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The commentary is a theoretical framework that builds on the concept that eSports should be considered a sport. The first part of the paper analyzes the definition of a sport and determines that competitive video games should apply to the meaning. The second part of the paper discusses how eSports should be recognized by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). In addition, the application of Title IX is applied to have eSports listed as an emerging sport for women.
May 11, 2017
Recognizing ESports as a Sport /article/recognizing-esports-as-a-sport/
U.S. Sports Academy
Authors: Daniel Kane, Brandon D. Spradley
Affiliations: United States Sports Academy
Corresponding Author:
Daniel Kane
20 Ravenhurst Ave
Staten Island, NY 10310
Daniel Kane is a doctoral student at the United States Sports Academy pursuing his degree in sports management.
The commentary is a theoretical framework that builds on the concept that eSports should be considered a sport.
The first part of the paper analyzes the definition of a sport and determines that competitive video games should
apply to the meaning. The second part of the paper discusses how eSports should be recognized by the National
Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). In addition, the application of Title IX is applied to have eSports listed as an
emerging sport for women.
Keywords: eSports, NCAA, Title IX, video games
Recognizing ESports as a Sport
Sitting in front of a computer and playing video games is not the image that comes to mind when a person thinks of
an athlete. Instead, an image of someone who may not be physically fit and lacks athletic abilities is usually the
stereotype that is associated. In some cases, people would refer to a gamer as a nerd or associate it with nerd
culture (Kendall, 2011). The term gamer can be used to classify many different types of people. The most popular
classification are people that play board games, collectible card games, and video games. For the purpose of this
paper, the term gamer will be used to describe individuals that participate in competitive video gaming. With the
advance of technology, competitive video gamers are starting to demonstrate the same athletic properties as
traditional sports athlete. The concept of video games has also changed. Instead of playing video games
recreationally, people are starting to play video games competitively in tournaments that closely resemble sports
competition. This review paper will attempt to build the theoretical framework that eSports should be considered a
sport and be recognized by The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA).
ESports Is a Sport
The first video game competition can be traced back to October 19, 1972, at Stanford University’s Artificial
Intelligence Laboratory in which about two dozen students competed playing Spacewar (Li, 2016). One of the first
recognized competitive tournaments in video games was when Atari held a multi-city competition that offered
10,000 participants a chance to become a world champion in Space Invaders (“Players Guide”, 1982). Since then
the way video games have been played has changed. The evolution of eSports is now known as competitive video
gaming (Li, 2016). For the purpose of this review paper, eSports will be a general term that includes all the various
eSports leagues from around the world. Each league could be compared to a different sports league that plays the
same sport such as the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC), Bellator and Invicta Fighting Championship. The
various eSports leagues have different rules, play different games, rank professionals differently and host
tournaments and competitions. The consistent aspect throughout the leagues is that the competitors play video
games and the athletes that win matches consistently could progress to a professional level.
One of the biggest debates concerning eSports is whether competitive video gaming can be defined as a sport. The
definition of sport has been attempted many times, and a universal definition has not been determined (Perks,
1999). Rather than a definitive academic definition, people refer to the Oxford English Dictionary (n.d.) definition,
“An activity involving physical exertion and skill in which an individual or team competes against another or others
for entertainment” (para. 1). The definition of sport needs to be discussed to ensure that eSports can be defined as a
The first term to analyze is physical exertion. Aadahl, Kjaer, and Jørgensen (2007) state that absolute intensity can
be used to determine the intensity of exercise, by analyzing the multiple of an individual’s basal metabolic rate
(MET). Since the MET could be used to determine exertion, a connection could be made via how the MET is
affected when playing video games. Additionally, the oxygen levels (VO2) can be used; a moderate physical activity
would have a 40%-60% VO2 reserve and/or 4-6 MET’s (Stroud, Amonette, & Dupler, 2010). In a study performed by
Bronner, Pinsker, and Noah, (2013) male and female participants MET’s raised between 4-9 while participating in
video games that involved dancing. Stroud et al., (2010) was able to get their participants VO2 and MET at a low to
moderate activity level by standing and shaking Nintendo Wii controllers while playing Mario and Sonic at the
Olympic Games. This shows physical exertion being demonstrated during the playing of video games.
Multiple links can be observed between physical exertion and video games. Modesti, et al., (1994) conducted a
study that showed the basal blood pressure is raised while playing a video game. Also, physical exertion could also
be considered perceived exertion. Two ways to measure perceived exertion is using the 15-point Borg Ratings of
Perceived Exertion (RPE) or the 10-point Borg category ratio (CR10) (Borg, 1998). Using RPE and CR10, a
participant looks at the scale and determines how strenuous the activity feels. Heart rate can also be used to gauge
perceived exertion, as the RPE scale is structured from 6-20 to represent heart rates. During video game
competitions and training, many eSports athletes exhibited signs that could be considered physical exertion to keep
up with the routine of being a professional video gamer (Li, 2016; Rodriguez, et al., 2016).
The second part of the definition to analyze is skill. To become a professional gamer, a player must learn different
skills and techniques to get better. Researchers have used video games as a way to understand how a person
develops skills (Boot, Sumner, Towne, Rodriguez, & Ericsson, 2016). Green and Bavelier (2015) conducted a study
that showed people learn skills from playing action video games. Bavelier, Green, Pouget, and Schrater, (2012)
conclude that not one skill but many skills are obtained playing action video games. In competitive gaming, the
skilled players dominate people that play for fun (Li, 2016). In eSports, there is a clear divide in win – loss record
between players that are considered professionals and those that are not.
The final part of the definition deals with a person or team that competes against another person or team for
entertainment. Playing video games as a hobby has evolved into competitions and tournaments with cash prizes.
Depending on the game being played, a person can enter a contest solo in the cases of fighting games such as
Street Fighter, or join with a team, playing games such as Counter-Strike or League of Legends. ESports are
broadcasted on ESPN in the United States and various networks around the world. Special eSports arenas have
been constructed to host the events.
Countries have begun to recognize professional gamers as athletes. In the United States, professional gamers can
obtain P-1 visas, which are given to athletes (U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, n.d.). In 2013, professional
gamer Danny “Shiphtur” Le was the first to receive a P-1 visa for eSports (Dave, 2013). In South Korea, the Korea
e-Sports Association (KeSPA) is recognized by the Korean Sport & Olympic Committee (KeSPA, n.d.). KeSPA
regulates athlete’s amateur and professional status (Li, 2016). The recognition of professional gamers grew in South
Korea that the South Korean Air Force had an eSports team when professional gamers had to do mandatory military
service (Li, 2016). Using the examples provided, eSports should be recognized as a sport.
ESports in the NCAA
The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is a member-based organization that has set the standard for
college athletics in the United States (Masteralexis, Barr, & Hums, 2015). In 1989, a poll was administered in the
United States that discovered 78% of Americans thought college sports was out of control (Masteralexis, Barr, &
Hums, 2015). Since then, the NCAA has become the recognized authority over collegiate athletics. The NCAA has
1,121 college members with nearly half a million college athletes, competing in 24 sports among three divisions
(The National Collegiate Athletic Association, n.d.). For eSports to be taken seriously as a sport at the collegiate
level, the NCAA will need to recognize eSports as a sport. For that to happen, the sport must go through an
extensive review process.
NCAA Definition of Sport
The first step for eSports to become recognized as a collegiate sport is to meet the NCAA’s definition of sport. The
NCAA (n.d.) has a similar definition in the Oxford English Dictionary but expands on the sport being played at the
collegiate level. Definition of a sport: For purposes of reviewing proposals, a sport shall be defined as an institutional
activity involving physical exertion with the purpose of competition versus other teams or individuals within a
collegiate competition structure. Furthermore, a sport includes regularly scheduled team and/or individual, head-to-
head competition (at least five) within the competitive season(s); and standardized rules with rating/scoring systems
ratified by official regulatory agencies and governing bodies. (para. 6)
As discussed earlier, eSports falls into the definition of a sport and is already being recognized and organized by
several college campuses (Wingfield, 2014). ESports also has an advantage to being acknowledged as a collegiate
sport, since no defined gender is required to play competitive video games. Women and men can play together
without an imbalance being created by gender differences. Since women can start a women-only team or participate
with men, the recognition of eSports in the NCAA could fall under the emerging sports for women list.
Emerging Sports for Women
A common misconception is that video games are just for men. According to a study conducted by the Pew
Research Center, 48% of women play video games in the United States (Duggan, 2015). The Entertainment
Software Association (2016) has discovered, women over the age of 18 represent a larger portion of the gaming
community than boys 18 years and under in age. The number of women that are playing video games continues to
rise, according to Newzoo, female gamers increased 70% from 2011-2014, 18 million to 30.3 million (Harwell, 2014).
There is a lack of data to account for the number of women that are currently participating in eSports, but women are
starting to make an impact on the sport. Intel has begun to sponsor and nurture female only competitive teams in
hopes to raise the number of female competitors (Buck, 2015).
With women creating female-only teams or being able to play with men in eSports, the ability for the NCAA to
recognize eSports could fall under Title IX. The creation of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, 20 U.S.C
§§ 1681 et seq., was enacted to end discrimination on the basis of gender (Title IX of the Education Amendments of
1972, 1972). The original text was vague and made it difficult to decipher what sports would be covered under the
original amendment. The Office for Civil Rights (OCR) which oversees Title IX released a letter in 2008 that helps try
to define how a sport will be recognized under Title IX (U.S. Department of Education Office of Civil Rights, 2008).
OCR’s definition will help determine if eSports should be covered by Title IX.
To determine eSports as a Title IX sport, Robert Morris University (RMU) in Chicago, Illinois will be used as a
primary example. Although RMU is not a NCAA member, the University is a member of a comparable organization,
the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) and currently has eSports listed as a sport under the
athletics department (Robert Morris University, n.d.). RMU treats eSports as a sport and the participants as athletes.
In the letter distributed by OCR, two main categories are reviewed. The first category that OCR uses to make the
determination is to analyze the program structure and administration (U.S. Department of Education Office of Civil
Rights, 2008). This review has two parts, the first part is to check “whether the operating budget, support services
(including academic, sports medicine and strength and conditioning support) and coaching staff are administered by
the athletics department or another entity, and are provided in a manner consistent with established varsity sports”
(U.S. Department of Education Office of Civil Rights, 2008, para. 11). In 2014, Kurt Melcher brought eSports to RMU
under the athletic department, with an operating budget that included hiring coaches and building an arena (Ruby,
2004). Initially, to comply with being consistent with varsity sports, 35 scholarships were provided to varsity and
junior varsity players (Ruby, 2004).
The second part of the first category requirement questions if participants are recruited and receive scholarships
compared to other varsity sports (U.S. Department of Education Office of Civil Rights, 2008). When the eSports
program was just beginning at RMU, the recruitment mimicked other sports. Top amateurs were being contacted as
well as the program was being marketed. The university received over 7,000 people who showed interest in joining
the team and was able to secure amateurs who turned down going pro to play at RMU (Ruby, 2004). The university
now grants around half a million dollars in scholarships for the eSports teams (TEDx Talks, 2016). The program
structure and administration of RMU’s eSports closely resembles the structure of other athletic departments.
The second category that needs to be reviewed by OCR is team preparation and condition (U.S. Department of
Education Office of Civil Rights, 2008). This category analyzes four different parts of the team to ensure that the
teams are being treated like other sports, and that the sport itself can be compared to other sports. The review will
look at eSports in the same way a sport like football will be examined, including the schedule, practices, equipment
and competitions.
In the first subsection of category two states, “Whether the practice opportunities (e.g., number, length, and quality)
are available in a manner consistent with established varsity sports in the institution’s athletics program” (U.S.
Department of Education Office of Civil Rights, 2008, para. 14). RMU created an eSports arena that cost the athletic
budget $100,000 (Ruby, 2004). The arena could be compared to stadiums or arenas that universities build for
athletic teams, and the arena is sponsored by iBUYPOWER. The iBUYPOWER eSports arena is different than
computer labs found on other campuses. At some colleges, computer labs are created using student association
fees which allow any student at the university to use the computers. The eSports arena is only for eSports athletes
to be used for practice and competitions (TEDx Talks, 2016). Regarding practice, eSports at RMU are operated and
scheduled in the same manner as other sports.
The second subsection of category two analyzes regular season competitions compared to other varsity sports.
“Whether the regular season competitive opportunities differ quantitatively and/or qualitatively from established
varsity sports; whether the team competes against intercollegiate or interscholastic varsity opponents in a manner
consistent with established varsity sports” (U.S. Department of Education Office of Civil Rights, 2008, para. 15). The
Collegiate Starleague (CSL) has become an organization that oversees college eSports athletics. Colleges can
enroll in the league as either casual or competitive teams. The CSL is compared to the NCAA for eSports, the CSL
oversees eight different leagues, has three divisions, sets rules, schedules, rankings and tournaments (Collegiate
Starleague, n.d.).
The third subsection of category two raises the question of preseason and postseason compared to varsity sports.
The CSL has a structured postseason playoff system and championship. Also, regarding having a championship,
CSL tournaments also offer prize amounts for winning that are applied to scholarships. The ability for eSports
athletes to win scholarship money would help subsidize the athletes that only receive partial scholarships at his/her
The fourth subsection of category two, “Whether the primary purpose of the activity is to provide athletic competition
at the intercollegiate or interscholastic varsity levels rather than to support or promote other athletic activities” (U.S.
Department of Education Office of Civil Rights, 2008, para. 21). ESports has an advantage in this category versus
other athletic activities. The concept and actions in playing in an eSports league are unique and would be difficult to
compare to other athletic activities. The primary purpose of having an eSports team would be to provide the student
athletes with the ability to be able to compete at the collegiate level.
A difficulty that eSports would have with gaining Title IX compliance is the first factor under the fourth subsection of
category two. “Whether the activity is governed by a specific set of rules of play adopted by a state, national, or
conference organization and/or consistent with established varsity sports, which include objective, standardized
criteria by which competition must be judged (U.S. Department of Education Office of Civil Rights, 2008, para. 23).
As previously mentioned, eSports is currently compared to the organizational structure of mixed martial arts (MMA)
as there are many different professional leagues. Although the CSL is considered the main collegiate league,
universities can still participate in eSports tournaments ran by other organizations. By participating in other leagues
and not having membership to only one would alter how varsity sports currently structure their competitions. Once
eSports would be deemed different from varsity sports, the sport would not be in compliance with Title IX.
To ensure that eSports are recognized under Title IX the sport needs a national governing body. The NCAA created
the Gender Equity Task Force that will oversee a sports compliance with Title IX and help gain Division 1 recognition
(Stafford, 2004). The Gender Equity Task Force helped create the emerging sports for women in the NCAA. For a
sport to be determined as an emerging sport, the NCAA definition of sport is used with the addition that female-
student-athletes will have additional opportunities (The National Collegiate Athletic Association, n.d.).
Since eSports provides females with a fair opportunity to compete against men on teams that are only female or
mixed, the sport should be listed as an emerging sport. During the review process, the sport will be listed on the
emerging sports for women’s list. The sport then has ten years to gain championship status at a minimum of 40
NCAA universities or continue to show growth towards that goal (The National Collegiate Athletic Association, n.d.).
The benefit of being on the emerging sports list is universities can count eSports towards their Title IX compliance
regarding how many female sports they offer.
Benefits of Having ESports in the NCAA
There are numerous advantages for the NCAA recognizing and becoming the national governing body of eSports at
the collegiate level. The first is the discussion listed above that eSports would provide an additional female sport for
universities and help the university stay in Title IX compliance. Universities can sometimes find it difficult to remain in
compliance based on the Title IX proportional requirement since the number of teams needs to be proportionate to
the number of students based on gender (Yuracko, 2002). With women being able to form female-only teams or play
on a team with men, the opportunities to increase female participation in sports could expand.
Universities can also benefit from the cost of starting up an eSports team compared to other collegiate sports. The
iBUYPOWER arena cost RMU $100,000 to start up (Ruby, 2004). The amount included renovations to the location
and all of the equipment. The average college football stadium construction requires around $400 million in capital
investments (Maxcy & Larson, 2015). The University of Michigan facility expenses cost around $8 million in 2008, for
repairs, utilities, supplies and equipment, and other expenses (Rosner & Shropshire, 2011). The operation budget is
going to be cheaper than other sports. Once the location is built, the team needs a small budget for jerseys, travel
and if repairs will be required in the future. In some cases, travel, may not be necessary since competitions take
place online and judges from the event can monitor the computers from a remote satellite location. The operational
cost is in contrast to that of traditional sports. NCAA Division 1 baseball teams can cost a university an average of
$900,000 and the average Division 1 baseball team loses the university around $700,000 a year (Wolverton, 2009).
Also, varsity lacrosse and track average more than $500,000 in losses for a university (Wolverton, 2009).
Another advantage eSports has over varsity sports is the number of viewers that watch eSports and the ability to
watch via the internet. In June 2011, started broadcasting video games and created a social platform for
gamers on the internet (Twitch, n.d.). The platform has 9.7 million active users, who watch an average of 106
minutes a day, with over 2 million people streaming (Twitch, n.d.). The ability to watch eSports competitions is not
limited to having to go to a stadium. People can look at a team compete anywhere in the world. In 2013, 32 million
people watched the League of Legends Season 3 World Championship, that is more viewers than the Major League
Baseball World Series (14.9 million), NCAA Basketball Final Four (15.7 million), National Basketball Association
Finals Game 7 (26.3 million) and the Bowl Championship Series (26.4 million) (TEDx Talks, 2016). People are not
only interested in viewing the competitions online, but also visit arenas and stadiums to observe. The League of
Legends World Championship in 2013 sold out the Staples Center in Los Angeles in one hour, and in 2014 filled up
a former Fédération Internationale de Football Association stadium with 40,000 people (TEDx Talks, 2016).
The benefits of having an eSports team is not limited to saving a university money as a low-cost sport; ESports can
generate money for their athletes. As discussed earlier, if the eSports athletes win tournaments in the CSL, that
money is applied towards that student’s scholarship. The subsidized money will save the university, as other
scholarship money can be allocated to other student athletes. The university also has an ability to gain sponsorship
money from the many different companies that do not usually sponsor sports. RMU was able to secure four
sponsors when bringing eSports to their university (Ruby, 2004).
The eSports model will also easily fit into the NCAA structure of Division 1, Division 2 and Division 3. Each university
can provide different games and structure different teams based on the athlete’s ability level. The CSL already has a
divisional system structure amongst the teams and universities that participate. Designation of the various divisional
teams will also help control the budget for athlete’s scholarships, following the NCAA’s protocols that are already in
place for division scholarship requirements.
This review paper is a theoretical framework that explains why eSports is a sport and why the NCAA should
recognize the sport. The topic of eSports has limited academic research, and limited data is available on the subject.
Future researchers should consider issues that were discussed in the paper to help build a foundation for additional
The first topic that needs more study is women in eSports. The data is limited as to how many women play
competitive video games. One website using public data was able to show that around 364 women have placed in
the money in eSports tournaments, with the top female winning around $170,000 (E-sports Earnings, n.d.). By
starting to collect data on the number of women playing competitive e-sports, the data could be used to determine
future papers on the topic. Women in eSports could create a change in people’s perspective on women and video
Another topic to consider is the lack of gender identification needed within the eSports community. Playing video
games does not require a specific gender or label to participate. A cultural divide still exists between men and
women concerning video games and who should be playing them. The topic could be looked at from various
disciplines in hopes to arrive at an equality amongst gamers.
The third topic that requires additional research is the comparison of eSports to MMA as a business. MMA
competitions and leagues have been around for years. In the early 1990’s the UFC was able to change their image
from street brawls to the leading organization in MMA (Watanabe, 2015). The same concept is happening to eSports
currently. The stigma that only nerds play video games is still currently active as well as the many different leagues
that have not been able to become the premier organization. Both sports can be compared and contrasted to
attempt to answer how eSports can grow like the UFC did within a stigmatized sport.
The fourth topic that could be investigated is the definition of amateur and professional in the e-sports environment.
Unlike many traditional sports, age is not a factor when playing competitive video games. The competition structure
for eSports compares to the pro-am structure of different sports tournaments. Having amateurs play with
professionals allows younger age participants to move up to a professional title at a younger age. The third top-
earning male athlete Sumail “SumaiL” Hassan was recruited to a team as a professional at the age of 15 years old
(E-sports Earnings, n.d.). A problem will arise when eSports competitors want to participate in collegiate eSports
athletics. Currently, the NCAA has set strict rules on amateurism and restrictions on collegiate athletes gaining
money from competitions before entering college (Rosner & Shropshire, 2011). ESports has already found a way to
allow college students to compete for cash prizes as long as the winnings are applied to scholarships. As for
students who already have full scholarships, the money could be used to offset various living costs such as a
stipend or larger meal plan.
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... Electronic sports, or eSports, are organized video game competitions, usually involving a cash prize (Brock, 2017;Jenny et al., 2018). Although the birth of official eSports competitions is generally identified with the Space Invaders Tournament held by Atari in the eighties, these contests really began to gain mainstream popularity in the last two decades (Giakoni-Ramírez et al., 2022;Kane & Spradley, 2017). During this period, the popularization of multiplayer video games has led to the birth of new social structures resulting from the development of virtual communities of players through forums, chats, social networks, and virtual and face-toface events (Carrillo Vera, 2015). ...
... Esports have expanded to the extent that national and international competitions are now held in purpose-built venues in places such as China, the United States, South Korea, and Western Europe, attracting players from all around the world (Kane & Spradley, 2017;Thakur et al., 2021). These arenas feature a central stage where eSport players take their seats in front of desktop computer stations. ...
... This uncertainty is partially attributable to the lack of a universally accepted definition of sport (García-Lanzo et al., 2020;Kang et al., 2020;Parry, 2021;Thakur et al., 2021). On one side of the issue are observers such as Kane and Spradley (2017), who argue that eSports could be considered sports for three main reasons. First, eSports players show signs of physical exertion during competitions and training, such as a rise in basal blood pressure or an increase in perceived exertion. ...
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There is some debate as to whether professional eSports players should be regarded as athletes in the traditional sense. With an eye toward addressing this controversy, this study was undertaken with the aim of analyzing elite eSports players' characteristics and their training and competition routines, and of comparing them with data on their counterparts in traditional sports. Fifty-one elite eSports players answered an ad hoc online questionnaire that gathered data on their basic traits, general training and competition habits, level of regular physical activity, and injuries sustained during the 2018-2019 season. The results indicated that elite eSports players have a considerable training load (38.37±20.33 h/week) and use strategies to improve their performance (i.e., warm-ups, 73.91%; resistance training, 74.19%; psychological training 31.25%). However, some of these activities are not generally designed or supervised by qualified professionals. Meanwhile, some of the players reported injuries (13.04%) that had led to losses in competition time ranging from one day to more than a month. In terms of the comparison with traditional athletes, our findings show that eliteeSports players seem to experience a similar training load and apply comparable strategies to boost their sports results. As such, they can be properly considered professional athletes, but players, the eSports industry, and the teams' staffs should be more aware of the most appropriate strategies to preserve long-term health and avoid burn-out.
... This development has led to academic interest in esports. So far, esports have been studied from a theoretical standpoint with the primary argument being in the classification of esports as "real sport" [24]. ...
... Despite all the evidence suggesting increasing popularity and professionalism in esports, the academic research on the topic is primarily theoretical. Multiple studies argue whether esports can be defined as a "sport" [19,24,45]. ...
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Esports offer a unique opportunity to conduct human performance studies, as they use modern hardware and software as an operation platform. Insights on gameplay and underlying processes may push the development of new and optimal practice methods. The aim of this study was to investigate performance indicators from in-game data to predict the outcome of the matches in StarCraft II: Legacy of The Void. Data from 6509 games (game records) provided by 5 players at the level of Master or GrandMaster were used. The distribution of analyzed players concerning the preferred in-game race was as follows: “Protoss” (n = 3), “Zerg” (n = 1), “Terran” (n = 1). Each game record contained data for both the winner and the loser. In total, 3719 game records and 9 performance indicators were obtained after applying the inclusion criteria. Logistic regression with 5-fold cross-validation was performed to predict the game outcome. The model was able to discriminate the game outcome (won, lost) with an out-of-sample accuracy of 0.728 ± 0.021. The performance indicators which showed the strongest effect in predicting the game outcome were “minerals lost army” [p-value< 0.001, std_odds_ratio: 0.069], “minerals killed army” [p-value< 0.001, std_odds_ratio: 6.446], “minerals used current army” [p-value< 0.001, std_odds_ratio: 4.081], and “minerals killed economy” [p-value< 0.001, std_odds_ratio: 2.896]. It seems evident that winner optimized interaction with an opponent by keeping his/her own army intact while inflicting damage to the opponent’s army or economy. In conclusion, the effective use of the army, based on optimizing the ratio between units lost and units killed, may be significant in predicting the game outcome.
... Second, research progress will be limited by a lack of distinction with traditional physical sports. Although some recent research has explored the connection between esports and traditional sports (e.g., [195,211,440]), it is unclear how easily we can transfer findings from long-established fields such as sports psychology, elite training, skill development, or coaching into an esports context. We must first agree on whether or not esports can be defined simply as a technology-mediated version of traditional sport. ...
The esports market has been growing exponentially has been growing exponentially with much interest from industry and academia. Perhaps because of this growth, there is a lack of agreement on what esports actually encompasses. We conducted a systematic review of 461 peer reviewed, full papers that provide a definition of esports. Findings highlighted the growth of the esports field across different domains, and increasing global interest in esports, but a lack of consensus regarding definition of the term. Through thematic analysis we identified nine dimensions across esports definitions. We critically assess these dimensions in terms of their representativeness and utility in describing the multifaceted nature of esports. Our work may help create a shared understanding of what esports is- and is not-capturing a diversity of experiences within organized competitive gaming and supporting continued research growth in this increasingly important domain.
... While playing video games, there is a rise in basal blood pressure, and during competition and training video games, athletes exhibit signs that are perceived as a physical effort to follow the routine of an athlete or video game professional. These signs are correlated with the definition of sport because, during tournament activities, E-sport athletes also show the same physical signs as athletes in general (Kane & Spradley, 2017); (Marelić & Vukušić, 2019); (DiFrancisco-Donoghue et al., 2019). Another statement is seen from the skills possessed by E-Sport athletes, were to become an athlete, one must have a variety of skills and techniques to improve their competence in winning a match. ...
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Esports is a strong phenomenon, especially in the world of children, youth, and youth. This study aims to contribute new ideas, ideas, and perspectives in the debate on Esports discourse in the world of sports, as well as in order to raise the awareness of sports academics to study more deeply about esports from various points of view of sports science. The research method used is library research. Data collection techniques by conducting a review study of books, literature, notes, journals and reports. Judging from the three main elements in sports, physical, competition and institutional, Esports cannot be identified as a sport mainly because of the physical activity missing in Esports. Although the movements that look amazing cannot be ascribed to Esports players, they require some motor skills in playing the game including hand-eye coordination and speed of action with strategic and tactical understanding but that is still considered lacking and still far from being a sport. Besides that, there is an element of addiction and symptoms of lack of movement, if you play video games too often, it is also a consideration in determining Esports as a sport. It is necessary for the role of various stakeholders and appropriate government institutions to handle esports so that they can develop and contribute as expected
... Permainan Space Invader ini dicipta pada tahun 1978 dan merupakan salah satu game terkenal pada masa tersebut serta boleh dimainkan di mesin Arcade. (Daniel Kane 2017). Pada awal tahun 1990-an, e-sukan menjadi semakin popular dalam dekad ini dan bilangan pemain meningkat dengan banyaknya. ...
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E-Sports (Electronic Sports) is a phenomenon that is gaining popularity among the younger generation today. E-sports is an effective platform for developing and training mental and sensorimotor abilities especially in the coordination of human limbs. In the implementation of e-sports activities, there are various negative perceptions in the minds of society despite the fact that there are many advantages and positive effects of e-sports activities. Issues related to e-sports need to be analyzed and evaluated carefully according to various perspectives including the perspective of Islamic law. This study aims to explain the concept of e-sports comprehensively and holistically so that the implementation of e-sports meets its true concept and purpose. The public's negative perception of e-sports needs to be assessed fairly and comprehensively so as not to become an ongoing polemic. Next this study analyzes e-sports from the perspective of Islamic law and compliance with Islamic standards. Qualitative methods were implemented in this study by using data collection and data analysis methods. The method of data collection was done through library research. The data obtained were analyzed based on inductive, deductive and comparative methods to obtain comprehensive study results. The results of the study found that e-sports is a positive activity to society and has many advantages, while the negative elements found in e-sports need to be identified and refined so that it is beneficial to all.
... Meanwhile, the video game industry has evolved into a "sports" industry, termed "esports," which refers to video-game competition [5,6]. Some esports competitions have a larger audience than major world leagues in traditional sports [7]. ...
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Professional esports athletes spend a long time in the same sitting posture during training and competition. Mobile esports may exacerbate potential postural problems because of the closer and unsupported arms and because athletes spend more time in a forward-/flexed-head posture. Prolonged sitting in these postures carries significant health risks and may lead to musculoskeletal problems and injuries. The objective of this retrospective study is to assess the posture, mobility, and stability of the spine for professional mobile esports athletes. We collected spine-assessment data from 48 athletes participating in a top-tier league on a real-time-strategy battle-arena online game. The spinal assessment was conducted using the SpinalMouse® under upright standing and trunk flexion in addition to the Matthiass test. Measurements were converted into Idiag Scores by the SpinalMouse® software. The Idiag Posture, Idiag Mobility, and Idiag Stability scores were 62.50 (IQR: 21), 63.50 (IQR: 19.5), and 54.50 (IQR: 14.5), respectively, and were significantly lower (p < 0.001) than the reference normative value (100). Age was found to have a weak positive correlation with the posture score (ρ = 0.29, p = 0.048). Although career duration appeared to lower the scores, the association was insignificant (p > 0.05). The scores also had no significant association with body height, body mass, body mass index, and esports team (p > 0.05). It was anticipated that mobile-based esports would attenuate the biomechanics of the spine and increase the likelihood of musculoskeletal problems, such as neck and back pain.
... In addition, following this trend, eSports players are being recognized as athletes. In the United States, professional eSports players may apply for the P-1 visa, the same that traditional athletes use [26], and, in Brazil, eSports regulation is under analysis by the Senate [27]. Besides, in Brazil, several sports clubs, historically related to traditional sports such as soccer and basketball, and private companies are investing in the preparation of eSports players to compete around the world. ...
Conference Paper
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eSports is a growing economic activity and is receiving international recognition as a sport, including in the next Olympics. This paper explores the collaboration challenges that professional eSports players face during competitions. This is important to understand this relatively new computer-mediated profession allowing for the better management of teams as well as the development of games and supporting systems that consider the challenges of professional collaboration. The data for the study was collected through an online questionnaire answered by Brazilian eSports professional players and it was further analyzed. The results show which roles exist in eSport professional teams and how important non-verbal communication is during matches, and how competition and collaboration occur in a team.
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With the development of digital information technologies, there has been an extraordinary boom in the competitive gaming of computer games. These were given the name esports more than a decade ago, as it is supposed to be a new sport. The best players are professionals who train and compete within their teams. The physical, mental and tactical preparation for the competitions is done by coaches and other experts who closely analyze the tactics of the opponents. The competitions are watched by crowds of fans, and millions of euros are turned over in the very drive of esports competitions. In short, esports are reminiscent of classic sports in many ways. We have already heard about the successes of Slovenian esports athletes in the daily sports reports on RTV Slovenia. Domestic and international esports federations are striving to include esports in the programs of major sports competitions, such as the Olympic Games. On the other hand, many have doubts about whether esports can really be equated with other sports. These and other issues excite the world of sport, and stimulate reflection on both sides. Last but not least, the answer to this question determines whether students should also encounter esports in school physical education, and whether esports should be included in the educational program of the Faculty of Sports. In this paper we highlight various aspects and point out the similarities and some significant differences between sport and esports.
This chapter explores strategies for using virtual games in leadership education. Pedagogical practices, examples, and connections to leadership learning frameworks, learning goals, and competencies are also included. Implications for practice such as intentional design, pairing with other instructional strategies, and debriefing are also discussed with an emphasis on purposeful utilization.
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To determine energy expenditure and player experience in exer-games designed for novel platforms. Energy cost of 7 trained players was measured in 5 music-based exer-games. Participants answered a questionnaire about "game flow," experience of enjoyment, and immersion in game play. Energy expenditure during game play ranged from moderate to vigorous intensity (4 - 9 MET). Participant achieved highest MET levels and game flow while playing StepMania and lowest MET levels and game flow when playing Wii Just Dance 3(®) and Kinect Dance Central™. Game flow scores positively correlated with MET levels. Physiological measurement and game flow testing during game development may help to optimize exer-game player activity and experience.
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The ability of the human brain to learn is exceptional. Yet, learning is typically quite specific to the exact task used during training, a limiting factor for practical applications such as rehabilitation, workforce training, or education. The possibility of identifying training regimens that have a broad enough impact to transfer to a variety of tasks is thus highly appealing. This work reviews how complex training environments such as action video game play may actually foster brain plasticity and learning. This enhanced learning capacity, termed learning to learn, is considered in light of its computational requirements and putative neural mechanisms.
Video games are ideal platforms for the study of skill acquisition for a variety of reasons. However, our understanding of the development of skill and the cognitive representations that support skilled performance can be limited by a focus on game scores. We present an alternative approach to the study of skill acquisition in video games based on the tools of the Expert Performance Approach. Our investigation was motivated by a detailed analysis of the behaviors responsible for the superior performance of one of the highest scoring players of the video game Space Fortress (Towne, Boot, & Ericsson, 2016). This analysis revealed how certain behaviors contributed to his exceptional performance. In this study, we recruited a participant for a similar training regimen, but we collected concurrent and retrospective verbal protocol data throughout training. Protocol analysis revealed insights into strategies, errors, mental representations, and shifting game priorities. We argue that these insights into the developing representations that guided skilled performance could only easily have been derived from the tools of the Expert Performance Approach. We propose that the described approach could be applied to understand performance and skill acquisition in many different video games (and other short- to medium-term skill acquisition paradigms) and help reveal mechanisms of transfer from gameplay to other measures of laboratory and real-world performance.
Sport demand literature notes multiple sources of demand for a sport product. Two forms of direct demand come in the form of live attendance by patrons and purchases of pay-per-view (PPV) to watch sporting contest through a television set (Borland & Macdonald, 2003). That is, attendance and PPV purchases are both direct consumption of the sporting product. Recent theoretical discussion has noted the importance understanding both live attendees and television viewers of sport events in order for organizations to behave more strategically (Budzinski & Satzer, 2011). This study attempts to examine two sources of direct demand for the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC), one of the most popular combat sport organizations in the world. Prior research into the UFC has provided individual examinations of single sources of demand for televised events (Watanabe, 2012) or attending events in person (Tainsky et al., 2012). This research examines events from 2001 through 2012 and finds that an individual sport product may have different determinants for live attendance and television viewership.
Here we review the literature examining the perceptual, attentional, and cognitive benefits of playing one sub-type of video games known as 'action video games,' as well as the mechanistic underpinnings of these behavioral effects. We then outline evidence indicating the potential usefulness of these commercial off-the-shelf games for practical, real-world applications such as rehabilitation or the training of job-related skills. Finally, we discuss potential core characteristics of action video games that allow for wide learning generalization.
American universities, belatedly following their professional sports counterparts, are constructing new stadiums. A portion of the funds typically provided to athletic departments are drawn from general university resources. Besides increased revenue flows, indirect benefits that contribute to university objectives are typically cited as part of the demand for a new college stadium. Examples of these spillover benefits are an enhanced campus community, a higher quality student body, and more alumni donations. We analyze a university’s stadium proposal and apply standard capital budgeting techniques to the proposed stadium’s estimated cash flows. It is revealed that the project is a sound financial investment only under the most optimistic circumstances. Yet, the investment can be worthwhile to the university if the net value of the spillover benefits exceeds the financial loss. We consider all likely spillovers, and conclude that it is more likely the desired spillover benefits can be more efficiently achieved with other investment choices.
Historically, video games required little physical exertion, but new systems utilize handheld accelerometers that require upper-body movement. It is not fully understood if the metabolic workload while playing these games is sufficient to replace routine physical activity. The purpose of this study was to quantify metabolic workloads and estimate caloric expenditure while playing upper-body accelerometer-controlled and classic seated video games. Nineteen adults completed a peak oxygen consumption treadmill test followed by an experimental session where exercising metabolism and ventilation were measured while playing 3 video games: control (CON), low activity (LOW) and high activity (HI). Resting metabolic measures (REST) were also acquired. Caloric expenditure was estimated using the Weir equation. Mean oxygen consumption normalized to body weight for HI condition was greater than LOW, CON, and REST. Mean oxygen consumption normalized to body weight for LOW condition was also greater than CON and REST. Mean exercise intensities of oxygen consumption reserve for HI, LOW, and CON were 25.8% ± 5.1%, 6.4% ± 4.8%, and 0.8% ± 2.4%, respectively. Estimated caloric expenditure during the HI was significantly related to aerobic fitness, but not during other conditions. An active video game significantly elevated oxygen consumption and heart rate, but the increase was dependent on the type of game. The mean oxygen consumption reserve during the HI video game was below recommended international standards for moderate and vigorous activity. Although upper-body accelerometer-controlled video games provided a greater exercising stimulus than classic seated video games, these data suggest they should not replace routine moderate or vigorous exercise.