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Cross-Cultural Advancements in Positive Psychology

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Chapters (15)

Positive psychology aims at catalyzing a change in the focus of psychology from preoccupation only with repairing the worst things in life to also building positive qualities. A key interest of positive psychology is the analysis of happiness which has been broadly defined according to two opposing philosophical traditions: hedonism and eudaimonism. The hedonic view equates happiness with pleasure, comfort, and enjoyment, whereas the eudaimonic view equates happiness with the human ability to pursue complex goals which are meaningful to the individual and society. Besides analyzing the antecedents, correlates and consequences that happiness entails for human well-being at the individual and community levels, recent trends in positive psychology call for the integration of the hedonic and eudaimonic views into a global theory of human well-being, and stress the need to adopt a cross-cultural perspective on happiness which would take into account a world-wide concept of a life worth living.
The aim of this chapter is to contextualize optimal experience and the process of individual psychological selection within the two main inheritance systems that influence human behavior: the biological and the cultural ones. The most recent acquisitions in the study of the processes of selection and transmission of biological and cultural information will be briefly outlined. Culture will be described as an emergent inheritance system that ultimately predominates on biology in shaping and directing human behavior at both the individual and social levels. The manifold interaction patterns between culture and biology, and their impact on the relationships among human societies will be highlighted. Material and symbolic artifacts will be briefly analyzed as extrasomatic cultural products which substantially mediate the relationship between individuals and their environment. The closing section will focus on the role of individuals as active agents, who create, select, and replicate with time biological and cultural information according to personal meanings, goals, and experiences which are only partially constrained by biological and cultural inheritance.
Individuals play an active role in determining their life trajectories and in influencing the long-term development of the human species. This role is made possible by the evolution of consciousness and cognition that enable the individual to actively and uniquely process information coming from the external environment and the inner world. Since individuals are faced with excessive information at any given moment, they have to choose among them through the selective focus of attention. Criterion for selection is the quality of subjective experience. Flow or optimal experience was identified as a particularly complex and positive state of consciousness characterized by deep involvement, absorption, and enjoyment. Flow is the core of psychological selection, the process leading to the selective cultivation of activities, to the life-long construction of personal meaning and to the pursuit of self-determined goals. This chapter will focus on the psychological features of optimal experience, on its role in psychological selection, and on its neurophysiological underpinnings. Flow will be finally evaluated in its relation with bio-cultural inheritance and with the eudaimonic perspective in positive psychology.
A great number of instruments and methodologies are currently available to the flow researcher, the majority of which are based on individuals’ self-reports of the content of their consciousness. Additionally, methods vary according to the level of control exerted on the flow construct: They include observation and interview techniques, psychological surveys, and experimental studies. This variety in measurement can be related to the many ways flow can be empirically operationalized and analyzed. This chapter focuses on the main techniques and instruments available, identifying their strengths and weaknesses. Among the self-reported measures, attention will be paid to single-administration questionnaires (Flow Questionnaire, Flow Short Scale, Flow State Scale-2 and Flow State Dispositional Scale-2, Work-Related Flow Inventory, and Optimal Experience Survey) and online repeated procedures such as the Experience Sampling Method (ESM). The Experience Fluctuation Model in ESM data analysis is presented, as well as the most recent approaches to the study of flow based on nonlinear dynamics and psychophysiological evaluations.
More than three decades of research on optimal experience provided extensive information on its phenomenology. Flow is characterized by a stable cognitive core around which affective and motivational variables fluctuate according to the kind of associated activities. These findings suggest that flow may not be a monolithic experience, and that there could be a family of optimal experiences related to the characteristics of associated tasks. This chapter will address this issue, specifically taking into account the motivational components of flow from the perspective of Deci and Ryans’ self-determination theory. Individual and cultural features facilitating the retrieval of optimal experience in daily life will also be explored. They include personality traits, physical conditions, personal goals, autonomy, family context, and activity characteristics, such as challenge and structure. The chapter will end with the comparison of flow with similar constructs such as peak experience and involvement, and with an analysis of the relationship between flow and other positive-psychology constructs, such as psychological well-being and satisfaction with life.
One of the crucial aspects of optimal experience is complete absorption and focus of attention on the ongoing task. This peculiar psychological feature, and its chief importance within the phenomenology of Flow, makes it legitimate to inquire about the analogy between optimal experience and the states of meditation that are triggered by the concentration of attention on one single object. Such states have been systematically explored within the several philosophical systems and wisdom traditions developed in ancient India, which provided amazingly deep investigations of human psychological functions and consciousness processes. The main goal of this chapter is to highlight the shared and divergent components of optimal experience and meditation, and to contextualize their phenomenological analysis within cultural and epistemological dimensions. Due to the paucity of research on this topic, this should be considered the first step towards a better comprehension of the relationships between Flow and the meditative state, thus opening the way for more accurate and systematic investigation.
In this chapter we will contextualize the investigation of optimal experience across culture within the theoretical framework of cultural studies. In the last few decades, psychological studies evolved from an ethnocentric western perspective to a broader view that takes into account the role of culture in shaping human behavior and experience. This allowed for the development of different approaches, such as cross-cultural psychology, cultural psychology, and indigenous psychologies, and for the conceptualization of basic constructs, such as individualism/collectivism and independent/interdependent self-construal, which presently represent the cornerstones of most psychological studies endorsing cultural aspects. The exploration of optimal experience and psychological selection across cultures will be exemplified through findings derived from adult and adolescent participants. Similarities and differences between cultures will be highlighted, and interpreted in the light of the theoretical assumptions on culture—on the one hand—and on flow and psychological selection—on the other hand.
This chapter focuses on work as a fundamental human activity on which the biocultural survival and reproduction of individuals and groups are based. Studies have shown that work represents a privileged area for retrieving optimal experiences in spite of the great emphasis individuals place on leisure activities. We will present major findings obtained by flow researchers in the work domain, stressing the peculiarities of the work experience compared to leisure, and highlighting personal, organizational, as well as cultural factors associated with optimal experience at the workplace. Attention will also be paid to the role that work plays in individuals’ psychological selection and well-being, by funneling psychic and material resources into pursuing professional fulfillment. In this respect, the chapter will provide some findings on the life themes of musicians and teachers.
Besides being complementary to work, free time activities are extremely varied. They include playing sports, practicing hobbies, idling, volunteering, interacting, watching TV, and playing videogames. Different conceptualizations and models have been proposed to account for such a variety of activities and for their contribution to individuals’ development and well-being. These models differentiate between active and passive leisure, or between structured and unstructured activities. From a broader perspective, free time has also been divided into serious and casual leisure, based on the constancy and duration of individuals’ engagement. Starting from these conceptualizations, this chapter primarily focuses on sports and hobbies and media use. It illustrates the quality of associated experience and their potential as flow opportunities, as well as the individual and cultural features that come into play in the promotion of optimal experience in leisure. The risks of free time as a potential source of disengagement and deviant behavior are also presented. The concluding section analyzes the role of leisure activities in individuals’ psychological selection.
The importance of relationships throughout human life span can be hardly overestimated. Biological as well as cultural pressures substantially contribute to shape the features and functions of human interaction patterns within families, communities, and broader societies. In this chapter attention will be paid to the role of relationships in fostering optimal experiences, and in directing the process of psychological selection. Moving from core theoretical assumptions concerning the developmental implications of relationships, an overview of previous studies on this topic will be presented, and some new findings obtained from a cross-cultural adult sample will be described. The central role played by family relationships in both individualistic and collectivistic cultures will be specifically highlighted.
Education represents the primary means of cultural transmission, and a crucial unit in the set of challenges human groups have to meet in time. A variety of educational systems and pedagogic strategies have been created in order to deal with this challenge. By promoting the association of their memes with individuals’ psychological selection, cultures can successfully survive in the long term, and at the same time support individuals’ development and well-being. Given the importance of learning for both individuals and societies, flow researchers have devoted much attention to its investigation. In this chapter, we will sum up major findings related to the quality of experience during formal learning activities across cultures. We will identify the activities associated with optimal experience, the contextual and individual factors favoring flow in education, and we will outline the short- and long-term consequences of flow in learning. We will conclude by stressing the active role of the individual in perpetrating cultural information and the importance of an educational system allowing for the integration of memes from different cultures thus sustaining plurality, complexity, and differentiation in a global society.
This chapter aims at investigating the role of religious practice in promoting optimal experience, as well as in shaping the process of psychological selection. Data obtained from participants belonging to different cultures and religious traditions will be discussed. More specifically, we will explore the occurrence of optimal experience during religious practice, its psychological features, as well as the relevance of religion as a meaning-making system and as a component of the individuals’ developmental pathway. Cross-cultural findings will be compared with results derived from the administration of flow questionnaire and life theme questionnaire to two peculiar groups of participants, who decided to specifically commit themselves to religion: members of religious orders and congregations, and lay people actively involved in Catholic associations.
In today’s rapidly changing environment, multicultural societies are gradually replacing monocultural ones. This poses several issues as concerns the coexistence of different traditions and belief systems, and the opportunities for adjustment and integration of immigrants and minorities within a dominant culture. In order to investigate the impact of these phenomena on the quality of experience and on psychological selection, we administered flow questionnaire, life theme questionnaire, and ESM to different groups of participants. Some of them had migrated to Italy from India, Africa, South America, and eastern Europe. Others were members of an ancient population—the Navajos—who had been living in the North American territory long before the arrival of Europeans. The investigation of flow and daily experience fluctuation, together with the analysis of participants’ long-term projects, shed light on their level of socio-cultural adjustment and acculturation strategy. Findings confirmed that biculturalism is the best strategy to maintain flexibility and increase individual complexity in a host culture.
Health is so fundamental to the biocultural survival of individuals and groups that complex bodies of knowledge about preventive lifestyles, disease, and treatment have been developed across cultures and millennia. This chapter deals with the role of optimal experience in promoting health, by first presenting the dominant WHO definitions of health, held as universally valid standards across cultures. It then illustrates some of the constructs proposed by positive psychology that have been fruitfully applied to the health domain. Within this framework, findings on optimal experience and well-being promotion will be discussed. Several studies were conducted over the years among individuals with motor and sensory disabilities, participants with eating disorders, women who underwent breast cancer surgery, and people with mental illness. Findings showed that disease is not necessarily synonymous with suffering and languishing; occasions for optimal experiences and personal growth can be retrieved in suboptimal physical conditions. Under these circumstances personal resources, social support, and cultural and environmental factors can promote well-being and can be flourishing.
Little research has been conducted so far on the opportunities for optimal experience perceived by people facing severe psychosocial problems and exposed to conditions of hardship and marginalization. Do they enjoy flow experiences during their daily life, and in which domains? How do their problematic conditions affect their psychological selection pattern, and their potential for development, goal-setting, and pursuit? These issues will be investigated in two specific categories of people living under difficult circumstances: children and adolescents exposed to neglect, abuse and street life in different countries, and drug addicts. Findings will highlight a crucial aspect of psychosocial maladjustment: opportunities for positive feelings and elation are available in daily life, but they do not provide authentic and complex flow experiences. This issue has to be taken into account in designing intervention and treatment programs in order to make them both appealing to users and effective in their rehabilitation aims.
... With the aim of studying the relationship between the quality of participation in community actions and empowerment (i.e., wellbeing and group efficacy) among immigrants and host nationals, as well as explanatory mechanisms in this link, we integrated several theoretical perspectives: intergroup contact theory (e.g., Pettigrew & Tropp, 2006), collective rituals perspective (e.g., Collins, 2004;Durkheim, 1912Durkheim, /2008Páez, Rimé, Basabe, Wlodarczyk, & Zumeta, 2015), positive psychology (e.g., Csikszentmihalyi, 1990;Delle Fave, Massimini, & Bassi, 2011), and collective action theory (e.g., van Zomeren, Postmes, & Spears, 2008). First, we based our predictions on the intergroup contact hypothesis (Pettigrew & Tropp, 2006), which assumes that bidirectional interactions of both majority and minority group members in a society are fundamental for positive intergroup relations. ...
... Moreover, research in the field of positive psychology suggests that cognitive mechanisms, such as shared flow (e.g., Csikszentmihalyi, 1990;Pels et al., 2018), may also play an important role in stimulating effects of collective rituals (such as well-being and group efficacy; e.g., Delle Fave et al., 2011;Zumeta et al., 2016). Shared flow is an optimal state of mind that enhances synchronicity with the coparticipant during social interaction (e.g., Walker, 2010) and produces emotional contagion Salanova, Rodríguez-Sánchez, Schaufeli, & Cifre, 2014). ...
Article
Objective: This participatory research sought to understand how engagement in awareness-raising multicultural activities strengthens well-being and group efficacy among immigrants and host nationals. We also examined the mediating role of self-transcendent emotions and shared flow. Method: We tested our predictions across three studies, each focused on one awareness-raising activity organized by a nongovernmental organization, SOS Racismo-Mugak, working closely with the local community. This investigation was conducted in line with a community-based participatory research framework and thus with participation of community members in the procedure design, recruitment and data collection, as well as the dissemination of research findings. In Study 1, 204 participants responded to a survey before, during, and after participating in a multicultural lunch promoting interaction between immigrant and host national families. In Study 2, 106 participants were surveyed during an open-outdoors multicultural community meal. In Study 3, 93 participants completed an online survey after an antiracist protest. Results: Self-transcendent emotions and shared flow explained the relationship between the quality of participation and well-being (Studies 1 and 2) among immigrants and host nationals. The indirect effect of shared flow was stronger for immigrants (Study 1). The relationship between quality of participation and group efficacy was mediated by self-transcendent emotions (Study 2) and shared flow (Study 3) for both groups. Conclusions: Our results point out that participation in community awareness-raising activities has several positive outcomes, such as individual and collective empowerment, and elicits shared flow and self-transcendent emotions among immigrants and host nationals. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... We assume, in accordance with previous findings, higher levels of life satisfaction and lower levels of mental health problems for the employed compared to the unemployed. Further, we expect a higher orientation to engagement and meaning in the employed, since work has been suggested to be an important source of both (Emmons, 2003;Delle Fave et al., 2011;Grimm, Kemp, & Jose, 2015;Ruch et al., 2010). ...
Article
So far, only few studies have considered different aspects of well-being in studying losing or gaining employment. We examined life satisfaction, mental health, and the orientations to pleasure, engagement, and meaning over two years in a large sample of the Swiss labor force (N = 1231). We analyzed four different trajectories: Individuals always being employed, never being employed, those who lost employment, and those who gained employment. Results showed that losing and gaining employment went along with expected changes in life satisfaction and mental health. Additionally, gaining employment went along with increases in the orientations to pleasure, engagement, and meaning while a decrease in the orientation to pleasure was observed in the constantly unemployed. Further, life satisfaction was predictive for gaining employment, mental health problems were predictive for losing employment, and the orientations to pleasure, engagement, and meaning were unrelated to the future employment status. We conclude, in line with earlier studies, that well-being might be an important resource for coping with vulnerabilities and could be used for identifying risk groups with regard to employment status.
... The results are also in line with our previous research showing that only flow in academic activities was associated with well-being (Ljubin Golub et al., 2016b). Experiencing flow repeatedly in any activity leads to increase in skills and competencies in that activity (Delle Fave, Massimini, & Bassi, 2011). Therefore, it is understandable that getting better at an activity that a person finds important and useful will in the long run contribute to higher well-being. ...
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Summary Previous studies suggested that only flow in the activity that one finds important contributes to well-being. This study was done in order to further investigate the role of flow in different activities to well-being in two types of students, i.e. nonworking students (NWS) and part-time working students (PWS). The sample comprised first and second year university students (85% female) at the University of Zagreb, 113 NWS and 110 PWS. Several questionnaires were administered in order to assess flow in different activities, well-being, and burnout. Also, students reported grade point average (GPA). The results showed that in both groups flow in academic activities was the only stable positive predictor of well-being and academic achievement, and negative predictor of burnout, in line with the finding that both groups of students assessed academic activities as most important and most useful. Additionally, there were no differences between NWS and PWS in well-being, burnout, and GPA, suggesting that this PWS group currently has no negative consequences of part-time working. The importance of introducing flow inducing activities in academic assignments is suggested as crucial for students’ well-being. Key words: burnout, flow, part-time working, university students, well-being
... Today, well-being has entered the public discourse with scientists and public figures alike demanding better and reliable measures of people's well-being (Layard 2010). Based on Greek philosophy, the two main theoretical approaches discussed with regard to well-being and its measurement are eudaimonia and hedonism (Delle Fave et al. 2011;Dodge et al. 2012;Stoll 2014). "The hedonic view equates happiness with pleasure, comfort, and enjoyment [while] the eudaimonic view equates happiness with the human ability to pursue complex goals which are meaningful to the individual and society" (Delle Fave et al. 2011, p. 5). ...
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With the PERMA theory, Seligman (2011) postulates that well-being consists of five independently measurable factors: Positive Emotions (P), Engagement (E), Positive Relationships (R), Meaning (M) and Accomplishment (A). The PERMA-Profiler provides the first questionnaire, which measures all five well-being domains in an economical and reliable way. In order to test the validity of the questionnaire in German speaking countries, a German version of the PERMA-Profiler was developed and evaluated in a large sample (N = 854). The results provide evidence for acceptable reliability, very good construct validity (factorial and convergent) and first indications for measurement invariance, for both gender and nationality. Compared to three theoretically competing models, the inter-correlated Five-Factor Model turned out to be the most appropriate statistical model to describe the collected data. It revealed the best trade-off between model fit, parsimony and theoretical interpretability. Our results support the hypothesis of a multidimensional PERMA theory, which gives a closer insight in at least some of the building blocks of well-being. Therefore, the PERMA theory can be seen as a useful extension to a unidimensional subjective well-being approach. Like the English original, the German version of the PERMA-Profiler allows to measure well-being economically across multiple well-being domains. Therefore, the PERMA-Profiler can be recommended as a valid well-being screening instrument for the German speaking adult population. Keywords PERMA. PERMA-profiler. Well-being.Confirmatory factor analysis .Measurement . Bi-factor . German language .Questionnaire
... On the contrary, any other combination may result in other psychological states ( Figure 1): for instance, (a) apathy, combinations of low challenges and low skills; (b) relaxation, resulting from high skills but low challenges; (c) anxiety, combined high challenges with low skills. In particular, the frequency and intensity of flow in everyday life pinpoint the extent to which a person achieves sustained happiness through deliberate striving and ultimately fulfills his or her growth potential [16,17]. ...
Article
A growing number of studies suggest that flow experience is associated with life satisfaction, eudaimonic well-being, and the perceived strength of one’s social and place identity. However, little research has placed emphasis on flow and its relations with negative experiences such as anxiety. The current study investigated the relations between flow and anxiety by considering the roles of self-esteem and academic self-efficacy. The study sample included 590 Chinese university students, who were asked to complete a self-report questionnaire on flow, anxiety, self-esteem, and academic self-efficacy. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) with AMOS software, in which both factorial analysis and path analysis were performed. Results revealed that the experience of flow negatively predicted anxiety, and both self-esteem and academic self-efficacy fully mediated the path between flow and anxiety. Specifically, self-esteem played a crucial and complete mediating role in this relationship, while academic self-efficacy mediated the path between self-esteem and anxiety. Our findings enrich the literature on flow experience and help with identifying practical considerations for buffering anxiety and more broadly with fostering strategies for promoting psychological sustainability and resilience.
... To our knowledge there is little research that has explored well-being in professional athletes. Previous studies on flow and well-being reveal that experiencing more intense flow correlates positively with hedonic and eudemonic well-being (Smolej Fritz and Avsec, 2007;Delle Fave et al., 2011a;Moneta, 2012;Bassi et al., 2014;Baker et al., 2015). ...
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Although flow has been studied extensively in music and sport, there is a lack of research comparing these two domains. With the aim of filling this gap, elite musicians and top athletes in Slovenia were contrasted in the current study. Differences for flow and satisfaction with life between elite musicians and top athletes were explored. Individual versus group performance setting and gender differences were considered. 452 participants; 114 elite Slovenian musicians (mean age 23.46 years) and 338 top Slovenian athletes (mean age 22.40 years) answered questions about flow and satisfaction with life measures. The results show differences between elite musicians and top athletes in four flow dimensions: transformation of time and autotelic experience were higher in musicians while clear goals and unambiguous feedback were higher in athletes. However, differences in global flow were not confirmed. Elite musicians and top athletes experienced flow more often in group than in individual performance settings and surprisingly it was experienced more in male than in female top performers. Satisfaction with life has a positive correlation with all nine dimensions of flow, but only challenge-skill balance was a significant predictor for satisfaction with life.
... The literature with young people in residential care tends to be focused on psychopathology (Attar-Schwartz 2009;Erol et al. 2010) and even when well-being is explored, most of these studies are focused on subjective wellbeing (Llosada-Gistau et al. 2015;Llosada-Gistau et al. 2017a) with few exceptions looking at psychological well-being (Crous 2017). Despite the widely recognized contribution of the hedonic research (subjective well-being) to the literature, a complete understanding about optimal psychological functioning and self-actualization is merely provided by an eudaimonic perspective (Delle Fave, Massimini & Bassi, 2011;Ryff and Keyes 1995). The multidimensional concept of psychological well-being is grounded on a set of theoretical models and includes dimensions such as autonomy, personal growth, self-acceptance, life purpose, environmental mastery and positive relations with others, which are viewed as indicators of positive human development and flourishing (Ryan & Deci, 2001;Ryff and Singer 1996). ...
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Little evidence exists on the relationship between rights’ perceptions and well-being outcomes during the adolescence, and particularly in care, as well as on the mediating role of place attachment. Young people in residential care are psychologically and socially vulnerable, showing greater difficulties than their peers do in the family. Youth’s rights fulfilment in residential care may positively affect their psychological functioning together with positive attachments to this place. A sample of 365 adolescents in residential care settings (M = 14.71, SD = 1.81) completed a set of self-reported measures, specifically, the Rights perceptions scale, the Place attachment scale and Scales of psychological well-being. Results revealed significant mediating effects of place attachment (Global scale and subscales of Friends Bonding and Place Dependence) on the relationship between Participation and Protection rights in residential care and Psychological well-being (Positive Relations with others, Personal Growth and Self-Acceptance). The positive role of rights fulfilment in residential care, specifically participation opportunities, as well as the role of youth’s attachment to the care setting are discussed based on previous evidence and theoretical assumptions. A set of practical implications is described.
... Hedonia emphasizes on pleasure and avoidance of any displeasure (Diener et al., 2003), subjective happiness, and enjoyment (Delle Fave et al., 2011). On the other hand, eudaimonia focuses on personal growth, self-actualization, and purpose in life (Ryan & Deci, 2001;Ryff, 1989;Ryff & Keyes, 1995), drawing on the humanistic psychology (Silva & Caetano, 2013). ...
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factor structure, invariance, re-liability, convergent and discriminant validity of the Flourishing Scale using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis in 2272 Greek adults (aged M=35.54 years). We used the 3-faced validation method. After splitting the sam-ple in three parts (20%, 40% and 40%), we established a structure in the first 20% part with Exploratory Factor Analysis. Later on, the structure was re -examined in the second 40% part with Confirmatory Factor Analysis, con-firming the unidimensional structure of FS. This unidimensional structure was further cross-validated in the third part of the sample having equal power to the second one (40%) with a second CFA. In the final phase of the 3-faced validation method, strict measurement invariance was evaluated. The Tripar-tite Model of Mental well-being and the Two-Continua Well-being Model were also evaluated using FS as a well-being measure supporting FS construct validity further. Reliability (α and ω) and AVE convergent validity were also examined. Convergent and discriminant validity were examined using 12 dif-ferent measures. Normative data were also calculated. Considering all find-ings, FS is gender invariant, reliable, and valid measure for the Greek cultural context.
Conference Paper
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Se presenta un proyecto de investigación que tiene como objetivo analizar la noción de Temporalidad Subjetiva (TS) en dos grupos etarios -jóvenes y adultos- y estudiar su vinculación con la noción de Autocontrol (AC) así como conocer el alcance de esta relación en la predicción de logros educativos y laborales y de bienestar psicológico. Se plantea que a) la TS involucra tres aspectos centrales: la orientación temporal, las metas y las representaciones subjetivas acerca del tiempo; b) la TS difiere según la edad y c) el AC es una variable de personalidad mediadora entre la TS y la edad. Se establece como hipótesis general que el joven tendrá una orientación temporal al presente mientras que el adulto tendrá una preeminencia de orientación futura; que en el joven predominan las metas vinculadas al sí mismo, mientras que en el adulto predominan las metas vinculadas al contacto interpersonal y que la representación subjetiva del tiempo presenta características diferentes en jóvenes y adultos. En virtud de los antecedentes, el proyecto incluye también una variable de contexto: el nivel socio-educativo -entendido como una variable aproximada del nivel socio-económico- que se estudiará para poder pesquisar y determinar su relevancia en el conocimiento de la TS.
Chapter
Serious games are growing rapidly both as an industry and a field of academic research. They have been able to shape new opportunities for individual and collective learning and training, showing a discrete effectiveness. Further, serious games have been capable of supporting health and well-being. That is why they can be considered as positive technologies. Positive Technology is an emergent field whose goal is to investigate how Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) can be used to empower the quality of personal experience The aim of the present chapter is to discuss the role of serious games as positive technology, analyzing how they can influence both individual and interpersonal experiences by fostering positive emotions, promoting engagement, as well as enhancing social integration and connectedness.
Chapter
The intention of the following chapter is to shed light on primary factors that play a role in defining what we coin as an optimal learning environment, an environment that buttresses an experience of flow for learners (see Chap. 10 by Andersen in this volume). The chapter begins with an overview of flow related research reframed for the purpose of measuring the experience of flow in learning. A longitudinal study of flow experienced by students undertaking a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) is described. The Flow in Education scale (EduFlow Scale) used in the study is described and the results of the study presented. The results illustrate the potential value and relevance of measuring flow in learning as well as the relation to the extended concept of cognitive absorption. We conclude the chapter with a presentation of a model of heuristic learning: the Individually Motivated Community model. The model builds upon three major theories of the self: Self-Determination, Self-Efficacy and Autotelism-Flow.
Article
Le présent article aborde la définition, les caractéristiques et les diverses mesures de l’expérience optimale (flow). Il présente le contexte historique de sa conceptualisation théorique, les relations du flow avec le développement de la personne et la culture. L’article présente également des études récentes et révélatrices sur le flow. Il se termine avec quelques suggestions de recherches futures.
Article
In the health domain, well‐being is primarily assessed as autonomy and mental distress, whereas the quality of daily experience is rarely investigated. In this study, the relationship between autonomy levels and daily experience was explored. Thirty‐five Italian adults with Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia provided for one week real‐time descriptions of daily activities and associated experiences through the Experience Sampling Method procedure. Participants were grouped based on autonomy levels assessed through Barthel Index. The relationships between activity typologies, the experiential dimensions, perceived challenges and skills, and autonomy level were analysed. Participants’ predominant activities were personal care, associated with global disengagement, and leisure, associated with high control and desirability, but low perceived relevance. During social interactions participants reported engagement and emotional well‐being, and during productive activities high activation but negative affect. Multi‐level analysis highlighted that this association between activity type and experiential patterns recurred across autonomy levels. In addition, perceived challenges in the activity were lower that perceived personal skills across activities and autonomy levels. Findings suggest that persons with motor disabilities, regardless of their autonomy level, would benefit from more challenging opportunities for action in daily life, in order to attain well‐being through active skill mobilisation.
Chapter
After framing Csikszentmihalyi’s conception of flow as a feature of the most intense human activities, the authors explain the positive impact it has on both the person (gratification) and on results, i.e., the quality of their work. They then take on an organizations’ greatest challenge: that is, how to create a collaborative environment in which people find a state of concentration that leads them perform better. The aim is not to achieve a momentary psychological state of being, but rather to work and collaborate better, resulting in improved general welfare. Moreover, this improvement is mutually beneficial to the individual’s self-fulfillment and to the improvement of social life. There is a common ground between the Aristotelian treatment of pleasure, seen as a side effect of advantageous action, and the classical distinction between pleasure and gratification, with advances from contemporary psychology. Moreover, these findings lay the groundwork for developing a theory of action that transcends intellectual aspects in order to better understand the kind of action in which the agent tends to identify with his action.
Article
This article describes the effects of a co-design pedagogic strategy on students’ engagement in the critique. The co-design pedagogy proposes a critique setting where students are enticed to participate in a co-design activity. We aimed to describe students’ engagement in that critique setting based on two factors: how they participate in the co-ideation process based on the analysis of verbal exchange (Collaborative Ideation loops), and how they felt during the critique based on the analysis of their psychological experience state (feeling of Flow). A case study of six sessions of studio critique involving industrial design students is described. Our results show that students engage in Collaborative Ideation Loops in three different ways. Two Design Flow patterns were observed in our dataset that illustrate an association between students’ experience state and specific elements of Collaborative Ideation Loops.
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School satisfaction is the reflection of students’ comprehen- sive evaluation of their school experience. This study reports the level of school satisfaction among students in Grades 6 and 8 in Bangladesh to perceive and the factors that might contribute to it using a cross‐sectional research design. A 61‐item survey questionnaire was utilized to collect data. The students’ mean score on the school satisfaction subscale of the Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale equated to a slightly positive attitude towards school. Three demographic factors including students’ academic achieve- ment, gender, and grade level; and two school climate factors of perceived teacher–student relationship, and perceived academic support, emerged from the multiple regression analysis. The study findings are discussed from the perspective of self‐determination theory with implica- tions for practice and avenues for future research offered.
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Positive psychological intervention (PPI), which aims at enhancing the quality of life and well-being, was developed and mainly been tested in the Western countries. It was rarely validated for Asians, who may value less on individualistic and positive well-being. This study examined the efficacy and mechanism of a 6-day online self-help PPI on improving eudaimonic well-being (flourishing) and reducing depressive symptoms among Chinese university students. In this two-armed randomized controlled trial, 100 university students were recruited online and randomly assigned to a 6-day PPI which involved writing about best possible self, or an active control group which involved writing about a past event. They completed pre- and post-intervention evaluation. Analysis of data using repeated measures ANOVA showed that PPI improved flourishing and reduced depressive symptoms. Results showed that positive affects and autonomy satisfaction fully mediated the effect of PPI on flourishing, while increased autonomy fully mediated the effect of PPI on depressive symptoms. Moreover, the effects on depressive symptoms and flourishing were independent of one another, indicating the general utility of PPI in improving positive well-being irrespective of change in depressive symptoms. These findings add novel support that increased autonomy satisfaction is an active ingredient that promotes intervention change and illustrated that online PPI might serve as a viable well-being intervention for Chinese university students.
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Creativity can be studied in many ways: processes, tools, personality, etc. In this paper, we are interested in subjective emotional experience linked to creativity. People usually make rich experiences, and are more likely to be engaged in creative processes, when they face highly challenging task, and feel confident in their skills (Flow from Csikszentmihalyi [9]). On this base, our interest is to understand the dynamics of experience, how it evolves in time. We use a previously developed method, the Design Flow 2.0 [18], which allow, on a granular way, to describe the emotional states during design. In a sample of ideation sessions, during a co-design immersive studio in design pedagogy, thanks to the granular assessment, we identify patterns of creative experience linked to the creation of new and relevant ideas. Our results show two patterns, one which was expected (designers experience stress before the expression of the idea, optimal experience-flow-during its expression, and feel in control just after), and an unexpected reversed pattern (control-flow-stress), which respectively illustrate a proactive and a reactive posture in design. We discuss these results and open perspectives, about the usage of the method to enhance co-design and to address other types of user experiences.
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While much study has focused on external variables such as poverty and child labour to document high dropout, absenteeism and poor academic achievement in the secondary schools of Bangladesh, little research has been undertaken to elucidate these issues from students’ psycho-emotional perspectives.The present study explores students’ sense of belonging to school and its correlation with student achievement and school satisfaction. Seven schools participated in this study with 869 boys and 574 girls from junior/lower secondary years six, seven and eight. The Bangla version of the Psychological Sense of School Membership (PSSM) Scale (Goodenow, 1993) was used to measure students’ sense of belonging to school. The findings indicated positive and significant relationships among school satisfaction, academic achievement and school belonging. The findings have important implications for both pedagogical practice and intervention programmes, emphasising strong social environment in school and illustrating students’ psycho-social component as an important aspect of school outcomes. Keywords: Sense of belonging, academic efficacy, academic achievement, school satisfaction
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The objective of this paper was to develop a Multidimensional Flourishing Scale and to study its psychometric validation. This paper includes three different studies, in Study 1, it was analysed the development of the item for each dimension, the initial factor structure (using parallel analysis and exploratory factor analysis) and the internal consistency. In Study 2, the confirmatory factor analysis was used to confirm the scale structure, and also the convergent validity was analyzed; and finally, in Study 3, the construct validity and stability of the Multidimensional Flourishing Scale a cross six countries (Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Portugal and Spain) were studied. The analyses presented herein have shown that the scale is psychometrically valid, and that has a strong internal consistency reliability coefficient for the entire scale and for each subscale in the different studies presented and the six countries included in the third study.
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Cet article présente une synthèse des connaissances portant sur la relation entre le processus de réalisation des buts personnels et le bien-être subjectif. Les différents facteurs qui favorisent l’atteinte d’un but et les étapes qui caractérisent la démarche vers la réalisation d’un but sont discutés. Puis, les impacts qu’exerce le processus de réalisation des buts sur le bien-être subjectif sont décrits. Finalement, le programme d’intervention de groupe Gestion des buts personnels, qui porte sur la réalisation de buts est présenté, afin d’illustrer les applications cliniques possibles des données empiriques présentées.
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Research highlighted the negative consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescents' emotional well-being worldwide. In the attempt to identify resources which could facilitate adolescents' adjustment , this study examined the occurrence of flow experience and related activities, and the association between flow and emotional well-being among Italian teenagers. In Spring 2021, 150 students (40.7% girls) aged 15-19 completed instruments assessing flow and related activities before and during the pandemic, and current positive and negative affect. Findings revealed that only 24.7% of the participants currently reported flow; over half of those reporting flow before the pandemic did not experience it subsequently, and only 6.5% of those not reporting flow before the pandemic currently experienced it. Participants with flow both before and during the pandemic reported higher positive affect than teens who never experienced flow (p = .011), or lost it (p = .006). No group differences were detected for negative affect. Learning, structured leisure, and interpersonal relations were the domains most frequently associated with flow before and during the pandemic, but after the pandemic onset a reduction in the variety of flow activities and limited identification of new flow domains were observed. The association of flow with higher emotional well-being even in pandemic times suggests the potential usefulness of interventions promoting flow retrieval under adverse circumstances.
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A directed motivational current (DMC) or sustained flow (SF; Ibrahim and Al-Hoorie, 2019) is a motivational phenomenon characterized by intensity of engagement and sustainability of effort in which individuals display highly motivated goal-governed behavior and achieve outcomes exceeding expectations set at the outset (Dörnyei et al., 2014, 2015). This paper presents an empirical investigation into what fuels the intense and sustained motivated behavior which distinguishes the phenomenon from other types of high motivated engagement such as the ones maintained by volitional, self-regulatory measures. The qualitative (phenomenological) analysis of interview data collected from a number of subjects who had experienced SF reports two main findings. First, high motivation and intense engagement in SF are primarily the function of affective obsession with the SF experience. Once in SF, people will be mentally and affectively consumed by their experiences even at times when they are involved in other daily activities. Second, as a result of one’s affective appraisal of SF experience, one’s perception toward effort will change from viewing learning tasks as homework to perceiving engagement as one’s preferred activity conducted at one’s free time. In SF, engagement is probably considered as too emotionally satisfying and meaningful insomuch as one prefers to maintain a strong and constant sense of relatedness. As a result, effort loses its traditional connotation and therefore self-regulatory measures become unnecessary; hereby one might invest the maximum amount of effort toward learning. Theoretical implications of these two main findings are then discussed in relation to the motivational power of positive affect in directing second language learning behavior.
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Vital engagement has been described as a focused, meaningful, and active relationship with work across one’s lifetime (Nakamura, 2001, 2014). Theoretically, vital engagement goes beyond short-term interest and engagement in one’s work, representing instead an ongoing, homeostatic sense of engagement that sustainably occurs across years and decades. However, it is unclear how vital engagement manifests in the modern workplace. In the footsteps of Nakamura (2014), we present the VIVA model, which conceptualizes sustainable work engagement as comprised of four mutually reinforcing elements: virtue, involvement, vitality, and acceptance. We first describe the rationale and conceptual underpinnings of the model. Then, we provide a preliminary empirical test of the model using archival data collected from a panel of school staff (N = 327) assessed five times over a three year period. Based on available data, the VIVA domains were operationalized as strengths use, work-related flow experiences, subjective vitality, and a sense of meaning in life. Using structural equation modelling, results provided preliminary support for the hypothesized model, which was relatively stable over time despite changes and challenges occurring in the school. The construct was strongly correlated with but distinct from other wellbeing measures. Although additional testing with measures that specifically align with the four theoretical dimensions is needed, the results support the relevance of the VIVA model in defining specific domains that can be supported in the workplace to help employees sustainably thrive.
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Flow at work is thought to be a dynamic and contextually bounded experience. Its relevance to optimal human functioning is well documented. Although flow theory suggests a mutually reinforcing association between flow and strengths use, with support by cross-sectional and short-term studies, the inter-relationship of flow at work and strengths use prospectively over long time periods is unknown. Using data collected from a panel of school staff (N = 253) across five measurement occasions over a three-year period, the current study investigated the extent to which flow at work and strength use were mutually supportive cross-sectionally and prospectively. Although flow and strengths were correlated within each time point, flow was not predictive of strength use nor was strength use predictive of flow at subsequent time points. Results point to the complexities of understanding dynamic psychological processes over time, which may differ from short-term relationships. Implications for measuring and supporting wellbeing at work, while taking into account its dynamic nature, are considered.
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Big data (BD) is the hue and cry of modern science and society. The impact of such data deluge is huge and far reaching for both science and society. Moreover, given the effort required for collecting and analyzing these data, artificial intelligence (AI) has replaced the human mind in accomplishing the enormous task of deriving insight out of the information. In this article, we analyze the role of BD and AI in steering the world population toward the state of Zero Sales Resistance (ZSR): the inability to exert critical judgment over the most seductive aspects of the aforementioned data deluge. Moreover, we discuss the alarming consequences of presenting the merging of BD and AI as a universal panacea even if, to date, they have proven far more efficient for predicting human decisions and behaviors (predictive analytics) than for solving the most critical problems in science and society. Why? Our answer is simple. The causal structures associated with such challenges command a detailed understanding of the underlying mechanisms (causal explanation), typically acting nonlinearly and on a broad range of scales in space and time. In contrast, personality and behavior can be predicted with no need of a microscopic theory and understanding of the brain-mind system (empirical prediction). This is a direct consequence of the fact that our mind, at least for the intuitive level, uses the same prediction techniques applied by AI (bayesian predictions based on our experience). However, prediction is not explanation, and without joining them it will be impossible to achieve a major advance in our understanding of complex systems.
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Flow experience is a psychological state characterized by simultaneous absorption, concentration, and enjoyment. Examining the change and continuity of the flow experience––an optimal state that contributes to well-being––is critical to the understanding of the lifelong trajectory of human flourishing. Nevertheless, to date there has been no systematic investigation of the relationship between age and flow experiences across adulthood. Developmental models of flow experiences suggest the continuity hypothesis that people are motivated to sustain a high level of flow experiences as long as conditions permit. We conducted two studies to investigate flow experiences among adults of different ages. Study 1 ( N = 1,162; age range 30–80) used longitudinal data from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) project, investigating the changes in flow experiences at work over a 10-year span. Study 2 ( N = 393; age range 20–82) was an online survey that examined age-related differences in flow experiences. Both studies revealed minimal relationships between age and flow experiences. Post-hoc analyses revealed no significant moderating effect of common demographics including gender, race, and education on the age–flow relationship. Taken together, these studies elucidate the “flow profile” in adulthood that is consistent with the continuity hypothesis. We discuss relations of the findings to the literature on flow experiences and well-being.
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Flow and work engagement are related concepts, and both are commonly applied and studied in the workplace. This review makes an attempt to define the potential differences and relationships between flow and engagement in the workplace. Based on a systematic review of the extant positive interventions designed to enhance flow and work engagement, meaningful differences between flow and work engagement interventions were found in terms of the mechanisms of the interventions, the types of interventions, and the intervention approach (i.e. personal vs. contextual and deficit-fixing vs. strengths-building). The review concludes that flow interventions can make important contributions above and beyond work engagement interventions. The findings illuminate the conceptual and empirical differences between flow and work engagement interventions, and suggest new directions for flow and engagement intervention research in the workplace.
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Flow is a gratifying state of deep involvement and absorption that individuals report when facing a challenging activity and they perceive adequate abilities to cope with it ( EFRN, 2014 ). The flow concept was introduced by Csikszentmihalyi in 1975, and interest in flow research is growing. However, to our best knowledge, no scoping review exists that takes a systematic look at studies on flow which were published between the years 2000 and 2016. Overall, 252 studies have been included in this review. Our review (1) provides a framework to cluster flow research, (2) gives a systematic overview about existing studies and their findings, and (3) provides an overview about implications for future research. The provided framework consists of three levels of flow research. In the first “Individual” level are the categories for personality, motivation, physiology, emotion, cognition, and behavior. The second “Contextual” level contains the categories for contextual and interindividual factors and the third “Cultural” level contains cultural factors that relate to flow. Using our framework, we systematically present the findings for each category. While flow research has made progress in understanding flow, in the future, more experimental and longitudinal studies are needed to gain deeper insights into the causal structure of flow and its antecedents and consequences.
Chapter
The present chapter is devoted to the experiential now as an individual fundamental entity of the complex present that plays the pivot role in dynamics of the human temporality. In our theory, the implementation cost of action strategies is determined by effort. For this reason, we elucidate its essential properties and develop the multi-component theory of subjective effort. Turning to the laws of psychophysics, we develop the description of subjective effort in terms of one-dimensional clouds in the space of effort magnitudes experienced by the subject. Two components of subjective effort are singled out. One is the experienced effort of bodily executed actions. The other is the mental effort related to monitoring the results of bodily actions. The available psychological and physiological data that enable us to develop the original mathematical description of subjective effort are presented. In particular, the power-law of memory load, the regularities of speed-accuracy tradeoff are used to construct the mental effort of monitoring which admits the interpretation as quasi-entropy of subject’s actions. To fuse the two types of subjective effort, we propose a new concept of an endless cloud cycle dealing with effort-as-experienced and effort-as-evaluated. This concept enables us to employ the notion of time-to-fatigue in order to make the two types of subjective effort mutually commensurable. As a result, a nonlinear model for the effort fusion is elaborated, which may be treated as an analogy to free energy. The appendix presents the details of the mathematical constructions and experimental data on binary categorization that underlie the mathematical description of subjective effort including the experienced effort of bodily executed actions and the mental effort of monitoring the results of bodily actions.
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The present study investigated a conceptual model by testing university students’ flow experience and subjective well-being via considering their underlying mechanisms of academic self-efficacy and self-esteem. A total of 1109 Chinese university students completed a questionnaire containing scales of Subjective Well-being, Flow, Academic Self-efficacy and Self-esteem. Results yielded from the structural equation modelling analysis indicated a significant and positive association between flow experience and subjective well-being, and such an association was sequentially mediated by academic self-efficacy and self-esteem. Findings also provided empirical evidence for the proposed model highlighting the significant role of flow experience at the higher educational context in predicting Chinese university students’ subjective well-being, and how such a relation can be supported by suggested mediating roles academic self-efficacy and self-esteem played.
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Bu bölümü okuduğunuzda öğrenecekleriniz 1. Akış deneyiminin içerik ve tanımı 2. Akışın pozitif psikolojideki yeri ve önemi 3. Akışın günlük yaşamdaki yeri ve önemi 4. Akışın boyutları ve ölçülmesi 5. Akışa ilişkin güncel araştırmalar ve uygulamalara yansımaları AKIŞA İLİŞKİN KÜÇÜK BİR HİKAYE Akış kavramını ilk defa ortaya atan araştırmacı olarak bilinen Csikszentmihalyi (1975/2000) bu kavramın eğitim ortamlarındaki önemine ilişkin oldukça ilginç ve eğlenceli araştırmalar gerçekleştirmiştir. Söz konusu araştırmalarının birinde Csikszentmihalyi (2014), öğretmenlere ders esnasında rastgele zamanlarda çalması için önceden programlanmış olan elektronik çağrı cihazlarını dağıtarak kendilerinden söz konusu cihaz çaldığında ne yaptıklarını, öğrencilerden ise öğretmenlerine verilen çağrı cihazının sesini duyduklarında ne düşündüklerini ve hissettiklerini belirtmelerini istemiştir. Araştırmanın katılımcıları arasında yer alan oldukça tanınmış ve saygın bir tarih öğretmeni dersinde Cengiz Han'ın 1215'te Moğolistan'dan yola çıkarak Çin'i fethetmesi konusunu işlemektedir. Kendisine önceden verilen çağrı cihazı çaldığında öğretmen dersinde tam olarak şunları anlatmakta olduğunu ifade etmiştir: "Başlangıçta Çin seddini aşmakta zorlanan Cengiz Han, Çin Seddi'nin etrafında önce kuzey yönünde daha sonra da güney yönünde tur atarak Çin Seddi'nin uzunluğunu belirledi ve sonunda şu an Pekin olarak bilinen bölgeyi ele geçirebildi." Öte yandan çağrı cihazı çaldığı anda ne yaptıklarına ilişkin olarak sınıftaki 27 öğrenciden 25'i dersin konusu kapsamında yer alan Çin'e ilişkin hiçbir şeyden bahsetmemiştir. Öğrencilerin ders esnasında düşündükleri şeyler yaklaşmakta olan futbol maçları, o an kadar ne aç oldukları ve/veya ne kadar uykularının gelmiş olduğu gibi konuları içermektedir. Dersin odağında yer alan Çin'den bahsedenler ise sadece geriye kalan 2 öğrenciden ibaret görünmektedir. Söz konusu bu iki öğrenciden biri çağrı cihazı çaldığı esnada Çinli
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This research seeks to improve our understanding of how intrinsic motivation is instantiated. Three motivation theories, flow theory, self-determination theory, and empowerment theory, have informed our understanding of the foundations of intrinsic motivation at work. Taken jointly, they suggest six causal factors for intrinsic motivation: (1) perceived competence, (2) perceived challenge, (3) perceived autonomy, (4) perceived impact, (5) perceived social relatedness, and (6) perceived meaningfulness. Integrating different theoretical perspectives, I employ a case-based configurational approach and conduct coincidence analyses on survey data from a German public utility to analyse the nuanced interplay of these six causal factors for intrinsic motivation. My data show that high perceived meaningfulness or high perceived autonomy is sufficient for high perceived intrinsic motivation and at least one of the two conditions must be present. Further, my findings reveal a common cause structure in which perceived impact is not a causal factor for intrinsic motivation but an additional outcome factor. Subsequent analyses shed light on possible roles of the remaining proposed causal factors by drawing a tentative causal chain structure. The results of this study enhance our understanding of the causal complexity underlying the formation of intrinsic motivation.
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Motivational precursors to maintaining an active lifestyle across the lifespan are not well understood. Intrinsic experience and values can motivate activity engagement, but age-related change in resources and temporal horizons may moderate these effects. Flow (Csikszentmihalyi et al., 2005) is the phenomenological experience of complete absorption in an activity, which can engender engagement in the activity for its own sake. We explored how the purpose (communal or agentic) and context (social or individual) of an activity impact the Flow experience as a function of age. Across the lifespan, agentic activities produced a heightened Flow experience compared to communal activities, supporting the idea that Flow plays a lifelong role in the development and maintenance of mastery. However, Flow was disproportionately enhanced for communal activities with age, suggesting that social motives may increasingly contribute to the pleasures of activity engagement with progression through the adult lifespan.
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Knowledge workers usually have a lot of freedom in defining their job and management is challenged by managing this process and monitoring how well they use their resources. On some days one might have slept badly and thus does not feel capable of starting a complex analysis and instead decides to only answer e-mails and leave work a bit earlier. In those cases, the employer loses productivity and thus it seems important for employers to limit those days by making sure people feel most of the days like they have the resources to take on the more demanding work tasks. In order to test if increasing employees’ resources has an effect on employees taking on more demanding jobs, a six-week-program called the “trivago flowlab” was offered to 117 employees at trivago, a German middle-sized company employing mainly knowledge workers. Parallel to the program, employees had to rate daily in an app after work their resources and their work demands for the past workday. Participants showed a significant increase in their resources and work demands ratings. Limitations because of a non-experimental study design are discussed.
Article
Hypermodernity is a period characterized by a loss of meaning and a disenchantment in relation to the world that is unique in human history. Aubert’s hyperformance, Bauman’s liquid modernity, Lipovetsky’s hypermodernity and Beck’s reflexive modernity offer a significant perspective on actual social dynamics and their evolution. A new analytical posture is proposed in this article under the form of an essay to demonstrate the contribution of leisure in this social context, and brings a fresh look at spirituality, flow and physical literacy. The meshing of these concepts is evident in the practice of flowart, which allows us to appreciate their dynamics. Described as the manipulation of objects coordinated with rhythmic body movements, this practice paves the way for an « art of flow » culture and to a reflexion on the place of leisure in our hypermodern societies.
Preprint
La preocupación ambiental se conceptualiza a partir de una estructura de cuatro dimensiones: apatía hacia el medio ambiente; antropocentrismo; conectividad con la naturaleza y afinidad emocional hacia la naturaleza. Por su parte, las competencias socioemocionales representan un conjunto de conocimientos, capacidades, y actitudes necesarias para comprender, expresar y regular de forma apropiada los fenómenos emocionales. Este trabajo se propuso evaluar la preocupación ambiental y las competencias socio-emocionales en adultos mayores que participaban de un taller en el Centro Cultural Rector Ricardo Rojas, en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, al inicio y final del mismo; en el marco de un programa de extensión universitaria. La muestra estuvo conformada por 32 Adultos Mayores, 98 % mujeres, de 61 a 83 años (M = 73; SD = 5). Se administraron la Escala de Preocupación Ambiental (Amérigo, Aragonés & García, 2012; Adaptación Argentina: Cassullo, 2015) y el Inventario de Competencias Socio-emocionales (ICSE; Mikulic, 2013). Se encontró que los Adultos mayores expresaron mayor Afinidad Emocional y Conectividad, luego de haber participado del taller; así como también, mayor optimismo, asertividad y Comunicación Expresiva. Los resultados encontrados son promisorios respecto de la conformación de espacios significativos positivos en nuestro contexto, que permiten trabajar con adultos mayores desde la integración de la Psicología Ambiental y Positiva.
Poster
La Psicología Ambiental analiza la interacción entre las personas y el ambiente entendiéndolo como todo lo que las rodea desde un carácter sociofísico, tanto natural como construido (Aragonés y Amérigo, 2010). La preocupación ambiental se entiende como el interés que los sujetos presentan por el cuidado ambiental (Amérigo, 2006). Se conoce que habitar en lugares vulnerables genera un impacto negativo en la salud (Prüss-Üstün y Corvalán, 2006). A consecuencia resulta relevante conocer cómo se manifiesta la preocupación ambiental en los estudiantes universitarios, futuros profesionales en ejercicio. La orientación de la formación se vincula con los intereses. Los estudiantes de Psicología centran su formación en la salud mental de las personas, mientras que los de Arquitectura en la construcción y acondicionamiento de espacios que las personas habitan. El objetivo de la presente es comparar la preocupación ambiental entre estudiantes de Psicología (n=50) y de Arquitectura (n=50).Se administró la escala de Preocupación Ambiental (Amérigo, Aragonés y García, 2012; Adaptación Argentina: Cassullo, Caballero, Favara, Colombo y Rusca, 2015) en ambas poblaciones. Los resultados hallados se relacionan con los obtenidos en estudiantes de Psicología (Cassullo et al., 2015), importante para la planificación de intervenciones basadas en datos empíricos.
Chapter
In this chapter, we discuss the idea of flow experience in human development. We consider that the study of flow and its complexity should take a developmental and ecological framework into consideration since the experience of flow occurs in the interaction between the individual and his/her daily contexts. Besides this, we show how flow is, by its nature, anchored in developmental science and developmental psychology, contributing to the development of new skills and resources that help the individual to mature, grow and reach an optimal level of functioning.
Chapter
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The term ‘empowerment' has been defined in many ways in different professional fields. Empowerment means to develop a person's full potential to achieve a range of human capabilities. For people to be productive, they may need to be empowered to gasp their sense of self-worth and be able to tackle their personal issues. The study investigates the contribution of ICT tools such as telecentres for the empowerment of women in disadvantaged areas of the Western Cape, South Africa. The essence of empowerment entails the alteration of individual lives to attain goals they may have not been able to achieve. Thus, empowerment is an active, multi-dimensional progression that allows people to comprehend their potential and powers in all spheres of life. The study used the Dimensions of Empowerment Theory to explain the outcome of women's use of the telecentre using the dimensions of empowerment output indicator.
Chapter
The progressive growth of the ageing population represents opportunities as well as challenges. Consistently, the identification of effective cognitive empowerment programs in elderly population is now a worldwide health policy priority, specially for their preventive effect. In this chapter, within the paradigm of Positive Technology, the main focus will be on the use advanced technologies as effective tools for a new class of applications aimed at improving the traditional cognitive empowerment in elderly. Specifically, the attention will be devoted on how advanced technologies may be used to support elderly in reaching engaging and self-actualizing experiences. On the basis of the most recent evidence in literature, it will be discussed the possible advantages in using such advanced technologies for improving well-being in frail elderly: coupled with an increase in cognitive skills acquisition, the advantages may range increased self-efficacy and decreased subjective weakness, with a consequent improvement in both physical and cognitive performance.
Article
To discern what accounts for moment-to-moment fluctuations in well-being, the present study investigated how state-level autonomy relates to three aspects of well-being: affect, engagement, and meaning measured at the momentary level using the experience sampling method (ESM). These effects were contrasted with the impact of activity types (work, study, play, rest), controlling for life satisfaction and demographic differences, using multilevel regression analyses. Controlling for all other predictors, autonomy was the only significant predictor for momentary affect and engagement; it was the strongest predictor for momentary meaningfulness. Autonomy showed a positive linear relationship in predicting affect, whereas the relationship was quadratic for the remaining two aspects of well-being such that engagement and meaning increase as autonomy rises from none, low, to moderate levels but plateau from moderate to high autonomy. Results suggest that beyond what people do, a key to well-being may be experiencing higher autonomy without necessarily eliminating extrinsic motivation.
Chapter
The progressive growth of the ageing population represents opportunities as well as challenges. Consistently, the identification of effective cognitive empowerment programs in elderly population is now a worldwide health policy priority, specially for their preventive effect. In this chapter, within the paradigm of Positive Technology, the main focus will be on the use advanced technologies as effective tools for a new class of applications aimed at improving the traditional cognitive empowerment in elderly. Specifically, the attention will be devoted on how advanced technologies may be used to support elderly in reaching engaging and self-actualizing experiences. On the basis of the most recent evidence in literature, it will be discussed the possible advantages in using such advanced technologies for improving well-being in frail elderly: coupled with an increase in cognitive skills acquisition, the advantages may range increased self-efficacy and decreased subjective weakness, with a consequent improvement in both physical and cognitive performance.
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