ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

Woman is exposed to life cycles of vulnerabilities. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in women are three times than that in men. In most of women, biological event occurring in their reproductive function acts as stressor. The phenomenon of menstrual cycle is one of it. Recent studies prove the association of menstrual cycle and psychiatric disorders. Pre Menstrual Syndrome is one such commonly reported and highly prevalent disorder characterized by constellation of physical, emotional, cognitive and behavioral symptoms. An 18-year-old female patient reported to OPD with the complaints of extreme mood swings, irritability, sudden tearfulness, anger outbursts, nervousness, decreased concentration and forgetfulness one week prior to her menstruation which resolves with the onset of menstruation since 2 years. On physical examination, no abnormalities were detected. Mental Status Examination revealed abnormality in mood and affect, attention, concentration and thought process. Diagnosis was according to DSM IV criteria and assessment by Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire. Based on history, presenting symptoms and diagnostic criteria the case was established as Premenstrual Syndrome. So, the protocol for treatment planned was symptomatic. Internal administration of Hingvashtakadi vati, Ashwagandha capsule was given for 1 month and Satvavajaya chikitsa in the form of dhee dhairya atmadi jnana, ahitebhyo arthebhyo manonigraha was done once in a week for 1month. Mood related symptoms were completely relieved. Thought process was clear. There was improvement in attention and concentration. Keywords: Pre-menstrual syndrome, Satvavajaya chikitsa, Chittodvega, Ashwagandha
Content may be subject to copyright.
Shrilata et al / Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 8 (Suppl 2), 2017
119
Research Article
www.ijrap.net
AYURVEDIC MANAGEMENT OF PREMENSTRUAL SYNDROME: A CASE STUDY
Shrilata 1*, Suhas Kumar Shetty 2, Savitha H P 3
1PG Scholar, Department of Mano Vijyan evam Manasa Roga, Shri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara College of
Ayurveda & Hospital, Hassan, Karnataka, India
2Professor, Department of Mano Vijyan evam Manasa Roga, Shri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara College of
Ayurveda & Hospital, Hassan, Karnataka, India
3Associate Professor, Department of Mano Vijyan evam Manasa Roga, Shri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara College
of Ayurveda & Hospital, Hassan, Karnataka, India
Received on: 20/02/17 Accepted on: 01/04/17
*Corresponding author
E-mail: shrilata.mudipu52@gmail.com
DOI: 10.7897/2277-4343.08295
ABSTRACT
Woman is exposed to life cycles of vulnerabilities. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in women are three times than that in men. In
most of women, biological event occurring in their reproductive function acts as stressor. The phenomenon of menstrual cycle is one
of it. Recent studies prove the association of menstrual cycle and psychiatric disorders. Pre-Menstrual Syndrome is one such
commonly reported and highly prevalent disorder characterized by constellation of physical, emotional, cognitive and behavioral
symptoms. An 18-year-old female patient reported to OPD with the complaints of extreme mood swings, irritability, sudden
tearfulness, anger outbursts, nervousness, decreased concentration and forgetfulness one week prior to her menstruation which
resolves with the onset of menstruation since 2 years. On physical examination, no abnormalities were detected. Mental Status
Examination revealed abnormality in mood and affect, attention, concentration and thought process. Diagnosis was according to
DSM IV criteria and assessment by Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire. Based on history, presenting symptoms and diagnostic
criteria the case was established as Premenstrual Syndrome. So, the protocol for treatment planned was symptomatic. Internal
administration of Hingvashtakadi vati, Ashwagandha capsule was given for 1 month and Satvavajaya chikitsa in the form of dhee
dhairya atmadi jnana, ahitebhyo arthebhyo manonigraha was done once in a week for 1month. Mood related symptoms were
completely relieved. Thought process was clear. There was improvement in attention and concentration.
Keywords: Pre-menstrual syndrome, Satvavajaya chikitsa, Chittodvega, Ashwagandha
INTRODUCTION
Women are vulnerable for playing multidimensional task and
fulfilling various roles in biological, physical, social, emotional,
cultural and spiritual life. The biological aspects include the
reproductive functions whereas the emotional aspects include
intimacy, human relationships, feelings, and desires. Social
norms and socio cultural expectations also interact with women
mental health. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in females are
three times that in males 1. In most of the females, biological
event occurring in their reproductive function acts as stressor.
The phenomenon of menstrual cycle is one of it.
Menstruation is a normal physiological process in females
starting at the age of thirteen years and lasts till the age of forty-
five years. It is a cyclical phenomenon usually occurring every
twenty-one to thirty days and includes uterine bleeding for about
three to seven days. Recent study proves the association of
menstrual cycles and psychiatric disorders2. Pre Menstrual
Syndrome (PMS) is one of the life style disorders commonly
reported by reproductive-age women, resulting in affective,
cognitive & behavioural impairment. Prevalence of PMS is
about 90% in mild, 20-40% in moderate form and affects-
marriage or relationship issue, decreased work or school
performance, decreased social activity3.
There have been several hormonal hypotheses proposed to
explain the aetiology of premenstrual syndrome. General
assumption among research studies that peripheral ovarian and
other hormonal changes are merely simultaneous epiphenomena,
and/or is driven by the above central influences, but do not
actually exert behavioural effects4. Symptoms of PMS are
divided into eight domains- pain, water retention, autonomic
reaction, negative affect, concentration, behavioural changes,
arousal, control.5
CASE STUDY
A female patient of 18-year-old student from middle socio
economic status visited OPD with the complaints of extreme
mood swings, irritable, sudden tearfulness, anger outburst,
nervousness, decreased concentration, forgetfulness, 1 week
prior to her menstruation and resolves with the onset of
menstruation for 2 years but worsened since 6 months associated
with sleep disturbances, pains and ache symptoms.
Patient reports that she had suffered from these symptoms from
past 2 years but has recently noticed a gradual worsening in
overall intensity from 6 months. In addition, patient also had
trouble concentrating and to maintain a healthy relationship with
peer group. These symptoms significantly cause distress and
interfere with academic and personal life. Patient reported
Shrilata et al / Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 8 (Suppl 2), 2017
120
hospital in symptomatic phase. Onset was gradual, symptoms
aggravated 1 week prior to menstruation and relieved with the
onset of menstruation.
There was no relevant medical history but similar history is
reported by her mother. School performance was poor, did not
actively participate in school activities. Relationship with
classmates and friends was bad during symptom phase. Patient
stayed in a hostel away from home. Relationship with inmates
was moderate.
Menstrual History
Patient attained menarche at the age of 12 years. Menstrual
cycle was irregular for few initial cycles. Adaptation to
adulthood was difficult initially and gradually she accepted the
changes. There were no inter menstrual bleeding. Duration of
menstrual bleeding was 5 days. Regular menstrual cycle of 29
days since 5 years. Moderate amount of blood loss with clots
without foul smell with occasional dysmenorrhoea.
Personal History
Appetite- poor, Bowel and micturition- irregular, sleep-
disturbed
EXAMINATION
Mental Status Examination
Mood Irritable
Affect Anxious
Thought Process Preoccupied Fixed Thoughts
Cognition Reduced Attention & Concentration
Psychomotor Activity- Impaired
Vibhrama Pareeksha
Mano Vibhrama Altered Manovishaya and Mano Karma
Buddhi Vibhrama Vishamata of Buddhi
Bhakti Vibhrama Impaired Desires
Sheela Vibhrama- Impaired routine activity
Cheshta Vibhrama Impaired
METHODOLOGY
Diagnostic criteria: DSM IV6
Diagnosis: Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire7
Ayurvedic understanding of disease
Mithya ahara, not following codes and conduct of food, ati-
chintana, shoka, bhaya leads to vata prakopa. Vata in association
with kapha and pitta simultaneously vitiates manodosha and
rasadhatu. Further exposure to nidana makes vata move in
viloma gati presented as anavasthita chitta, udvega, glani,
rodana, pralapa, daha, shotha, sarvanga vedana etc. Since
pratyatma laskhana of this disease is related to mood and affect,
it may be diagnosed as chittodvega. Dosha pratyaneeka chikitsa/
laakshanika is followed here.
Treatment Given
Hingwashtakadi vati 1 tid before food was given for 1 month.
Ashwagandha capsule 2 bd with milk after food for 1month was
given. Satvavajaya chikitsa was carried out as main line of
treatment.
Table 1: Satvavajaya chikitsa in Pre- Menstrual Syndrome
Sessions
Problem
Goal
Method
1st session
Identification
Awareness about the disease
Jnana: Yoga-makarasana, bhujangasana; Pranayama-Nadishuddhi,
bhramari Vijnana- Relaxation
2nd session
Affective Symptoms
Insight orientation approach
Dhee dhairya atmadi jnana
3rd session
Cognitive symptoms
Regulation of thought process
To enhance concentration
Ahitebhyo arthebhyo mano nigraha
4th session
Behavioral symptoms
Regimen of conduct
Ritumaticharya, Achara rasayana
Table 2: Gradation index of Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire
1-No experience of symptoms
2- Barely noticeable
3-Mild: only slightly apparent to you
4-Moderate:aware of symptom but doesn’t affect daily activity at all
5-Severe: interferes with daily activity
6-Acute: partially disabling
0-47 : NO PMS
48-94 : Borderline
95-141 : Mild
142-188 : Moderate
189-235 : Severe
236-282 : Acute/PMDD
OBSERVATION AND RESULT
During treatment rapport was built immediately and patient was
getting convinced easily. In first session, awareness about the
disease and problem was identified, Jacobson’s progressive
muscular relaxation was done, yoga and pranayama was taught,
second session insight orientation approach was done by
adopting atmadi jnana chikitsa. Third session thought process
was regulated by correcting chintyadi mano vishayas by
incorporating principles of ahitebhyo arthebhyo manonigraha. In
fourth session advise about the regimen of conduct was given to
prevent the illness (Table 1) The patient was cooperative
throughout the session and well oriented. After completion of
treatment mood related symptoms were completely relieved.
Thought and perception was very clear. There was marked
improvement in attention and concentration. Questionnaire
grading showed marked changes from 149 to 78. (Table 2)
DISCUSSION
The occurrence of the disease is due to the current life style.
Hence as per present scenario the disease can be understood as
chittodvega with relation to menstruation. In charaka menstrual
disorders are explained in the context of yoni vyapath8. Hence
this case can be treated on predominance of doshas.
The exact cause of premenstrual syndrome is unknown,
although several different biological factors are explained
through psycho-neuro-endocrinology. It explains relation
between behavioral, mood changes, hormonal fluctuation and
hypothalamus dysfunction. Also, several hypothesis are put
Shrilata et al / Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 8 (Suppl 2), 2017
121
forward to explain the symptoms. The most obvious of these
involves aetiological role for fluctuations in ovarian steroids
which influence neurotransmitters: serotonin, noradrenalin, and
GABA. This explains impulse control, negative mood,
aggression and irritability. Fluid and electrolyte retention are
due to increased absorption/prolactin and sex steroid interaction
with rennin-angiotensin-aldosteron system9. So the drug which
is anxiolytic, anti-depressant, nootropic and neuroprotective
should be selected. Ashwagandha is a proven nootropic drug. It
reduces plasma cortisol level and urinary catecholamine and
balances hormones and HPA axis10,11,12.
Hingwashtakadi vati normalizes agni, koshta and relieves
physical symptoms thus stimulating action on brain13.
Ashwagandha acts both on body and mind, helps in relieving
most of the psychological symptoms, Satvavajaya in turn acts as
preventive and supportive therapy. It also works as nootropic14.
According to study, Yoga and pranayama calm anxiety by
slowing the heart rate15. Yoga helps relieving nervous tension,
anxiety blood circulation, also beneficial in maintaining muscle
tone, weight control or reduction and flexibility. Mainly it
regulates the levels of mood-regulating chemicals in the brain,
decrease in fluid retention and increases self-esteem that helps
the women in overcoming the distress of premenstrual
symptoms16. Combined effect of shamana and satvavajaya
chikitsa normalizes pranavata and results in anuloma gati of vata
helps in relieving symptoms of Pre-Menstrual Syndrome.
CONCLUSION
The symptoms involving physical, psychological, social and
behavioral changes should be tackled by combined treatment
covering yuktivyapashraya and satvavajaya chikitsa. In this
case, initially agni was corrected there by reducing most of
physical symptoms, multidimensional approach was carried out
to tackle psychological, biological and social disturbances. For
further improvement rasayana treatment may be advised.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We acknowledge our Principal Dr.Prasanna Narasimha Rao,
H.O.D and Staffs of Manasa roga department for their constant
support. Also acknowledge subject.
REFERENCES
1. Schorge JO, Schaffer JI, Hahorson LM, Hoffman BL,
Bradshaw KD, Cunningham FG. Psychosocial issue &
Female sexuality. US. Williams’s gyenecology. Copyright.
Newyork; MC Graw Hill Publications.2008; P.296-302
2. Yonkers KA. The association between premenstrual
dysphoric disorder and other mood disorders. The Journal of
clinical psychiatry. 1996 Dec;58:P.19-25.
3. Sadock J Benjamin, Sadock A Virginia. Comprehensive
Text Book Of Psychiatry.8ed.2005: P.2297
4. Janowsky, D. S., Gorney, R. & Mandell, A. J. (1967). The
menstrual cycle; psychiatric and ovarian-adrenocortical
hormone correlates: case study and literature review.
Archives of General Psychiatry 17,459-469.
5. American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and
Statistical Manual of MentalDisorders (4th ed.). Washington
D.C: American Psychiatric Press
6. Moos, R.H. (1968). The development of a menstrual distress
questionnaire. Psychosomatic Medicine, 30(6),853-867
7. Moos, R.H. (1985). Perimenstrual symptoms: a manual and
overview of research with the menstrual distress
questionnaire. Palo Alto, CA. Stanford University School of
Medicine, Social Ecology Laboratory
8. Acharya JT, The Charakasamhita of Agnivesa with the
Ayurveda dipika commentary by Chakrapanidatta. 5th ed.
Varanasi; Chaukhambha Orientalia; 1995.P. 635-636
9. Schorge et al, Williams Gynaecology, 2nd edition:Mc
Graw-Hill professional,2008:Psychosocial Issues and female
Sexuality:P.257-258
10. Ashwagandha- Scientific review on Usage, Dosage, Side
effects | Examine.com http://examine.com/supplements/
Ashwagandha/Feb 24, 2017
11. Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya A, Sairam K, Ghoshal S.
Anxiolytic-antidepressant activity of Withania somnifera
glycol with anoides: an experimental study. Phytimedicine.
2000 dec;7 (6):463
12. Misra SB. Bhavaprakasha edited with Vidyotini
commentary. 8th ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit
Sansthan; 2003; P. 393-4
13. Kiasalari Z, Khalili M, Roghani M, Heidari H, Azizi Y.
Antiepileptic and antioxidant effect of hydroalcoholic
extract of Ferula assa foetida gum on pentylentetrazole-
induced kindling in male mice. Basic Clin Neurosci
2013;4:299306
14. Amin H, Sharma R. Nootropic efficacy of Satvavajaya
Chikitsaand Ayurvedic drug therapy: A comparative clinical
exposition. Int J Yoga 2015;8:109-16.
15. Choudhary A, Mishra J. Effect of 16 weeks yogic
intervention in premenstrual syndrome. International journal
of pharma and bio sciences 2013 jan; 4(1): (b) 207 - 212
ISSN 0975-6299
16. Rani K, Tiwari SC, Kumar S, Singh U, Prakash J, Srivastava
N. Psycho-Biological Changes with Add on Yoga Nidra in
Patients with Menstrual Disorders: a Randomized Clinical
Trial. J, Caring Sci. 2016 Mar 1;5(1):1-9. doi:
10.15171/jcs.2016.001.PMID:26989661
Cite this article as:
Shrilata et al. Ayurvedic management of premenstrual
syndrome: A case study. Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm.
2017;8(Suppl 2):119-121 http://dx.doi.org/10.7897/2277-
4343.08295
Source of support: Nil, Conflict of interest: None Declared
Disclaimer: IJRAP is solely owned by Moksha Publishing House - A non-profit publishing house, dedicated to publish quality research, while
every effort has been taken to verify the accuracy of the content published in our Journal. IJRAP cannot accept any responsib ility or liability
for the site content and articles published. The views expressed in articles by our contributing authors are not necessarily those of IJRAP
editor or editorial board members.
... Group A -Showed significant results in immediate recollection in terms of short term memory Group B -Showed significant result in long-term memory enhancement Shrilata et al. [27] An 18 years old female of premenstrual syndrome, was subjected with a combination of SC as main line of treatment with 2 Ayurveda drug formulations for 1 month Her mood-related symptoms were completely relieved And thought process became clear. There was a significant improvement in her attention and concentration SC: Sattvavajaya Chikitsa [9] Murthy ARV [8] Singh RH [8] Dhanya [21] Indrani et al. [16] Bagali et al. [17] Behere et al. [10] Ayurveda psychotherapy Dhimdhime et al. [4] Mind control therapy Singh et al. [18] Rajendra V Kumawat et al. [22] Psycho -Behavioural therapy Vinayak et al. [19] Spiritual therapy Vidhyarthi et al. [20] Applied SC as "psychological counselling" Behere et al. [10] Mind control therapy Vyas and Dwivedi [23] Trance therapy/clinical hypnosis Sarma et al. [6] Cognitive behavioural therapy SC: Sattvavajaya Chikitsa and Tamas) and also corrects the imbalanced emotions of Dhee, Dhriti, Smriti, and Prajnaparadha. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sattvavajaya Chikitsa (SC) (Ayurveda Psychotherapy) is one among the brainchild concepts of Acharya Charaka (father of Indian medicine). In Ayurveda, SC is considered to be having the psychospiritual approach with a nonpharmacological treatment modality which solely deals on the mind and its related attributes. SC has 5 methodology, 2 principles, 3 dimensions, 3 psychotherapeutic domains, and 5 techniques. This psychotherapy helps in controlling Manas (mind) away from Ahita Artha (distractible, unwholesome objects/thoughts/perceptions). Withdrawal of the bothered mind from unwholesome objects is the prime focus of SC. Mainly focusing on the intelligence, consciousness, memory, and spiritual aspects of the affected individuals, SC aims at stimulating consciousness, altering, and discriminating the maladaptive thoughts/actions. Thus, it helps in managing psychiatric, psychological, and psychosomatic ailments. The present review article throws light on the detailed descriptions of basic doctrines of SC concept and also offers a brief note on its contemporary relevance, recent insights, and applied clinical facets. The paper reports the researches, reviews, and studies on SC encompassing nonpharmacological nootropic efficacy.
Article
Full-text available
Stress is a state of mental or emotional strain resulting from demanding circumstances. It's a universal experience, which has an important defensive function towards harmful psychological stimuli. Owing to this there are various pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments with fatal adverse reaction. The need of hour is to have a cost-effective adaptogenic drug. Adaptogens are compounds that increase the ability of an organism to adapt to environmental factors and avoid damage. Ayurveda explains these qualities under concepts of vyadhikshamatva (immunity). Ashwagandha is considered to be the best adaptogenic drug among shankhapushpi (Clitoria ternatea), yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra), brahmi (Bacopa monnieri), guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia), mandookaparni (Centella asiatica), etc medhya dravya (cognitive enhancers). This study reviews the Ayurvedic and modern literature related to stress and its management as adaptogens through Ayurveda. Ayurveda is the traditional system of medicine of India and contains a very scientific description of stress and general manovikaras (psychiatric illness). Ayurveda has been a great potential in the field of rasayana (rejuvenation) as there are lots of single herbs and preparations which possess adaptogenic properties and strengthens the physiological adaptation.
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Menstrual disorders are common problems among women in the reproductive age group. Yuga interventions may decrease the physical and psychological problems related to menstrual disorders. The present study was aimed to assess the effect of Yoga Nidra on psychological problems in patients with menstrual disorders. Methods: A total number of 100 women recruited from the department of obstetrics and gynecology and were then randomly allocated into two groups: a) intervention received yogic intervention and medication for 6 month, and b) control group received no yogic intervention and they only received prescribed medication). Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWBI) and hormonal profile were assessed at the time of before and after six months on both groups. Results: The mean score of anxiety, depression, positive well-being, general health, and vitality scores, as well as hormonal levels, in posttest were significantly different in intervention group as compared with pretest. But there was no significant difference in control group. Conclusion: Yoga Nidra can be a successful therapy to overcome the psychiatric morbidity associated with menstrual irregularities. Therefore, Yogic relaxation training (Yoga Nidra) could be prescribed as an adjunct to conventional drug therapy for menstrual dysfunction.
Article
Full-text available
Ayurveda is known for philosophical basis, and its approach to psychological ailments is quite different from conventional system of management. Satvavajaya Chikitsa (Ayurvedic psychotherapy) is a nonpharmacological approach aimed at control of mind and restraining it from unwholesome Artha (objects) or stressors. Withdrawal of the mind from unwholesome objects is known as Sattvavajaya Chikitsa or it is a treatment by Self Control. Charaka defines it as a mind controlling therapy in which a stress has been laid on restraining of mind from unwholesome objects. Thus, it includes all the methods of Manonigraha and Astanga Yoga (Yogic techniques) too. Indian philosophy portrays Astanga Yoga as a primary tool to control mind; hence it can be used as Satvavajaya Chikitsa. To evaluate efficacy of Satvavajaya Chikitsa and Aushadhiya Medhya Chikitsa for improving Smriti in young healthy volunteers. Totally, 102 physically healthy volunteers between age group 16 and 25 years were divided into two groups. In Group A, Satvavajaya Chikitsa was adopted in form of Yogic procedures such as Asana, Pranayama, Chanting etc., with counseling and placebo. Group B was Shankhapushpi tablets made with whole part of Shankhpushpi plant was used as standard control. The Weschler's memory scale (WMS) was adopted to collect data before and after intervention period of 2 months. Paired and Unpaired t-test were used for analysis the data in Sigmastat Software. Group A (Satvavajaya + placebo) with counseling showed statistically highly significant result (P < 0.001) in verbal retention for similar pair, verbal retention for dissimilar pair and visual immediate tests; while Group B (Shankhapushpi tablets) showed significant result (P < 0.01) in auditory delayed, visual delayed, auditory recognition and visual recognition tests. Satvavajaya Chikitsa shows better results in immediate recollection in terms of short-term memory; while Shankhapushpi found much better in long-term memory enhancement on various tests of WMS.
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Considering the prevalence of epilepsy and the failure of available treatments for many epileptic patients, finding more effective drugs in the treatment of epilepsy seems necessary. Oxidative stress has a special role in the pathogenesis of epileptic syndrome. Therefore, in the present study, we have examined the anti-epileptic and anti-oxidant properties of the Ferula Assa Foetida gum extract, using the pentylentetrazole (PTZ) kindling method. In this experimental study, sixty male Albino mice weighing 25-30 g were selected and were randomly divided into 6 groups. 1- the control group, 2- PTZ-kindled mice, 3- positive control group which received valproate (100 mg/kg) as anti-convulsant drug, 4-5 & 6- the groups of kindled mice that pretreated with 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg doses of Ferula Assa Foetida gum extract. Methods: Kindling has been induced in all groups, except for the control group via 11 PTZ injections (35 mg /kg; ip) every other day for 22 days. In the 24th day, the PTZ challenge dose was injected (75 mg / kg) to all groups except the control group. The intensity of seizures were observed and noted until 30 minutes after PTZ injection. At list, the mice were decapitated and the brains of all the mice were removed.. and their biochemical factors levels including malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide (NO) were determined. Results: Results of this study show that Ferula Assa Foetida gum extract is able to reduce seizure duration and its intensity. In addition, this extract has reduced MDA and NO levels and increased the level of SOD in the brain tissue compared to the PTZ- kindled mice. Discussion: It can be concluded that Ferula Assa Foetida gum extract, in specific doses, is able to show an anti-epileptic effect because of its antioxidant properties, probably acting through an enzyme activity mechanism.
Article
Aim:The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of Yoga intervention in females suffering from premenstrual tension and premenstrual syndrome. Settings and Design 32 recently diagnosed females with premenstrual tension patients were recruited for a randomized controlled trial comparing the effects before and after a Yoga program. Materials and Methods To evaluate the premenstrual symptoms and severity, a simple scoring system given by WHAQ was used. Symptoms were divided in 3 main categories that were Negative effect, Water retention and Impaired concentration, analyzed before and after the yogic intervention techniques. Statistical Analysis Used We used analysis of covariance to compare interventions before and after the Yoga practice. Result 32 females contributed data to the current analysis (n=32). The result suggest a significant decrease in the negative affect category (p=< 0.00001) and in impaired concentration category (p =< 0.0001). There was also a significant lesser decrease (P=< 0.001) in water retention category as compare before and after Yoga practice. Conclusion The result suggest possible benefits for yogic techniques (Asanas, Pranayama and Dhyana) in reducing premenstrual symptoms and preventing suffering from premenstrual tension and syndrome.
Article
The development of a Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ) is described. Each of 839 women rated their experience of 47 symptoms on a six-point scale separately for the menstrual, premenstrual, and intermenstrual phases of her most recent menstrual cycle and for her worst menstrual cycle. The 47 symptoms were intercorrelated and factor analyzed separately for each phase, and eight basically replicated factors were extracted from each of these analyses. These fac- tors, which represent separate but empirically intercorrelated clusters of symptoms, were labeled pain, concentration, behavioral change, autonomic reactions, water retention, negative affect, arousal, and control. Scores on these eight clusters of symptoms were slightly correlated with age and parity. The scores were not af- fected by the specific menstrual cycle phase a woman was in when filling out the questionnaire or by the length of time since the woman had experienced the symptoms. Menstrual cycle symptom-profiles graphically depicting a woman's menstrual symptomatology were constructed and illustrated. The need for and utility of standard methods with which to measure menstrual cycle symptomatology is discussed.
Article
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a premenstrual mood disorder that cyclically recurs during the majority of menstrual cycles. It is included under the category of "depressive disorders not otherwise specified" in DSM-IV. Given the placement of PMDD with other mood disorders in DSM-IV, the evidence suggesting an association between PMDD and other mood disorders is examined. Primary reports on the epidemiology, phenomenology, family history, psychobiology, and treatment of PMDD were examined for features that are commonly found in other mood disorders. There is an overlap in the symptoms experienced by women with PMDD and patients with other mood disorders. As in patients with other mood disorders, past episodes of mood disorder and family history of mood disorder are common in women with PMDD. Selected biological markers differentiate women with PMDD from controls, and some but not all antidepressants are effective in the treatment of PMDD. Many features of PMDD support its inclusion in the DSM-IV category of mood disorders. However, a number of factors (biological and cognitive studies, treatment response) differentiate PMDD from other mood disorders.
Article
The roots of Withania somnifera (WS) are used extensively in Ayurveda, the classical Indian system of medicine, and WS is categorized as a rasayana, which are used to promote physical and mental health, to provide defence against disease and adverse environmental factors and to arrest the aging process. WS has been used to stabilize mood in patients with behavioural disturbances. The present study investigated the anxiolytic and antidepressant actions of the bioactive glycowithanolides (WSG), isolated from WS roots, in rats. WSG (20 and 50 mg/kg) was administered orally once daily for 5 days and the results were compared by those elicited by the benzodiazepine lorazepam (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) for anxiolytic studies, and by the tricyclic anti-depressant, imipramine (10 mg/kg, i.p.), for the antidepressant investigations. Both these standard drugs were administered once, 30 min prior to the tests. WSG induced an anxiolytic effect, comparable to that produced by lorazepam, in the elevated plus-maze, social interaction and feeding latency in an unfamiliar environment, tests. Further, both WSG and lorazepam, reduced rat brain levels of tribulin, an endocoid marker of clinical anxiety, when the levels were increased following administration of the anxiogenic agent, pentylenetetrazole. WSG also exhibited an antidepressant effect, comparable with that induced by imipramine, in the forced swim-induced 'behavioural despair' and 'learned helplessness' tests. The investigations support the use of WS as a mood stabilizer in clinical conditions of anxiety and depression in Ayurveda.
Psychosocial issue & Female sexuality. US. Williams's gyenecology. Copyright. Newyork
  • J O Schorge
  • J I Schaffer
  • L M Hahorson
  • B L Hoffman
  • K D Bradshaw
  • F G Cunningham
Schorge JO, Schaffer JI, Hahorson LM, Hoffman BL, Bradshaw KD, Cunningham FG. Psychosocial issue & Female sexuality. US. Williams's gyenecology. Copyright. Newyork; MC Graw Hill Publications.2008; P.296-302
Comprehensive Text Book Of Psychiatry
  • J Sadock
  • Benjamin
  • A Sadock
  • Virginia
Sadock J Benjamin, Sadock A Virginia. Comprehensive Text Book Of Psychiatry.8ed.2005: P.2297