ArticlePDF Available

A Deeper Understanding of Consciousness Through the Study of Creativity

Authors:
  • 5 boroughs partnership nhs trust

Abstract

Creativity is a multilevel process with a biological substratum. Studies of creativity signify the irreducibility of mind and may show the way beyond the quantum consciousness, unraveling its near-paranormal nature. The human mind should be regarded as a means of communication, constituting both a highly sophisticated receiver and a transmitter. The current genetic and psychopathological views of creativity are rooted in the reductionist model of consciousness. They are challenged by the parapsychological perspectives that offer us a broader vision of consciousness. Without adequate intellectual tools and an expanded model of the brain-mind consciousness complex, studies of creativity are inevitably erroneous. Psychography and evidences of discarnate existence may indicate that some original ideas may be flourishing in another dimension, in readiness for transfer to the minds of creative individuals. The assumed link between generativity and mental disorder can be clarified only when we elucidate the creative process, and parasciences may be able to clarify some of the conceptual confusions. Age related decline of creativity supports strongly the view that creativity has also a biological foundation.
NeuroQuantology | June 2017 | Volume 15 | Issue 2 | Page 171-185 | 10.14704/nq.2017.15.2.1018
Pandarakalam JP., A Deeper Understanding of Consciousness through Study of Creativity
eISSN 1303-5150 www.neuroquantology.com
171
A Deeper Understanding of Consciousness
Through Study of Creativity
James Paul Pandarakalam
ABSTRACT
Creativity is a multilevel process with a biological substratum.
Studies of creativity signify the irreducibility of
mind and may show the way beyond the quantum consciousness, unraveling its near-
paranormal nature. The
human mind should be regarded as a means of communication, constituting both a highly sophisticated r
eceiver
and a transmitter. The current genetic and psychopathological views of creativity are rooted in the reductionist
model of consciousness. They are challenged by the parapsychological perspectives that offer us a broader vision
of consciousness. Without adequate intellectual tools and an expanded model of the brain–
mind consciousness
complex, studies of creativity are inevitably erroneous. Psychography and evidences of discarnate existence may
indicate that some original ideas may be flourishing in an
other dimension, in readiness for transfer to the minds
of creative individuals. The assumed link between generativity and mental disorder can be clarified only when we
elucidate the creative process, and parasciences may be able to clarify some of the con
ceptual confusions. Age
related decline of creativity supports strongly the view that creativity has also a biological foundation.
Key Words:
creativity, consciousness, psychopathology, parallel thinking, quantum mind, automatic writing
DOI Number:
10.14704/nq.2017.15.2.1018
NeuroQuantology 2017; 2: 171-
185
Introduction
Someone with a capacious reservoir of knowledge
may be regarded as intelligent, whereas an
individual who uses their knowledge in an original
and constructive way may be considered to be
creative (Mussen et al., 1979). Creativity may be
defined as the process of bringing something new
into being (May, 1975), whereby previously
unrelated structures are combined harmoniously.
It involves the capacity to take existing objects and
synthesize them in different ways for new
purposes resulting for example in the
recognition or discovery of novel ideas and
solutions. The outcome will be larger than what
has been fed into the creative mind (Koestler,
1981).
The concept of the unconscious mind as
the source of dreams and automatic thoughts, the
storehouse of forgotten memories, and the locus
of implicit knowledge existed prior to the time of
the Austrian neurologist and psychoanalyst
Sigmund Freud, who popularized and even
romanticized it. The ultrafast primary-process
thinking of the unconscious violates the laws of
classical psychology. Quantum physics is now in a
position to postulate a deeper perception of it,
without which we are unable to study the
mechanism of creativity. After a hundred years of
controversy, consciousness is still the tip of the
psychic iceberg that Freud imagined it to be
(Westen, 1999), and quantum physicists seem to
support that assertion of his. Unconscious events
are not observable, and that is the fundamental
obstacle to the integration of the Freudian views
of mind with the long-established sciences.
Similarly, the quantum wave function cannot be
observed; it can only be inferred from observable
data.
Corresponding author: Dr. James Paul Pandarakalam
Address: Consultant Psychiatrist,Department of Psychiatry, 5 Boroughs Partnership NHS Foundation Trust. Hollins Park Hospital & AFG
hospitals, Hollins Lane, Warrington WA2 8WA, U.K.
e-mail james.pandarakalam@5bp.nhs.uk; jpandarak@hotmail.co.uk
Relevant conflicts of interest/financial disclosures: The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any
commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
Received: 18 December 2016; Accepted: 22 January 2017
NeuroQuantology | June 2017 | Volume 15 | Issue 2 | Page 171-185 | 10.14704/nq.2017.15.2.1018
Pandarakalam JP., A Deeper Understanding of Consciousness through Study of Creativity
eISSN 1303-5150 www.neuroquantology.com
172
In spite of that, quantum physics has
become a recognized science. In fact, the only way
of integrating Freudian concepts with science is
through the mediation of quantum physics.
The quantum unconscious offers a
conceptual model through which we can study the
possible contributions of creativity at a quantum
level. Amit Goswami, a renowned particle
physicist, classifies creative works into two basic
categories and also attempts to give a new
dimension to creativity studies. One is problem
solving, similar to technological innovation, and
the other entails the unearthing of deeper truth
(Goswami, 2014). He recognizes that spiritual
growth is inner creativity and creativity in arts
and sciences is outer creativity. Inner creativity is
akin to mysticism. Thus, St Augustine was a genius
of spirituality, as are many eastern and western
philosophers. The scientists of modern times are
pursuing outer creativity. Such a view can help us
to detect commonalities between the personalities
of the contributors to faith traditions and to
scientific disciplines, and between the divergent
kinds of wisdom they offer to human growth. In
the pre-scientific era, creative intelligentsias were
focused on arts and inner creativity, and some of
them may be classified as geniuses in their own
fields. Gowswami recognizes breakthrough ideas
in sciences as fundamental creativity and mere
adaptations in science as situational creativity.
The creative mind is alert and tuned to
unexpected likenesses, and it looks for a new unity
in the diversity of the natural world (Bronowski,
1987). The creative process can be likened to
computer activity, but the creative mind cannot.
Creativity consists of a four-stage process
(Ludwig, 1989; Kim, 1990; Wallas, 1970). If
information processing and storage is the primary
process, then the secondary stage is the
incubation or pondering phase – during which
ideas germinate at a subconscious level – and the
tertiary phase comprises illumination or flashes of
insight into consciousness. The fourth phase is the
period of elaboration, during which the new idea
is developed and tested against scientific and
social standards. These stages may be likened to
the biological rhythm of conception, gestation,
birth and infancy. This pattern may not be an
inflexible one. In the majority of individuals, the
process of illumination may be a gradual one, with
many small instances of insight. Creativity is a
poly-faceted, heterogeneous construct, with low
convergent validity between its various measures
(Hocevar, 1981) and this complexity makes the
interpretation of its relationship to psi highly
challenging.
Certain Biological Perspectives
It is noteworthy that many particularly able
people have emerged from very ordinary family
backgrounds that lack any history of creativity.
For example, Sir Isaac Newton had an
undistinguished farming ancestry. Some
researchers in genetics who are intrigued by the
possible biological roots of creativity believe that
mind may be reducible to chemistry. Molecular
biologists have already interpreted the gene as a
chemical entity that may be isolated in a test tube.
Until human cloning becomes a reality it is not
possible to arrive at a final verdict on this.
Intelligence may be a trait that can be cloned, but
creativity seems likely to be more complex than
the mere duplication of genes. Reducing creativity
to a single neurotransmitter or gene would
probably be an injustice. Biological views about
creativity have been extensively written about
and are beyond the scope of our current
discussion.
The study of the age of individuals in
relation to outstanding achievement has gained
the attention of researchers into creativity. While
H.C. Lehman held the view that creative
achievement is a curvilinear single-peak function
of age, others who are focused on this area of study
have described bimodal separate peaks with two
age-peaks (Lehman, 1953; Abt, 1983).
Outstanding contributions from mathematicians
after the age of 50 are considered unlikely, and
when they occur prompt close attention to all the
factors involved. One of those is that many
creative and intelligent people delay publishing
their findings and theories until some years after
they arrived at them; some even leave them to be
promulgated posthumously. At the risk of
hyperbole, we might say that this is analogous to
light from a dead star or a red giant that existed
billions of years ago becoming apparent to us now
on earth. The observation of creative ability in
relation to age supports a biological substratum
for creativity.
Responses to dopamine-inhibiting drugs
and to psychosis triggered by drugs that increase
dopamine activity have been the basis of the
dopamine hypothesis of psychosis. Dopamine
over activity in psychosis should not be confused
with dopamine excess or reserve in creative
individuals. Dopamine is depleted with ageing,
and this may correlate with decreasing creativity
after a certain age. The process begins early; after
NeuroQuantology | June 2017 | Volume 15 | Issue 2 | Page 171-185 | 10.14704/nq.2017.15.2.1018
Pandarakalam JP., A Deeper Understanding of Consciousness through Study of Creativity
eISSN 1303-5150 www.neuroquantology.com
173
the age of 20, there is a 6% reduction in dopamine
as well as in other neurotransmitters (Wang et al.,
1998)
Transpersonal visions
Studies of creativity have proved to be unsafe in
the hands of reductionist scientists, although they
have been adopted within transpersonal
psychology, which integrates the spiritual and
transcendental aspects of human experience
within the framework of modern psychology.
Creativity is the sublimation of sexual drives,
according to the psychoanalytic explanation. The
transpersonal view is that it is the outcome of the
two opposites. Transpersonal psychologists have
attempted to study the relationship between the
psychopathological category of the manic phase of
bipolar disorder and three transpersonal states of
consciousness: creative, visionary and mystical.
Studies using EEG to measure the amplitude
characteristics of creative individuals show only
moderate arousal. Manic states demonstrate
hyperarousal and mystical rapture reveals the
highest state of arousal (Fischer, 1971). Various
meditative states were placed at the lower end of
this continuum. Further studies are warranted in
order to substantiate the claim of Fischer.
However, his findings do not support the often-
talked-about association of manic state and
creativity.
Because of the dearth of empirical studies,
any transpersonal discussion on this subject
remains speculative (Lukoff, 1988). Stanislav Grof
(1988), a transpersonal psychiatrist, considers
four groups of creativity deriving from
transpersonal sources. The first category relates
to unresolved problems brought into motion by
the sudden streaming of illumination during a
‘non-ordinary’ state. Spontaneous transmission of
great ideas or systems of thought that go beyond
the state of the art in the field to which they relate
is another group of creativity. An example of this
is the concept of distribution of information about
the universe found in the ancient Jainist theory of
the jivas, which resembles emerging holonomic
theories of physics. The third class includes
creative encounters which give a nearly complete
product ready for implementation by society.
Modern examples of this group include the work
of Nikola Tesla, who saw his inventions as finished
working prototypes; Einstein riding on a light
beam in his imagination and thereby
understanding the theory of relativity; and
Mozart, who heard his compositions’ final form, all
at once, inside his head. Grof also recognized inner
creativity as proposed by Goswami.
Such mystical experiences can be
transformational for both the individual and
society. An example is Moses receiving the Ten
Commandments. This is an instance of how
creativity enlarges the spirituality of mankind.
Maslow’s assertion that the creative individual is
‘completely lost in the present’ is an intense
encounter and refers to an altered state of
consciousness – a gentle quantum state.
Creative dreams, quantum consciousness
Creativity is difficult to operationalise for research
as there are a lot of missing links. The presumed
link between generativity and mental disorder
does not hold water when the creative process is
studied against the background of quantum
physics and parasciences. Dream processes shed
some light on creativity. Like poetry, dreams are
full of metaphors that are visual and highly
idiosyncratic in nature. Dreams are the art of the
unconscious; while dreaming we are tapping into
a universally shared creative source. The
dreaming psyche revels in its own seemingly
unlimited creative potential.
The anecdote of the chemist Kekule (who
recounted that he conceived the ring structure of
benzene after a dream in which a serpent biting its
tail appeared to him) that is often quoted is an
example of a creative dream. The pharmacologist
Otto Loewi, who demonstrated that nerve
impulses are chemically mediated, was inspired
by two dreams on consecutive nights. Elias Howe,
the inventor of the sewing machine, was stuck in
the final stage of his inventive endeavor as he
could not see a way for the needle and thread to
work together. A strange dream came to his
rescue. In that dream Howe was captured by a
savage, who presented him with the ultimatum
that he was to finish his invention or be executed.
As he prepared for execution in the dream, Howe
noticed that the captor’s spear had eye-shaped
holes near the points, and when he woke up a
novel idea occurred to him that solved the
problem. He found that the way to make his
sewing machine work was to devise a needle with
a hole near the point to carry the thread.
Certain creative thoughts may be
symbolic, like dreams, and sometimes they take
the form of dream fragments. Some conscious
creative thoughts may be versions of dreams that
are edited by the unconscious. Particle physics is
an element in this particular debate: quantum
consciousness is posited as the dream machine.
NeuroQuantology | June 2017 | Volume 15 | Issue 2 | Page 171-185 | 10.14704/nq.2017.15.2.1018
Pandarakalam JP., A Deeper Understanding of Consciousness through Study of Creativity
eISSN 1303-5150 www.neuroquantology.com
174
Dreams occur in a personal quantum-dream space
where the dreaming and waking spaces are fused
(Kelly et al., 2015). Quantum theories help to
explain the dream process and to understand
certain aspects of memory storage. Dreams reflect
non-linear thinking and are arguably the ‘royal
road’ to the quantum mind. Their bizarre nature is
analogous to the bizarre behavior of quantum
particles the parallel thinking postulated by
neuroquantologists may comprise the raw
material of dreams.
Quantum thinking goes on without our
awareness while we are awake – it is synonymous
with the data processing performed by a
computer. Dreams are not confined to sleep; they
may be considered a form of quantum
hallucination. Jung acknowledged them as the
hallucinations of normal life (Jung, 1977). Dreams
involve hallucination-like experiences; their
definition is close to that of hallucinations in that
a dreamer has sensory experiences that lack
appropriate external stimuli.
According to Rhawn Joseph, some dreams
and hallucinations are de-evolving or still-
evolving mental phenomena. These hidden
faculties have a specific purpose, giving us a
glimpse into multiple perceptual realities (Joseph,
2011). Electrochemical processes within the brain
may enable consciousness to access another part
of the ‘reality’ of the self that is denied through
normal sensory inputs; quantum thinking – which
is non-linear – and parallel thinking start to creep
in. Hypothetically, psychosis pathology and some
forms of substance misuse may open a window in
specific areas of the brain, and the patient may be
experiencing a momentary insight into other
perceptual realities as if through Aldous
Huxley’s doors of perception.
Parallel thinking
Computational concepts of creativity have been
suggested, but these are mostly metaphorical and
help us to understand data collection and storage,
the preparatory stage of creativity. Yet, quantum
computational models may explain the analysis
and synthesis of creative ideas. Study of the
mechanism of creativity is helpful in developing
better conceptual models of creativity and deeper
understanding of mental process. Zizzi and
Pregnolato (2012) have attempted to explain the
phenomenon of creative individuals experiencing
sudden flashes of creative insight in terms of
quantum computations. They observe that such
spontaneous intuitive leaps arise from states of
mind through intermediate steps that remain
hidden beneath consciousness, and that the
creative ultrafast processing which involves a
concealed intermediate step is consistent with
quantum computations (Zizzi & Pregnolato,
2012). A person with creative intelligence who
enjoys superior mental health is capable of
swinging from unconscious quantum logic to the
classical logic of consensus consciousness with
ultrafast speed. In psychotic states, the ‘quantum
gates’ do not shut swiftly as in normal mental
states, and the sufferers get trapped in quantum
logic. Quantum thinking occurs parallel to classical
thinking. There is now empirical evidence
supporting the idea that the unconscious operates
in a much faster manner than conscious thought
does (Kennedy, 2010).
Co-thinking or parallel thinking may be a
simplistic form of quantum thinking. According to
quantum physics, reality occurs on two levels:
possibility and actuality. Goswami uses this same
duality to explore what he calls 'quantum
thinking', which focuses on two levels of thinking
the conscious mind of actuality and the
unconscious mind of possibility (Goswami, 2014).
According to Goswami, all quantum objects exist
in two levels of reality. At the transcendent level
objects exist as a possibility in the realm of
potentiality; and in the immanent level objects are
made manifest. He believes that we process
transcendent potentiality in the unconscious state
that has no subject–object split awareness and we
experience the immanent with conscious
awareness.
There may even be multiple levels of
interior thinking inner speech, co-thinking and
other kinds at the quantum level including the
larval stage of creative thinking and intuition.
Thus, there may be multiple layers of parallel
thinking in the subterranean region of the
unconscious and they may all contribute to the
creative process. Such associate thinking may be
more symbolic, condensed and highly loaded with
meanings. There may be a continuum between co-
thinking, automatic thoughts and inner speech.
Associate thinking may initiate and supplement
inner speech. Sigmund Freud’s unconscious
cerebration may be analogous to the proposed
parallel thinking and be quantum linked, even
though Freud did not recognize that
(Pandarakalam, 2015).
Neuroquantologists suggest that parallel
thought processing (quantum thinking) may be
taking place at the quantum level alongside verbal
thinking. The classical computer analogy is not
adequate to explain new leaps of creativity.
NeuroQuantology | June 2017 | Volume 15 | Issue 2 | Page 171-185 | 10.14704/nq.2017.15.2.1018
Pandarakalam JP., A Deeper Understanding of Consciousness through Study of Creativity
eISSN 1303-5150 www.neuroquantology.com
175
Quantum computers have enormous storage and
productivity. If the human mind consists of such
quantum computer(s), the processing and
productive powers are unimaginable and could
help us to understand the hidden channels of
mind. If we hypothesize quantum-like computers
(higher consciousness) incorporated with the
mind–brain complex, we will be in a better
position to appreciate creativity of a higher order.
Creativity has two aspects, invention and
engineering. The quantum mind may be the
inventor and the neurotransmitters/neuro-
computers may be doing the engineering work.
The quantum mind stores the information fed to it
from the brain that has been collected from
sensory channels. The quantum brain may also
have information gathered through non-sensory
routes and hypothetically due to quantum
entanglements. The quantum mind is in a superior
position to generate new ideas, and they are
passed to the conscious mind. That in turn does
the matching with sensory data and sends ideas
back with more experimental information to the
quantum mind. Novel ideas may be the product of
such exchanges of information between the brain
and quantum mind. In fact, the brain–mind
consciousness complex is an in vitro laboratory for
highly cognitive individuals in whom gedanken
experiments take place.
The creative normal person is able to effect
a transition back to reality from a transient
“creative psychical shift” we may compare this to
a diver searching for diamonds in the depths of the
sea and returning safely to air. It is instructive to
consider the example of the American
mathematician John Nash. The quantum gates
closed on his unconscious mind and he became
trapped in a quantum mode. That does not
indicate that his creativity was a product of his
psychopathology. His mental disorder and
creativity may have been a coincidence; or his
psychiatric condition may have been a
consequence of his creativity, psychopathology in
turn probably facilitating his creativity. The
struggle to tune in to both classical thinking and
parallel thinking may lead to apparent
absentmindedness, which has resulted in the
tendency to portrayal scientific geniuses in a
humorous way.
John Nash claimed that he heard the voices
of aliens giving messages, and that he could not
distinguish them from his creative mathematical
thoughts. Those made him believe entirely in the
voices. A case study such as his indicates that
auditory hallucinations and creative thoughts may
have a common quantum source, but that does not
imply that they are identical phenomena. Sims
recognizes that the psychotic and the creative are
subjectively indistinguishable and states that
delusions arrive in the minds of the mentally ill in
the same way that ideas drop in the minds of
creative people (Sims, 1988).
Globus argues that the schizophrenic
symptoms of thought insertion and auditory
hallucinations are a continuum reflecting a
parallel brain process (Globus, 2010). There may
be different phenomenological types of auditory
hallucination; it is hard to categorize them. One
form may be considered as a co-thinking glitch
due to abnormal auto-tuning (auto-tonoesis) that
results from schizophrenic psychopathology.
Individual auditory hallucinations may have
contributions from different thinking modalities
and one form may be due to the objectification of
parallel thinking (Pandarakalam, 2015). New
ideas, or a solution to an existing problem
suddenly emerging after a good night’s sleep, are
commonly observed by creative individuals and
this may support the idea that parallel thinking is
active even during sleep.
Quantum scientists are able to expound
the secondary and tertiary stages of creativity-
incubation and sudden insight. The primary stage
is when individual gets a vague intuition of
something new to come about- creative akathesia
and start doing the ground work. The incubation
period is the relaxing phase when the conscious
mind is inactive and the unconscious mind is
rather overactive. Brain is a material machine and
cannot process meaning; it would require infinite
number of symbols to process meaning. Neuro-
computer is no exception. Here, we have to say
farewell to the reductionist model of mind if we
are to make any progress to the study of creativity.
The cardinal difference between a classical
computer and human consciousness is that the
former cannot process meaning and cannot find
solutions to all problems. So quantum computing
has to be brought into the equation. Flashes of
insight are similar to quantum leaps. Creative
quantum leaps involve quantum jumps from one
type of thinking to another in a discontinuous
manner (Goswami, 2014). This phenomenon is
analogous to the electrons circulating in the
nuclear orbit disappearing and reappearing
without using the intermediate space the
quantum jump. Only fundamental creativity may
involve quantum jumps. Such new insights coming
out of the blue are compared to the emergence of
delusional ideas- a momentary schizophreniform-
NeuroQuantology | June 2017 | Volume 15 | Issue 2 | Page 171-185 | 10.14704/nq.2017.15.2.1018
Pandarakalam JP., A Deeper Understanding of Consciousness through Study of Creativity
eISSN 1303-5150 www.neuroquantology.com
176
like state. Sudden insights can generate anxiety
state in the creative individual, particularly so if he
is in a non-receptive environment to new ideas.
The voice hearer and founder member of
The Paranoia Net work, Peter Bullimore (2012)
has written a book in collaboration with his
hallucinatory voices-A Village Called Pumpkin.
The same author maintains that his book was
written in association with his voices and without
their influence he would never have had the ideas
and creativity to generate the characters and
story-lines. He informs that whilst writing the
book the characters would speak to him and ask
what role they would be playing. Bullimore’s claim
when viewed in a background of the suggestions
of Gorden Globus about auditory hallucinations is
an indication that auditory hallucinations may
have their origin in the quantum mind and this
unconscious part is a major player in the genesis
of creativity.
Limitations of quantum consciousness
Exclusive brain-centered research into creativity
may be futile – it would be like taking a radio apart
to find where the music is coming from. The Orch
OR (orchestrated objective reduction) theory of
Penrose and Hameroff postulates that
consciousness occurs due to a Bose-Einstein
Condensate (BEC) formed in microtubules in
brain cells (Penrose, 1994; Penrose et al., 2011).
They used the theory of Frohlich condensation to
account for BEC forming in cell tissue from tiny
resonators of energy. Critics of Orch OR argue that
thermal fluctuations in biological tissue are not
compatible with Penrose and Hameroff’s
proposal. Moreover, Orch OR does not help the
appreciation of transcendental experiences such
as those near death (NDE) and other non-ordinary
experiences of both an introvertive and an
extrovertive mystical nature (Borutta, 2015).
In the quantum mechanics of
consciousness, there are three predominant
views. The first is the reductionist one that
quantum consciousness evolves from the brain.
The second is that the brain appropriates
consciousness from somewhere in the universe
and that proto-consciousness – property dualism
exists. The third view promulgates the pre-
existence of consciousness even before the Big
Bang and holds that consciousness is the
fundamental driving force – substance dualism. In
such a scenario, it may be hypothesised that a
quantum-like consciousness may be downloaded
into the human quantum computer. Whether the
brain is immersed in consciousness or
consciousness is immersed in the brain is a
fundamental question yet to be answered. If
transcendental consciousness is a reality, the
former assertion could be true. Survival research
offers evidence for the existence of such a Super-
consciousness and the creative process may
require its participation.
Orch OR may not be good enough to
explain the ‘psychic quantum computer’ entirely.
The human mind is too complex to be studied with
existing, limited scientific tools. For that reason,
quantum theories of consciousness may not be
adequate to explain creativity of a highly complex
nature, such as that which involves a psi-mediated
mechanism. It is not certain whether Orch OR is
the neural beginning or neural end of
consciousness. Consciousness studies have
revealed more obscurities regarding human
existence, and have made the human mind even
more mysterious.
My contention is that the study of
creativity should not be limited to brain and
quantum consciousness, and that creative work
may be taking place at a cerebral level, a quantum
level and a quantum-like consciousness level
which may also receive information from beyond
the physical plane and assimilate and integrate
such external information. The creative process
involves the whole of the brain–mind–
consciousness complex, and the existence of a
unique non-cerebral component has recently been
substantiated through survival research, which is
vital for studies of creativity. Such a non-cerebral
component may be able to exist independently of
the brain and may even survive physical
extinction, so it is appropriate to look into the
evidence supplied by survival research for
unveiling the hidden channels of mind that may
play a significant role in the creative process. It is
even possible that the extra-cerebral component
may be the seat of the hypothetical ‘super-psi’,
which may have enormous and even mysterious
creative abilities the biological factors that
incorporate high IQ to the creative process should
not be ignored, but they may become less salient.
Gordon Globus wonders whether a science-based
discussion and quantum physics might be barking
up at the wrong tree (Globus, 2011)
Parapsychological perspectives
Reductionism reached its zenith in the second half
of the twentieth century, and during this period
researchers ignored the non-biological aspects of
creativity. Creativity may be proved to have a
paranormal component and recently
NeuroQuantology | June 2017 | Volume 15 | Issue 2 | Page 171-185 | 10.14704/nq.2017.15.2.1018
Pandarakalam JP., A Deeper Understanding of Consciousness through Study of Creativity
eISSN 1303-5150 www.neuroquantology.com
177
parapsychologists have become interested in this
challenging field of research. The contemporary
scene in parapsychology is riddled with
controversy. Creativity’s products are often
confused with its process and this has contributed
to the confusion. Even though the ancestors of
human beings have existed on this planet for
about six million years and humans evolved about
200,ooo years ago, technological advancements
have taken place only in the last few centuries.
They have occurred without any noticeable
changes in the development of the human brain. In
the years to come parapsychology may be able to
explain the sudden burst of creativity that led to
our modern age and its thinking. Utts affirmed that
all the basic phenomena of experimental
parapsychology – ESP, PK, precognition and so on
have been statistically proved to exist with the
recent development of meta-analysis.
Parapsychological views can no longer be ignored,
even though there is no general scientific
agreement about how they fit into the scheme of
things (Utts, 1991).
Creativity is considered to be the product
of the inspirational or creative imagination
combined with meticulous, disciplined hard work.
The Edisonian perception of invention as being
1% inspiration and 99% perspiration may be
explained in terms of the hypothesis of interactive
creativity, assuming that the inspirational part has
a paranormal component. Ervin Laszlo has
presented a thesis of interactive creativity (Laszlo,
1994). He supports his researchable hypothesis
with the observation of cultural creativity – which
includes the collective advance of entire
populations through the typical creative activity of
their members – as well as distant populations and
documented incidences in modern science, where
different investigators have developed new
scientific insight simultaneously without any
known contact between them. Early cultures
developed tools of close resemblance;
simultaneous and independent discovery of the
calculus by Newton and by Leibnitz, and of
biological evolution by Darwin and by Wallace, are
examples of creative coincidence. Similarly,
Graham Bell and Elisha Grey applied for a patent
on the telephone on the same day. Rubic’s cube
was simultaneously conceived and designed by
Rubic and a Japanese inventor.
Jung’s researched into the phenomenon of
creative synchronicity helped him to formulate
the concept of the collective unconscious (Jung,
1973).A striking similarity has been observed
between the ostensible paranormal observations
of subatomic particles by Annie Besant (1847–
1933) and Charles Leadbeater (1847–1934) and
the basic ideas of superstring theories formulated
at a later date (Philips, 1995). One of the
implications of this correlation is that it
establishes a link between ESP and scientific
creativity, in the sense that the psychics and the
scientists probably had a common paranormal
source of contact. At least some creative scientists
are subliminal psychics with a high sense of
objectivity and the advantage of superior
intelligence. There may be a ‘psychical internet’
from which creative people tap new ideas.
Spontaneous brain-to-brain interactions may
underlie acts of unusual creativity. Polayni opined
that scientific discovery is informed by
imagination and integrated by intuition or vice
versa (Polayni, 1960). This statement is very close
to the Edisonian perception of creativity. If
imagination is a property of the brain, intuition
and inspiration occur in the unconscious realm.
Laszlo’s views are not definitive on the subject, yet
they supplement our existing knowledge about
creativity.
The idea of reincarnation, if scientifically
proved, may contribute to a better understanding
of such diverse matters as phobias, childhood
skills not learned in early life, abnormal child–
parent relationships, gender identity confusion,
birth marks and congenital deformities
(Stevenson, 1987, 1997). The idea of
reincarnation has been proposed as an
explanation for some child prodigies, the
suggestion being that they may have acquired
their unusual knowledge and skills in a previous
life. Srinivasa Ramanujan, an East Indian
mathematician, was born into a totally non-
mathematical family, and without any formal
training made extraordinary contributions to
mathematical theory, number theory and infinite
series. Between the ages of 16 and 26, he produced
a compendium of some 5000 known mathematical
equations. His work has found applications in
diverse areas such as blast furnace design,
manufacture of plastics and telephone cables,
cancer research, statistical mechanics, and
computer science. The 6-year-old Mozart
composed accomplished musical works. The idea
of reincarnation may help to explain the special
aptitudes and the stronger motivations of a few
creative children.
Dr Stevenson does not claim to have
demonstrated the existence of reincarnation, but
has simply found and reported evidence that
would make it feasible. Overenthusiastic
NeuroQuantology | June 2017 | Volume 15 | Issue 2 | Page 171-185 | 10.14704/nq.2017.15.2.1018
Pandarakalam JP., A Deeper Understanding of Consciousness through Study of Creativity
eISSN 1303-5150 www.neuroquantology.com
178
commentators on his research allege that
Stevenson has proved that the phenomenon is a
reality. Critics argue that he has not challenged the
spiristic hypothesis of previous life memories
adequately. Some investigators consider that
there is accidental reincarnation for some, not
universal reincarnation; some people reincarnate
for unknown reasons, and that may be because
they are stuck in another dimension, unable to
advance further (Tucker, 2013). Interestingly,
Chester Carlson, the inventor of Xerox machines,
was a benefactor to Stevenson’s research because
Carlson believed in the paranormal origin of
creative ideas. The creativity of prodigies and
children remembering past lives, savant and
autistic children are limited to certain specific
area whereas the creativity of over perceptible
and high cognitive ability individuals are more
global and poly-faceted.
Parapsychologically oriented
investigators believe that creativity is akin to
mediumship and have postulated a spiritistic
component (Klimo, 1991). Psi faculties are
thought to be mobilized prior to a major psychotic
breakdown as the last defense mechanism
(Ullman, 1949, 1952). This could result in the
transference of creative ideas already stored in the
unconscious mind to conscious scrutiny.
Heightened psi sensitivity is observed among
recovered patients, and this may facilitate their
paranormal search for new ideas. Artists readily
recognize a creative impulse that pervades their
creative object and have a better appreciation of
the paranormal component of their creative
experiences than many others do. Rhine noticed
that conditions favorable to the occurrence of psi
and original creative works in the arts are similar
(Rhine, 1947). It is difficult for those holding a
strict biological model of mind to comprehend the
near-paranormal nature of creativity, and that
some of the original ideas may be blooming in a
discarnate dimension and then transferred to the
unconscious mind of living people.
Myers’ Views on Genius
F.W.H. Myers who himself was a genius had the
first say about geniuses in his seminal work on
Human Personality and its Bodily Survival of
Death (1903), but unfortunately his enormous
wisdom came to be camouflaged by Freudian
works in the early part of the 20th century. In the
last few decades, cognitive sciences are trying to
rediscover Myers’ profound psychological
wisdom and the book of Kelly et al (2007),
“Irreducible Mind” has been a land mark in such
an endeavour. In their genius appraisal of Human
Personality and its Survival of Bodily Death, Kelly
et al argued that Myers’ views on genius have been
confirmed at various points in recent empirical
and theoretical investigations (Kelly et al., 2007).
Probably, only geniuses can comprehend the
genius.
To expand our consciousness to the
maximum is a fundamental human evolutionary
drive. Stevenson believed that human evolution
takes place in two streams-biological and spiritual
(Stevenson, 1997). The latter engross the
evolution of consciousness and creativity.
Influenced profoundly by Darwin, Myers saw
genius as evolutive” in distinction to the
“dissolutive” nature associated with psychiatric
disorders and at the same time, he also
distinguished the latent faculties inherent in the
subliminal from the terrene evolution of Darwin.
According to Myers, in geniuses, we see a
symbiotic relationship between the subliminal
and supraliminal self as far as possible to satisfy
this basic need that results in various forms of
creativity. Myers believed that there is an
amplified potency and deliberation of the
inwardly directed power leading to improved
coordination and incorporation of the
supraliminal and subliminal phases of the
personality in geniuses (Kelly & Grosso, 2007).
Myers likens consciousness with the
spectrum of light; individual consciousness is an
amalgam of a selection of different aspects of
consciousness with variable potentialities. Myer’s
concept of subliminal self is different from the
Freudian concept of the unconscious. His
subliminal realm consists of a hierarchical
organization, each with its own functional
properties. Myers tried to describe three such
levels. The lowest strata are that of bare vegetative
functions. The middle realm is the “hypnotic
stratum” and is associated with automatisms,
deep hypnosis, source of dreams and
imaginations. The deepest realm is the most
mysterious and is the locus of psi phenomenon,
intuitions and inspirations of creative people.
Interestingly, Myers’ model of the subliminal
realm is in tandem with the plasma physicists’
concept of different energy bodies assembled like
an onion ring and constituting the human body
and psyche (Jay, 2006).
According to Myers, the genius state was
opposite to dissociative state; an opinion
challenging the then existed concepts of the
Lombrosians who regarded the men of genius as
an aberrant type- “the mad genius” notion. Myers’
NeuroQuantology | June 2017 | Volume 15 | Issue 2 | Page 171-185 | 10.14704/nq.2017.15.2.1018
Pandarakalam JP., A Deeper Understanding of Consciousness through Study of Creativity
eISSN 1303-5150 www.neuroquantology.com
179
studies on genius excels the current 10000 papers
on creativity in that it accommodates various non-
ordinary phenomenon such as psychological
automatisms, secondary streams of
consciousness, altered states of consciousness,
unusual forms of symbolic thinking, and psi. The
existing trend in most of the recent papers is to
deflate genius level creativity and consider it as
the product of an unusually persistent,
regimented and expanded application of ordinary
cognitive process, at the most a superb synthesis
of normal psychological functioning or the
mystical flowering of a secondary personality.
Myers focused more on the illuminative
phase of creativity which was hailed as the
“subliminal up rush” in his classic book. “Some
intervention of intuition issuing from the
unconscious is necessary at least to initiate logical
work” (Myers, 1903/2015). He attempted to
explain the inspirational part of creativity in his
theory -laden terminologies. Continuity,
automatism and incommensurability featured the
illuminative phase. Myers argued that the major
inspirations of genius point to something which
transcends ordinary forms of cognition.
Inspiration is the reach into supraliminal
consciousness of some novel form of order that
has bloomed somewhere beyond its normal
precincts. It results from a mutual relationship
between the subliminal and supraliminal
consciousness. Myers contented that there may be
some form of fundamental link between the
subliminal up rushes of the genius and general
category of psychological automatism and it may
also belong to other related phenomenon such as
mediumistic trance and altered states of
consciousness (Kelly& Grosso, 2007). To put it
simply, the momentary flash of inspiration is a
brief automatism. In terms of quantum physics, it
must probably be the quantum gating of the
microtubules that facilitates such an intrusion of
subliminal self to the supraliminal. Myers views of
creativity justify the inclusion of the succeeding
paragraphs which normally belong to survival
research.
Lessons from Psychography
Francisco ‘Chico’ de Paula Candido Xavier (1910–
2002), a renowned Brazilian medium, was a
secondary-school drop-out. Despite being
categorized when a child as possessed, crazy and
an impostor, and being beleaguered as a young
man by the cynical media, he wrote more than 420
books, using most of the words in the Portuguese
language, through automatic writing or
psychography (Playfair, 2010). The content of
most of his books is spiritual, but Xavier also
transcribed novels and works of philosophy and
science from the spirit world. His books sold an
estimated 25 million copies, and the profits from
them were all channelled into charitable work.
Whether the novels Xavier published were wholly
written in the physical dimension or in the
discarnate dimension is a matter of debate. His
writings have been subjected to self-psychological
editing and also editing by his publishers.
According to Professor Stanley Krippner
(Playfair, 2010), ‘his [Xavier’s] legacy provides
challenges not only to conventional models of
creativity and dissociation, but to the mainstream
concepts of consciousness itself’. The late
Professor Ian Stevenson, who has made a critical
analysis of automatic writings, advocates the
maintenance of a balance between extremes of
naïve credulity and equally naïve incredulity
(Stevenson, 1978). He reminds us that there is
never a counterfeit without a related original of
some value exemplified by fake currencies,
which do not have any value in the absence of
genuine currency in circulation. Ian Stevenson
(1978) states, ‘any single comment may contain a
mixture of several ingredients: subliminal
rubbish; information culled from garrulous
sitters; items obtained by delving paranormally
into the minds of sitters and their absent friends;
dramatic productions displaying the imaginative
powers of the medium; and rarely
communications from discarnate personalities’. If
automatic writings have spiritistic origin, our
concepts of creativity will have to be revised.
There are indications in Chico Xavier’s
writings that constructive and destructive
creative ideas may be emanating from the
discarnate realm and then transferring into the
unconscious mind of incarnate beings. When
Chico Xavier died on 30th June 2002, his obituary
in the Guardian newspaper reported that
information which Xavier communicated that
came from beyond the grave was often regarded
in Brazil as fact. At one time, in 1979, a man
accused of murdering his best friend was set free
because the judge accepted a witness statement
from that friend which he had communicated
telepathically through Xavier. The man who was
accused, said his friend, was innocent. He went on
to reveal the identity of the murderer.
Poetry from beyond the Grave (1932) is an
anthology of about 260 poems transmitted to
Xavier by 56 discarnate Brazilian poets. Some of
these were celebrated writers. The widow of at
NeuroQuantology | June 2017 | Volume 15 | Issue 2 | Page 171-185 | 10.14704/nq.2017.15.2.1018
Pandarakalam JP., A Deeper Understanding of Consciousness through Study of Creativity
eISSN 1303-5150 www.neuroquantology.com
180
least one of them took Xavier’s works seriously
and attempted to sue him for royalties. The
leading newspaper Estado de Sao Paulo took
account of the literary achievement evident in the
anthology, observing that if the poems had not
been written by the dead poets as claimed, then
Xavier’s own compositions were of such merit that
he should be awarded a prominent place in the
Brazilian academy of literature. Xavier had been
employed as a fingerprint expert in the Brazilian
ministry of agriculture, and he lived on meagre
wages before he retired and drew a state pension
as already mentioned, he had used his income
from the royalties on his books to support
charities. Courtroom logic points towards the
legitimacy of Chico Xavier’s phenomenal powers
parapsychological investigations are partially
based on courtroom logic that is not necessarily
always fair. Xavier’s literary output links studies of
creativity with survival research.
Peter Bullimore, who has been mentioned
in an earlier paragraph, was unable to write many
books, as Chico Xavier did. If we ascribe
hallucinatory voice as a property of the quantum
mind, we may argue that one of the sources of
automatic writing and the creativity associated
with it is probably the quantum mind. Even if we
stretch the meaning of quantum mind, Chico
Xavier’s mammoth prolific writings cannot be
explained as mere quantum products because
they contain too many extraordinary details.
Therefore, the involvement of external agencies is
plausible. The quantum mind may be one of the
intermediaries in automatic renderings such as
Xavier’s. In clinical practice, we come across
pathological automatic writing. In one such case,
that of schizophrenic patient whom I have
encountered, automatic writings in the form of
pages and pages written on a daily basis for years
did not include a single coherent paragraph. . Like
Xavier, many outstanding mediums have
demonstrated skills in psychography.
Another interesting case of mediumship
creativity is that of the literary works of Pearl
Curran and “Patience Worth.” Pearl was born in
Illinois in 1983 and was a mediocre student at
school with little exposure to poetry, fiction or
general history. She was not particularly religious
and was raised to consider spiritualist séances as
a taboo until Patience Worth; allegedly a spirit
communicator contacted her (Braude, 2003). In
the afternoons, while their husbands were at
work, Pearl would meddle with Ouija board with a
friend who lived nearby. They did not have any
messages transmitted to them in the initial
periods and found it boring and tosh. Then, to the
ladies surprise, the message on the board seemed
to make sense. "Many moons ago I lived. Again I
come. Patience Worth is my name," it spelled out.
The communicator revealed that she lived in
Dorsetshire (England) in either 1649 or 1694
(Prince, 1927).
To start with, Patience spoke in English
appropriate for the 19th century as she revealed
later that she wanted to ensure her audience
understood her, and then changed to an archaic
fashion (Braude, 2003). Eventually though, the
messages began coming so fast that no one could
write them down and Pearl suddenly realized that
she didn’t need the board anymore. The sentences
were forming in her mind at the same time they
were being spelled out on the board. She began to
"dictate" the replies and messages from Patience
to anyone who would write them. She would first
employ a secretary, but later Pearl would record
the words herself, using first a pencil and then a
typewriter. She displayed broad and in depth
knowledge of the various times and places
depicted in her novels and offered a wide-ranging
directory of archaic Anglo-Saxon words (Kelly &
Grosso, 2007).
For the next 25 years, Patience Worth
dictated a total of about 400,000 words. Her works
were vast and consisted of not only her personal
messages, but creative writings as well. She
passed along nearly 5,000 poems that were
published to critical commendation (Prince,
1927). This mutual relationship eventually
resulted in the writing of several novels, poetry
and prose which Pearl Curran claimed was
delivered to her through channeling the spirit,
Patience Worth (Prince, 1927). Pearl Curran died
in California on December 4, 1937.
The alleged mediumistic claims of Hélène
Smith (December 9, 1861- June 10, 1929)
probably is illustrative of the thin margin between
authentic forms of psychography and subliminal
imagination and that many cases of automatic
writings only shed light into the study of
creativity; they may not necessarily offer any
proof for discarnate survival. The details in this
case are highly complex and well documented by
the Swiss psychologist Theodore Flournoy
(Flournoy, 1900/1994). Her original
communicator identified as Victor Hugo and was
later replaced by Leopold. Flourney was initially
sympathetic towards Helene Smith’s mediumistic
claims, but he later considered Leopold was a
secondary personality generated through
NeuroQuantology | June 2017 | Volume 15 | Issue 2 | Page 171-185 | 10.14704/nq.2017.15.2.1018
Pandarakalam JP., A Deeper Understanding of Consciousness through Study of Creativity
eISSN 1303-5150 www.neuroquantology.com
181
autosuggestions and tried to explain them away as
cryptomnesia (Braude, 2003).
There may be two types of automatic
writings- discarnate automatic writings and
subliminal automatic writings. Even in cases of
paranormal automatic writings, there may be
romances with subliminal imaginations. From a
creativity study perspective, all cases of alleged
automatic writings are of great significance. We
may also recognize an RSPK element in automatic
writings from the part of the writer as well as from
the communicator and it is not yet clear whether
automatic writings should be grouped under RSPK
activity. It is now increasingly getting recognized
that RSPK may have incarnate and discarnate
origin and automatic writings may be instances of
mixed involvement.
Implication of Survival Research
Even though, the survivalist views of Chico Xavier
and Pearl Curran are not established, to
appreciate their mediumistic creativity, one has to
revisit the prevailing neuro-scientific reductionist
and quantum ultra-reductionist models of
consciousness. To accommodate the paranormal
components of creativity, we need to establish the
existence of a highly complex “inner texto terra”
that would also include a higher consciousness. As
mentioned in a preceding paragraph, we may have
to assume that humans are endowed with a
quantum-like consciousness that may be capable
of communication with discarnate and incarnate
beings. The current scientific evidence for the
existence of a quantum-like consciousness is
based on the finding that human consciousness
may exist independently of the brain. Such an
assertion is founded on the evidence accumulated
by survival research projects. In that respect, even
those investigators of creativity who are not
interested in the scientific promises of after-death
existence cannot ignore survival research. Some
scientific researchers now argue that there are
compelling reasons to support belief in life after
death.
Skeptics argue that there is only evidence
and not proof of post-mortem existence, but the
record of evidence for after-death existence
continues to grow longer as survival research
progresses. Vernon Neppe, a neuropsychiatrist
turned parapsychologist, has declared that the
combined body of evidence for discarnate survival
is overwhelming so great that it may be regarded
as scientifically cogent (Tymn, 2012).
Mediumship is germane to the current
discussion. The Scole Experiment (Fontana, 2009)
and Gary Schwartz’s after-life experiments (2002)
support the authenticity of mediumship to some
extent. Encouraged by the success of after-life
experiments with mediums (Schwartz, 2002), the
polymath Professor Schwartz claims to have
invented a device to communicate with discarnate
spirits and it has been dubbed as “Soul Phone”.
This is a pinnacle in survival research that
possibly offers irrefutable scientific evidence of
after-life existence (Schwartz, 2014), but also
takes account of all the potential negative
consequences. To make a cautious note, if the Soul
phone becomes a commercial property in the
future, hell may break loose. He claims to have
worked with black boxes in his laboratory, using a
software programme that has generated proof
that there is a spirit world by measuring light
(Herrick, 2014). It appears that he has developed
a technique whereby faint light may be detected in
a totally dark box. Measurements are taken at the
beginning of each experimental session, and then
a specific ‘hypothesized spirit collaborator’ is
asked to show a ‘spirit light’ in the box and a
second reading is taken. The finding is that
instruction for specific spirits to enter a light-
sensing system is associated with a reliable
increase in the apparent measurement of photons.
Such a curious result means that the
communicating spirits are able to hear, to respond
and to produce light in an otherwise dark
enclosure (Schwartz, 2011a; 2011b). Ian
Stevenson (1978) appears to have some
reservations about mediumistic communications,
declaring, ‘I do not believe that death confers
wisdom automatically any more than life does;
there is no reason to lower our standards of
excellence for the dead any more than for the
living.’
To accommodate the spiritualistic
contribution of creativity, we may have to
conjecture a more expanded model of the mind-
consciousness complex that also includes
quantum-like consciousness. In such a model,
information from the discarnate realm may be
passed on to the proposed quantum-like
consciousness, which in turn may be assimilated
in the quantum creative process. The quantum
mind is an intermediary between the brain and
higher consciousness. Mainstream scientists seem
never to have attempted to develop the conceptual
tools and vocabulary needed to investigate the
possibility of post-mortem existence. It may be
that science will not accept the possibility of
discarnate survival without a new theory of
physical reality.
NeuroQuantology | June 2017 | Volume 15 | Issue 2 | Page 171-185 | 10.14704/nq.2017.15.2.1018
Pandarakalam JP., A Deeper Understanding of Consciousness through Study of Creativity
eISSN 1303-5150 www.neuroquantology.com
182
Weak Link with Psychopathology
Pathology has contributed positively to the study
of human physiology, and psychopathology has
similar potential for understanding mind and
consciousness. Historically creativity has been
linked with psychopathology, and the ‘mad genius
debate’ demonstrates the division among
researchers (Carson, 2014). There is no consensus
regarding the association of psychopathology and
creative achievement, and the attribution of the
former to the latter hinders understanding of
human potential and the deeper levels of
consciousness. Psychiatric understanding of
creativity gives a better insight into patient
functioning, which may help the definition of
normalcy and psychopathology (Pandarakalam,
2005). Such understanding is useful in
differentiating creativity and mental illness when
they coexist.
Belief that creativity is a product of an
abnormal psychic state is age old, and genius is
still sometimes correlated with mental illness
(Corliss, 2002). Research into creativity is
hindered by methodological problems, especially
the definition and assessment of creativity (Thys
et al., 2014a). This makes the interpretation and
comparison of studies problematic, producing
contradictory results (Thys et al., 2014b). Creative
activity has been observed at its highest level in
moderately ill patients and lowest in the severely
ill (Ghadirian et al., 2001). Earlier, researchers
suggested that creative individuals have a higher
tendency towards psychopathology than non-
creative people, a propensity manifested in
personality traits, behaviors and experiences
similar to those in clinically ill patients
(Andreasen & Canter, 1974a, 1974b; Holden,
1986).
Kyaga et al. (2011) performed a study
based on Swedish records between 1973 and
2003. They compared the likelihood of a creative
occupation being practiced by individuals who
had received in-patient treatment for
schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or unipolar
depression and their siblings without such a
diagnosis with the likelihood in a control group.
Their findings suggest that bipolar individuals and
healthy siblings of people with schizophrenia or
bipolar disorder are overrepresented in creative
professions. People with schizophrenia have no
increased occurrence in creative professions
compared with controls, but do have an increased
rate in artistic occupations.
The evidence about which aspects of
psychopathology – related to schizophrenia or to
affective disorders – are more closely linked to
creativity is not clear. The Stanford 35-year
follow-up study of over a thousand geniuses, the
MacKinnon study of creativity in architects and
Havelock Ellis’s psycho-biographical study of
eminent men are all concerned with the absence
of psychopathology in creative individuals
(MacKinnon, 1965). Creativity continues to be
enigmatic, and its study has never been
straightforward; investigations using different
strategies all have merits and demerits (Brown,
1989; Hocevar, 1981; Hocevar & Bachelor, 1989;
Mumford, 1980; Richards, 1981; Richards et al.,
1988; Simonton, 1991).
We need to recognize that the outer region
of cognitive sciences is in a state of confusion,
while very little is known about the inner. A recent
finding from neurosciences and molecular
genetics is that the biological determinants for
psychopathology interact with cognitive factors to
generate creative ideation (Carson, 2011). Those
with creative ability and those with mental health
problems feature cognitive disinhibition, neural
hyperconnectivity and attentional style driven by
novelty salience. These can turn out to be of
advantages for creative people. Cognitive
disinhibition permits stimuli to take effect and
increase associations, becoming enhancers of
creativity. In the model proposed by Carson
(2011), these elements interact with meta-
cognitive attributes such as high IQ, increased
capacity for working memory and enhanced
divergent thinking. These traits of high cognitive
individuals facilitate widening of the range and
depth of stimuli and result in the formation and
shaping of novel ideas. Occasional psychiatric
symptoms observed in creative output are likely
to have been over emphasized by researchers.
Breathlessness and palpitations, sometimes
symptoms of respiratory and cardiac conditions,
may occur in people undertaking rigorous
exercise. In the same way, some psychiatric
symptoms may be the outcome of intense mental
exercise. The frequency and duration of these
symptoms are what make them clinically
significant.
Concluding Remarks
The inspirational component of creativity
continues to be an enigma. It is my contention that
creativity is essentially an inner psychic
phenomenon. If it involves a paranormal factor or
psi-mediated process, we may assume that the
human brain–mind complex is also endowed with
an advanced consciousness that is capable of
NeuroQuantology | June 2017 | Volume 15 | Issue 2 | Page 171-185 | 10.14704/nq.2017.15.2.1018
Pandarakalam JP., A Deeper Understanding of Consciousness through Study of Creativity
eISSN 1303-5150 www.neuroquantology.com
183
receiving messages from the discarnate realm or
tapping into a common pool of ideas. Such a
receiving part may have a nature similar to the
paranormal realm – an extra-cerebral component
surpassing the quantum brain. The supra-
consciousness should be capable of functioning
independently of brain and could survive physical
extinction. Thus, study of creativity may be of
immense value in enquiring into the mysteries
surrounding the mind-consciousness complex.
An attempt to address the
misunderstanding surrounding the
psychopathological views of creativity has been
made in this paper in order to expand the horizons
of consciousness studies by analyzing creativity.
There is no scientific consensus regarding the
association between psychopathology and
creative achievement, and scientific literature
does not substantiate the reported high incidence
of mental illness among creative people that
exceeds chance expectation. Psychopathological
views of creativity are a social belief rather than a
scientific concept. Overstated psychopathological
views about creativity have impeded the search
for the truth behind the creative process and its
source
For studies of consciousness to achieve
any progress, we need a working hypothesis of
mind and consciousness that will accommodate all
the evidence in favor of mysticism, the
paranormality of creativity and post-mortem
existence, allowing continued investigation and
leaving open the doors leading to further
knowledge. Advances in genetics and
parasciences may provide explanations for some
of the mysteries and bring some clarification to
the current confusion surrounding creativity. In
future, the study of the kinetic mechanism
responsible for spontaneous communication
among spatio-temporally distant human beings
and discarnate beings may perhaps uncover part
of the truth about creativity, which would result in
a shift of thinking to paranormality from faculties
of genius being ascribed to genes alone. Most of
the studies in creativity are confined to English-
speaking people, while creativity is a global
phenomenon, and also studies have been
quantitative.
The multiplicity of scientific literature
does not mean in the least that the ideas
surrounding this particular subject are well-
established scientific truths. Creativity may be as
mysterious as creation itself. Creativity is largely a
corporate product of the brain and of quantum
and quantum-like consciousness. Quantum mind
is a bridge between brain and quantum like
consciousness. The quantum mind has a larger
storage capacity than the material brain and
contains information gathered from the sensory
world, quantum entanglements and paranormal
data collected and assembled at a quantum –like
consciousness level, in turn passed on to the
quantum mind. Therefore, it is in a better position
to analyze and synthesize novel ideas.
Physicists cannot believe in a non-physical
realm without an intermediate phase or some
form of continuity of physical universe (Tipler,
1994). Paraphysical dimensions may be such an
extension of the physical universe - a greater
universe. Other discarnate realms are non-
physical/spiritual with their own objectivity. It is
a general law in physics that nothing can end
abruptly; physical world may have to continue as
paraphysical dimensions which in turn may
converge as quantum-like/spiritual dimensions
with its own physics that might permit the
dimension to end abruptly. The same laws of
physics are applicable to brain-mind-
consciousness complex and might justify a belief
in quantum and quantum-like consciousness
(Spiritual consciousness). The fledgling science of
Neuroquantology may be able to explain the most
part of creativity, but it is inadequate to explain all
its aspects.
Extraordinary creativity can hardly be
grasped by empirical and statistical methods. For
a full understanding of creativity and
consciousness, study of mysticism is imperative.
To quote from Kelly et al (2007), mysticism is the
foundation of reality; quantum is only the bedrock
of matter. Neuroquantology can be a bridge
between brain and higher consciousness.
The assessment of any phenomenon is
invariably dependent on the measure used by the
assessor and if the measure is small or inadequate,
the result of assessment is flawed. Reductionist
assessment tools have proved to be inadequate in
the study of creativity and have resulted in
contradictory and heterogeneous results. The
concept of the unconscious mind is still valid from
a quantum perspective and Freud’s unconscious
mind accordingly needs revision. While creative
process can be observed and studied, its source
remains obscure. Study of creativity and
mysticism would help Neuroquantology to evolve
as an enlightened specialty and save it from being
reduced to ultra-reductionism.
NeuroQuantology | June 2017 | Volume 15 | Issue 2 | Page 171-185 | 10.14704/nq.2017.15.2.1018
Pandarakalam JP., A Deeper Understanding of Consciousness through Study of Creativity
eISSN 1303-5150 www.neuroquantology.com
184
References
Abt HA. At what ages do outstanding American astronomers
publish their most cited papers? Publication of the
astronomical Society of the Pacific 1983; 95:113-116
Andreasen NC, Canter A. The creative writer: Psychiatric
symptoms and family history. Compr Psychiatry 1974a;
15:123-131
Andreasen NC, Canter A. Genius and insanity revisited:
psychiatric symptoms and family history in creative
writers. in Life history Research in Psychopathology, vol
4 University of Minnesota Press,1974b.
Borutta R. The Music of the Soul and the Inner Light. The
Journal for Spirituality and Consciousness 2015;
38(2)113-120.
Braude Stephen. Immortal Remains. New York: Rowman&
Littlefield Publishers, 2003.
Brown RT. Creativity: what we are to measure? In J.A G lover,
R. R. Ronning & C. R. Reynolds (Eds). Handbook of
creativity; 32-52, New York: Plenum press,1989.
Bronowski J. The creative process is scientific in scientific
genius and creativity. Readings from Scientific America,
New york, W.H. Freeman and Co. p3-8,1987.
Bullimore P. A Village Called Pumpkin. Sheffield: Limbrick
Center, 2012
Carson S. Leveraging “mad genius “Debate: Why we need a
neuroscience of creativity and psychopathology.
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 2014; 8:250-258
Carson S. Creativity and Psychopathology. The Canadian
Journal of Psychiatry 2011; 56(3): 144-153.
Corliss RW A search for Anomalies. Journal of Scientific
Exploration 2002; 16:453 Cramer P. Word Association.
New York: Academic Press, 1968.
Fischer R. A creative cartography of ecstasy and meditation
studies. Science 1971; 174:897-904.
Flournoy Theodore. From India to the Planet Mars: A case of
multiple personality with imaginary languages. Princeton
NJ: Princeton University Press, 1900/1994.
Fontana D. Life beyond Death. London: Watkins Publishing.
2009.
Ghadirian AM, Gregoire P, Kosmidis H. Creativity and the
Evolution of Psychopathology, Creativity research journal
2001;13(2) 145-148
Globus G. Toward Quantum Psychiatry: Hallucinations,
Thought Insertion and DSM. Journal of Neuroquantology
2010; 1: 1-12.
Globus G. Consciousness and Quantum Physics: a
Deconstruction of the Topic, in Consciousness and the
Universe. Cambridge: Cosmology Science Publishers,
2011.
Goswami A. Quantum Creativity. London: Hay House, 2014.
Grof S. The Adventure of Self-Discovery. Albany, N.Y.: State
University New York Press, 1988.
Haisch B, The God Theory: universes, zero point Fields, and
what’s behind it all by Weiser Books, San Francisco, 2009.
Herrick EK. President’s message: Looking ahead. The Search
Light 2014; 23(4).
Hocevar, D. Measurement of creativity: review and critique.
Journal of Personality assessment 1981; 45:450-464
Hocevar D and Bachelor P. A Taxonomy and critique of
measurement used in the study of creativity. In Glover,
R.R. Ronning & C. R. Reynold (Eds). Handbook of
creativity; 53-75, New York: Plenum press,1989
Holden C. Manic depression and Creativity, Science 1986;
233:725
Jay A. The Invisible Bodies. Victoria, BC, Canada: Trafford
Publishing, 2006.
Joseph R. Dreams and Hallucinations, In consciousness and
the Universe edited by Sir Roger Penrose, Dtuart
Hameroff and Subash Kak. Cambridge: Cosmology Science
Publications.2011
Jung CJ. Psychology and Literature. In The Creative Process,
Ghiseline , B., Ed. The New American Library, NY,1973
Jung CG. The Psychology of the unconscious, in The Collected
Works of C.G. Jung. Vol.vii Princeton, N.J: Princeton
university Press, 1966.
Jung C. Psychology and the Occult. Princeton: Princeton
University Press, 1977
Kelly E, Grosso M. Genius, chapter in the Irreducible Mind.
New York: Rowan & Littlefield Publishers, 2007.
Kelly E, Crabtree A, Marshall P. Beyond Physicallism: Toward
Reconciliation of Science and Spirituality. New York:
Rowan & Littlefield, 2015.
Kennedy WG & Bugajska MD. Integrating Fast and Slow
Cognitive Processes. In Proceedings of the Tenth
International Conference on Cognitive Modeling,121-
126.Philadelphia, PA., 2010.
Klimo J. Psychics, Prophets, Mystics. Aquarius Press, London,
1991.
Koestler A. The Three Dimensions of Creativity in D Dutton,
M. Kraesz, eds. The concepts of creativity in science and
art, The Hague. Boston, London, Martinus Nijkoff
Publisher,1981.
Kim HS. The Essence of Creativity. New York: Oxford
University Press, 1990.
Kyaga S, Lichtenstein P, Boman M, Hultman C, Långström N,
Landén M. Creativity and mental disorder: family study of
300 000 people with severe mental disorder. The British
Journal of Psychiatry Oct 2011; 199 (5): 373-379.
Laszlo E. The Genius Hypothesis: Exploratory concepts for a
scientific understanding of unusual creativity. The Journal
of Scientific Exploration 1994; l8, No. 2: 257-267.
Lehman HC. Age and achievement; NJ: Princeton University
Press, 1953.
Ludwig AM. Reflections on creativity and madness. American
Journal of Psychotherapy 1989; 43:4-14.
Lombroso C. The man of genius, London. Walter Scott, 1981
Lukoff D. Transpersonal perspectives on manic psychosis:
creative, visionary and mystical states. The Journal of
Transpersonal psychology 1988;20 (2):112-139.
May R. The Courage to Create. New York: W.W. Norton & Co,
1975.
McKinnon DW. Personality and the realization of creative
potential Am Psychol 1965;20: 273-281.
Mumford MD & Gustafson SB. Creativity syndrome:
Integration, application and innovation. Psychological
Bulletin 1980; 103:27-43
Mussen PH, Conger JJ & Kagan J. Child Development and
Personality (5th edn) 1979; pp. 262- 264.New York:
Harper& Row
Myers FWH. Human Personality and its Survival of Bodily
Death. London: Facsimile Publisher, 1903/2015.
Pandarakalam J. Auditory Hallucinations and the Quantum
Brain. Paranormal Review 2015; 75:21-25.
Penrose R. Shadows of the Mind, Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 1994.
Penrose R, Hameroff S, Kak S. Consciousness and the
Universe. Cambridge: Cosmology Science Publishers,
2011.
Philips M. Stephens. Extrasensory Perception of Subatomic
Particles, Journal of Scientific Exploration 1995; 9(4):
489-525
Playfair LG. Medium of the Century. London: Roundtable
Publishing Co. 2010.
Polayni M. The Creative Image. Ibid p91-108 Post Felix.
Creativity and Psychopathology. British Journal of
Psychiatry 1994; 165; 22-34.
NeuroQuantology | June 2017 | Volume 15 | Issue 2 | Page 171-185 | 10.14704/nq.2017.15.2.1018
Pandarakalam JP., A Deeper Understanding of Consciousness through Study of Creativity
eISSN 1303-5150 www.neuroquantology.com
185
Preti A, Miotto P. Journal of Memtics-evolutionary model of
creativity, evolution and mental illness. Information
Transmission.1: on-line at
http://www,cpm.mmu.ac.uk/jum-
emit/1997/vol/preti_a &miotta_p.htm,1997
Prince WF. The Case of Patience Worth. New Hyde Park, NY:
University Books, 1927.
Rhine JB. The Reach of the Mind. New York: William Sloane,
1947.
Richards RL, Benet DK, Benet M & Merzel APC. Assessing
everyday creativity: characteristics of the lifetime
creativity scales and validation with three large samples
Journal of Personality and Psychology 1988; 54:476-485
Richards RL, Relationship between creativity and
psychopathology: an evaluation and interpretation of the
evidence. Genetic Psychology Monograograph 1981;
103:261-324
Schwartz EG. The Afterlife Experiments. New York: Atria
Books, 2002.
Schwartz EG. The Sacred Promise: How science is Discovering
Spirit’s Collaboration with Us in Our Daily Lives. New
York: Atria Books, 2011a.
Schwartz EG. Photonic measurement of Apparent Presence of
Spirit Using a Computer Automated System.
drgaryschwatz.com, 2011b.
Schwartz EG. After life communications. Florida: ASCS
Publications, 2014.
Shakespeare W.A Midsummer Night’s Dream, act5, scene 1,
lines 7-8
Sims A. Symptoms in the mind. London: Bailliere, Tindall
1988.
Simonton DK. Latent variables of posthumous reputation: a
quest for Galtons’s G. Journal of Personality & Social
Psychology 1991; 60:607-619.
Stevenson I. Children who remember previous lives.
Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1987.
Stevenson I. Reincarnation and Biology, a contribution to the
Etiology of Birthmarks and Birth Defects (2 Vols);
London: Prager,1997.
Stevenson I. Some Comments on Automatic Writing. The
Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research
1978; 72:315-332.
Tarlaci S. Neuroquantology, Quantum physics in the Brain.
New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2014
Thys E, Sabbe B, De Hert M. The assessment of creativity in
creativity/psychopathology research- A systematic
review. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 2014a; 19(4):359-
377.
Thys E, Sabbe B, De Hert M. Creativity and psychopathology:
A systematic review. Psychopathology 2014b;47(3):141-
147.
Tucker BJ. Return to Life. St Martin’s Press: New York, 2013.
Tipler JF. The Physics of Immortality. New York: Anchor
Books. 1994.
Tymn M. An Interview with Dr Vernon Neppe. The Search
Light 2012; 21 (4).
Ullman M. On the nature of psi processes. Journal of
Parapsychology1949; 13: 59-62
Ullman M. On the nature of resistance to psi phenomenon.
Journal of the American Society for psychical
Research1952; 46: 11-13
Utts J. Replication and Meta –analysis in Parapsychology.
Statistical Science 1991; 6, 363.
Zizzi P, Pregnolato M. Quantum logic of the unconscious and
schizophrenia. Neuroquantology 2012, 10(3): 566-579.
Wallas G. The Art of Thought. In Creativity, Vernon, P.E. Ed.
Penguin Books, New York, 1970
Wang Y, Chan GLY, Holden JE, Dobko T, Mak E, Schulzer M,
Huser JM, Snow BJ, Ruth TJ. Age dependent decline of
Dopamine D1 receptors in human brain. Science 1998;
30:56-61
Westen D. The Scientific Status of Unconscious Process: Is
Freud Really Dead? Journal of the American
Psychoanalytical Association 1999; 47(4):1061-1106.
... Quantum is recognized as the dream machine, and spiritual visions become like a quantum/spiritual hologram. Those who can believe in the paranormal component of creativity [14] are in an advantageous position to develop an approximate model of introvertive spiritual visions, in which the brain bypasses the time lag for transmission of information from the spiritual plane to the ...
... Inward apparitional experiences are no less important than outward ones. To study them, it is mandatory to accept that the human mind may be regarded as a means of communication that involves a receiver and a transmitter, both of which are highly sophisticated [14]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Paranormal and mystical experiences challenge reductionism and ultra-reductionism-the assumption that the whole is the same as the sum of its parts. Quantum is the bedrock of matter, but mysticism is the bedrock of reality. In this respect, studies of mysticism are an unavoidable part of a scientific quest. The study of near-death experiences (NDEs) has brought the exploration of post-mortem existence to the scientific arena. Similarly, studies of Marian apparitions could be bringing mysticism to the realm of the scientific imagination. From a spiritual and scientific perspective, the ongoing Marian apparitional occurrences in Medjugorje (Bosnia) are highly valuable. Ultra-reductionism is a serious challenge, and this can be addressed by exploring mysticism. Self-realization, discarnate existence, and God realization are important aspects of spirituality. Death-related visions offer evidence of an extended consciousness and its survival after physical extinction, but additionally, Marian mysticism illuminates us of the Heavenly realities and contributes meaning to terrestrial existence. In view of the accumulating evidence in favor of the reality of discarnate existence, the medical viewpoint toward assisted suicide needs to be morally evaluated. Terminal illness and the final years of life become transitional preparatory periods, whereby we disengage with the pleasant and unpleasant illusions of earthly existence, which could turn out to be spiritually productive.
Article
Full-text available
Both interlingual translation shifts and poetic production can be seen from a semiotic perspective in terms of mental filtering. The shared ground of the three processes - cognition, translation, versification - is to be found in the semiotic perspective: signs (prototext, reality, perception) are interpreted and worked through (mind, interpretants, cognition) and give as an output an object (metatext, poem, worldview). By trying to classify the shifts resulting from such processes - distortions - with a semiotically shared grid of categories, the hypothesis is that the categories themselves - already existing within the separate fields - can be reciprocally fine-tuned. The very notion of “shift” - derived from translation criticism, and in particular from the prototext-metatext comparison - becomes in this hypothesis a connection transforming the shifts possible in the other mentioned fields into mutual benchmarks.
Article
Full-text available
We introduce a quantum logic for quantum information, which we identify with the quantum logic of the psychodynamic unconscious, amenable to formal characterization through the theoretical framework of Quantum Mind. We claim that this sub rosa quantum logic of the normal mind's unconscious domain is also the dominant, pathologically emerging logic of schizophrenia. We interpret Quantum Meta-language as speaking as a quantum control about such a quantum logic. We then suggest that psychotherapists might learn this formal Quantum Meta-language and apply it in practice in order to communicate more easily with schizophrenic patients.
Book
Certain assumptions about man's creativity in relation to his chronological age have become so widely accepted as fact that the findings of this book will surprise both general reader and specialist and may have far-reaching effects on established patterns of thought in psychology and in education. The book is a statistical evaluation of achievement in relation to age, assembling an incredible amount of factual information on the acres of b superlative achievement in every field from prize-fighting to philosophy. Originally published in. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books fromthe distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905. © 1953, by the American Philosophical Society London: Geoffrey Cumbeilege, Oxford University Press.
Book
A classic in the field of psychology, From India to Planet Mars (1900) depicts the remarkable multiple existence of the medium Hélène Smith, who claimed to be the reincarnation of Marie Antoinette, of a Hindu princess from fifteenth-century India, and of a regular visitor to Mars, whose landscapes she painted and whose language she appeared to speak fluently. Through a psychological interpretation of these fantasies, which consisted in the subliminal elaboration of forgotten memories, Théodore Flournoy vastly extended the scope and understanding of the unconscious, and in particular, of its creative and mythopoetic capacities. In the introduction to this work, Soriu Shamdasani evokes the rich cultural and intellectual setting which Flournoy published his findings, and discusses their impact on Freud, Jung, and other pioneers psychology.
Chapter
Creativity measurement itself has been a creative endeavor for both researchers and practitioners. When viewed as a group, the most salient characteristic of creativity measurements is their diversity. The initial purpose of this review is to integrate creativity measurements into a meaningful taxonomy and to illustrate the diversity of the available measurements by citing key examples of the many and varied ways in which creativity has been operationalized. It also is hoped that the numerous examples will give researchers a concise but thorough picture of the many options available when a measure of creativity is needed. The second goal of this review is to use the taxonomy as a framework for discussing the creativity construct in terms of several psychometric characteristics—namely, reliability, discriminant validity, and nomological validity. The third goal is to describe an analytic framework in which measurement issues can be better addressed.
Article
A century-old claim by two early leaders of the Theosophical Society to have used a form of ESP to observe subatomic particles is evaluat-ed. Their observations are found to be consistent with facts of nuclear physics and with the quark model of particle physics provided that their as-sumption that they saw atoms is rejected. Their account of the force binding together the fundamental constituents of matter is shown to agree with the string model. Their description of these basic particles bears striking similar-ity to basic ideas of superstring theory. The implication of this remarkable correlation between ostensible paranormal observations of subatomic parti-cles and facts of nuclear and particle physics is that quarks are neither funda-mental nor hadronic states of superstrings, as many physicists currently as-sume, but, instead, are composed of three subquark states of a superstring.