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Microbiological purity assessment of cosmetics used by one and several persons and cosmetics after their expiry date

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Background: Microbiological purity of cosmetics provides safety of users during their use, prevents physicochemical changes of a preparation, infections and diseases of the skin. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the level of microbiological contamination of cosmetics used by one person and by several people and cosmetics after their expiry date in relations to standards for marketed cosmetics, ensuring safety of their use. Material and methods: This study was conducted using 55 samples representing 19 types of cosmetics, divided into three groups: used by one person, used by several people and after the expiry date. In cosmetic samples the general numbers of aerobic mesophilic bacteria were determined with the spread plate method on tryptic-soy agar. The presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans were also checked. Results: The number of aerobic mesophylic bacteria in the tested cosmetics ranged from the level below the method detectability to 1.3×107 cfu/g or ml. The presence of Staphylococcus spp. was found in 11 (20.0%) tested cosmetic samples and of P. aeruginosa in one tested preparation. Yeasts C. albicans were not detected, whereas contamination with fungi Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. ranging from 0.5×101 to 1.5×101 cfu/g or ml was recorded in four cosmetics. The level of microbiological contamination of cosmetics used by several people was higher than that of cosmetics used by one person. Cosmetics after the expiry date showed the highest microbiological contamination. Conclusions: The number of users of cosmetic and it expiry date exceeding influenced the level of microbial contamination of preparations.
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http://wydawnictwa.pzh.gov.pl/roczniki_pzh/
© Copyright by the National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene
* Corresponding author: Krzysztof Skowron, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Nicolaus Copernicus University in
Toruń, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum, M. Skłodowskiej-Curie 9, 85-094 Bydgoszcz, Poland, phone/fax: +48 512-210-245,
e-mail: krzysztof.skowron@cm.umk.pl
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 2017;68(2):191-197
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
MICROBIOLOGICAL PURITY ASSESSMENT OF COSMETICS USED BY ONE
AND SEVERAL PERSONS AND COSMETICS AFTER THEIR EXPIRY DATE
Krzysztof Skowron1*, Agnieszka Jakubicz1, Anna Budzyńska1, Agnieszka Kaczmarek1,
Katarzyna Grudlewska1, Adrian Reśliński2, Eugenia Gospodarek-Komkowska1
1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Ludwik
Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Poland
2Department of General Surgery and Transplantology, Faculty of Medicine, Nicolaus Copernicus University in
Toruń, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Poland
ABSTRACT
Background. Microbiological purity of cosmetics provides safety of users during their use, prevents physicochemical
changes of a preparation, infections and diseases of the skin.
Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the level of microbiological contamination of cosmetics used by one person and by
several people and cosmetics after their expiry date in relations to standards for marketed cosmetics, ensuring safety of their use.
Material and Methods. This study was conducted using 55 samples representing 19 types of cosmetics, divided into
three groups: used by one person, used by several people and after the expiry date. In cosmetic samples the general
numbers of aerobic mesophilic bacteria were determined with the spread plate method on tryptic-soy agar. The presence of
Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans were also checked.
Results. The number of aerobic mesophylic bacteria in the tested cosmetics ranged from the level below the method
detectability to 1.3×107 cfu/g or ml. The presence of Staphylococcus spp. was found in 11 (20.0%) tested cosmetic samples
and of P. aeruginosa in one tested preparation. Yeasts C. albicans were not detected, whereas contamination with fungi
Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. ranging from 0.5×101 to 1.5×101 cfu/g or ml was recorded in four cosmetics. The
level of microbiological contamination of cosmetics used by several people was higher than that of cosmetics used by one
person. Cosmetics after the expiry date showed the highest microbiological contamination.
Conclusions. The number of users of cosmetic and it expiry date exceeding inuenced the level of microbial contamination
of preparations.
Key words: microbiological purity of cosmetics; cosmetics usage; overdue cosmetics; bacteria in cosmetics
STRESZCZENIE
Wprowadzenie. Czystość mikrobiologiczna kosmetyków zapewnia bezpieczeństwo podczas ich stosowania, zapobiega
zmianom zykochemicznym preparatu oraz infekcjom i chorobom skóry.
Cel badań. Celem pracy była ocena zanieczyszczenia mikrobiologicznego kosmetyków używanych przez jedną i wiele osób
oraz kosmetyków przeterminowanych w odniesieniu do norm dla kosmetyków wprowadzonych do obrotu, gwarantujących
bezpieczeństwo ich stosowania.
Materiał i metody. W badaniu wykorzystano 55 próbek reprezentujących 19 typów kosmetyków, które podzielono na trzy
grupy: używane przez jedną osobę, przez kilka osób oraz przeterminowane W próbkach badanych kosmetyków określano
ogólną liczbę tlenowych bakterii mezolnych metodą posiewu powierzchniowego na podłożu tryptozowo-sojowym.
Sprawdzono również obecność Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa i Candida albicans.
Wyniki. W badanych kosmetykach liczba tlenowych bakterii mezolnych mieściła się w przedziale od poziomu poniżej
wykrywalności metody do 1,3×107 j.t.k./g lub ml. Staphylococcus spp. wykryto w 11 (20.0%) badanych próbkach,
a P. aeruginosa w jednej. W żadnym z badanych kosmetyków nie wykryto drożdzaków C. albicans, natomiast w czterech
stwierdzono zanieczyszczenie pleśniami Aspergillus spp. i Penicillium spp. wahające się od 0.5×101 do 1.5×101 j.t.k./g lub
ml. Poziom zanieczyszczenia mikrobiologicznego kosmetyków używanych przez kilka osób był wyższy niż używanych
przez jedną osobę. Kosmetyki przeterminowane były najbardziej skażone mikrobiologicznie.
Wnioski. Liczba osób używających ten sam kosmetyk oraz przekroczenie jego terminu ważności wpływają istotnie na
poziom skażenia mikrobiologicznego preparatu.
Słowa kluczowe: czystość mikrobiologiczna kosmetyków, użycie kosmetyków, kosmetyki przeterminowane,
bakterie w kosmetykach
192 No 2
as: Serratia marcescens, Citrobacter freundii, P. putida,
Enterobacter spp. or Klebsiella spp. [20]. K. pneumoniae,
E. cloacae, C. freundi and S. marcescens may cause
pneumonia, urinary tract infections and sepsis [17, 20].
B. anthracis is the causing agent of anthrax, and B. cereus
is responsible for opportunistic food poisoning and eye
infections, may be found in cosmetics. Clostridium tetani
which causes tetanus have also been isolated [8].
Eye shadows and mascaras may be contaminated
Staphylococcus spp., P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae,
also with the microorganisms Micrococcus spp.,
Corynebacterium spp., Acinetobacter spp., Moraxella
spp., Neisseria spp. [20]. Micrococcus spp. are the
etiological agent of infections. Moraxella catarrhalis
and Moraxella lacunata are responsible for infections
of the respiratory tract as well as ears and eyes [11].
The fungi most frequently isolated from hand
creams and lotions are: C. albicans, Aspergillus niger
and Aspergillus fumigatus as well as Penicilium spp,
and mostly yeasts are isolated from mascaras and eye
shadows. Not only do fungi lower the quality of cosmetic
products, but they can induce infections of the skin and
mucous membranes, as well as hair and nails [17].
The aim of this study was to assess the microbiological
contamination of cosmetics used by one person and
by several people and cosmetics after their expiry date
in relation to the standards for marketed cosmetics that
ensure the safety of their use. Such studies are very
important. The obtained results helped assess the potential
health threat for people who use cosmetics both within
their expiry date and thereafter. This research also gave
the answer to the question whether the use of cosmetics
by several people increases the risk of it contamination
and increases the threat for its users.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
In quantitative and qualitative tests of
microbiological purity of cosmetics, 55 samples of
cosmetics were used representing 19 types of cosmetics
(Table 2), which were divided into three groups: (1)
cosmetics used by one person before the expiry date, (2)
cosmetics used by several people before the expiry date
and (3) cosmetics used after the expiry date. The same
categories of cosmetics were tested in each group of
cosmetic preparations. Expiry periods and the number
of people used tested cosmetics are presented in Table 2.
Cosmetics used in the study were conditioning
products intended to personal hygiene and beautifying
cosmetics, including preparations in aqueous and non-
aqueous form. Colour cosmetics were both dry cosmetics
and sticks and suspensions. Conditioning preparations
in which microbiological purity was determined were
characterized by oil-water character, as in the case of
emulsions, and a high content of water in suspensions,
uids and milks. These were cosmetics for hair washing
Microbiological purity assessment of cosmetics used by one and several persons and cosmetics after their expiry date.
INTRODUCTION
From obtaining raw materials, through the
technological process, to the use of the ready product
by a consumer, there is a risk of microbiological
contamination of a cosmetic products [17]. Avoiding
primary contamination, along with the cleanness of
production surfaces of devices, production hygiene,
microbiological air pollution, personal hygiene of the
staff and the quality of the used raw materials, ensure the
quality and safety of produced cosmetics [17, 25]. During
the use a cosmetic is exposed to secondary contamination,
connected with the way of its use by the consumer,
storage conditions, the type and size of a packaging, as
well as the time of use and the number of users of the
given product [17].
According to the guidelines contained in the Ordinance
of the Minister of Health of 23 December 2002 [22],
meeting both qualitative and quantitative requirements
(Table 1) allows for authorization of the cosmetic for
use. Quantitative requirements divide cosmetics into two
categories. Category I refers to cosmetics for children,
cosmetics intended for use in the area of eyes and on
mucous membranes, and the other cosmetic products
compose category II. Additional tests ale also performed
for the presence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp.,
Clostridium perfringens or Burkholderia cepacia, which
may pose a potential threat to the consumer [10].
Water and materials of animal, plant and mineral
origin used in production of cosmetics may cause their
contamination with microorganisms from the genus
Bacillus, Clostridium, Pseudomonas, Micrococcus,
Flavobacterium and yeasts [3, 21, 23]. For this reason,
cosmetics additionally must contain natural and synthetic
preservatives, ensuring their microbiological purity.
The microorganisms often isolated from
contaminated cosmetics in tests for microbiological
purity of cosmetics are relatively anaerobic species from
the genus Staphylococcus: S. aureus, S. epidermidis
and S. warneri [6]. The most common cause of skin
infections caused by the use of a cosmetic contaminated
with S. aureus are strains MRSA (methicillin-resistant
Staphylococcus aureus) [4]. The species S. aureus, being
an element of natural human microora, is responsible
for purulent skin infections, such as: folliculitis, sycosis,
boil, hidradenitis suppurativa and bacterial conjunctivitis.
S. aureus may cause bullous impetigo in newborn babies
(SSSS – staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome) caused
by epidermolysine generated by this species. [8].
Both in lotions, soaps, shampoos and cosmetics for
eye makeup the genus Pseudomonas is mainly represented
by P. aeruginosa and P. putida [20]. P. aeruginosa may
lead to eye infection, particularly to the ulceration and deep
infection of the cornea, which results to its damage [19].
Cosmetics for body rinsing and conditioning and
colour cosmetics may contain microorganisms, such
193No 2
Table 1. Microbiological requirements for cosmetic products [9]
Microbiological indices Number of microorganisms
Cosmetics of category I Cosmetics of category II
General number of aerobic mesophylic microorganisms
(bacteria and moulds) >100 cfu/g or ml >1000 cfu/g or ml
Staphylococcus aureus Absent in 0.1 g/ml Absent in 0.1 g/ml
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Absent in 0.1 g/ml Absent in 0.1 g/ml
Candida albicans Absent in 0.1 g/ml Absent in 0.1 g/ml
and conditioning, peeling, body lotions, face creams,
intimate hygiene washes and cleansing milks. The study
also involved cosmetics intended for children, which
included shower gels and skin conditioning creams.
Cosmetics of I category accounted for 49% of the tested
cosmetic products, and the other cosmetics 51%.
The spread plate method was used to assess the
microbiological quality of cosmetics. Three series of
dilutions were performed for each tested cosmetic.
Samples with a weight of 1 g or 1 ml were mixed with
the neutralizer (buffered solution of sodium chloride
with peptone with pH 7.0) in a ratio of 1:10 and
a series of decimal dilutions in 0.9% NaCl (Avantor)
were made to a level of 10-4. In hydrophobic cosmetics
an addition of 0.1% (m/v) polysorbate 80 was applied.
Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA) (Beton Dickinson) was used
to determine the total number of aerobic bacteria. Each of
the dilutions was inoculated on two Petri plates with TSA,
transferring 0.1 ml of prepared dilution and spreading it
throughout the agar surface. Cultures were incubated for
one day at 37˚C, and then the number of grown colonies
were counted on each medium and the number of bacteria
was determined, expressed in cfu/g or cfu/ml.
Microbiological quality tests of cosmetics were
carried out by introduction of a sample (0.1 g or 0.1
ml) into 200 µl of a neutralizer, thorough mixing and
inoculation of the whole volume on the culture media
suitable for the tested microorganisms. In the case of
hydrophobic cosmetics, an addition of 0.1% (m/v)
polysorbate 80 was applied. For positive samples,
grown colonies were counted and their number was
calculated for 1 g or 1 ml of the tested cosmetic.
To determine the presence of S. aureus we used
the Baird–Parker medium (BTL Sp. z o.o.), and grown
Staphylococci (incubation for 24 h at 37˚C) were
identied based on catalase formation, coagulase-
bound, the so-called clumping factor (CF), and free.
The presence of bacteria P. aeruginosa was detected
on the cetrimide medium (PYA, Becton Dickinson).
Cultures were incubated for 24 hours at 37˚C. The oxidase
test was used to conrm the occurrence of P. aeruginosa.
Fungi in the tested cosmetics were detected on the
Sabouraud medium with dextrose (Becton Dickinson).
Cultures were incubated for 24 hours at room temperature
and the presence of yeasts from the genus Candida
was evaluated, and then incubation was prolonged to
5 days under the same thermal conditions, to determine
the occurrence and numbers of moulds. Identication
of the grown fungi in respect of the genus was carried
out by the macro-and microscopic assessment of grown
colonies based on the mycological atlas [12].
RESULTS
Of the tested cosmetics before the expiry date
used by one person, the requirements concerning
microbiological purity were met by: peeling, where
microbiological contamination was 2×102 cfu/ml, and
cream for children, where no aerobic mesophylic bacteria
were detected (Table 3m). Contamination exceeding the
maximal values was also shown in 89.0% of cosmetics
used by one person. The highest level of microbiological
contamination among cosmetics used by one person,
exceeding the standards of microbiological purity, was
recorded in hand cream, where the number of aerobic
mesophylic microorganisms amounted to 2.8×106 cfu/g,
and the lowest in eye cleansing milk 1.5×103 cfu/ml
(Table 3). Based on the obtained results concerning
cosmetics used by several people (Table 3), it was
observed that 84.0% of the tested cosmetics underwent
contamination exceeding the adopted standards. Of
cosmetics of I category, the lowest microbiological
contamination with aerobic mesophilic bacteria was
detected in cream for children, 1.5×103 cfu/g, and the
highest in eye cleansing milk – 9.0×104 cfu/ml (Table
3). Based on the obtained results, it was stated that
the contamination of cosmetics of II category ranged
between 5×103 and 2.6×105 cfu/g or ml. The lowest
level of microbiological contamination of cosmetics of
II category used by several people was indicated in hair
mask, and the highest in uid (Table 3). No contamination
with aerobic mesophylic microorganisms was recorded
in intimate hygiene wash or peeling. Contamination of
face cream did not exceed 5×101 cfu/g (Table 3).
In 55.0% of cosmetics used by several people,
a higher microbiological contamination with aerobic
mesophilic bacteria was found than in the cosmetics
used by one person (Table 3).
The results of microbiological purity assessment
of cosmetics after the expiry date showed the highest
K. Skowron, A. Jakubicz, A. Budzyńska et al.
194 No 2
Table 3. General numbers of aerobic mesophylic bacteria in tested cosmetics
Cosmetic
Cosmetics used by one person,
before the expiry date
Cosmetics used by several people,
before the expiry date
Cosmetics after
the expiry date
Bacteria number
[cfu×ml-1]
or [cfu×g-1]
Standard
deviation
Bacteria number
[cfu×ml-1]
or [cfu×g-1]
Standard
deviation
Bacteria number
[cfu×ml-1]
or [cfu×g-1]
Standard
deviation
Body lotion 1,5×1047,1×1031×1045,7×1032,4×1063,8×105
Eye shadow 5×1037,1×1031×104-1,8×1062,6×106
Fluid 1×104-2,6×1053,7×1051,1×1067,3×105
Cream for children n.d.* - 1,5×1037,1×1025×1047,1×104
Hand cream 2,8×1068,3×1051,5×1042,1×1041,3×1073,9×106
Foot cream 1×1041,4×1045×1047,1×1042,8×1051,5×105
Face cream 2×1041,4×1045×1017×1011,6×1052,3×105
Face mask -** - 1×1051,4×105- -
Hair mask 1,3×1041,8×1045×1037,1×1031,3×1051,8×105
Eye cleansing milk 1,5×1032,1×1039×1041,3×1052,1×1052,6×105
Toothpaste 1×1041,4×1041,5×1047,1×1036×104-
Peeling 2×1022,8×102n.d. - 1,5×1022,1×102
Intimate hygiene wash 5×1037,1×103n.d. - 1×1064,8×105
Mouthwash 4,5×1042,1×1041,8×1042,1×1041,7×1042,4×104
Blush 2×1032,8×1031,5×1042,1×1043,2×1062,9×106
Shampoo 1×1041,4×1042×1042,8×1049,7×1056,8×105
Lipstick 1×104-3,5×1032,1×1032,2×1042,4×104
Mascara 1×104-1,5×1042,2×1045,5×1035×104
Shower gel for children 1×1041,4×1042,1×1048,9×1042×1032,8×103
* n.d.- not detected
** -- not tested/determined
Table 2. Expiry periods and the number of people using tested cosmetics
Cosmetic Expiry period (after open)
[months]
Time after expiry date
[months]*
Number of people using
cosmetic**
Body lotion 12 1 4
Eye shadow 24 6 2
Fluid 12 4 3
Cream for children 6 1 2
Hand cream 36 3 5
Foot cream 24 5 3
Face cream 6 2 4
Face mask 6 1 2
Hair mask 6 3 3
Eye cleansing milk 12 7 3
Toothpaste 12 1 4
Peeling 12 10 3
Intimate hygiene wash 6 1 2
Mouthwash 12 1 4
Blush 9 8 3
Shampoo 12 2 3
Lipstick 24 11 2
Mascara 6 5 3
Shower gel for children 12 2 2
* - concern tested cosmetics after expiry date
** - concern tested cosmetics used by several people
Microbiological purity assessment of cosmetics used by one and several persons and cosmetics after their expiry date.
195No 2
Table 4 - Presence of microorganisms in tested cosmetics
Cosmetic
Cosmetics used by one person,
before the expiry date
Cosmetics used by several people,
before the expiry date Cosmetics after the expiry date
Number of microorganisms
[cfu×ml-1] or [cfu×g-1]
Number of microorganisms
[cfu×ml-1] or [cfu×g-1]
Number of microorganisms
[cfu×ml-1] or [cfu×g-1]
Staphylococcus
spp.
P.
aeruginosa Fungi Staphylococcus
spp.
P.
aeruginosa Fungi Staphylococcus
spp.
P.
aeruginosa Fungi
Body lotion n.d.* n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
Eye shadow n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. 1,0×102
(1,4×102)n.d. n.d.
Fluid n.d. n.d. n.d. 1,5×101
(2,1×101)n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
Cream for
children n.d. n.d. n.d. n.w. n.d. n.d. 1,5*101
(0,7×101)n.d. n.d.
Hand cream n.d. n.d. 1,5×101
(2,1×101)
1,0×101
(0,1×101)n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
Foot cream n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
Face cream n.d. n.d. n.d. 1,5×101
(2,1×101)n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
Face mask - - - 6,5×101
(6,3×101)n.d. n.d. - - -
Hair mask n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. 1,5×101
(0,7×101)
Eye cleansing
milk n.d. n.d. n.d. 1,5×101
(2,1×101)n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
Toothpaste n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. 2,5*101
(2,1×101)n.d. n.d.
Peeling n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
Intimate
hygiene wash n.d. 2,1×102
(5,6×101)** n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
Mouthwash n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. 0,5×101
(0,7×101)
Blush n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. 0,5×101
(0,7×101)n.d. 0,5×101
(0,1×101)
Shampoo n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
Lipstick n.d. n.d. n.d. 6,0×101
(8,4×101)n.d. n.d. 2,5×101
(0,3×101)n.d. n.d.
Mascara n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
Shower gel for
children n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d.
* n.d.- not detected, **- standard deviation
level of contamination with aerobic mesophylic
bacteria of all the tested samples. Of the cosmetics
after the expiry date of I category, the highest level
of microbiological contamination was found in eye
shadow – 1.8×106 cfu/g, and the lowest in shower gel
for children 2.0×103 cfu/ml (Table 3). The number
of aerobic mesophilic microorganisms in the other
cosmetics after the expiry date ranged from 1.5×102
cfu/g in peeling, which was the only cosmetic after the
expiry date that met the requirements of the Ordinance
of the Minister of Health of 23 December 2002, and
1.3×107 cfu/g in hand cream (Table 3).
The presence of bacteria of the genus
Staphylococcus was indicated in 11 (20.0%)
examined samples of cosmetics. They included 6
(10.9%) cosmetics used by several people and 5
(9.1%) cosmetics after the expiry date. In the above
cosmetic products the lowest contamination caused by
Staphylococcus spp. was detected in the blush after the
expiry date and its contamination amounted to 5.0×10
cfu/g (Table 4). The highest contamination by these
cocci, which amounted to 1.0×102 cfu/g, was found
in the eye shadow after the expiry date (Table 4). S.
aureus occurred only in the lipstick after the expiry
date, and other species of this genus Staphylococcus
were present in the other cosmetic products.
Qualitative studies of microbiological purity for
detecting P. aeruginosa, show their presence in the
intimate hygiene wash used by one person. The studied
cosmetic contained 2.1×102 cfu/ml (Table 4).
K. Skowron, A. Jakubicz, A. Budzyńska et al.
196 No 2
No presence of fungi was detected in cosmetics
used by several people. Among the tested cosmetics
after the expiry date, contamination with fungi stayed
within range from 0.5×101 cfu/g or ml in the case of
the mouthwash and the blush and 1.5×101 cfu/g win
the case of the hair mask and the hand cream used by
one person (Table 4). The fungi that contaminated the
tested cosmetics were Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium
spp. No contamination of cosmetic preparations with
the C. albicans was recorded.
DISCUSSION
In the cosmetics used in this study no
physicochemical changes were found that could
indicate microbiological contamination, such as:
a change in colour, smell, change in consistence,
appearance of sediment or phase separation. Similar
study results are reported by Hugbo et al. [11], Abu
Shaqra and Al-Groom [1] as well as Mwambete and
Simon [15]. The results differed from the present were
shown by Muhammed [14], who noted changes in
colour, the appearance of sediment and cloudiness of
a cosmetic batch.
The majority of cosmetics tested in the present
study which were used by one person before the expiry
date did not meet the requirements of the Ordinance
of the Minister of Health of 23 December 2002 [22].
Preparations which contained a high percentage
of water were characterized by a higher level of
microbiological contamination. Similar results were
presented by Campana et al. [6], who indicated that
the microbiological contamination of preparations
stays within the range from 1×102 to 3×104 cfu/ml
for cosmetics for personal hygiene. No contamination
of oil/water emulsions and toothpastes were found.
Similar results were obtained by Lamikanra and Okeke
[13], who noted higher microbiological contamination
in water cosmetics.
Onurdağ et al. [18] results differ from the present
results of microbiological purity of used colour
cosmetics (100% contaminated samples). Only in 5
(6.9%) used make-up cosmetics Onurdağ et al. [18]
observed contamination with aerobic mesophylic
bacteria exceeding the standards of microbiological
purity.
In the present study, in the group of cosmetics used
by one person, rods of P. aeruginosa were isolated in
the intimate hygiene wash. Staphylococcus have not
been observed. In contrast to the results obtained by
Behravan et al. [5], Dashen et al. [7] and Campana
et al. [6], Staphylococcus spp. were the most often
isolated potentially pathogenic bacteria in this group
of cosmetics.
Varied microora, specic of each person, at not
following the principles of hygiene, is the cause of
a higher level of microbiological contamination of
cosmetics which are used by several people. Based on
the present study, it can be observed that Staphylococcus
spp., being an element of the human microora, are the
most often isolated from cosmetic preparations used by
several people (10.9% of samples). This is conrmed
by the results obtained by Anelich and Korsten [2], who
studied 58 samples of cosmetics and proved the presence
of bacteria from the genus Staphylococcus in 9.0% of
samples. The presence of Pseudomonas spp. was found
in 30.0% of samples, Enterobacter spp. - in 17.0%, and
the mould Aspergillus spp. in 13.0% of samples [2]. In
the present study, no Pseudomonas spp. were indicated in
this group of cosmetics. Naz et al. [16], in turn, observed
the presence of S. aureus in 100% of samples of make-
up sponges and brushes, and P. aeruginosa and fungi
in more than 50% of the tested cosmetics. The most of
used waxes were contaminated with S. aureus and P.
aeruginosa, and contamination with fungi was low.
CONCLUSIONS
Based on the obtained results, it was found that
the contamination of cosmetics which are past their
sell-by date or were used by more than one person
is considerably higher than in cosmetics before their
expiry date or used by single person. Most often
isolated potentially pathogenic microorganisms are
Staphylococcus spp., which constitute an element of
the natural microora of the human skin.
Acknowledgements
This research was nancially supported by the
Nicolaus Copernicus University with funds from
the maintenance of the research potential of the
Department of Microbiology DS-UPB no. 782.
Conict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conict of
interest.
Financial disclosure
The authors have no nancial interests related to the
material.
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available at: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/pl/deed.en
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The study was aimed at determining the microbiological quality of some brands of cosmetic powders sold within Jos metropolis. Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium tetani, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans were specifically targetted. A total of 60 samples; 20 each of three different brands of cosmetic powders were analyzed. The mean aerobic plate counts obtained were 1.6 x 10 4 cfu/g, 2.3 x 10 4 cfu/g and 4.5 x 10 5 cfu/g while the mean yeast and mould counts were 1.1x 10 4 cfu/g, 1.4 X 10 4 cfu/g and 2.7 X 10 4 cfu/g. Thirty (50 %) of the samples analyzed were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus, twelve (20 %) were contaminated with Clostridium tetani and four (7 %) were contaminated with Candida albicans. Bacillus spp was also isolated from four (7 %) samples while Pseudomonas aeruginosa was not isolated from any of the samples analyzed. The moulds isolated from the cosmetic powders include; Aspergillus niger, Apergillus fumigatus, Penicillium spp., Rhizopus oligosporus, Fusarium spp.
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With the surprising development across the cosmetic and personal care companies the re-utilization of cosmetic tools is of a common practice. Isolation and detection of human skin pathogens from 100 samples of beauty salon tools i.e., blusher brush, face sponge and wax has been done. All the samples were examined microbiologically for the contamination of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, yeast and fungus. It was observed that the percentage of Staphylococcus aureus was higher (100% in sponge, 100% in brush, 88% in wax) in the tools than Pseudomonas aeruginosa (69.6% in sponge, 81.8% in brush and 73.5% in wax), where counts obtained for fungus was 51.5% in sponge, 30.3% in brush and 20.5% in wax. It was observed that the major cause of contamination of saloon tools is repetitive usage on all costumers without considering the hygienic conditions.