods approach to provide a more complete picture of this institution as part of a single-site case study that explores an atypical institution established after the fall of communism (Creswell, 2014). ...
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This mixed-methods ethnographic case study examines the socio-historical origins and current lived experiences of students at one Russian university to understand the role of a university education as an environmental factor in the development of a civic consciousness. Findings suggest that the institution has attempted to introduce liberal civic education reforms while competing with a system-wide civic passivity developed during the Soviet era. At the same time, the institution is balancing political neutrality and social development to effectively execute its mission in spite of increasing state control. Student voices suggest that human capital development remains a top priority, whereas civic development has been limited. This case study serves as a cautionary tale in light of oppression and compromises that higher education institutions have to make with the state. Moreover, countries with a similar Soviet legacy of an atrophied civic society can look to modest reform efforts to engage individual students in a way that can promote civic participation so long as the state allows civic development to occur. This paper also addresses the implications of higher education’s role within the context of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.
... The observation notes were collected to investigate the phenomenon in its natural context to get first-hand information (Merriam, 2009). According to Merriam (1998) collecting data via observation notes very much depends on the purpose of the research. The observation lasted for an hour and was conducted during the gamified lessons (see Table 2). ...
Article
The primary goal of this paper is to promote the use of gamification as a teaching tool in English language teaching and learning by emphasizing its worth and that gamified lessons can be utilized as a significant didactic tool by teachers to accomplish many learning objectives, including introducing, reviewing, and evaluating didactic topics while simultaneously raising students' motivation, focus, and learning autonomy. This qualitative case study investigated how non-technological gamified lessons enhanced English language learning in a Lithuanian English as a Second Language (ESL) classroom. Non-technology gamification is an understudied area but has the potential to offer valuable insights into English language learning. Qualitative data were collected from interviews and unstructured observations to identify participants' positive and negative experiences. The emerging themes were identified based on Self-Determination Theory (SDT). However, certain challenges were noted during activities that involved touching another participant, unhappy with the materials used and blurred learning outcomes were identified. The unstructured observations indicated that the participants were making attempts to speak in English, engaged and motivated during the activities and were involved in teamwork. The study makes a relevant contribution to scholarship by showing the positive potential of non-technological gamification in English language learning particularly in listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills. Based on the findings, the study provides certain pedagogical implications to encourage teachers to integrate gamified lessons into their pedagogical practices.
... This understanding was used to triangulate the data of Phase 1 and confirm the themes of access to justice to include in my conceptual measurement framework. A case study approach was chosen for Phase 2 as it was my intention to support an in-depth and rich understanding of my research topic (Blatter, 2008;Merriam, 1998;Cronbach, 1975). It is important to note that it is difficult to generalize outside the context of this study (Creswell, 2014), however, the value in the case study is in its ability to analytically generalize theory (Yin, 2014). ...
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Access to justice has been recognized as an essential component of peace, sustainable development and conflict resolution. The international community acknowledged this significance with the 2015 adoption of the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and, in particular, Sustainable Development Goal 16- Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions. Due to the many distinctive characteristics of post-conflict settings, attempting to measure access to justice in post-conflict environments remains challenging. In order to develop a conceptual measurement framework for use in post-conflict situations, this qualitative study reviews and analyzes the literature on access to justice, existing measurement tools designed to measure the concept, and data gathered through consultations with 10 subject matter experts in San Jose, Costa Rica. The resulting conceptual measurement framework accounts for the unique and varied ways that access to justice is experienced in post-conflict environments and suggests feasible options for implementation in the field.
... Se utilizó el método de investigación acción participativa y la dinámica de sistemas para la construcción del modelo causal, este método incluyó los siguientes pasos: a) Observación del comportamiento de un sistema real, b) Identificación de sus componentes y procesos fundamentales, c) Identificación de las estructuras de retroalimentación que permiten explicar su comportamiento, d) Construcción de un modelo formalizado sobre la base de la cuantificación de sus atributos y relaciones, e) Introducción del modelo en un software (Arnold y Osorio,1998). Es importante señalar que el investigador conoce el sistema a estudio y su entorno desde su conformación, por lo que al momento de realizar el presente estudio, ya existía un lazo de confianza entre los operadores y el sujeto investigador que permitió el pleno acceso a la información y asegura su veracidad La colecta de datos se realizó conforme al método de investigación acción participativa propuesto por Merriam (1998), e incluyó una etapa de observación, diseño, validación y aplicación de entrevistas semiestructuradas; posteriormente se realizó el análisis grupal de datos, centrando la atención en la participación de los actores y las relaciones entre ellos. La observación participante, que de acuerdo con Taylor y Bogdan (1994) involucra la interacción social entre el investigador y los informantes, se realizó in situ, para ello, se hicieron 20 visitas, 10 de ellas previamente concertadas con los integrantes del sistema y 10 sin previo aviso, con el propósito de estudiar el comportamiento de los operadores del sistema en las circunstancias de su vida cotidiana, durante las visitas se observó el contexto físico en el que se llevan a cabo las actividades diarias del agronegocio, es decir, del punto de venta, la bodega de insumos y oficina administrativa; también se realizó la observación de algunas de las actividades que realizan los operadores del sistema, cómo se organizan y dividen el trabajo, la relación que hay entre ellos, el trato y disposición para atender a los clientes, su relación con proveedores, vecinos, productores de la región, sus relaciones personales y familiares; se revisó el sistema de administración, su archivo documental y digital, de dichas observaciones se tomaron notas para su posterior análisis y sistematización. ...
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El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar los elementos e interacciones que influyen en la dinámica de un agronegocio familiar en Indaparapeo, Michoacán durante el ciclo agrícola primavera-verano 2017, se realizó un estudio de caso exploratorio y descriptivo; se utilizó el método de investigación acción participativa y la dinámica de sistemas para la construcción del modelo causal. El agronegocio fue constituido en 2014 como una Sociedad de Producción Rural de Responsabilidad Limitada, sus actividades principales fueron producción, acopio y comercialización de maíz blanco, venta a crédito y contado de agroquímicos y semillas; está conformado por ocho socios familiares, sólo dos lo administran y operan. En 2017 comercializó aproximadamente 1/6 del maíz cultivado en Indaparapeo en el ciclo 2016. El diagrama causal elaborado, representa una visión sistémica e integradora del agronegocio que muestra sus actividades principales y sus 18 elementos integrantes, determinándose las variables que forman nueve circuitos que lo autorregulan, transforman y diferencian de otros sistemas existentes en el mercado, ocho circuitos son de retroalimentación y uno de balance que lo estabiliza. En el diagrama destaca el capital humano por el número de interacciones directas e indirectas (ocho) entre él y el resto de los elementos y estructuras del sistema.
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Like an ecosystem, internationalization has interdependent elements. This case study focuses on one component, faculty preparation and development, which impacts other components such as student learning outcomes. Assessment of short-term study abroad student learning outcomes is a complex process involving faculty development, program design, and the use of various assessment approaches. This case study contributes to the literature on faculty capacity-building by describing the process for the creation of a Faculty Development Studio. The goal was to increase faculty’s capacity in intercultural teaching and learning, develop student learning outcomes for short-term study abroad, and design programs for maximizing experiential learning, reflection activities, and assessment. Findings suggest that developing a process for faculty development, providing protected time and support, and creating the space for dialogue among faculty yield potential for faculty to address short-term study abroad student learning outcomes as well as to expand their teaching and scholarly work. Abstract in Spanish Como un ecosistema, la internacionalización tiene elementos interdependientes. Este estudio se centra en un componente, la preparación y el desarrollo del profesorado, cual impacta otros componentes, como los resultados del aprendizaje de los estudiantes. La evaluación de los resultados del aprendizaje de los programas de corto plazo en el extranjero es un proceso complejo que incluye el desarrollo del profesorado, el diseño del programa y el uso de varios enfoques de evaluación. En el proceso de describir la creación del Estudio del Desarrollo del Profesorado (Faculty Development Studio), este estudio contribuye a la literatura sobre el desarrollo de la capacidad del profesorado. El objetivo era aumentar la capacidad del profesorado en la enseñanza y el aprendizaje intercultural, desarrollar los resultados de aprendizaje de los programas de corto plazo en el extranjero y diseñar programas para maximizar el aprendizaje experimental, las actividades de reflexión, y la evaluación. Los resultados sugieren que creando un proceso para el desarrollo del profesorado, proporcionando tiempo y apoyo, y creando un espacio para el diálogo entre el profesorado, ofrecen la posibilidad de que el profesorado enfoque atención a los resultados del aprendizaje de los programas de corto plazo en el extranjero, y amplíe la enseñanza y labor académica.
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Academic achievement of students in the various subjects they are enrolled in at school is influenced by various external factors. It is therefore of utmost importance to investigate students personal and behavioural characteristics towards Design and Technology throughout the three year transitional junior certificate (JC) programme. The purpose of this study was to find out the factors that influences student's attitude and interest in the Design and Technology subject and how this affect their academic achievement. A focus group discussion with (N= 40) Design and Technology students from (N= 10) different Junior Secondary Schools in the Central Inspectoral Region was carried out to establish the views of the students towards the subject and how various elements they are exposed to in their average schooling life impact on their performance. A detailed discussion of the external factors indicated the selection criterion used for enrolment, assessment criterion and location of schools and language of instruction as some factors that influences the student's behavioural characteristics. The results show that the overall attitude of the students is positive towards the role of Design and Technology in their lives.
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Araştırmanın amacı, okullarda yürütülen okul geliştirme uygulamalarını öğretmen ve yöneticilerin bakış açısından ele almak ve proje süreci bağlamında incelemektir. Araştırmanın deseni nitel araştırma desenlerinden çoklu durum çalışması desenindedir. Araştırmanın çalışma grubu amaçlı örneklem yöntemlerinden maksimum çeşitlilik örnekleme tekniği ile belirlenmiştir. Bu çalışmada veriler yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme formu kullanılarak yapılan odak grup görüşmeleri yoluyla toplanmıştır. Verilerin analizinde betimsel ve içerik analizi yöntemleri kullanılmıştır. Araştırma bulgularına göre okul geliştirme uygulamalarının “kurumsal düzenlemeler”den “Öğrenciye yönelik uygulamalara” doğru değiştiği; Okul geliştirme boyutları arasında “Fiziksel düzenlemeler” boyutunun öne çıktığı görülmektedir. Okul geliştirme uygulamaların içeriğine bakıldığında, uygulamaların öğrencinin bütünsel gelişimini sağlama yönünde evirildiği görülmektedir. Okul geliştirme uygulamalarının yönetiminin değişimine ilişkin daha çok “Demokratik yönetim anlayışının” benimsendiği belirlenmiştir. Okul geliştirme sürecinde karşılaşılan engellerin değişiminde ise “Veli desteği eksikliği” ve “Öğretmen nitelikleri” ile ilgili engeller ön plana çıkmıştır.
Chapter
Football in Argentina, as in most of South America, has traditionally been considered a male sport, built by and for men; however, in recent years, this space that is so central to the construction and reproduction of hegemonic masculinity has been challenged by the massive expansion of women’s football both on a national and global level. Nonetheless, women have always participated in the sport, mostly in marginal and unofficial spaces, ever since the beginning of the twentieth century, only in recent years has female participation in Argentina begun to receive greater visibility and wider support from media, fans, sporting institutions, the State and a growing feminist movement. This chapter proposes to analyse this momentous shift through an ethnographic approach. We focus on a period considered to be a turning point not only in the history of Argentine women’s football but also in the broader women’s rights movement in South America. Starting with the ‘Ni Una Menos’ (‘Not one woman less’) demonstrations in 2015, raising awareness regarding domestic violence against women throughout the Argentine National Women’s Football team, achieved qualification for the 2019 FIFA Women’s World Cup for the first time in 12 years. Using the Freirian notion of ‘conscientização’, we carry out an in-depth examination of the pathway to the first (semi-) professional women’s league in the country, an analysis of the relationship between wider social movements and female athletes’ struggle for recognition, visibility and support.KeywordsWomen’s footballProfessionalisationLatin AmericaGender equalityFIFA Women’s World Cup
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Embora a literatura relevante já tenha demonstrado o impacto que a capacidade de absorção tem na capacidade de inovação das empresas, estudos que analisam a configuração da capacidade absortiva em pequenas e médias empresas (PMEs) de países emergentes, como é o caso do Brasil, são escassos e oportunos. O objetivo principal deste estudo foi examinar as práticas que PMEs de base tecnológica brasileiras desenvolvem a fim de aprimorar as práticas de gestão do conhecimento e facilitar a geração de inovações. Para tanto, foi utilizada uma abordagem de pesquisa qualitativa. Um total de 11 empresas de base tecnológica participaram da pesquisa que utilizou de técnicas de entrevista semiestruturada, observação não participante e análise documental. Os principais achados apontam para as práticas de capacidade de absorção como propulsoras para o desenvolvimento da inovação nas empresas analisadas, a exemplo de: adaptação o conhecimento externo a uma nova tecnologia para criar um novo produto; desenvolvimento da capacidade de aplicar o conhecimento interno e externo em patentes e ou produtos de softwares inovadores para o mercado. Complementarmente, verificou-se que existem diferenças nas práticas de capacidade de absorção entre empresas de um mesmo setor, sendo que as empresas com mais tempo no mercado tendem a possuir mais práticas implementadas o que acelera os processos de inovação. Esta pesquisa fornece recomendações concretas sobre como alocar os recursos do conhecimento para um uso mais eficiente na geração de inovações.
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