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A Systematic Review of Phytochemical and Phytotherapeutic Characteristics of Bitter Almond

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... Bitter almonds are poisonous making them inedible because of these two poisonous acids along with amygdalin ( Figure 8-the structure of amygdaline), an enzyme which responsible for the hydrolysis of glucose, benzaldehyde, hydrocyanic acid. Hydrocyanic acid has been used the medicine as an antispasmodic and sedative 13 . Sweet almond has chemical constituent as "monounsaturated oleic acid and linoleic acid and saturated fatty acid". ...
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Prunus amygdalus (Batsch.) is an important medicinal plant and belongs to the family Rosaceae. It is known as Badam in Hindi and almond in English. The nutritional and medicinal properties of badam fruit are related to its kernel. It has been therapeutic uses for constipation, headache, heart weakness, diarrhea, sedative, amnesia, peptic ulcer, leprosy, polyuria, facial paralysis, Cough, Sexual disability, leprosy, etc. Kaempferol-3-xylosylglucoside and Quercitin are common chemical properties. Almond oil contains the source of vitamin A, B1, B2, B6, E, D, and also contains calcium and magnesium. The preclinical studies mainly depend on flavonoids, phenol, alkaloid, and saponins, tannins. The present review provides comprehensive information of the plant on its Pharmacognostical and Pharmacological profile including its preclinical and clinical studies/ clinical trial and nutritional value in different varieties.
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Thiacloprid (THI) is a nicotinic receptor agonist widely used as pesticide in Algeria, however it is susceptible to accumulate in various fruits and vegetables and pouring downstream into food plates and contributes to the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Conversely, several natural compounds are provided with cytoprotective potential and, therefore, are able to act against the harmful effects of toxicants such as pesticides. This study focused on striatum (str) and hippocampus (hipp) mitochondrial toxicity assessment, evaluation of behavioral function and intrinsic apoptosis pathway in rats exposed to THI at low-dose (0.020 mg/kg) for 3 months. In addition, this study examined neuroprotective potential of bitter apricot kernel extract when administered concomitantly with THI at the dose of 50 mg/kg. In current study, assessment of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) and swelling, evaluation of mitochondrial redox status, cholinergic function (Ach E) and apoptosis markers (Caspase 9 and 3, Bax and Bcl2, Cytochrome c and cytosolic calcium) were performed in both brain areas, besides behavioral and histopathological examination. The results showed an increase of lipid peroxidation in both of str and hipp with a values of 1,14 ± 0,04 nmol/mg of proteins (pr) and 1,58 ± 0,09 nmol/mg pr. respectively and a significant decrease in GSH (0,09 ± 0,01 mmol/mg pr. in hipp and 0,08±0,01 mmol/mg pr. in str), the results also showed a change in the activity of antioxidants enzymes SOD (16,37±1,09 UI/mg pr. in hipp14,54±1,46 UI/mg pr. in str) , CAT (0,010±0,01 UI/mg pr. in hipp and 0,005±0,004 UI/mg pr. in str), GPx (0,01± 0,001 nmol/mg pr. in both hipp and str) and GST (23,73±1,68 UI/mg pr. in hipp and 17,56± 1,04 UI/mg pr. in str), as well as an abrupt increase in mPTP opening with a value of (0,057±0,005 in str and 0,054±0,005 in hipp) , which leaded to mitochondrial swelling where the level o mitochondrial swelling was (0,016±0,002 in str and 0,106±0,003 in hipp), the swelling was associated also with a high releasing of Cyt-c with a values of (4,48 ± 1,26 µg/ml in str and 5,32 ± 1,08 µg/ml in hipp ) and Ca++( 2,26±0,06 mmol/l in str and 2,32±0,07 mmol/l in hipp) into the cytosol, the results also showed a significant decreasing of Bcl2 (16,4 ± 1,86 ng/mg pr in str and 14,8± 0,82 ng/mg pr in hipp), in the other hand the rates of caspase-9 were (278±14 mAbs/mg pr.) in str and 212 ±24 mAbs/mg pr. in hipp), caspase3 (184± 16mAbs/mg pr.) in str and 250 ±14mAbs/mg pr. in hipp), and BAX (0,926 ng/mg pr in str and 1,189 ng/mg pr in hipp) were increased. The results of this study revealed also a decrease of memorization processes and learning abilities, at the same time a decrease in Ach E activity (14,02± 0,78 nmol/min/mg pr. in str and 22,35± 1,77 nmol/min/mg pr. in hipp) was recorded. Inversely, bitter apricot kernels extract showed higher cytoprotective potential against THI neurotoxicity, since mitochondrial redox homeostasis and membrane integrity were recovered, cognitive impairment and brain tissue damage were also prevented. In conclusion, THI induced mitochondrial disorders, triggered apoptosis signaling pathway and impaired cognitive functions which were prevented by bitter apricot kernels extract when associated with this pesticide.
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Mango fruit and its by-product contain an abundant source of beneficial compounds such as polyphenols, carotenoids, dietary fiber and vitamin E. About 15–20% of the total weight of fresh mango represents by its peel. Likewise, peel wastes from the fruit may contain beneficial properties similar to that generally found in fruit. As one of the signifcant by-products of mango fruit, the peels rich in health-enhancing constituents, particularly phenolic compounds, can be incorporated into nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and functional food products. mango peel contains mangiferin, pectin, anthocyanins, β-carotene, gallic acid, galloyl glucose, and lutein. Comparative studies on mango peel indicate that higher total polyphenol content is found in the ripened than the unripe peel.
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Introduction: The study aimed to investigate the anti-fertility effect of fennel ( Foeniculim vulgare Mill) seed extract in male rats. Material and Methods: Forty Wistar rats were divided into five equal groups. The control group received distilled water and the experimental groups were orally administered 1 ml of hydro-alcoholic extract of fennel seed in four doses of 35, 70, 140, and 280 mg/kg/b.w. daily for 60 days. After the last gavage, the rats were anaesthetised and the caudal part of the right epididymis was used for sperm counting. After fixation of the testes, microscopic sections were prepared and histological changes were evaluated. Results: The number of spermatogonia after doses of 140 and 280 mg/kg and Sertoli cells after a dose of 140 mg/kg decreased significantly as compared with the control group (P < 0.05). The number of primary spermatocytes and sperm count decreased significantly in the experimental groups (70, 140, and 280 mg/kg) when compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, thickening of the basement membrane, cell apoptosis, and irregular arrangement of the germinal epithelium were observed in the experimental groups. Conclusion: Hydro-alcoholic fennel seed extract at these doses could reduce reproductivity and has anti-fertility activity in male rats.
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Restraint stress may be associated with elevated free radicals, and thus, chronic exposure to oxidative stress may cause tissue damage. Several studies have reported that carvacrol (CAR) has a protective effect against oxidative stress. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of CAR on restraint stress induced oxidative stress damage in the brain, liver, and kidney. For chronic restraint stress, rats were kept in the restrainers for 6 h every day, for 21 consecutive days. The animals received systemic administrations of CAR daily for 21 days. To evaluate the changes of the oxidative stress parameters following restraint stress, the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and catalase (CAT) activities were measured in the brain, liver, and kidney. In the stressed animals that received vehicle, the MDA level was significantly higher ( P < 0.001 ) and the levels of GSH and antioxidant enzymes were significantly lower than the nonstressed animals ( P < 0.001 ). CAR ameliorated the changes in the stressed animals as compared with the control group ( P < 0.001 ). This study indicates that CAR can prevent restraint stress induced oxidative damage.
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Amygdalin, D-mandelonitrile-β-D-glucoside-6-β-glucoside, belongs to aromatic cyanogenic glycoside group derived from rosaceous plant seed. Mounting evidence has supported the anti-cancer effects of amygdalin. However, whether amygdalin indeed acts as an anti-tumor agent against breast cancer cells is not clear. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of amygdalin on the proliferation of human breast cancer cells. Here, we show that amygdalin exerted cytotoxic activities on estrogen receptors (ER)-positive MCF7 cells, and MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. Amygdalin induced apoptosis of Hs578T TNBC cells. Amygdalin downregulated B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), upregulated Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), activated of caspase-3 and cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). Amygdalin activated a pro-apoptotic signaling molecule p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK) in Hs578T cells. Treatment of amygdalin significantly inhibited the adhesion of Hs578T cells, in which integrin α5 may be involved. Taken together, this study demonstrates that amygdalin induces apoptosis and inhibits adhesion of breast cancer cells. The results suggest a potential application of amygdalin as a chemopreventive agent to prevent or alleviate progression of breast cancer, especially TNBC.
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Introduction: Hyperlipidemia, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes are the most important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this systematic review article is to introduce the medicinal plants that exert significant clinical effects on hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and diabetes. Methods: In this review article, the international research databases including MEDLINE, Google scholar, EBSCO, Academic Search, Web of Science, SciVerse, Scopus (SCOPUS), EBSCO, Academic Search, Cochrane, Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and a Chinese database (China Network Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI]) were searched using the key words hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, herbal, obesity, and phytomedicine, matched by MESH, from their respective inceptions up to March, 2016. The plants that were effective on one, two, three, or all of four diseases were determined. The doses, side effects, the most important pharmaceutically effective compounds, the used organs, and important points regarding usage were separately recorded. Also known clinically significant interactions were presented. Results: 1023 articles were found to be about medicinal plants and hypertension, 1912 articles about medicinal plants and hyperlipidemia, 810 articles about medicinal plants and obesity, 1174 articles about medicinal plants and diabetes. Of 144 plants included in the analysis, 83 were found to be effective on hyperlipidemia, 100 on hypertension, 66 on obesity, and 72 on diabetes. 43 plants were found to be effective on two diseases, 14 on three diseases, and 34 on all four diseases. Three plants (Tomato, Cranberry and Pomegranate), in food and therapeutic doses, were found to be used to treat cardiovascular diseases especially in pre-eclampsia and hyperlipidemia in pregnancy. Conclusion: Regarding the findings of this study, we can argue that the medicinal plants, other than mono-therapy, can be used as poly-therapy, to treat cardiovascular diseases.
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Background Adenovirus (ADV) causes a number of diseases in human, and to date, no specific antiviral therapy is approved against this virus. Thus, searching for effective anti-ADV agents seems to be an urgent requirement. Many studies have shown that components derived from medicinal plants have antiviral activity. Therefore, the present study was aimed to evaluate in vitro anti-ADV activity and also antioxidant potential and total phenolic compounds of black tea (Camellia sinensis) crude extract. Methods In this study, the hydroalchoholic extract of black tea was prepared and its anti-ADV activity was evaluated on HEp2 cell line using MTT [3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide] assay. The 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50) and 50 % cytotoxicity concentration (CC50) of the extract were determined using regression analysis. Its inhibitory effect on adsorption and/or post-adsorption stages of the virus replication cycle was evaluated. To determine antioxidant activity, total phenol content, and flavonoids content of the extract, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, Folin-Ciocalteu method, and aluminum chloride colorimetric method were used, respectively. ResultsThe CC50 and the IC50 of the extract were 165.95±12.7 and 6.62±1.4 µg/mL, respectively, with the selectivity index (SI) of 25.06. This extract inhibited ADV replication in post-adsorption stage. The IC50 of DPPH radical was 8±1.41 μg/mL, compared with butylated hydroxytoluene, with IC50 of 25.41±1.89 μg/mL. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extract were 341.8±4.41 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram and 21.1±2.11 mg/g, respectively. Conclusions Having SI value of 25.06 with inhibitory effect on ADV replication, particularly during the post-adsorption period, black tea extract could be considered as a potential anti-ADV agent. The antiviral activity of this extract could be attributed to its phenolic compounds.
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The present study was mainly aimed to evaluate antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of hydroalcoholic extract and three corresponding fractions of Quercus brantii acorn. A 70% ethyle alcohole extract of the plant were prepared and sequentially partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate and n-butanol. The antioxidant potential of all these fractions was evaluated by the 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity method. Cytotoxic activity was tested against two normal cell lines (African green monkey kidney [Vero] and human dermal fibroblasts [HDFs]) by MTT assay. The results revealed that the n-butanol fraction exhibited the lowest IC50value (6.5±0.6 μg/ml) with the highest antioxidant activity as compared to the other fractions. The IC50values of the chloroform fraction, the n-butanol fraction, the crude extract, and the n-hexane fraction were found to be significant (p<0.05) as compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The results of cytotoxicity showed that the chloroform fraction exhibited the highest cytotoxicity toward Vero and HDFs cell lines at concentration of 60.6±23 and 287.8±38 μg/ml, respectively. We conclude that at least, n-butanol fraction of this plant with high phytoconstituents and less toxicity could be a promising source of medicinally important natural compound. Our findings, therefore, suggest that overall the studied extract/fractions exhibit low cytotoxicity on normal cell lines. © 2016, International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research. All Rights reserved.