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Abstract

Algae (macroalgae and microalgae) are aquatic photosynthetic organisms largely used due to the variety of bioactive compounds in their composition. Macroalgae have caught the attention of the food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and nutraceutical industries. The food industry has recently used microalgae biomass, and several others have used it as biofuel source in wastewater treatments, for example. Many algae-derived secondary metabolites are known for their skin benefits, which include protection from UV radiations and prevention of rough texture, wrinkles, and skin flaccidity. It also avoids skin aging due to the presence of antioxidant compounds. The variety of cosmetic formulations using biocompounds or algae extracts is increasing since they also provide the desired safe materials from environmental resources. Although the cosmetic effects of some of these compounds were described in recent publications, the majority of biomolecules in algae species have not yet been studied and, therefore, are not be used for cosmetic purposed. Besides that, the majority of algae effects in cosmetics are described in patents without considerable explanation about the type of biocompounds or the mechanisms responsible for each cosmetic performance. Thus, this review aimed at a better understanding of the recent uses of algae in cosmetic formulations with potential applications for new researches.

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... The increasing use of microalgae in the cosmetic industry as extraordinary rich source of novel high-value functional products, obtained in eco-friendly and cost-effective processes, is widely recognized [1,2]. To date, more than 15,000 novel compounds of algal origin have been identified [3]. ...
... Nevertheless, all collected evidence until now suggests the great potential of AEM as novel commercial lipid sources for versatile cosmetic substances and products for skin care. In this regard AEM are comparable with their aquatic (marine and freshwater) counterparts and land plants, which have been much more intensively studied [1,2,291]. Twenty-three AEM have been already pointed out as promising for obtaining certain compounds, most of them from Chlorophyta ( Table 1). The potential of AEM as beneficial lipid sources can be recognized in two aspects, separately or in combination: (1) quantitative, since, in some AEM, the contents of valuable lipids are higher in comparison with other algae or plants (e.g., Parietochloris alveolaris is considered to be the richest natural source of the high value polyunsaturated ω6 AA, or Chlorodium ellipsoideum, in which zeaxanthin exceeded more than nine times that of red pepper, a plant source of zeaxanthin) and (2) qualitative, since, in some AEM, rare and unusual lipids were discovered (e.g., the three hydroxy FtAs in Dunaliella acidophila, such as methyl (12R)-hydroxyoctadeca-9Z,13E,15Z-trienoate, methyl (9S)-hydroxyoctadeca-10E, 12Z,15Z-trienoate and methyl ricinoleate, or the unidentified ST of Scytonema sp. and Dunaliella acidophila). ...
... Currently, different methods for obtaining nanoparticles from lipids have been developed and standardized [14,19]. Since algae from different ecological and taxonomic groups are rich in biologically active compounds, including lipids, they are increasingly becoming the focus of biotechnology [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]. However, to date, mostly aquatic micro-and macroalgae have been investigated, whereas the algae from aeroterrestrial and versatile extremophilic habitats have been more neglected. ...
Article
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Microscopic prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae (microalgae), which can be effectively grown in mass cultures, are gaining increasing interest in cosmetics. Up to now, the main attention was on aquatic algae, while species from aeroterrestrial and extreme environments remained underestimated. In these habitats, algae accumulate high amounts of some chemical substances or develop specific compounds, which cause them to thrive in inimical conditions. Among such biologically active molecules is a large family of lipids, which are significant constituents in living organisms and valuable ingredients in cosmetic formulations. Therefore, natural sources of lipids are increasingly in demand in the modern cosmetic industry and its innovative technologies. Among novelties in skin care products is the use of lipid nanoparticles as carriers of dermatologically active ingredients, which enhance their penetration and release in the skin strata. This review is an attempt to comprehensively cover the available literature on the high-value lipids from microalgae, which inhabit aeroterrestrial and extreme habitats (AEM). Data on different compounds of 87 species, subspecies and varieties from 53 genera (represented by more than 141 strains) from five phyla are provided and, despite some gaps in the current knowledge, demonstrate the promising potential of AEM as sources of valuable lipids for novel skin care products.
... Among carotenoids, astaxanthin, which exhibits a higher antioxidant activity than β-carotene and ascorbic acid, has an interesting depigmentation function that can protect skin from age spots by reducing melanin synthesis by 40% [30,31]. Zeaxanthin and other carotenoids also show the activities of UV absorption and tyrosinase inhibition [32]. Microalgae often contain high lipid contents including polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). ...
... These have diverse biological benefits, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory, anti-aging, photoprotective, anti-melanogenic, and skin-moisturizing properties [28,50]. Despite the great potential of microalgae for the production of diverse bioactive compounds, only a few species among more than 30,000 microalgal species have been used in some commercial applications, including Spirulina, Chlorella, Haematococcus, and Dunaliella [32]. Therefore, it is necessary to explore more microalgal species as candidates for their biotechnological and industrial applications. ...
Article
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Recently, there has been emerging interest in various natural products with skin protective effects as they are recognized as safe and efficient. Microalgae have developed chemical defense systems to protect themselves against oxidative stress caused by UV radiation by producing various bioactive compounds including a number of secondary metabolites, which have potential for cosmeceutical applications. In addition, microalgae have various advantages as a sustainable source for bioactive compounds with diverse functions due to their rapid growth rate, high productivity, and use of non-arable land. In this study, we aimed to investigate the cosmeceutical potential of ethanol extract from Nannochloropsis sp. G1-5 (NG15) isolated from the southern West Sea of the Republic of Korea. It contained PUFAs (including EPA), carotenoids (astaxanthin, canthaxanthin, β-carotene, zeaxanthin, violaxanthin), and phenolic compounds, which are known to have various skin protective functions. We confirmed that the NG15 extract showed various skin protective functions with low cytotoxicity, specifically anti-melanogenic, antioxidant, skin-moisturizing, anti-inflammatory, anti-wrinkling, and UV protective function, by measuring tyrosinase inhibition activity; melanin content; DPPH radical scavenging activity; expression of HAS-2, MMP-1, and Col1A1 genes; and elastase inhibition activity as well as cell viability after UV exposure. Our results indicated that the NG15 extract has the potential to be used for the development of natural cosmetics with a broad range of skin protective functions.
... 10,11 As a result, cosmetic research has been increasingly focusing on the investigation of ingredients from natural sources, 12,13 with less side effects, environmentally friendly, and with sustainable production methods. 14,15 Plants, macroalgae, microalgae, and cyanobacteria have been in the frontline for applications in the cosmetic field. To prove this statement, several products based on these organisms are already available on the market, namely, with antioxidant, whitening, photoprotective, and moisture attributes. ...
... To prove this statement, several products based on these organisms are already available on the market, namely, with antioxidant, whitening, photoprotective, and moisture attributes. 14 The cosmetic industry based on natural ingredients is indeed pivotal and in constant innovation, with the purpose of meeting customer requirements and needs. Despite the growing demand for cosmetics worldwide, cosmetics based on natural products are still a subject of major research. ...
Chapter
Being exposed to endogenous and exogenous stressors, and being the body’s external defense line, skin protection is of pivotal importance, in order to maintain morphological and physiologic integrity and health. Fostering by individual psychological comfort, esthetic performance, and young appearance, along with motivation for natural products with less side effects and sustainable production, consumer’s demands drive the cosmetic industry into the relentless pursuit for innovation. In this context, cyanobacteria enforce as a promising source of ingredients with cosmetic potential. With the ability to withstand adverse conditions for survival, the adaptation to extreme environments is reflected in the production of compounds with moisturizing, photoprotective, antioxidant, and whitening potential, all attributes required in cosmetics, namely in anti-aging products. In this chapter, we will focus on the interconnection between cyanobacteria and skin, by presenting the main applications of these organisms in skincare products. Keywords: Cyanobacteria; skin; cosmetics; natural products; moisture; photoprotection; oxidative stress; anti-aging
... It is noteworthy that many algal secondary metabolites, such as antioxidants, pigments, and vitamins, have been known to deliver beneficial attributes to dermaceutical products, including protection from ultraviolet (UV) radiations and prevention of photoaging such as rough skin surface, fine lines and wrinkles, uneven pigmentation, flaccidity, hair loss, and proliferative lesions [34][35][36]. Also, being considered safe materials from environmental resources, algal components are frequently used in cosmetic products as thickening agents and water-binding agents [17,34]. ...
... It is noteworthy that many algal secondary metabolites, such as antioxidants, pigments, and vitamins, have been known to deliver beneficial attributes to dermaceutical products, including protection from ultraviolet (UV) radiations and prevention of photoaging such as rough skin surface, fine lines and wrinkles, uneven pigmentation, flaccidity, hair loss, and proliferative lesions [34][35][36]. Also, being considered safe materials from environmental resources, algal components are frequently used in cosmetic products as thickening agents and water-binding agents [17,34]. Typical algal species utilized in the cosmeceutical industry include Chondrus crispus, Mastocarpus stellatus, Laminaria spp., Porphyra spp., Ulva lactuca, Ascophyllum nodosum, Alaria esculenta, Spirulina platensis, Nannochloropsis oculata, Chlorella vulgaris, and Dunaliella salina [17,37]. ...
Article
Hydrocolloids are a class of food additives with broad applications in the food industry to develop structure in food ingredients. Hydrocolloids can be synthetic, plant-based, or animal-based. Increasing consumer awareness has led to the use of natural food ingredients derived from natural sources, making algae-derived hydrocolloids more appealing nowadays. Algae-derived hydrocolloids such as carrageenan, agar, and alginate are widely used in the food industry as thickening, gelling, and emulsifying agents. Carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides with diverse structural specificities. The safety of carrageenan use in the food industry has been widely debated recently due to the reported pro-inflammatory activities of carrageenan and the probable digestion of carrageenan by the gut microbiota to generate pro-inflammatory oligosaccharides. In contrast, both agar and alginate are primarily nontoxic, and generally no dispute regarding the use of the same in food ingredients. This review provides an overview of the algae industry, the food additives, the algae-derived hydrocolloids, the applications of algae-derived hydrocolloids in food industries, health-related studies, and other sectors, along with future perspectives. Even though differences of opinion exist in the use of carrageenan, it is continued to be used by the food industry and will be used until suitable alternatives are available. In summary, algal hydrocolloids are 'label-friendly' and considered a safe option against synthetic additives.
... As a result, people have changed their preferences and opted for natural cosmetic products. Hence, the ever-expanding market for skincare products and continual search for an alternative natural ingredient has led to the development of a multitude of skin cosmetic formulations [5]. ...
Article
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Cosmetic industries are highly committed to finding natural sources of functional active constituents preferable to safer materials to meet consumers’ demands. Marine macroalgae have diversified bioactive constituents and possess potential benefits in beauty care products. Hence, the present study was carried out to characterize the biochemical profile of marine macroalga Chaetomorpha crassa by using different techniques for revealing its cosmetic potentials. In results, the FTIR study characterized the presence of different bioactive functional groups that are responsible for many skin-beneficial compounds whereas six and fifteen different important phycocompounds were found in GCMS analysis of ethanolic and methanolic extracts, respectively. In the saccharide profile of C. crassa, a total of eight different carbohydrate derivatives were determined by the HRLCMS Q-TOF technique, which showed wide varieties of cosmetic interest. In ICP AES analysis, Si was found to be highest whereas Cu was found to be lowest among other elements. A total of twenty-one amino acids were measured by the HRLCMS-QTOF technique, which revealed the highest amount of the amino acid, Aspartic acid (1207.45 nmol/mL) and tyrosine (106.77 nmol/mL) was found to be the lowest in amount among other amino acids. Their cosmetic potentials have been studied based on previous research studies. The incorporation of seaweed-based bioactive components in cosmetics has been extensively growing due to its skin health-promoting effects.
... Sun screen and anti-ageing formulations that contain species of microalgae Chlorella genus, consisting of predominantly intact microalgal cells and containing oil obtained by dry weight, have also been shown to soften and flexibilize both skin and hair [86]. ...
Article
Full-text available
A global tendency for products considered environmentally sustainable, and ecologically obtained led the industry related to personal care formulations to fund the research and the development of personal care/cosmetics containing ingredients from natural resources. Furthermore, consumers are aware of environmental and sustainability issueans, thus not harming the environment represents a key consideration when developing a new cosmetic ingredient. In this study we review some examples of active ingredients or raw materials used in cosmetics/personal care/biomedical products that are coming from either through biotechnological systems, or as byproducts of several industries. A skin formulation containing biosynthetic actives, prepared by us and the study regarding its dermocosmetic properties are also described. The need for the standardization processes, the safety assessment tools, the improvement of the exploitation methods of these renewable sources in order the production to be ecologically and economically better are also discussed.
... The algae mass harvested as part of the lake cleaning process could be explored in various ways to find usage for it. Phycobilins, chlorophyll, Beta-carotenoids, fucoxanthin, phycoerythrin, and phycocyanin are pigments found in algae which find application in food coloring, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and paint additives [11] [12] [13]. This study would create awareness of the potential use of microalgae harvested during the river cleaning season as a potential dye source. ...
... Other major chemical constituents present in the algae are lipids, proteins, and starch, with variable compositions deposited inside the cell (Mehariya et al., 2021;Veerabadhran et al., 2021). Microalgae are commercially significant because of their unique characteristics and are also an important source of bioactive composites (Ariede et al., 2017;Veerabadhran et al., 2021). Algae have been explored for large applications as a source of, e.g., fertilizers, cosmetics (Koyande et al., 2019a), biofuels, human and animal nutrition (Koberg et al., 2011), pharmaceuticals (Cohen and Cohen, 1991), synthetic materials, refineries, wastewater treatment, drug screening, food and nutraceuticals (Borowitzka, 1992). ...
Article
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The energy substitute for unsustainable fossil fuel is the need of the hour. Algae biorefinery platform provides an excellent alternate to overcome future energy problems. However, to let this viable biomass be competent with existing feedstocks, it is necessary to exploit genetic manipulation and improvement in upstream and downstream platforms for optimal bio-product recovery. Furthermore, the techno-economic strategies further maximize metabolites production for biofuel, biohydrogen, and other industrial applications. The experimental methodologies in algal photobioreactor promote high biomass production, enriched in lipid and starch content in limited environmental conditions. This review presents an optimization framework combining genetic manipulation methods to simulate microalgal growth dynamics, understand the complexity of algal biorefinery to scale up, and identify green strategies for techno-economic feasibility of algae for biomass conversion. Overall, the algal biorefinery opens up new possibilities for the valorization of algae biomass and the synthesis of various novel products.
... Among the commercial species of microalgae, Spirulina is one of the most essential microalgae for a wide range of applications in various industries [2][3][4][5]. as a source of vitamins [6]. to their non-toxic, non-allergic, and antimicrobial effects (FDA has banned the use of synthetic colorants) [7][8][9]. Furthermore, Spirulina contains the most important sources of pigments [10]. The phycocyanin and allophycocyanin have considerably been noticed world. ...
Article
In this research, a new cost-effective carbon source of medium was provided in terms of high-efficiency growth from Arthrospira maxima. Sugarcane molasses was used in two different modes (alternative and additive) at four different concentrations (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 gL-1) to determine the effect of new carbon source versus its standard carbon source of Zarrouk’s medium (NaHCO3). The experimental results were analyzed by Taguchi L8 method as a statistical technique. The highest biomass production obtained when sugarcane molasses was added as an alternative source, which was 5.31 times higher than the usual Zarrouk's media. Furthermore, final biomass concentration increased with increasing molasses concentration from 0 to 1.5 gL-1 in this group. At highest concentration, phycocyanin (at 0.11 and 0.12 gL-1), allophycocyanin (at 0.13 and 0.12 gL-1), carotenoids (at 2340 and 2535 mgL-1), chlorophyll a (at 23.83 and 24.83 mgL-1), and chlorophyll b (at 0.343 and 2.99 mgL-1) obtained when molasses were added as an additive and alternative sources, respectively. Finally, the replacement of standard carbon sources of medium with sugarcane molasses had the potential possibility in order to reduce the production costs of Arthrospira maxima growth.
... An example of the above is the approval by the FDA for use in preclinical studies of more than 60 antioxidant peptides. [157], the use of hydrolysates in animal feed [158], the incorporation in cosmetic products [159] and its implementation in different processes of the food industry [160]. In this sense, a series of works are presented below in which different uses of peptides obtained by proteolysis with pepsin of proteins of fish origin are highlighted. ...
Article
Full-text available
The fishing industry generates tons of waste of great intrinsic value due to its high content of biomolecules such as proteins. The processing of proteins can result in products with high nutritional, pharmacological, and technological interest due to the peptides that can be derived from them. This review work compiles the investigations that have performed on the production of peptides from proteins of fish origin using pepsin as catalyst from the corresponding hydrolytic reaction, with special emphasis on the description of each of the reported biological properties, as well as on some uses that have been explored for these peptides. This work may be useful to promote new research involving the use of pepsin in the production of bioactive peptides from fishery products, as well as for the development of mechanisms that allow their use in different industrial processes.
... Furthermore, Nannochloropsis sp. showed effective measures against UV-A and UV-B radiations [143]. Therefore, microalgal extracts are considered prospective sources of UV-A and UV-B absorbers with an antioxidant capacity to serve as an additive in photoprotective cosmetic formulations to prevent the harmful effects of UV radiation. ...
Chapter
The high UV radiation (280–400 nm) tends to damage the cellular structure of microalgae, changing their photosynthetic efficiency. However, microalgae show a tendency to adapt to UV radiation. For this, these microorganisms develop defense mechanisms and/or tolerance to UV radiation, such as DNA repair, and syntheses of antioxidants and enzymatic/nonenzymatic compounds. Moreover, depending on the dose of UV radiation applied in microalgae cultivation, as well as nutritional and process conditions, the chemical composition of microalgae is altered. The use of these cultivation strategies contributes to the production of macromolecules such as proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids to obtain various bioproducts. Therefore, the chapter addresses the potential of microalgae biomass for the extraction of compounds with potential UV protection capacity. The extraction techniques, cultivation strategies, the effects of UV stress, as well as the prospects for application for microalgae biomass and its metabolites are also presented.
... They can convert nutrients, either in an artificial medium or wastewater, into biomass with a wide range of possible high-value cellular constituents [41]. Among the most potential uses and products of microalgae biomass are CO 2 mitigation [42,43], agro-industrial and wastewater treatment [44,45], biogas upgrading [46][47][48][49], animal and human food supplements [50][51][52], pharmaceutical products [53], cosmetics [54], pigments and carbohydrates [55,56], proteins [57], vitamins [52], fertilizers [58], and biofuels [59][60][61][62]. The last, which are the most related product to biolubricants, have received a great attention and have reached significant progress in the last decades, demonstrating its reliability and acceptability in the industrial sector. ...
Article
Full-text available
Lubricants are materials able to reduce friction and/or wear of any type of moving surfaces facilitating smooth operations, maintaining reliable machine functions, and reducing risks of failures while contributing to energy savings. At present, most worldwide used lubricants are derived from crude oil. However, production, usage and disposal of these lubricants have significant impact on environment and health. Hence, there is a growing pressure to reduce demand of this sort of lubricants, which has fostered development and use of green lubricants, as vegetable oil-based lubricants (biolubricants). Despite the ecological benefits of producing/using biolubricants, availability of the required raw materials and agricultural land to create a reliable chain supply is still far from being established. Recently, biomass from some microalgae species has attracted attention due to their capacity to produce high-value lipids/oils for potential lubricants production. Thus, this multidisciplinary work reviews the main chemical-physical characteristics of lubricants and the main attempts and progress on microalgae biomass production for developing oils with pertinent lubricating properties. Also, potential microalgae strains and chemical modifications to their oils to produce lubricants for different industrial applications are identified. Finally, a guide for microalgae oil selection based on its chemical composition for specific lubricant applications is provided.
... In recent years, the demand for new bioactive compounds with potential health benefits has undergone a substantial increase. Many research groups have placed emphasis upon research on marine organisms, such as macroalgae, to find novel and sustainable sources of natural compounds for applications in the agri-food industry, pharmacology, foods and, more recently, in the field of cosmetics [1,2]. Macroalgae are a large and heterogeneous group of photosynthetic organisms characterized by a huge biodiversity and complex biochemical composition. ...
Article
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A growing concern for overall health is driving a global market of natural ingredients not only in the food industry but also in the cosmetic field. In this study, a screening on potential cosmetic applications of aqueous extracts from three Icelandic seaweeds produced by pulsed electric fields (PEF) was performed. Produced extracts by PEF from Ulva lactuca, Alaria esculenta and Palmaria palmata were compared with the traditional hot water extraction in terms of polyphenol, flavonoid and carbohydrate content. Moreover, antioxidant properties and enzymatic inhibitory activities were evaluated by using in vitro assays. PEF exhibited similar results to the traditional method, showing several advantages such as its non-thermal nature and shorter extraction time. Amongst the three Icelandic species, Alaria esculenta showed the highest content of phenolic (mean value 8869.7 µg GAE/g dw) and flavonoid (mean value 12,098.7 µg QE/g dw) compounds, also exhibiting the highest antioxidant capacities. Moreover, Alaria esculenta extracts exhibited excellent anti-enzymatic activities (76.9, 72.8, 93.0 and 100% for collagenase, elastase, tyrosinase and hyaluronidase, respectively) for their use in skin whitening and anti-aging products. Thus, our preliminary study suggests that Icelandic Alaria esculenta-based extracts produced by PEF could be used as potential ingredients for natural cosmetic and cosmeceutical formulations.
... Chlorella has a strong affinity with skin and hair, can provide moisture and suitable viscosity (as a natural thickener). Its extracts such as flavonoids and phenols have antioxidant activity, which can stimulate the synthesis of collagen in the skin and reduce the formation of wrinkles (Ariede et al., 2017). Adding C. vulgaris extract to the facial cream formula with avocado seed oil as solvent can increase in moisture and oil content in mice skin by 14.6% and 6.6%, respectively (Putri et al., 2020). ...
Article
Microalgae is an autotrophic organism with fast growth, short reproduction cycle, and strong environmental adaptability. In recent years, microalgae and the bioactive ingredients extracted from microalgae are regarded as potential substitutes for raw materials in the pharmaceutical and the cosmetics industry. In this review, the characteristics and efficacy of the high-value components of microalgae are discussed in detail, along with the sources and extraction technologies of algae used to obtain high-value ingredients are reviewed. Moreover, it also includes the latest trends in biotherapy based on high-value algae extracts as materials. In addition, the excellent antioxidant properties of microalgae derivatives are regarded as potential substitutes for safe and environmentally friendly cosmetic production. Only by further studying the mechanism of microalgae bioactive compounds and conducting reasonable clinical trials can safe and compliant microalgae-derived drugs or cosmetics be marketed.
... [256] Moreover, the tissue stimulating effects of C. vulgaris have enormous potential in cosmetic and skin care products, as it exhibits collagen-forming properties, anti-wrinkling, and anti-aging activities. [258,260] Drivers for the subsequent development of marine nutraceuticals A number of metabolites produced by marine organisms are considered as high-value commercial products for both the phytocosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. [261][262][263] However, several barriers hinder marine bioprospecting for product development and thus, they need to be addressed to increase the success rate of health products derived from marine sources. ...
Article
Full-text available
Nutraceuticals and natural health products globally represent one of the fastest growing sectors of research and development leading to novel products intended for disease risk reduction and human health promotion. The global nutraceutical market is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate of 8.3% from 2020 to 2027 to reach USD 722.5 billion by 2027. There is a need to respond to this sector by exploring the local resources to target the production of innovative products from plant/marine biofactors with high prospects for commercial ventures. This paper explores the nutraceutical potentials enshrined in biodiversity values in a small island state in view to promote sustainable agricultural development to facilitate available resources for the development of regimen for the management of health and disease and in essence, pharmacotherapy. The reported phytochemical composition and pharmacological activities, of the terrestrial flora and marine organisms with high propensity for development and production of nutraceutical products will be discussed. Bioactive phytochemicals encompassing the immensely diverse groups of phenolic acids, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, possess therapeutic virtues including anti-diabetic, antihypertensive, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory attributes, all of which are highly relevant to the budding nutraceutical industry.
... Cependant, malgré la grande diversité de cyanobactéries, trop peu de souches sont à ce jour étudiées pour espérer la découverte de nouvelles molécules. Toutefois, le potentiel que renferment les cyanobactéries fait aujourd'hui partie des sources de molécules naturelles, lesquelles intéressent les secteurs de la pharmaceutique et cosmétique (Burja et al. 2001;Mourelle et al. 2017;Ariede et al. 2017). ...
Thesis
L'Océan Pacifique sud-ouest et les eaux de la Nouvelle-Calédonie sont caractérisés par de fortes abondances en cyanobactéries. Parmi ces cyanobactéries, certaines ont la capacité de fixer l'azote atmosphérique (N2), et sont appelées cyanobactéries diazotrophes. Ces organismes sont connus pour contenir en proportions variables des métabolites et nutriments à haute valeur ajoutée qui leur confèrent un potentiel de valorisation économique possiblement intéressants pour la Nouvelle-Calédonie. Plusieurs de ces cyanobactéries ont été isolées en culture depuis les eaux côtières et hauturières du Pacifique·Sud-Ouest mais la caractérisation précise de leur diversité et de leur potentiel de valorisation restent encore inconnus. Dans l 'optique d'une meilleure connaissance de la diversité et d'une éventuelle valorisation économique, les objectifs de ce travail doctoral étaient (i) d'étudier la variabilité saisonnière de la diversité/activité des cyanobactéries diazotrophes dans le lagon de Nouméa, (i) d'effectuer une caractérisation morpho-génétique et protéomique de souches autochtones récemment isolées en culture et (iii) d'évaluer leurs potentiels de valorisation.
... Marine microalgae contain bioactive compounds like polyphenols, fatty acids, proteins while sulfated polysaccharides are used for antiinflammation. Consumption of these bioactive compounds prevents pathological diseases [150,151]. Arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in algae produce phospholipids used for brain membrane growth [152]. Algae seaweed is used as agar, hydrocolloids alginate and carrageen and as a viscosity modifier in pharmaceuticals and food. ...
Article
The present article reviews about the algae isolation, microalgae growth, types of cultivation, oil extraction, biodiesel characterization and the advantage of microalgae biomass and its other applications. A detailed review was undertaken on various microalgae harvesting methods, types of oil extraction and biodiesel production. The merits and demerits of open pond systems and photo-bioreactors cultivation are discussed briefly. The various microalgae species and its lipids used for biodiesel production were presented and compared with conventional feedstocks. This article also discusses the key process parameter for in-situ transesterification for biodiesel production such as molar ratio, stirring rate, moisture, reaction time, catalyst type and temperature. The fundamental characterization of the biodiesel and physiochemical properties such as flash point, cetane number, density, kinematic viscosity, pour and cloud point and calorific value were studied and compared with the results of conventional diesel. This study reports that oil from microalgae can be a suitable alternative than edible oils due to ease of growth, separation, and high lipid content. The properties of microalgae biodiesel meet ASTM standards. Overall, algae are not only a potential source for biofuel but can also be used in wastewater treatment, food additives, carbon sequestration, heath care, cancer treatment and aquaculture all of which are discussed in this review.
... M. D. Wang et al., 2015). Peptides derived from some algae may be used in cosmetic formulations for skin and hair care as body lotion, shampoo, hair restorer, hair colouring agent, soaps, among others (Ariede et al., 2017). AMPs could act as a preservative ingredient once they can inhibit several Gram-positive/negative bacteria and some fungus. ...
Article
Background Bioactive peptides have been studied in several sources due to their valuable potential in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. Algae, mussels and fish are examples of marine sources of bioactive peptides. Several biological properties have been identified in these peptides, such as antioxidant, antiatherosclerosis, anticancer, anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive and antimicrobial activities. Furthermore, peptides derived from marine sources may also be of great interest due to their functional properties, such as solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties, which could be beneficial for industrial application. Scope and approach This paper aims to review information about bioactive peptides isolated from different marine sources, focusing on the different biological activities and functional properties already described, and the different industrial applications exploited. Key findings and conclusions Enzymatic hydrolysis appears as the most used method for peptide production. Bioactive peptides have not been widely used individually, although marine protein hydrolysates are already used with different industrial purposes. However, due to all the bioactivities showed, marine peptides may be of great interest to industrial applications, such as active ingredients for food or cosmetic products; preservatives for food or cosmetics; anti-inflammatory cosmeceuticals; pharmaceutical or nutraceutical products to treat or prevent diseases, with potentially fewer side effects when compared with synthetic drugs. To incorporate peptides in industrial matrices it is essential to guarantee that they will not suffer modifications or lose bioactivity inside new matrices. To empower peptides action in pharmaceuticals, food or cosmetics, they must be able to resist to adverse external factors. Encapsulation may be of one of the most interesting approaches to increase peptides protection.
... Microalgae are increasingly becoming focused on in scientific research due to their widely distributed nature and wide range of potential applications. Already, bioactive substances [13][14][15][16] and other valuable materials [17,18] are produced in microalgae on an industrial scale. For the evaluation of the developed MIFC system we used the microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis (HP). ...
Article
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In the development and optimization of biotechnological cultivation processes the continuous monitoring through the acquisition and interpretation of spectral and morphological properties of bioparticles are challenging. There is therefore a need for the parallel acquisition and interpretation of spatially and spectrally resolved measurements with which particles can be characterized and classified in-flow with high throughput. Therefore, in this paper we investigated the scientific and technological connectivity of standard imaging flow cytometry (IFC) with filter-on-chip based spatially and spectrally resolving snapshot-mosaic cameras for photonic sensing and control in a smart and innovative microfluidic device. For the investigations presented here we used the microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis (HP). These microalgae are used commercially to produce the antioxidant keto-carotenoid astaxanthin. Therefore, HP is relevant to practically demonstrate the usability of the developed system for Multispectral Imaging Flow Cytometry (MIFC) platform. The extension of standard IFC with snapshot-mosaic cameras and multivariate data processing is an innovative approach for the in-flow characterization and derived classification of bioparticles. Finally, the multispectral data acquisition and the therefore developed methodology is generalizable and enables further applications far beyond the here characterized population of HP cells.
... Many microalgae are also characterized by their fast growth, flexibility, and adaptability to various environmental conditions. Being such a rich source of lipids, essential amino acids, pigments, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and other bioactive compounds in cells, microalgae can be widely applied in several industries such as human food, aqua-and livestock feed, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics [3][4][5]. ...
Article
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The importance of microalgal lipids for the survival and growth of shrimp postlarvae has been recognized in a range of studies. Microalgae with fast growth rates and high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are considered vital to maximise production and minimise cost in shrimp larviculture. The lipid content and fatty acid composition of microalgae used in shrimp production varies substantially between the algal classes and species being used in Vietnam. This study aims to characterise microalgal lipid and fatty acid (FA) profiles and evaluate the most promising species under growth conditions that are most suitable for shrimp aquaculture. Here, we report that the highest lipid contents were obtained in the Haptophyta microalgae, Tisochrysis lutea and Isochrysis galbana, at 90.3 and 61.1 mg/g, respectively. In contrast, two of the most popular diatom species being used for shrimp larval cultivation in Vietnam, Thalassiosira pseudonana and T. weissflogii, displayed the lowest lipid contents at 16.1 mg/g. Other microalgal species examined showed lipid contents ranging from 28.6 to 55 mg/g. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5ω3) ranged from 0.6 to 29.9% across the species, with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6ω3) present at 0.01 to 11.1%; the two omega (ω)–3 long-chain (LC, ≥C20) LC-PUFA varied between the microalgae groups. Polar lipids were the main lipid class, ranging from 87.2 to 97.3% of total lipids, and triacylglycerol was detected in the range of 0.01 to 2.5%. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) increased and PUFA decreased with increasing growth temperatures. This study demonstrated the differences in the lipid contents and FA profiles across 10 microalgal species and the effect of the higher temperature growing conditions encountered in Vietnam.
... [256] Moreover, the tissue stimulating effects of C. vulgaris have enormous potential in cosmetic and skin care products, as it exhibits collagen-forming properties, anti-wrinkling, and anti-aging activities. [258,260] Drivers for the subsequent development of marine nutraceuticals A number of metabolites produced by marine organisms are considered as high-value commercial products for both the phytocosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. [261][262][263] However, several barriers hinder marine bioprospecting for product development and thus, they need to be addressed to increase the success rate of health products derived from marine sources. ...
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Nutraceuticals and natural health products globally represent one of the fastest growing sectors of research and development leading to novel products intended for disease risk reduction and human health promotion. The global nutraceutical market is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate of 8.3% from 2020 to 2027 to reach USD 722.5 billion by 2027. There is a need to respond to this sector by exploring the local resources to target the production of innovative products from plant/marine biofactors with high prospects for commercial ventures. This paper explores the nutraceutical potentials enshrined in biodiversity values in a small island state in view to promote sustainable agricultural development to facilitate available resources for the development of regimen for the management of health and disease and in essence, pharmacotherapy. The reported phytochemical composition and pharmacological activities, of the terrestrial flora and marine organisms with high propensity for development and production of nutraceutical products will be discussed. Bioactive phytochemicals encompassing the immensely diverse groups of phenolic acids, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, possess therapeutic virtues including anti-diabetic, antihypertensive, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory attributes, all of which are highly relevant to the budding nutraceutical industry.
... Kurian and Coworkers examined the biological properties of melanin and use it in healthcare. The results of their study showed that melanin has anti-inflammatory properties and can increase [191] 2 Sehwanella algae BrY UV resistant [69, 192-195] 3 Chlorogloeopsis spp Prevention of damage from UVA and UVB radiation [196] 4 ...
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Melanin is a complex group of natural pigment substance, and it shows excellent biological and biomedical applications which is commonly present in algae, fungi, bacteria, cephalopoda, and sea cucumber. From the past few decades, great attention has been given to melanin and its derivative for the product development in the area of medical, industrial, food and cosmetic industries. In addition, melanin plays an important in pharmaceutical product development in antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory, immunomodulatory, radioprotective, and gastrointestinal benefits. In this review, we focus on melanin production from various marine species, summarized Purification and extraction strategies of various marine melanin with their analyzes and also their application in medical and industries.
... properties The use of macroalgae in cosmetics is quickly expanding as they represent a natural and active environmental resource. Several species are already used by several cosmetic industries in hair care, skin whitening, anti-aging, moisturizers, or in sunscreens (Ariede et al., 2017), but there is no reference on the use of tropical species for cosmetics in the literature. As previously discussed in section 4.1 and presented in Table 4, Dictyotaceae species synthesize a wide range of molecules with specific biological activities that could be used as active ingredients in cosmetics or health industries. ...
... Today, macroalgae and their derivates are widely used in many industries such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food industries (Tierney et al., 2010;Ariede et al., 2017;Wan et al., 2019;Lourenço-Lopes et al., 2020;Leandro et al., 2020;Teo et al., 2021). The algae such as Ecklonia maxima, Sargassum siliquosum, Sargassum swartzii and Gracilaria salicornia. ...
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The effects of different dietary levels of algae (Sargassum angustifolium) extract were investigated on the antioxidant system of common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Fish (30.2 ± 2.1 g) were fed 0 (control), 5, 10 and 15 g/kg basal diet of Sargassum angustifolium extract (SAE) for 60 days and then exposed to an environmentally relevant concentration of diazinon (2 mg/l) for 24 h. The biochemical assays was conducted in two times including at the end of feeding period and after 24 h exposure to diazinon. According to the results, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the liver remained unchanged (P>0.01) during feeding period, while significantly increased in response to diazinon in control and fish fed 5 and 10 g/kg diet SAE (P<0.01). The hepatic metabolic enzymes (AST: Aspartate aminotransferase, ALT: alanine aminotransferase, LDH: lactate dehydrogenase, CK: creatine kinase) showed no significant changes in all groups during feeding period, while these enzymes increased in Non-SAE supplemented fish and those fed 5 and 10 g/kg SAE after exposure to diazinon (P<0.01). Although little elevations were observed in the activity of hepatic antioxidant enzymes (CAT: catalase, SOD: superoxide dismutase, GPx: Glutathione peroxidase) in fish fed SAE, these elevations were not significant (P>0.01). After exposure to diazinon, antioxidant enzymes significantly decreased in control and fish fed 5 g/kg diet SAE, while the fish of 10 and 15 g/kg diet SAE treatments showed significant elevations (P<0.01). The antioxidant-related genes (sod, cat, gpx) significantly expressed more in response to dietary SAE compared to control (P<0.01). After exposure to diazinon, all groups showed significant elevations in antioxidant-related genes (P<0.01). In conclusion, the results of the present study revealed the antioxidant enhancing effects of SAE at dietary levels of 10 and 15 g/kg diet, which this effect may be attributed to some antioxidant components in the chemical composition of the macro-algae or to the direct effect of SAE on antioxidant defence system of the fish.
... Due to the ineffectiveness, toxicities, and harmful properties of synthetic ingredients, customers have switched their preferences and attribute toward sustainable natural cosmetic formulations [10]. Hence, the continually developing market for skincare products and continuous search for alternative sustainable ingredients led to the development of natural formulations [11]. In some parts of the world, there is the utility of seaweeds as a possible opportunity for formulating cosmeceutical products natural [6,12]. ...
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Background: The utilization of seaweed-based biologically active components in cosmeceutical formulations has been extensively rising due to skin health-promoting effects. Seaweeds have varieties of biologically active components and possess potential benefits in skincare products. Methods: Hence, the present study was done to characterize the bioactive constituents of green seaweed Chaetomorpha aerea by using the gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry technique in ethanolic and methanolic extracts for presenting its cosmetic potential. Results: In analysis, a total of twenty-one different components were found in both the extracts. Their cosmetic potentials have been studied based on previous research studies. In addition, we characterized 9-octadecenoic acid [Z]-, phenylmethyl ester which belongs to benzyloxycarbonyls class. This compound exhibits promising applications in the cosmeceutical sector. This compound has a target peak percentage area (16.64%) with a retention time (39.1 min) in methanolic extract. Conclusion: The incorporation of seaweed-based bioactive components in cosmetics has been extensively growing due to its skin health-promoting effects.
... Algae have been consumed by coastal localities worldwide since the beginning of human civilization (Dillehay et al., 2008). Microalgae are also utilized in the cosmetics industry or as animal feed (Huntley et al., 2015;Ariede et al., 2017). ...
Chapter
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The increasing demand of algal food supplement is growing tremendously. Algae are being consumed for functional benefits beyond the traditional considerations of nutrition and health. There is considerable evidence for the health benefits of algal-derived food products, but there remain considerable challenges in quantifying these benefits, as well as possible adverse effects. Algae are primary producers presenting a remarkable source of different nutrients. The high protein content of algal species is one of the main reasons to consider them as an important source of proteins, oils from microalgae rich in some PUFAs seem particularly suitable for children, pregnant women, vegetarians, and patients with fish allergies. Algae also represent an important source of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and natural colorants, the incorporation of the whole biomass in food and feed could be used to provide the color, increment nutritional value, and improve texture or resistance to oxidation. CHAPTER 2
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The development of eco-friendly cosmetic such as those from microalgae for skin regeneration and collagen synthesis has gained a great interest worldwide. Accordingly, the potential of microalgae biomass as source of anti-aging cosmetic cream with high antioxidant activity has been investigated. Stabilities and sensory characteristics of cosmetic creams supplemented with Spirulina, Tetraselmis sp. and Dunaliella sp. at 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5%, respectively, revealed a conservation of physico-chemical and preliminary stability properties of formulations. To analyze physico-chemical and textural parameters, accelerated stability study was evaluated under two thermal conditions (25 and 40 °C) during 90 days. Results showed that pH values of all formulations were within the limits of normal skin pH range under storage time at 25 and 40 °C. During this period, the colored creams showed a significant changes of a* and b* indices, reflecting the instability of microalgae colors. Microalgae modified the textural characteristics of emulsions. The Tetraselmis sp. containing-cream had the lowest (P < 0.05) values of hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness. The 0.5% Spirulina containing-cream had the best stable consistency and adhesiveness under time and temperature variations. It exhibited the best properties to be used for skin care products. Thanks to their high content in bioactive macromolecules, microalgae considerably improved the antioxidant activity of the new formulated skin creams.
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Since ancient times, seaweeds have been employed as source of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that could act as key medicinal components. Furthermore, research into the biological activity of certain seaweed compounds has progressed significantly, with an emphasis on their composition and application for human and animal nutrition. Seaweeds have many uses: they are consumed as fodder, and have been used in medicines, cosmetics, energy, fertilizers, and industrial agar and alginate biosynthesis. The beneficial effects of seaweed are mostly due to the presence of minerals, vitamins, phenols, polysaccharides, and sterols, as well as several other bioactive compounds. These compounds seem to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, and anti-diabetic activities. Recent advances and limitations for seaweed bioactive as a nutraceutical in terms of bioavailability are explored in order to better comprehend their therapeutic development. To further understand the mechanism of action of seaweed chemicals, more research is needed as is an investigation into their potential usage in pharmaceutical companies and other applications , with the ultimate objective of developing sustainable and healthier products. The objective of this review is to collect information about the role of seaweeds on nutritional, pharmacological , industrial, and biochemical applications, as well as their impact on human health.
Chapter
Among photosynthetic microorganisms, Cyanobacteria and Microalgae species have been highly studied thank to their high value-added compounds for several industrial applications. Thus, their production is increasing in the last decade to produce raw material for cosmetics. In fact, the daily routine includes the use of cosmetics and sunscreens to protect against the environmental changes, mainly the increment of ultraviolet (UV) radiation rate with a consequent skin damage and premature aging due to this overexposure. As it is well discussed, chemical UV filters are extensively incorporated into sunscreens formulas; however, they can induce allergenic reactions as well. For these reasons, some pigments derived from microalgae, such as astaxanthin, lutein, β-carotene as well as other biocompounds are now well described in the literature as well as biotechnologically manufactured as natural ingredients to be incorporated into skin care products with multifunctional benefits even for sunscreen purposes. Hence, this investigation summarizes the recent studies about the main pigments from photosynthetic microorganisms' biomasses as well as their uses in dermocosmetics with novel attributes, such as anti-aging agents, makeups, skin lightening and whitening, among others.
Chapter
Carbon one industry flux gas generated from fossil fuels, various industrial and domestic waste, as well as lignocellulosic biomass provides an innovative raw material to lead the sustainable development. Through the chemical and biological processing, the gas mixture composed of CO, CO2, and H2, also termed as syngas, is converted to biofuels and high-value chemicals. Here, the syngas fermentation process is elaborated to provide an overview. Sources of syngas are summarized and the influences of impurities on biological fermentation are exhibited. Acetogens and carboxydotrophs are the two main clusters of syngas utilizing microorganisms, their essential characters are presented, especially the energy metabolic scheme with CO, CO2, and H2. Synthetic biology techniques and microcompartment regulation are further discussed and proposed to create a high-efficiency cell factory. Moreover, the influencing factors in fermentation and products in carboxylic acids, alcohols, and others such like polyhydroxyalkanoate and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate are addressed. Biological fermentation from carbon one industry flux gas is a promising alternative, the latest scientific advances are expatiated hoping to inspire more creative transformation.
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Macroalgal pigments can serve as indicators of an environmental stresses due to their higher accumulation during these conditions. Even though they exhibit protective role, a stress can cause their degradation. Many factors influence the pigment content in macroalgae including the temperature of seawater, salinity and acidification, but they are also dependent on macroalgal species. Brown macroalgae are known for their fucoxanthin content, red macroalgae are characterized by the presence of phycobiliproteins, while green macroalgae contain highest chlorophylls amount. This review reports the main pigments isolated from three different macroalgal groups including brown (Ochrophyta), red (Rhodophyta) and green (Chlorophyta) macroalgae along with their bioactivities for the period 2016–2021. The methods of their isolation and analysis are systematically represented with an emphasis on comparison between the conventional and innovative extraction methods. The pigments antioxidant, neuroprotective, cytotoxic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive activities and others are summarized indicating the potential of targeted macroalgal species for being used as the sources of these bioactive compounds.
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Microalgae (Chlorella sp. HS2) have a high potential as a new biomass filler resource. Microalgae suspension is investigated depending on pH condition, focusing on microscopic sedimentation and a rheological behavior in order to understand in-depth the behavior of Chlorella sp. HS2 for harvesting process design. In terms of sedimentation analysis, it is found that Chlorella sp. HS2 cells settle down due to high density of 1.56 gcm−3. Meanwhile due to its small size and dilute concentration, the settling velocity is too slow for harvesting by natural sedimentation. Chlorella sp. HS2 cells undergo weak aggregation in the medium depending on pH condition. When the Chlorella sp. HS2 suspension (pH 5.4) is adjusted at pH 2.5, the surfaces of the microalgal cells turn neutral and cells are aggregated by van der Waals force between cells, leading to relatively faster sedimentation compared to Chlorella sp. HS2 cells without pH adjustment. The aggregation of Chlorella sp. HS2 cells depending on pH condition is reflected in rheological properties of the suspension. At pH 2.5, shear viscosity of the Chlorella sp. HS2 suspension increases and the suspension shows shear thinning behavior, meaning that the neutralized surface of Chlorella sp. HS2 makes cells aggregation. However, the aggregation of microalgal HS2 cells is easily dissociated and aligned along shear flow. Therefore, for the successful harvesting of biomass Chlorella sp. HS2, the flow and colloidal condition must be considered along with coagulation for rapid harvesting of cells.
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The cosmetics industry is expanding, and the quest for novel ingredients to improve and develop innovative products is crucial. Consumers are increasingly looking for natural-derived ingredients in cosmetic products that have been proven to be effective and safe. Macroalgae-derived compounds has growing popularity in skincare products as they are natural, abundant, biocompatible, and renewable. Due to their high biomass yields, rapid growth rates, and cultivation process, they are gaining widespread recognition as potentially sustainable resources better suited for biorefinery processes. This review demonstrates macroalgae metabolites and its industrial applications in moisturizers, anti-aging, skin whitening, hair, and oral care products. These chemicals can be obtained in combination with energy products to increase the value of macroalgae from an industrial perspective with a zero-waste approach by linking multiple refineries. The key challenges, bottlenecks, and future perspectives in the operation and outlook of macroalgal biorefineries was also discussed.
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Wastewater contains a significant amount of recoverable nitrogen. Hence, the recovery of nitrogen from wastewater can provide an option for generating some revenue by applying the captured nitrogen to producing bio-products, in order to minimize dangerous or environmental pollution consequences. The circular bio-economy can achieve greater environmental and economic sustainability through game-changing technological developments that will improve municipal wastewater management, where simultaneous nitrogen and energy recovery are required. Over the last decade, substantial efforts were undertaken concerning the recovery of nitrogen from wastewater. For example, bio-membrane integrated system (BMIS) which integrates biological process and membrane technology, has attracted considerable attention for recovering nitrogen from wastewater. In this review, current research on nitrogen recovery using the BMIS are compiled whilst the technologies are compared regarding their energy requirement, efficiencies, advantages and disadvantages. Moreover, the bio-products achieved in the nitrogen recovery system processes are summarized in this paper, and the directions for future research are suggested. Future research should consider the quality of recovered nitrogenous products, long-term performance of BMIS and economic feasibility of large-scale reactors. Nitrogen recovery should be addressed under the framework of a circular bio-economy.
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This reprint presents a print version of the Special Issue of the journal {Foods} dedicated to new insights into food fermentation. Food fermentation has been used for thousands of years for food preservation. At present, fermented foods remain appreciated by consumers thanks to the high-quality standards achieved and the improvements in terms of nutritional and organoleptic characteristics. The production processes, type of raw material, microbial cultures, etc., can affect these products’ quality and safety characteristics. A vast array of microorganisms can be found in fermented foods, and microbial succession during fermentation, as well as during ripening, contributes to the desired properties of these foods. In addition to the sensory and safety aspects, microorganisms present in fermented foods can positively affect people’s health due to their potential probiotic nature and the production of benefcial metabolites such as vitamins and antioxidant compounds. The goal of this Special Issue was to broaden the current knowledge on advanced approaches concerning food fermentation, gathering studies on conventional and unconventional food matrix fermentation, functional compounds obtained through fermentation, fermentations increasing quality and safety standards, as well as papers presenting innovative approaches shedding light on the microbial community that characterizes fermented foods. In the 13 papers collected in this volume, interested readers will fnd a collection of scientific contributions providing a sample of the state-of-the-art and forefront research in food fermentation. Among the articles published in the Special Issue, the geographic distribution of the studies is wide enough to attract the interest of an international audience of readers. The editors would like to thank the authors for their collaboration and commitment to publishing their high-quality scientifc articles.
Chapter
Phytoplankton activity underpins marine food webs, yet we have struggled to elucidate their diverse metabolism and physiology using traditional methods. Transcriptomics offers the ability to view the immediate cellular response of algae and algal communities to varying environmental conditions, as well as an alternative to sequencing the genome of protists, which can be challenging. Here, we review insights from transcriptomics into the ecology, evolution, and physiology of freshwater and marine phytoplankton, and offer best practices for the implementation of future transcriptomic projects on phytoplankton.
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Bioactive compounds of natural origin are gaining increasing popularity. High biological activity and bioavailability, beneficial effects on health and safety of use are some of their most desirable features. Low production and processing costs render them even more attractive. Microorganisms have been used in the food, medicinal, cosmetic and energy industries for years. Among them, microalgae have proved to be an invaluable source of beneficial compounds. Haematococcus pluvialis is known as the richest source of natural carotenoid called astaxanthin. In this paper, we focus on the cultivation methods of this green microalga, its chemical composition, extraction of astaxanthin and analysis of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anticancer activities. H. pluvialis, as well as astaxanthin can be used not only for the treatment of human and animal diseases, but also as a valuable component of diet and feed.
Article
S. platensis is a microalga that contains carbohydrate composition of 30.21% which makes it potential to be used as raw material for ethanol production. Hydrolysis of S. platensis is the first step for converting its carbohydrates into monosaccharides. The second step is fermentation of monosaccharides into ethanol. This research aims to study the effect of temperature and microalgae concentration on the hydrolysis of S. platensis using sulfuric acid as catalyst. This research was conducted using 300 mL sulfuric acid of 2 mol/L, hydrolysis temperatures of 70, 80 and 90 °C, and microalgae concentrations of 20, 26.7, and 33.3 g/L. The effect of temperature is significant in the hydrolysis of S. platensis using sulfuric acid. At microalgae concentration of 20 g/L and hydrolysis time of 35 minutes, the higher the temperatures (70, 80, and 90 °C), the more the glucose yields would be (8.9, 13.5, and 22.9%). This temperature effect got stronger when the hydrolysis was running for 15 minutes. Every time the hydrolysis temperature increased by 10 °C, the glucose yield increased by 13.0% at microalgae concentration of 33.3 g/L. At temperature of 90 °C and time of 35 minutes, the higher the microalgae concentrations (20, 26.7, and 33.3 g/L), the higher the glucose yields would be (25.5, 27.7, and 28.2%). The highest glucose concentration obtained was 2.82 g/L at microalgae concentration of 33.3 g/L, temperature of 90 °C, and time of 35 minutes.
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“Vegan” and “sustainable” characteristics are strong claim trends behind the development of innovative skincare, fragrances, and makeup products. This created a need in the market for compliant ingredients. To date, there have been no records evidencing the use of the microalgae Neochloris oleoabundans (NA) in dermocosmetics. Therefore, we studied the applicability of such a natural compound in this context. NA was cultivated, and the scavenging activity (SA) of the NA extracts was evaluated. The highest SA was from the aqueous extract (54.8% ± 2.1%), being higher than that of the positive control. Two hydrogels were prepared with 1.0% ammonium acryloyldimethyltaurate/VP copolymer: (1) control gel; and (2) gel with a 1.0% NA aqueous extract. In vivo experiments were performed in healthy male and female volunteers with skin phototypes of II–IV. The stratum corneum (SC) hydration and the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were measured in the forearm of participants to determine their biocompatibility. This parameter was determined by skin bioengineering measurements, confirming that SC hydration and TEWL were not affected by the samples. The laser Doppler measurements results showed a delayed erythema onset in the sites, where the NA hydrogel was applied. The results confirmed the biocompatibility and the anti-inflammatory activity of an innovative ingredient derived from microalgae suitable for a natural and vegan lifestyle.
Chapter
Microalgae are considered to be one of the promising sources for biofuel production given their fast growth rate and lipid production. Seawater and wastewater could be used as water source. Marginal land could be used as land resource. Microalgal biofuel production is still in the R&D stage. Algal production has presently been taken up at an acre-scale area. Open raceway ponds as well as closed photobioreactors have been pursued as growth systems. The main challenges are outdoor growth systems that can yield consistent high productivity, dewatering of algae after growth, extraction of lipids from algae without drying and suitable value addition from co-products. The present estimated fuel production cost is high and unviable. Value addition from co-products in the form of animal feed, industrial chemicals and nutraceuticals offers scope for viable integrated production that needs to be explored and evaluated.
Article
Macroalgae is marine biological resources that play a crucial role and have an important economic value. They synthesize bioactive compounds with different kind of biological activities, such as antioxidant, antitumor, including antibacterial. In the health sector, infectious diseases from bacteria is one of the problems that still increasing. In addition, E. coli besides having the capacity to be pathogenic agent, it also showed mutlidrug resistence (MDR). Antibiotic resistance is a serious problem worldwide. The increase of this phenomenon leads to the exploration of new antibiotics using natural resources as an effort to overcome the problem. Padina pavonica Hauck belongs to Phaeophyceae spreeding along Kabung Island waters, but its existence has not been widely used. The objective of this study was to evaluate antibacterial activity from ethanol and ethyl acetate extract of P. pavonica Hauck from Kabung Island, West Kalimantan against E. coli. The extraction was made using ethanol and ethyl acetate solvents, and the antibacterial activity test was realized with concentration series of 5 ppm, 10 ppm, 15 ppm, and 20 ppm. The quantitative assessment of the antibacterial test showed that both ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of P. pavonica Hauck had potential antibacterial activity against E. coli. The inhibition zone of ethanol extract was 11.6 mm, while ethyl acetate extract was 12.6 mm, respectively. These two solvents were included to the bacteriostatic category.
Book
PREFACE Cyanobacteria are among the most successful and ancient forms of life ever known. These photosynthetic autotrophs have been studied for decades as model organisms in various aspects, from photosynthesis to biotechnological applications and, more recently, for their pharmacological potential in umpteen fields. In fact, cyanobacteria are now recognized as top metabolic producers of a huge number of bioactive compounds with medical interest and that can revolutionize drug discovery and development. Allied to their metabolic capabilities, cyanobacteria benefit from a cost-effective energy-capturing ability, and high cultivation yields with minimum nutritional requirements, being extremely attractive in terms of industrial-scale production processes. This book was designed to bring together fields in which cyanobacteria derived compounds most stood out, with a special focus on those related to therapeutics, cosmetics, and nutrition, emphasizing unique molecules not found in higher organisms. Of the most promising compounds isolated so far, those acting as anti-inflammatories, anti-carcinogens, antimicrobials, and UV protectors fill a prominent place within drug discovery programs. The metabolic richness of cyanobacteria has also been upholding their key role in the field of cosmetics and nutraceuticals, with the last occupying a prominent place in a rapidly expanding market. Apart from the pharmacological and biotechnological approach, this book does not set aside the well-known cyanobacterial toxins, warning to their substantial economic and social impacts, and drawing attention to the urgency of fully addressing algal blooms and their systematic monitoring. Additionally, and given its extreme importance, this book provides a distinctive approach to cyanobacteria systematics, by exploring general aspects and biodiversity of these organisms to discuss trends in cyanobacterial taxonomy. Overall, The Pharmacological Potential of Cyanobacteria is intended to be a useful resource for students, researchers, and professionals working in the field of cyanobacteria, serving as a guide in the discovery, research, and application of these unique microorganisms. Graciliana Lopes, Marisa Silva and Vitor Vasconcelos
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The beneficial properties of algae make them perfect functional ingredients for food products. Algae have a high energy value and are a source of biologically active substances, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, and macro- and microelements. They are also rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, proteins, mycosporine-like amino acids, polysaccharides, polyphenols, carotenoids, sterols, steroids, lectins, halogenated compounds, polyketides, alkaloids, and carrageenans. Different extraction parameters are used depending on the purpose and the substances to be isolated. In this study, the following parameters were used: hydromodule 1:10 and an extraction duration of 1–2 h at the extraction temperature of 25–40 °C. A 30–50% solution of ethanol in water was used as an extractant. Algae extracts can be considered as potential natural sources of biologically active compounds with antimicrobial activity and antiviral properties. The content of crude protein, crude fat, and carbohydrates in U. Prolifera, C. racemosa var. peltata (Chlorophyta), S. oligocystum and S. fusiforme (SF-1) was studied. It was found that C. muelleri (Bacillariophyta), I. galbana (Haptophyta), and T. weissflogii (Bacillariophyta) contain about 1.9 times more omega-3 than omega-6 fatty acids. N. gaditana (Ochrophyta), D. salina (Chlorophyta), P. tricornutum (Bacillaryophyta) and I. galbana (Haptophyta) extracts showed inhibitory activity of varying intensities against E. coli or P. aeruginosa. In addition, algae and algae-derived compounds have been proposed to offer attractive possibilities in the food industry, especially in the meat sector, to evolve functional foods with myriad functionalities. Algae can increase the biological activity of food products, while the further study of the structure of compounds found in algae can broaden their future application possibilities.
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Recent years have seen a significant increase in the number of patents related to products and/or processes from aquatic organisms. Therefore, this paper aims to identify patent documents related to fishery resources available in the Brazilian patent system of the National Institute of Industrial Property. The research involved patents deposited/provided between 1999 and 2019, with the search in the system occurring through the descriptors: fish(s), mollusk(s), crustacean(s), and algae(s). A total of 363 records were found, where the group of fish presented the highest representation (40%), followed by algae (35%), crustaceans (14%), and mollusks (10%). The apex of 34 patent applications was found in the year 2011. Moreover, the results showed that the inventions registered are directed mainly to food, drugs, biocides, cosmetics, cultivation, processing and beneficiation, water treatment, patents for sustainable technologies (green patents), and biotechnology. Brazil holds most patent applications, followed by the United States of America (USA), which focuses its patent applications mainly on algae and fish. Considering the Brazilian biodiversity and the country’s technological development in recent years, Brazil needs to expand its technological autonomy and competitive capacity in the aquaculture and fisheries sector, mainly through the strengthening of R&D and innovation activities.
Article
This study aims to collect microalgae from high Andean areas and evaluate their potential as natural ingredients in the cosmetics industry. The cell growth, pigment concentration, antioxidant activity, and polyphenols content of two microalgae of the genus Pediastrum (IMP-BG288 and IMP-BG255) collected from high Andean lagoons of more than 3,000 m.a.s.l. (Ayacucho, Peru) were evaluated. The cultures were exposed to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (400-700 nm) and PAR with ultraviolet radiation A and B (PAB) (280-700 nm) in 2 l photobioreactors. Cultures of the genus Pediastrum sp. subjected to PAB radiation showed greater growth until the sixth day, when they reached the end of their exponential phase. The maximum concentrations of lutein and chlorophyll a and b were 6.96 ± 0.21, 1.64 ± 0.05, and 0.84 ± 0.06 mg/g, respectively; total antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content were 221.7 ± 11.76 µmol eq. Trolox/g and 7.36 ± 0.53 mg GAE/g, respectively, after being subjected to PAR. Conclusively, high Andean microalgae possess adaptation mechanisms that help them to cope with a high radiation flux. The high concentrations of antioxidants and pigments in the strain taken from 4,400 m.a.s.l (IMP-BG288) suggest its greatest cosmetic potential.
Book
Cyanobacteria are among the most successful and ancient forms of life ever known. These photosynthetic autotrophs have been studied for decades as model organisms in various aspects, from photosynthesis to biotechnological applications and, more recently, for their pharmacological potential in umpteen fields. In fact, cyanobacteria are now recognized as top metabolic producers of a huge number of bioactive compounds with medical interest and that can revolutionize drug discovery and development. Allied to their metabolic capabilities, cyanobacteria benefit from a cost-effective energy-capturing ability, and high cultivation yields with minimum nutritional requirements, being extremely attractive in terms of industrial-scale production processes. This book was designed to bring together fields in which cyanobacteria derived compounds most stood out, with a special focus on those related to therapeutics, cosmetics, and nutrition, emphasizing unique molecules not found in higher organisms. Of the most promising compounds isolated so far, those acting as anti-inflammatories, anti-carcinogens, antimicrobials, and UV protectors fill a prominent place within drug discovery programs. The metabolic richness of cyanobacteria has also been upholding their key role in the field of cosmetics and nutraceuticals, with the last occupying a prominent place in a rapidly expanding market. Apart from the pharmacological and biotechnological approach, this book does not set aside the well-known cyanobacterial toxins, warning to their substantial economic and social impacts, and drawing attention to the urgency of fully addressing algal blooms and their systematic monitoring. Additionally, and given its extreme importance, this book provides a distinctive approach to cyanobacteria systematics, by exploring general aspects and biodiversity of these organisms to discuss trends in cyanobacterial taxonomy. Overall, The Pharmacological Potential of Cyanobacteria is intended to be a useful resource for students, researchers, and professionals working in the field of cyanobacteria, serving as a guide in the discovery, research, and application of these unique microorganisms. Graciliana Lopes, Marisa Silva and Vitor Vasconcelos
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The biometrological measurements of skin hydration and transepidermal water loss are important parameters to evaluate the moisturizing ability of creams and lotions suitable for this purpose. This study analyzed, through biometrological tests, the performance of five different commercial moisturizing creams containing 10.0 % urea. The amount of water in the stratum corneum was analyzed by Corneometer®, equipment that measures the skin hydration by capacitance principle. The transepidermal water loss was analyzed by TEWLmeter®, equipment that measures water evaporation through the skin. Student t-tests were applied to these measures, which demonstrated significant differences between the hydration performances of the moisturizing creams analyzed. The moisturizer identified as "D" showed a better moisturizing ability and better prevented transepidermal water loss. Overall, results showed the importance of testing equivalence for topical products, since, as demonstrated in this study, although certain products may contain the same active substance, differences in their vehicles’ composition can alter the effectiveness.
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The implications of diet on health sustainability have assumed a major importance, supported by considerable epidemiological evidences, and is well recognized by the scientific community and general public, on developed countries. Microalgae are able to enhance the nutritional content of conventional food and feed preparation and hence to positively affect humans and animal health due to their original chemical composition, namely high protein content, with balanced amino acids pattern, carotenoids, fatty acids, vitamins, polysaccharides, sterols, phycobilins and other biologically active compounds, more efficiently than traditional crops. The aim of this chapter is to review the most important features of microalgae in animal and human nutrition, particularly in the development of novel design-foods rich in carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids with antioxidant effect and other beneficial health properties.
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Biodiversity in the seas is only partly explored, although marine organisms are excellent sources for many industrial products. Through close co-operation between industrial and academic partners, it is possible to successfully collect, isolate and classify marine organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, micro- and macroalgae, cyanobacteria, and marine invertebrates from the oceans and seas globally. Extracts and purified compounds of these organisms can be studied for several therapeutically and industrially significant biological activities, including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, and anticoagulant activities by applying a wide variety of screening tools, as well as for ion channel/receptor modulation and plant growth regulation. Chromatographic isolation of bioactive compounds will be followed by structural determination. Sustainable cultivation methods for promising organisms and biotechnological processes for selected compounds can be developed, as well as biosensors for monitoring the target compounds. The (semi)synthetic modification of marine-based bioactive compounds produces their new derivatives, structural analogs and mimetics that could serve as hit or lead compounds and be used to expand compound libraries based on marine natural products. The research innovations can be targeted for industrial product development in order to improve the growth and productivity of marine biotechnology. Marine research aims at a better understanding of environmentally conscious sourcing of marine biotechnology products and increased public awareness of marine biodiversity. Marine research is expected to offer novel marine-based lead compounds for industries and strengthen their product portfolios related to pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, cosmetic, agrochemical, food processing, material and biosensor applications.
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Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Algae can be classified into two main groups; first one is the microalgae, which includes blue green algae, dinoflagellates, bacillariophyta (diatoms)… etc., and second one is macroalgae (seaweeds) which includes green, brown and red algae. The microalgae phyla have been recognized to provide chemical and pharmacological novelty and diversity. Moreover, microalgae are considered as the actual producers of some highly bioactive compounds found in marine resources. Red algae are considered as the most important source of many biologically active metabolites in comparison to other algal classes. Seaweeds are used for great number of application by man. The principal use of seaweeds as a source of human food and as a source of gums (phycocollides). Phycocolloides like agar agar, alginic acid and carrageenan are primarily constituents of brown and red algal cell walls and are widely used in industry.
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Carotenoids are isoprenoid molecules which are synthesised de novo by photosynthetic plants, fungi and algae and are responsible for the orange, yellow and some red colours of various fruits and vegetables. Carotenoids are lipophilic compounds, some of which act as provitamins A. These compounds can be divided into xanthophylls and carotenes. Many macroalgae and microalgae are rich in carotenoids, where these compounds aid in the absorption of sunlight. Industrially, these carotenoids are used as food pigments (in dairy products, beverages, etc.), as feed additives, in cosmetics and in pharmaceuticals, especially nowadays when there is an increasing demand by consumers for natural products. Production of carotenoids from algae has many advantages compared to other sources; for example, their production is cheap, easy and environmentally friendly; their extraction is easier, with higher yields, and there is no lack of raw materials or limited seasonal variation. Recently, there has been considerable interest in dietary carotenoids with respect to their antioxidant properties and their ability to reduce the incidence of some chronic diseases where free radicals are involved. Possibly, carotenoids protect cells from oxidative stress by quenching singlet oxygen damage with various mechanisms. Therefore, carotenoids derived from algae could be a leading natural resource in the research for potential functional ingredients.
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BACKGROUND: In the presence of light, micro-algae convert CO2 and nutrients to biomass that can be used as a biofuel. In closed photo-bioreactors, however, light and CO2 availability often limit algae production and can be difficult to control using traditional diffuser systems. In this research, a hollow fiber membrane photo-bioreactor (HFMPB) was investigated to: (1) increase the interfacial contact area available for gas transfer, (2) treat high nutrient strength (412 mg NO3−-N L−1) wastewater, and (3) produce algal biomass that can be used as a biofuel.RESULTS: A bench scale HFMPB was inoculated with Spirulina platensis and operated with a 2-15% CO2 supply. A mass transfer model was developed and found to be a good tool to estimate CO2 mass transfer coefficients at varying liquid velocities. Overall mass transfer coefficients were 1.8 × 10−6, 2.8 × 10−6, 5.6 × 10−6m s−1 at Reynolds numbers of 38, 63, and 138, respectively. A maximum CO2 removal efficiency of 85% was observed at an inlet CO2 concentration of 2% and a gas residence time (membrane-lumen) of 8.6 s. The corresponding algal biomass concentrations and NO3 removal efficiencies were 2131 mg L−1 and 68%, respectively.CONCLUSION: The results show that the combination of CO2 sequestration, wastewater treatment and biofuel production in an HFMPB is a promising alternative for greenhouse gas mitigation. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry
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Full text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3665214/ Green microalgae for several decades have been produced for commercial exploitation, with applications ranging from health food for human consumption, aquaculture and animal feed, to coloring agents, cosmetics and others. Several products from green algae which are used today consist of secondary metabolites that can be extracted from the algal biomass. The best known examples are the carotenoids astaxanthin and β-carotene, which are used as coloring agents and for health-promoting purposes. Many species of green algae are able to produce valuable metabolites for different uses; examples are antioxidants, several different carotenoids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, anticancer and antiviral drugs. In many cases, these substances are secondary metabolites that are produced when the algae are exposed to stress conditions linked to nutrient deprivation, light intensity, temperature, salinity and pH. In other cases, the metabolites have been detected in algae grown under optimal conditions, and little is known about optimization of the production of each product, or the effects of stress conditions on their production. Some green algae have shown the ability to produce significant amounts of hydrogen gas during sulfur deprivation, a process which is currently studied extensively worldwide. At the moment, the majority of research in this field has focused on the model organism, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, but other species of green algae also have this ability. Currently there is little information available regarding the possibility for producing hydrogen and other valuable metabolites in the same process. This study aims to explore which stress conditions are known to induce the production of different valuable products in comparison to stress reactions leading to hydrogen production. Wild type species of green microalgae with known ability to produce high amounts of certain valuable metabolites are listed and linked to species with ability to produce hydrogen during general anaerobic conditions, and during sulfur deprivation. Species used today for commercial purposes are also described. This information is analyzed in order to form a basis for selection of wild type species for a future multi-step process, where hydrogen production from solar energy is combined with the production of valuable metabolites and other commercial uses of the algal biomass.
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Cosmeceuticals, derived from the words ‘cosmetic and pharmaceutical’, have drug-like benefits and contain active ingredients such as vitamins, phytochemicals, enzymes, antioxidants, and essential oils. Cosmeceuticals have attracted increased attention because of their beneficial effects on human health. Bioactive substances derived from marine organisms have diverse functional roles as a secondary metabolite and these properties can be applied to the developments of novel pharmaceuticals and cosmeceuticals. Recently, extensive studies have been conducted on the general aspects of the chemical structures, physical and biochemical properties, and biotechnological applications of bioactive substances derived from marine organisms. In this review, we have discussed recent progresses in the biotechnological applications of bioactive substances from marine organisms as cosmeceuticals.
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Bacteria, fungi, algae and higher plants are the most prolific producers of natural products (secondary metabolites). Compared to macroalgae, considerably fewer natural products have been isolated from microalgae, which offer the possibility of obtaining sufficient and well-defined biological material from laboratory cultures. Interest in microalgae is reinforced by large-scale data sets from genome sequencing projects and the development of genetic tools such as transformation protocols. This review highlights what is currently known about the biosynthesis and biological role of natural products in microalgae, with examples from isoprenoids, complex polyketides, nonribosomal peptides, polyunsaturated fatty acids and oxylipins, alkaloids, and aromatic secondary metabolites. In addition, we introduce a bioinformatic analysis of available genome sequences from totally 16 microalgae, belonging to the green and red algae, heterokonts and haptophytes. The results suggest that the biosynthetic potential of microalgae is underestimated and many microalgal natural products remain to be discovered.
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Microalgae are the untapped resource with more than 25,000 species of which only 15 are in use. In recent years, microalgal culture technology is a business oriented line owing to their different practical applications. Innovative processes and products have been introduced in microalgal biotechnology to produce vitamins, proteins, cosmetics, and health foods. For most of these applications, the market is still developing and the biotechnological use of microalgae will extend into new areas. With the development of sophisticated culture and screening techniques, microalgal biotechnology can meet the challenging demands of both the food and pharmaceutical industries. Genetic improvement should also play an important role in the future development of algal industries. Based on the preliminary research, several therapeutic benefits have been claimed for commercially produced microalgae including AIDS, cancer, and Cerebro vascular diseases. In near future, algal biomass will serve as a renewable energy source through commercial production of hydrocarbon by Botryococcus throughout the world.
Article
Marine macroalgae become increasingly important as a regenerative source of biomass for the production of food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and energy. An increasing and environmentally sound utilization of algae requires a closed, land-based cultivation, not limited to coastal or offshore areas. Within this study, segmental and ring-shaped cultivation vessels were developed and compared to tumble cultivation in a circular tank. The development of these innovative approaches also considered economic efficiency, adaptability, handling and reliability. The growth rates achieved by cultivating the red algae P. palmata and C. crispus and the green alga U. lactuca over a test period of 7 d were used to evaluate these experimental models. Mean growth rates of P. palmata and C. crispus in the ring-shaped cultivation model were slightly decreased whereas growth rate of U. lactuca was similar or increased compared to tank cultivated algae. The developed ring-shaped cultivation system distinctly lowered variable costs by reducing the necessary volume of cultivation medium. An increased control of the cultivation process was achieved by separating the supply of CO2 and nutrients, and the temperature control from agitation.
Article
In recent years, botanicals have gained importance due to their dermal photoprotective effect against the harmful UV radiation. This radiation generates reactive oxygen species which attack proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids among others. This leads to the cellular oxidation, which is reflected as tanning, skin inflammation, erythema, immunosuppression, photoaging and skin cancer. The photoprotective activity of synthetic sunscreens is unsatisfactory due the proved incomplete spectral protection, toxicity, and allergenicity. The phytotherapy treatment with antioxidant compounds with potential UV absorbing capacity could offer a more effective photoprotection since they may impede, reverse or delay the process of formation of DNA adducts. The wide diversity of botanicals with photoprotective activity is attributed to several types of substances with phenolic chromophores. These compounds can be classified as flavonoids, phytoestrogens, carotenoids, xhantophylls, coumarins, proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, catechins, phenolic acids, triterpenes, alkaloids, etc. The bioactivity of these compounds is not limited to the photoprotective action, but antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic and immunomodulatory properties. The regular intake of these botanicals not only prevents but also delays the deleterious effects of sun radiation onto the skin. Therefore, these botanicals have gained considerable attention and are now included in most vitamin and cosmetic products. This review gives an overview of photoprotective botanicals mainly focused on UVA chromophores that are able to inhibit or reverse the damaging effects of sun radiation. The search criterion was made essentially on UVA photoprotective botanicals and related works published in the last ten years. The literature search included mainly the Google scholar, Science direct, and ISI web of knowledge databases.
Article
Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are considered efficient photoprotectants against high energy UV-photon flux. The present study is intended to probe the occurrence and synthesis of UV-absorbing MAAs and characterization of their induction, stability and free radical scavenging capacity in the cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. R76DM. HPLC-PDA detection, and LC–MS analysis revealed the occurrence of four different MAAs, palythine (λmax 320 nm, m/z 245), Asterina (λmax 331 nm, m/z 289), Porphyra (λmax 333 nm, m/z 347) and palythene (λmax 359 nm, m/z 285) with retention times 2.9, 4.71, 6.29 and 7.05 min, respectively. Induction of the synthesis of all MAAs was highly noticeable under UV-B radiation. These MAAs were exceedingly resistant to some physico-chemical factors such as UV-B, temperature, pH and a strong oxidizing agent. Total MAAs were extensively evaluated for their antioxidant properties by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl, ferric reducing antioxidant power, superoxide radical scavenging and reducing power assay. MAAs exhibited significant and dose-dependent in vitro antioxidant and in vivo ROS scavenging potentials. Moreover, the results indicate the vital role of MAAs in life-saving mechanisms of cyanobacteria by virtue of their UV-absorbing/screening and antioxidant function. The results also added up evidence in favor of MAAs for possible use as active ingredients in cosmeceuticals.
Article
Due to diminishing petroleum reserves and deleterious environmental consequences of exhaust gases from fossil-based fuels, research on renewable and environment friendly fuels has received a lot of impetus in the recent years. However, the availability of the non-edible crops serve as the sources for biofuel production are limited and economically not feasible. Algae are a promising alternative source to the conventional feedstocks for the third generation biofuel production. There has been a considerable discussion in the recent years about the potential of microalgae for the production of biofuels, but there may be other more readily exploitable commercial opportunities for macroalgae and microalgae. This review, briefly describes the biofuels conversion technologies for both macroalgae and microalgae. The gasification process produces combustible gases such as H2, CH4, CO2 and ammonia, whereas, the product of pyrolysis is bio-oil. The fermentation product of algae is ethanol, that can be used as a direct fuel or as a gasohol. Hydrogen can be obtained from the photobiological process of algal biomass. In transesterification process, algae oil is converted into biodiesel, which is quite similar to those of conventional diesel and it can be blended with the petroleum diesel. This study, also reviewed the production of high value byproducts from macroalgae and microalgae and their commercial applications. Algae as a potential renewable resource is not only used for biofuels but also for human health, animal and aquatic nutrition, environmental applications such as CO2 mitigation, wastewater treatment, biofertilizer, high-value compounds, synthesis of pigments and stable isotope biochemicals. This review is mainly an attempt, to investigate the biorefinery concept applied on the algal technology, for the synthesis of novel bioproducts to improve the algal biofuels as even more diversified and economically competitive.
Article
The aim of this study was to assess the photoprotective effects of cosmetic formulations containing UV filters, red algae, Porphyra umbilicalis, extracts and combinations of the extract with vitamins and Ginkgo biloba through the use of in vivo preclinical studies. For this study, 4 groups of 4 hairless mice each were treated with topical formulations applied on the dorsum for 5days as follows: group 1 - control (no treatment); group 2 - application of the formulation F (sunscreen formulation containing only UV filters); group 3 - application of the formulation FA (sunscreen formulation with red algae extract); and group 4 - application of the formulation FVGA (sunscreen formulation with red algae extract, G. biloba and vitamins A, C and E). The effects of these formulations were evaluated by determining the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and erythema index. Apoptosis was detected by immunohistochemical staining with anti-p53 and anti-caspase-3 antibodies. The results showed that the formulations protected the skin from erythema when exposed to UV radiation. The group that received the formulation FVGA presented a greater TEWL than did the other groups, suggesting that this formulation was involved in cell renewal. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that UV radiation caused an increase in the expression of p53 and active caspase-3, confirming that the damage caused by UV radiation exposure led to apoptosis. The application of all formulations studied resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the expression of p53 and caspase-3, with a more pronounced effect observed following treatment with FA. In conclusion, extracts from the red algae P. umbilicalis could be considered effective ingredients to be used in sunscreen formulations. The combination of vitamins A, E, C and G. biloba along with red algae extracts can improve significantly the performance of the sunscreens, preventing UV-induced DNA damage and inflammation. Thus, they should be considered an interesting combination for an effective photoprotective formulation with anti-aging properties.
Article
Background/purpose: Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is responsible for sunburns, skin cancer, photoaging, and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The awareness on preventing these deleterious effects made the use of anti-UVB formulations an important part of population habits; however, despite the availability of several antioxidants capable of ROS scavenging, the pharmaceutical market lacks products associating UV filters with natural compounds of proven efficacy. Here, we investigated the effect of rutin, a flavonoid with antioxidant activity, associated with UVB filters in dermocosmetic preparations. Methods: Formulations were assessed through its antioxidant activity, in vitro photoprotective effectiveness, photostability, and in vivo skin tolerance (hydration, transepidermal water loss, and erythema). Results: Samples containing rutin were compatible with the human skin and presented a pronounced antioxidant potential, with scavenging activity values 75% higher than the ones containing only UVB filters. Although rutin could not prevent the sunscreens photodegradation post-irradiation, the bioactive compound significantly increased the formulations critical wavelengths, showing a photoprotective gain, especially in the UVA range. Conclusion: In conclusion, the absorption in the UVA range, coupled with ROS scavenging potential, proved the positive effect of rutin applied to anti-UVB formulations, making this bioactive compound a promising candidate for photoprotection improvement.
Article
Sunscreens are the most-established approach for photoprotection. The strategy of providing antioxidant properties to sun care products by addition of natural and potent anti-free radical compounds has led to the development of bioactive sunscreens, able to neutralize the harmful effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. UVA filters, such as benzophenone-3 (BP) and butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM), can exhibit photodegradation which limits the development of broad spectrum sunscreens. Previous research verified that rutin interacts with filters incorporated in sunscreens. In this work, we focused on the development and evaluation of the efficacy of the sunscreens containing either BP or BMDBM with and without rutin. The addition of rutin to the UVA filters afforded antioxidant properties to the formulations and they were considered safe for human use. Additionally, rutin in combination with either BP or BMDBM increased the antioxidant activity about 40 times when compared with the UVA filters alone. Remarkably, the addition of rutin 0.1% (w/w) to BP 6.0% (w/w) raised the SPF from 24.3 ± 1.53 to 33.3 ± 2.89. In conclusion, these findings demonstrated that the addition of rutin into sunscreens can markedly improve the antioxidant properties of the formulation as well as photostabilize some of the UVA filters.
Article
Red macroalgae are being actively investigated as a renewable biomass source because of their advantageous characteristics such as abundant carbohydrate contents, low lignin contents, and the absence of conflicts with food production. With recent technological advances, the efficient utilization of red macroalgae for biofuel and chemical production is now possible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
Microalgae are a polyphyletic and biochemically diverse assemblage of chlorophyll a-containing microorganisms capable of oxygenic photosynthesis that are predominantly found in aquatic environments with observed high levels of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Certain microalgae produce organic metabolites, such as sporopollenin, scytonemin and mycosporine-like amino acids, to protect themselves from UV radiation while allowing visible radiation involved in photosynthesis to pass through. Sporopollenin, an acetolysis-resistant inert biopolymer usually observed in plant pollens and spores, was detected in the cell wall of some UV-tolerant chlorophytes. Scytonemin, a yellow-brown lipid-soluble dimeric pigment, was found in the extracellular polysaccharide sheath of some cyanobacteria. Mycosporine-like amino acids, which belong to a family of water-soluble compounds, were reported in several free-living cyanobacteria, chlorophytes, haptophytes, diatoms, and dinoflagellates, as well as in several marine invertebrate-microalgal symbiotic associations. Their capacity to intercept UV radiation and dissipate its energy as heat without the formation of radical intermediates makes these microalgal compounds potential sources of protection from UV and photo-oxidative stress.
Article
A number of studies on the development of a variety of extraction techniques to produce algal extracts have been reported. At present, attention is paid to the production of algal extracts without the resorting to toxic organic solvents or aggressive extraction conditions that could deteriorate biologically active compounds found in algal cells. In this review, we present a critical overview of novel techniques to extract biologically active compounds from algae without their degradation. We compare the advantages and disadvantages of classic and novel extraction techniques such as supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE), pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). Additionally, we review the different biomass pretreatment methods. Products derived from algae are safe to plants, animals and human. Therefore, they can be used in modern agriculture (biostimulants, bioregulators, feed additives) and in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Article
BACKGROUND: Fed-batch culture allows the cultivation of Arthrospira platensis using urea as nitrogen source. Tubular photobioreactors substantially increase cell growth, but the successful use of this cheap nitrogen source requires a knowledge of the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the process. This work aims at identifying the effect of two independent variables, temperature (T) and urea daily molar flow-rate (U), on cell growth, biomass composition and thermodynamic parameters involved in this photosynthetic cultivation. RESULTS: The optimal values obtained were T = 32 °C and U = 1.16 mmol L−1 d−1, under which the maximum cell concentration was 4186 ± 39 mg L−1, cell productivity 541 ± 5 mg L−1 d−1 and yield of biomass on nitrogen 14.3 ± 0.1 mg mg−1. Applying an Arrhenius-type approach, the thermodynamic parameters of growth (ΔH* = 98.2 kJ mol−1; ΔS* = − 0.020 kJ mol−1 K−1; ΔG* = 104.1 kJ mol−1) and its thermal inactivation ( kJ mol−1; kJ mol−1 K−1; kJ mol−1) were estimated. CONCLUSIONS: To maximize cell growth T and U were simultaneously optimized. Biomass lipid content was not influenced by the experimental conditions, while protein content was dependent on both independent variables. Using urea as nitrogen source prevented the inhibitory effect already observed with ammonium salts. Copyright
Article
Microalgae and cyanobacteria are a promising new source of biomass that may complement agricultural crops to meet the increasing global demand for food, feed, biofuels and chemical production. Microalgae and cyanobacteria cultivation does not interfere directly with food production, but care should be taken to avoid indirect competition for nutrient (fertilizer) supply. Microalgae and cyanobacteria production requires high concentrations of essential nutrients (C,N,P,S,K,Fe, etc.). In the present paper the application of nutrients and their uptake by microalgae and cyanobacteria is reviewed. The main focus is on the three most significant nutrients, i.e. carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus; however other nutrients are also reviewed. Nutrients are generally taken up in the inorganic form, but several organic forms of them are also assimilable. Some nutrients do not display any inhibition effect on microalgal or cyanobacterial growth, while others, such as NO2 or NH3 have detrimental effects when present in high concentrations. Nutrients in the gaseous form, such as CO2 and NO face a major limitation which is related mainly to their mass transfer from the gaseous to the liquid state. Since the cultivation of microalgae and cyanobacteria consumes considerable quantities of nutrients, strategies to improve the nutrient application efficiency are needed. Additionally, a promising strategy to improve microalgal and cyanobacterial production sustainability is the utilization of waste streams by recycling and waste nutrients. However, major constraints of using waste streams are the reduction of the range of the biomass applications due to production of contaminated biomass and the possible low bio-availability of some nutrients.
Article
The authors review ageing in its extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms, as well as the therapies available for improving its effects, and present some of the facts and controversies related to anti-aging cosmetics.
Article
Microalgae (including the cyanobacteria) are established commercial sources of high-value chemicals such as β-carotene, astaxanthin, docosahexaenoic acid, eicosahexaenoic acid, phycobilin pigments and algal extracts for use in cosmetics. Microalgae are also increasingly playing a role in cosmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and functional foods. In the last few years, there has been renewed interest in microalgae as commercial sources of these and other high-value compounds, driven in part by the attempts to develop commercially viable biofuels from microalgae. This paper briefly reviews the main existing and potential high-value products which can be derived from microalgae and considers their commercial development with a particular focus on the various aspects which need to be considered on the path to commercialisation, using the experience gained in the commercialisation of existing algae products. These considerations include the existing and potential market size and market characteristics of the product, competition by chemically synthesised products or by ‘natural’ compounds from other organisms such as fungi, bacteria, higher plants, etc., product quality requirements and assurance, and the legal and regulatory environment.
Chapter
Photobioreactor design and operation mode are essential steps to ensure a high overall microalgae yield and cell productivities, making viable the commercial production. For this reason, there are trends of research in the field of microalgae that encompass design and development of reactor syste