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In this paper performance of Home Energy Management System (HEMS) is evaluated using two meta-heuristic techniques: Harmony Search Algorithm (HSA) and BAT Algorithm. Appliances are classified into three categories according to their characteristics. Critical peak pricing is used for electricity price calculation as electricity pricing scheme. The main purpose is electricity cost reduction, electricity consumption, peak to average ratio reduction and maximizing User Comfort (UC) by reducing waiting time. Simulation results show the overall effectiveness of HSA.

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... In [28], the authors used BAT and harmony search algorithm to produce a nearly optimum schedule for eleven appliances. In simulation findings, CPP was employed as the pricing scheme. ...

... The authors of [13] adapt harmony search algorithm (HSA) and BAT algorithm to obtain a near-optimal schedule for 11 appliances. Critical peak pricing was used as a dynamic pricing program in simulation results. ...

Scheduling operations of smart home appliances using an electricity pricing scheme is the primary issue facing power supplier companies and their users, due to the scheduling efficiency in maintaining power system and reducing electricity bill (EB) for users. This problem is known as power scheduling problem in a smart home (PSPSH). PSPSH can be addressed by shifting appliances operation time from period to another. The primary objectives of addressing PSPSH are minimizing EB, balancing power demand by reducing peak-to-average ratio (PAR), and maximizing satisfaction level of users. One of the most popular heuristic algorithms known as a min-conflict algorithm (MCA) is adapted in this paper to address PSPSH. A smart home battery (SHB) is used as an additional source to attempt to enhance the schedule. The experiment results showed the robust performance of the proposed MCA with SHB in achieving PSPSH objectives. In addition, MCA is compared with Biogeography based Optimization (BBO) to evaluate its obtained results. The comparison showed that MCA obtained better schedule in terms of reducing EB and PAR, and BBO performed better in improving user comfort.

For the fulfillment of global energy demand, the best options are renewable energy sources due to their ease of availability and non-polluting nature. Hybrid system improves the efficiency of the overall system and provides better balance in energy supply. This study proposes a hybrid bat–dragonfly algorithm for providing optimal power flow in the wind–solar system by tuning the controller parameters. Bat algorithm has the featureless computing time with low accuracy, and dragonfly algorithm has the feature of high accuracy with more computing time. The accuracy of the controller tuning gets improved with less computational time by integrating the operations of both bat and dragonfly algorithms. Fuzzy rationale–based maximum power point tracking extracts the maximum power available in wind–solar system. The results show that the proposed hybrid algorithm provides better execution in the tuning of controller parameters compared with the existing optimization methods with a low level of total harmonic distortion. Furthermore, the proposed hybrid bat–dragonfly algorithm outperforms the benchmark optimization algorithms when tested.

Optimizing the power demand for smart home appliances in a smart grid is the primary challenge faced by power supplier companies, particularly during peak periods, due to its considerable effect on the stability of a power system. Therefore, power supplier companies have introduced dynamic pricing schemes that provide different prices for a time horizon in which electricity prices are higher during peak periods due to the high power demand and lower during off-peak periods. The problem of scheduling smart home appliances at appropriate periods in a predefined time horizon in accordance with a dynamic pricing scheme is called power scheduling problem in a smart home (PSPSH). The primary objectives in addressing PSPSH are to reduce the electricity bill of users and maintain the stability of a power system by reducing the ratio of the highest power demand to the average power demand, known as the peak-to-average ratio, and to improve user comfort level by reducing the waiting time for appliances. In this paper, we review the most pertinent studies on optimization methods that address PSPSH. The reviewed studies are classified into exact algorithms and metaheuristic algorithms. The latter is categorized into single-based, population-based, and hybrid metaheuristic algorithms. Accordingly, a critical analysis of state-of-the-art methods are provided and possible future directions are also discussed.

In recent years, demand side management (DSM) techniques have been designed for residential, industrial and commercial sectors. These techniques are very effective in flattening the load profile of customers in grid area networks. In this paper, a heuristic algorithms-based energy management controller is designed for a residential area in a smart grid. In essence, five heuristic algorithms (the genetic algorithm (GA), the binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO) algorithm, the bacterial foraging optimization algorithm (BFOA), the wind-driven optimization (WDO) algorithm and our proposed hybrid genetic wind-driven (GWD) algorithm) are evaluated. These algorithms are used for scheduling residential loads between peak hours (PHs) and off-peak hours (OPHs) in a real-time pricing (RTP) environment while maximizing user comfort (UC) and minimizing both electricity cost and the peak to average ratio (PAR). Moreover, these algorithms are tested in two scenarios: (i) scheduling the load of a single home and (ii) scheduling the load of multiple homes. Simulation results show that our proposed hybrid GWD algorithm performs better than the other heuristic algorithms in terms of the selected performance metrics.

Due to smart grid applications the consumers and producers are able to meet the demand of each others and thus take part in demand side management and demand response program. Hence smart grid leads to optimization of energy consumption and reduce high cost in today extensive demand of energy. In this research work we are reducing electricity consumption cost and load consumption using scheduling the appliances. The twenty appliances are used to schedule their energy consumption and load using heuristics techniques i.e. binary particle optimization, genetic algorithm and wind driven optimization, using the same data set for each technique and their results are compared with each other in order to find which technique do better optimization. Simulations are performed in matlab to show the cost and load reduction by the above three techniques and validate the experiment. The simulation results show that binary particle swarm optimization perform better than the other two techniques and wind driven optimization is better than genetic algorithm but not able to perform as binary particle swarm optimization, similarly genetic algorithm is least efficient as compared to both methods. Our research work is beneficial to meet the demand side management and help in reducing electricity cost and load for consumers.

In this paper, an optimal power dispatch problem on a 24-h basis for distribution systems with distributed energy resources (DER) also including directly controlled shiftable loads is presented. In the literature, the optimal energy management problems in smart grids (SGs) where such types of loads exist are formulated using integer or mixed integer variables. In this paper, a new formulation of shiftable loads is employed. Such formulation allows reduction in the number of optimization variables and the adoption of real valued optimization methods such as the one proposed in this paper. The method applied is a novel nature-inspired multiobjective optimization algorithm based on an original extension of a glowworm swarm particles optimization algorithm, with algorithmic enhancements to treat multiple objective formulations. The performance of the algorithm is compared to the NSGA-II on the considered power systems application.

In this paper, a new approach has been explained for the demand side management strategy. The problem of load shifting in order to minimize the peak demand and reduce the utility cost has been approached in hour wise manner, starting from the first hour till the last hour of the day. To fulfill the objective of load shifting through minimization problem, particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm has been modified foe the DSM problem and implemented in three area loads of smart grid i.e. residential, commercial and industrial.

Efficient demand side management through dynamic power pricing is an important application in the smart
grids. However, in the absence of a detailed user consumption model, it is difficult to set an optimal power price. In this paper, we propose to efficiently capture the user consumption behavior through a user-dependent acceptance price. Each rational user will decide its own acceptance price based on its desire to get served. Then, we model the selfish interaction between operator and users as a Stackelberg game, where the operator aims to maximize its profit, while the individual users try to pay the lowest price and be served in time. After each user selfishly declares its own acceptance price, the operator sets an optimal power price, based on the user feedback and taking into account the random output of the renewable power sources. Simulation results confirm that the operator can maximize its profit and the users get served in time, while the proposed scheme leads to the optimal usage of the renewable power production.

One of the most challenging problems associated with operation of Smart Micro-Grids is the optimal energy management of residential buildings with respect to multiple and often conflicting objectives. In this paper, a multi-objective mixed integer nonlinear programming model is developed for optimal energy use in a smart home, considering a meaningful balance between energy saving and a comfortable lifestyle. Thorough incorporation of a mixed objective function, under different system constraints and user preferences, the proposed algorithm could not only reduce the domestic energy usage and utility bills, but also ensured an optimal task scheduling and a thermal comfort zone for the inhabitants. To verify the efficiency and robustness of the proposed algorithm, a number of simulations were performed under different scenarios using real data; and the obtained results were compared in terms of total energy consumption cost, users' convenience rates and thermal comfort level.

In this paper, we comparatively evaluate the performance of home energy management controller which is designed on the basis of heuristic algorithms; genetic algorithm (GA), binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO) and ant colony optimization (ACO). In this regard, we introduce a generic architecture for demand side management (DSM) which integrates residential area domain with smart area domain via wide area network. In addition, problem formulation is carried via multiple knapsack problem. For energy pricing, combined model of time of use tariff and inclined block rates is used. Simulation results show that all designed models for energy management act significantly to achieve our objections and proven as a cost-effective solution to increase sustainability of smart grid. GA based energy management controller performs more efficiently than BPSO based energy management controller and ACO based energy management controller in terms of electricity bill reduction, peak to average ratio minimization and user comfort level maximization.

This paper studies the power scheduling problem for residential consumers in smart grid. In general, the consumers have two types of electric appliances. The first type of appliances have flexible starting time and work continuously with a fixed power. The second type of appliances work with a flexible power in a predefined working time. The consumers can adjust the starting time of the first type of appliances or reduce the power consumption of the second type of appliances to reduce the payments. However, this will also incur discomfort to the consumers. Assuming the electricity price is announced by the service provider ahead of time, we propose a power scheduling strategy for the residential consumers to achieve a desired trade-off between the payments and the discomfort. The power scheduling is formulated as an optimization problem including integer and continuous variables. An optimal scheduling strategy is obtained by solving the optimization problem. Simulation results demonstrate that the scheduling strategy can achieve a desired tradeoff between the payments and the discomfort.

In this paper, we focus on the problems of load scheduling and power trading in systems with high penetration of renewable energy resources (RERs). We adopt approximate dynamic programming to schedule the operation of different types of appliances including must-run and controllable appliances. We assume that users can sell their excess power generation to other users or to the utility company. Since it is more profitable for users to trade energy with other users locally, users with excess generation compete with each other to sell their respective extra power to their neighbors. A game theoretic approach is adopted to model the interaction between users with excess generation. In our system model, each user aims to obtain a larger share of the market and to maximize its revenue by appropriately selecting its offered price and generation. In addition to yielding a higher revenue, consuming the excess generation locally reduces the reverse power flow, which impacts the stability of the system. Simulation results show that our proposed algorithm reduces the energy expenses of the users. The proposed algorithm also facilitates the utilization of RERs by encouraging users to consume excess generation locally rather than injecting it back into the power grid.

In this paper, we utilize the GA method to optimize the start time units of all the OAAs to achieve our objectives. Since the start time unit is the only variable in our scheme and the constraint parameters are set in the beginning, we assume that the total fitness function is (14). In the selection process, we adopt a roulette selection method in which the individual with a better fitness value has a higher probability to be selected for further processing. In general, the time complexity of the GA process can be represented as O(generation number*(mutation complexity + crossover complexity + selection complexity)). Assume the maximal generation number, the size of the population, and the number of individuals are denoted by g, N, and na, respectively; therefore, the time complexity of our scheme is O(gNna). In this case, the time cost increases as the three parameters become larger, and, usually, the time cost of GA optimization does not satisfy people. However, in our approach, the power scheduling process is implemented at the beginning of the day; therefore, after time parameters are determined, there is enough time for power scheduling, and the algorithm running time problem is not so important. We think a time cost of a few seconds is acceptable. In this paper, the population size is 200; the probability of crossover and the probability of mutation are 90% and 2%, respectively. Finally, when the generation number reaches 1,000, the evolution process will finish.
Generally speaking, the relationship between electricity cost and DTRave is a tradeoff. In other words, as the value of DTRave increases, electricity cost decreases. However, the minimum electricity cost value would emerge at a position at which the DTRave value is about 50%, which is not definite, due to the random POE. From the result shown in Fig. 6, at the position that DTRave equals 0, it implies that the major consideration is minimizing the delay time; thus, in this case, ω1=0, ω2=1. However, when the minimum electricity cost is reached, ω1=1, ω2=0.

We propose a consumption scheduling mechanism for home area load management in smart grid using integer linear programming (ILP) technique. The aim of the proposed scheduling is to minimise the peak hourly load in order to achieve an optimal (balanced) daily load schedule. The proposed mechanism is able to schedule both the optimal power and the optimal operation time for power-shiftable appliances and time-shiftable appliances respectively according to the power consumption patterns of all the individual appliances. Simulation results based on home and neighbourhood area scenarios have been presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.