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Nutraceutical approach for struvite uroliths management in cats


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Urolithiasis accounts for 15% to 23% of cases of feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD), with struvite uroliths occurring more frequently, followed by calcium oxalate, ammonium urate, cystine, and xanthine calculi. In this clinical evaluation, we tested the efficacy of a commercially available nutraceutical diet in 33 cats affected by struvite uroliths. Results clearly indicated a significant urine color, turbidity, pH, RBC, WBC, weight and proteins decrease (***p < 0.001, *p < 0.05), and a significant decrease of struvite uroliths in all treated cats. The nutraceutical diet enriched by botanicals, such as, Hieracium pilosella, Urtica dioica, Lespedeza spp, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Taraxacum officinale formulated with DL-methionine, and a controlled addition of minerals and amino acids resulted particularly effective for struvite uroliths management. This work can pave the way for a new, safe, and long lasting natural approach to treat struvite uroliths.
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Intern J Appl Res Vet Med • Vol. 15, No. 1, 2017. 19
KEY WORDS: struvite uroliths,
nutraceutical diet, botanicals
Urolithiasis accounts for 15% to 23% of
cases of feline lower urinary tract disease
(FLUTD), with struvite uroliths occurring
more frequently, followed by calcium oxa-
late, ammonium urate, cystine, and xanthine
In this clinical evaluation, we tested the
efcacy of a commercially available nutra-
ceutical diet in 33 cats affected by struvite
Results clearly indicated a signicant
urine color, turbidity, pH, RBC, WBC,
weight and proteins decrease (***p < 0.001,
*p < 0.05), and a signicant decrease of
struvite uroliths in all treated cats.
The nutraceutical diet enriched by botan-
icals, such as, Hieracium pilosella, Urtica
dioica, Lespedeza spp, Vaccinium macrocar-
pon, Taraxacum ofcinale formulated with
DL-methionine, and a controlled addition of
minerals and amino acids resulted particu-
larly effective for struvite uroliths manage-
ment. This work can pave the way for a new,
safe, and long lasting natural approach to
treat struvite uroliths.
Urolithiasis is dened as the formation of
sediment of one or more poorly soluble
urine crystalloids anywhere within the
urinary tract.1 Urolithiasis in cat accounts
for 15% to 23% of cases of FLUTD, while
only 11% are due to anatomic defects and
1% to 8% are urinary tract infections (UTI).2
The risk of renal calculi formation is 4.95%
when only one kidney is involved. This
percentage can increase up to 9%, though,
in the event of bilateral renal involvement.3
Struvite is the most frequent nd (> 50%),
followed by calcium oxalate (< 50%), am-
monium urate (1.7%), cystine (0.5%), and
xanthine (0.3%).4
In the past 20 years, we witnessed an in-
crease in the occurrence of calcium oxalate
stones compared to struvite stones.5 None-
theless, the latter have become more fre-
quent in the last 3 years (44% against 40%),
portending a possible future change in the
frequency of these types of calculi. Causes
of urolithiasis can be generally referred to
as a production of urine supersaturated for
the crystalloid components, although crystal
Nutraceutical Approach for Struvite
Uroliths Management in Cats
Sergio Canello1
Sara Centenaro2*
Gianandrea Guidetti2
1Forza10 USA Corp., Research and Development Department,
10142 Canopy Tree Ct. 32836 Orlando (FL); Tel. +1 (407) 530-6303,
2 SANYpet S.p.a., Research and Development Department,
Via Austria 3, Bagnoli di Sopra, 35023 Padua, Italy; Tel. +390429785401,
(*) corresponding author: Sara Centenaro, DVM, SANYpet S.p.a.,
Research and Development Department, Via Austria 3,
Bagnoli di Sopra, 35023 Padua, Italy; Tel. +390429785401, email.
Vol. 15, No.1, 2017 • Intern J Appl Res Vet Med.
formation and growth can be also affected
by other factors including the frequency and
adequacy of bladder emptying; the presence
of certain mucoproteins; cellular debris or
foreign material, such as bacteria, able to
promote crystallization and formation of a
urolith nidus; the presence and balance of
various promoters; and the urine pH, whose
effect varies among different crystal types.
The most important risk factors for
struvite formation are urinary pH and urine
dilution, which will affect the concentrations
of magnesium, ammonium, and phosphate.6
Other predisposing factors for cats to de-
velop FLUTD are breed [Siamese cats have
a lower risk of incurring in FLUTD, while
Persian cats have a higher risk.7 Moreover:
• long hair cats have a higher risk than
mixed ones,8
• younger cats are more predisposed
to develop struvite stones with respect
to older cats, that are more prone to
develop calcium oxalate stones,4
• male cats are more affected than female
• a low pH leads to uric acid precipita-
tion and cystine stones, while a high pH
leads to struvite, calcium carbonate and
calcium phosphate precipitation,9
• neutered males show an increased
risk for idiopathic interstitial cystitis,
urolithiasis and neoplasia, while spayed
females show an increased risk for
urocystolithiasis, urinary tract infections
and neoplasia,6,10
• prolonged periods of inactivity and life
indoors can increase of 2 to 10 times the
risk of development of FLUTD.7,8
The aim of this clinical evaluation was
to test the efcacy of a commercially avail-
able nutraceutical diet in 33 cats affected by
lower urinary tract disease exacerbated by
urolithiasis. The diet consisted in a mixed
formula based on sh proteins, rice, Hiera-
cium pilosella, Urtica dioica, Lespedeza
spp, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Taraxacum
ofcinale, DL-methionine, and an Omega3-
to-Omega6 ratio of 1:4.
Hieracium pilosella,11 Urtica
dioica,12and Taraxacum ofcinale13 (13)
have been shown to exert a diuretic ef-
fect, while Vaccinium macrocarpon14 has
been demonstrated to have antiseptic and
anti-adhesion activity. As to Lespedeza
spp, literature reports highlighted its ability
to reduce azotemia in patients with renal
failure of various types.15 Moreover Hiera-
cium pilosella is endowed with antioxidant
function16 and acts synergistically with
Urtica dioica, which is largely used for its
diuretic and antiurolithiatic activity against
ammonium chloride and calcium oxalate
renal stones.17-19
Urolithiasis incidence reduction has
been also ascribed to Taraxacum ofci-
nale due to the presence of saponins and
their urine basifying effect.20 Furthermore,
Taraxacum ofcinale has been tradition-
ally considered a natural compound able to
increase the frequency and excretion ratio of
Lastly, Urtica dioica has shown antiviral
activity against infection of feline immuno-
deciency virus.23
In addition to the effects of these bo-
tanicals, the urine acidier DL-methionine
exerts an important effect in preventing and
dissolving struvite uroliths.24,25
Thirty-three cats, 25 domestic Euro-
pean cats, 2 Persian cats, 3 Siamese cats,
3 Chartreux cats (mean age ± SEM; 5.7 ±
0.4 years and mean weight ± SEM; 5.33 ±
0.2 Kg; 64% males, 36% females) suffer-
ing from cystitis and manifesting at least
one symptom among hematuria, dysuria,
and/or stranguria, were enrolled in this
clinical evaluation. In particular, 14/33 of
cats showed dysuria and stranguria, 19/33
showed hematuria, dysuria and stranguria.
Five cats on 33 subjects presented urethral
obstruction. Cats received the nutraceutical
diet over a period of 30 days.
All animals received an antibiotic treat-
ment with enrooxacin (Baytril ® Bayer
SpA) administered according to the dosage
Intern J Appl Res Vet Med • Vol. 15, No. 1, 2017. 21
suggested on the Antimicrobial Use Guide-
lines for Treatment of Urinary Tract Dis-
ease in Dogs and Cats by the International
Society for Companion Animal Infectious
The Diet
The diet fullled the recommendations for
protein as reported in Nutritional Guidelines
for complete and complementary pet food
for cats and dogs by The European Pet Food
Industry Federation. The diet was a mix of
dry kibbles and tablets composed of 60-80%
hydrolyzed protein (sh and vegetable)
and 20-40% minerals used as glidants,
added to therapeutic substances (Hieracium
pilosella 0.0749%, Urtica dioica 0.0619%,
Lespedeza spp 0.0589%, Vaccinium macro-
carpon 0.0372%, and Taraxacum ofcinale
0.0231%). The diet provided controlled
amount of minerals, in particular calcium
0.88%, phosphorus 0.79%, potassium 1%,
sodium 0.7%, magnesium 0.05%, chloride
1.3% and sulphur 0.5%, and DL-methionine
0.69% in compliance with European Direc-
tive 2008/38 on animal feeding stuffs for
particular nutritional purposes. The expected
ph value of the product was established
using a specic expression (base excess in
mmol/kg dry matter = Ca*2+Mg*2+Na+K-
(met(-)+cys)*2-P*2-Cl).27 Diet was
administered according to manufacturer
Urine Analysis and Clinical Evaluation
All cats received veterinary inspections
before the trial, after 15 days, and after
30 days, at the end of the trial. Urinalysis
was performed at the beginning (T0) and
at the end of the evaluation (T1). Dipstick
urinalysis was done using multistix 10 SG
(Siemens). The reagent strip contained test
pads for protein, blood, leukocyte, nitrite,
glucose, ketone, pH, urine weight, bilirubin,
and urobilinogen. Urine sediment analy-
sis was evaluated microscopically with an
Olympus 60BX polarized light microscope
(New York Microscope Company Inc,
Hicksville, NY, USA).
Urine color was graded according to
the color chart proposed by Brabson et al
(yellow = 1, peach = 2, pink = 3, red = 4,
and burgundy = 5).28 Turbidity was graded
according to the following score: 0 = limpid,
1 = partially turbid, and 2 = turbid.
Operative procedures and animal care
were performed in compliance with the na-
tional and international regulations (Italian
regulation D. Lgs. 116/1992 and European
Union regulation 86/609/EC). The recom-
mendations of the ARRIVE guidelines in
animal research were also consulted and
considered (29).
Statistical Analysis
Data were analyzed using using Prism
6 (GraphPad software, Inc., San Diego,
USA). All data are presented as the means
± standard error of the mean and were rst
checked for normality using the D’Agostino-
Pearson normality test. Differences in
proteins, blood, leukocyte, nitrites, glucose,
ketones, pH, weight, bilirubin, urobilino-
gen, color, and turbidity before (T0) and at
the end of the evaluation period (T1) were
analyzed using a paired t test. A value for p
< 0.05 was considered signicant.
Thirty-three cats with evident hematuria,
dysuria, and stranguria were enrolled in
the evaluation and received the nutraceuti-
cal diet enriched with Hieracium pilosella,
Urtica dioica, Lespedeza spp, Vaccinium
macrocarpon, and Taraxacum ofcinale.
No adverse effects were reported during the
evaluation. In Figure 1 the concentrations
of proteins, RBC, WBC, nitrites, glucose,
ketones, pH, weight, bilirubin, urobilinogen,
color, and turbidity values of cats before
(T0) and at the end of the evaluation period
(T1) are shown.
Urine color, turbidity, and pH signi-
cantly decreased from a T0 value of 3.62 ±
0.22 to 1.59 ± 0.08 at T1, from a T0 value
of 1.65 ± 0.09 to 0.71 ± 0.12 at T1 and from
a T0 value of 7.15 ± 0.18 to 6.23 ± 0.11 at
T1, respectively (Figures 1A-B, D, ***p
< 0.001). As to urine weight and proteins,
a signicant decrease, from a T0 value of
1037 ± 2.47 SG to 1018 ± 6.65 SG at T1 and
from a T0 value of 261.3 ± 20.00 to 234 ±
Vol. 15, No.1, 2017 • Intern J Appl Res Vet Med.
Figure 1. Graphical representations of urine parameters trend during the evaluation. (A)
Urine color value before and after 15 days of evaluation (***p < 0.001); (B) urine turbidity
value before and after 15 days of evaluation (***p < 0.001); (C) urine weight value before
and after 15 days of evaluation (*p < 0.05); (D) urine pH value before and after 15 days
of evaluation (***p < 0.001); (E) urine proteins concentration before and after 15 days of
evaluation (*p < 0.05); (F) red blood cells concentration before and after 15 days of evalu-
ation (***p < 0.001) and (G) white blood cells concentration before and after 15 days of
evaluation (***p < 0.001).
Intern J Appl Res Vet Med • Vol. 15, No. 1, 2017. 23
17.71 mg/dL at T1, was also observed (Fig-
ures 1C, E, *p < 0.05). Also RBC and WBC
signicantly decreased from a T0 value of
0.12 ± 0.02 mg/dL to 0.04 ± 0.008 mg/dL at
T1 and from a T0 value of 11.52 ± 0.70 mg/
dL to 9.12 ± 0.52 mg/dL at T1, respectively
(Fig 1F-G, ***p < 0.001).
Ketones, glucose, bilirubin, urobilinogen
and nitrites were not detectable before and
after the clinical evaluation. Struvite uroliths
in urine sediment showed a signicant de-
crease from T0 to the end of the evaluation
period (T1) (Figure 2).
Lower urinary tract diseases (LUTD) occur
commonly in cats and struvite urolithiasis is
present in many cats suffering LUTD. Com-
ponents of the diets have been investigated
as causative agents of struvite including ash,
magnesium,30-33 ammonium chloride,34,35
DL-methionine,24,36 calcium and sodium
carbonate,27 and dietary ber, as well as
solute (mineral and protein content) and salt
content.37,38 It is worth noting that shmeal
has been shown to have a comparable nutri-
tional value and urine acidifying effect with
respect to corn gluten meal as well as to
exert a preventive effect in constipation and
struvite urolithiasis formation.39 Moreover,
the percentages of nitrogen absorption and
retention with respect to nitrogen intake
have been observed to be higher for meat
meal while urinary pH, struvite activity
product, and number of struvite crystals in
urine were lower for corn gluten meal.40
The approach with botanicals such as
Hieracium pilosella, Urtica dioica, Les-
pedeza spp, Vaccinium macrocarpon, and
Taraxacum ofcinale resulted particularly
effective for struvite uroliths dissolution.
These botanicals seemed to act synergistical-
ly with each other and with DL-methionine
in order to reduce and restore the physi-
ological pH, thus dissolving any struvite
uroliths.17,20 Furthermore, the nutraceutical
diet was formulated respecting the correct
nutritional requirements and providing the
balanced amount of minerals and aminoac-
ids for improving pH reduction.27
Although a general recommendation for
urolithiasis prevention is to increase water
consumption in order to increase diuresis
and reduce time for aggregation and crystal-
lization, a moist diet is advisable as a syn-
ergic strategy.1 Other preventive strategies
include a low level of high quality protein
(in order to reduce excretion of urea), low
calcium, phosphorus and magnesium (in
order to reduce concentration of calculi con-
stituents), high sodium (in order to induce
a large volume of low concentration urine),
and a specic diet depending on the kind of
In conclusion,, this diet ensures to keep
lower levels of sodium than average and
relies on wild-caught sh bypassing the
possible risk for the cat of ingesting oxy-
tetracycline residues. In fact, meal (mainly
poultry) by-products, which is the main
ingredient of canned, semi-moist and dry
diets, usually has an important percentage
Figure. 2 Microscopic image of struvite uroliths presence in ND group. Microscope image
(60X) highlighting the (A) presence of several cristals before and (B) after the specic diet
Vol. 15, No.1, 2017 • Intern J Appl Res Vet Med.
of bone meal (20-30% v/v) (41). It has been
widely demonstrated the presence of oxy-
tetracycline in poultry bones42-44 as well as
its ability to enhance apoptosis and promote
pro-inammatory cytokines, ie, interferon-γ
release from peripheral blood mononuclear
cells cultures in vitro.45 Thus we speculate
a possible role of oxytetracycline in repre-
senting one of the triggering factors related
to the overall inammatory environment of
lower urinary tract disease.
The authors hereby certify that all work con-
tained in this article is original. The authors
claim full responsibility for the contents of
the article.
The authors conrm that they do not have
any conict of interest
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... Unfortunately, the authors did not state in what unit the secreted volume of the urine was measured. Another in vivo study by Canello et al. (2017) performed a clinical evaluation on the effect of a nutraceutical diet enriched with plants (with P. officinarum as the most abundant in a 5-plants mixture) applied to 33 cats suffering from cystitis with evident hematuria, dysuria and/or stranguria. The trial lasted 30 days. ...
... More detailed information on the discussed studies is provided in Table 12. For better understanding the differences between T 0 and T 1 as obtained by Canello et al. (2017) were calculated. ...
Ethnopharmacological relevance Species of the genera Hieracium and Pilosella have been used in folk medicine for centuries in many parts of the world. The most wiedly used species is P. officinarum Vaill., included in the British and French Pharmacopoeias and sold as part of different commercial products. Aim of the study This review critically appraises the state-of-art of ethnopharmacology, specialised metabolites, bioactivities, and toxicity of members of Hieracium and Pilosella. Thus, gaps in scientific knowledge can be identified, also focusing on the development of products with pharmacological applications. Materials and methods Literature data of Hieracium and Pilosella species were mainly retrieved using different electronic databases such as Web of Science, Google Scholar, SciFinder, and PubMed. Other electronic resources included worldwide databases on ethnobotany, ethnopharmacology, and phytochemistry as well as government reports. Additionally, ancient texts and local information such as PhD and MSc theses, and books were consulted. Results A comprehensive analysis of the above mentioned sources revealed that only 34 out of the about 850 described species within the genera Hieracium and Pilosella have been reported in the context of traditional medicinal and ethnobotanical knowledge. The most often mentioned species is P. officinarum which has been widely used due to its diuretic effects. Other popular uses of Hieracium and Pilosella species include the treatment of skin, gastric, and intestinal diseases as well as respiratory and vascular ailments. Moreover, taxa of the two genera have been used as antiobiotics, antiseptics, antidiabetics, tonics, antiepileptics, antiphlogistics, emetics, wound healing drugs, astringents, haemostatics, and detoxificants. Finally, uses as a wild vegetable, fodder, plant for hunting and for charming rituals have also been mentioned. Phytochemical research revealed a richness in phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Moreover, coumarins, sesquiterpene lactones, terpenoids, and phytosterols were found in Hieracium and Pilosella. Experimental research conducted to support traditional uses mainly include in vitro tests, while assays based on in vivo models (including humans) are rather limited. Also, the vast majority of the studies did not identify the compounds responsible for the detected bioactivities. These established bioactivities include antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antimycotic, antiviral, cytotoxic and antiproliferative, diuretic, gastroprotective, antiepileptic, hypotensive, anti-obesity, arthropodicidal, and skin rejuvenating activities. Finally, limited toxicity studies have been conducted on members of Hieracium and Pilosella. Conclusion Taxa belonging to Hieracium and Pilosella have been confirmed to exert diuretic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial effects, which is in line with their long traditional use. Moreover, the above mentioned fields of application hint to the most promising routes for the development of new marketable products. Nonetheless, additional data from an in-depth research on bio-active specialised metabolites such as sesquiterpenoids, sesquiterpene lactones, and coumarines, their bioactivities and toxicity, and their biosynthesis are still warranted.
... The use of diet for health promotion and prevention of disease is not new but in recent years it has gained some attention. Interesting methods exist about the importance of functional foods in domestic animals [5][6][7][8][9][10]. Nevertheless, the effect of these foods on dogs and cats needs to be studied in order to better understand their metabolism and thus to improve the nutritional status and health of the domestic animal [3]. ...
... Although diets favoring seafood, poultry, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables have been related to a better fertility in women and better semen quality in men [8], we recently highlighted the role of contaminants, e.g., oxytetracycline, dragged by food, e.g., chicken bone and meat meal, able to exert proinflammatory and cytotoxic effects in vitro [18][19][20][21][22] and in vivo [6,[23][24][25][26][27]. ...
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Male dog infertility may represent a serious concern in he canine breeding market. The aim of this clinical evaluation was to test the efficacy of a commercially available nutraceutical diet, enriched with Lepidium meyenii, Tribulus terrestris, L-carnitine, zinc, omega-3 (N-3) fatty acids, beta-carotene, vitamin E and folic acid, in 28 male dogs suffering from infertility associated to hypospermia. All dogs were received the diet over a period of 100 days. At the end of the evaluation period no adverse effects, including head and tail anomalies percentage onset, were reported. Interestingly, motility percentage, semen volume and concentration and total number of sperms per ejaculation significantly increased. Further investigations on a wider cohort of dogs might be useful to better correlate the presence of oxyetracycline in pet's diet and the onset of infertility and clearly assess the action mechanism of an oxyetracycline-free nutraceutical diet.
... The reagent strip contained test pads for pH, urine specific gravity, and proteins. Urine color was graded according to the following score: dark = 0, clear = 1, and very clear = 2. Turbidity was graded according to the following score: limpid = 0, partially turbid = 1, and turbid = 2 (Canello et al. 2017). Hematological analyses [creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), phosphorus, potassium, calcium, albumin, hematocrit, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)] were performed using Dimension RxL Max Integrated Chemistry System (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics S.r.l., Milan, Italy). ...
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Background. Chronic kidney disease is characterized by structural and/or functional impairment of one or both kidneys persisting for more than 3 months. In cats, chronic kidney disease can frequently occur in animals aged over 9 years with an incidence of approximately 10%. Study design. Thirty-four client-owned, neutered cats, suffering from stage II-III chronic kidney disease and diagnosed according to the International Renal Interest Society guidelines were randomly assigned to receive either a control diet (n = 17) or a nutraceutical diet (ND; n = 17) for 90 days. Results. No adverse effects were reported during this study. After 90 days of evaluation, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total proteins and aspartate aminotransferase significantly decreased in cats that received ND. A significant decrease was also observed for urine turbidity, color and total proteins in cats that received ND. Conclusions. In summary, we found that ND improved key indicators of renal failure in cats that spontaneously develop chronic kidney disease
... • Idiopathic cystitis (cats and dogs): it is often labeled that way because it does not have an identified cause. It often arises from FRS [28]. ...
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Severe reactions of the organism to environmental elements have been dizzily rising in humans and pets in the last 50’s. Such reactions can be expulsive (vomit, diarrhea, dandruff, abundant secretion or excretion) or driven by an inflammatory process (which has been considered as healing process) in charge to destroy every toxic introduced into the body. Thus it is clear that if a contaminated food is assumed daily, the inflammatory process becomes inevitably chronic. Most of common inflammatory processes of dogs and cats originate from this condition, which we observed to be frequently caused by well-defined contaminants: toxic residues of oxytetracycline (OTC). In fact, once eliminated everything containing this compound, all inflammatory processes tend to rapidly and spontaneously regress. Here we reviewed and discussed the problem related to the amount of pharmacologic and chemical substances, which are used to increase the production of fruits, vegetables, intensive farming-derived meat and fish, milk, eggs and grain. Such substances can persist within the products in variable amount and, gradually or rapidly (often in a few hours), poison the organism causing reactions such as allergies, anaphylactic shocks (not so frequent), autoimmune diseases (fortunately not so frequent but continuously increasing), and inflammatory processes, the most common reaction. In this context, nutrition, as a daily and frequent habit, should to be taken seriously into account, given that wild animals do not seem to have the same pathologic reactions, there are no doubts that many foods deriving from intensive farming have become a poison rather than a remedy.
People's concern with the health of their animals has grown as the concern with their own health. The phenomenon known as humanization of animals has contributed to the emergence of this awareness about the care that animal owners need to have in relation with food, thus creating a new market nourishment, of natural and healthy foods. With revenues of US$ 91 billion in 2018, the pet food market is seen as a valuable market with great growth prospects for years to come. Nutrition is one of the most important parameters for the maintenance of animal health. Paying close attention to this new trend, the pet industry has been launching and betting on new products that work for the improvement of the quality of life of domestic animals. The present work carries out a national and international technological review on natural food, interesting components and their benefits in pet food, definitions, food market and their trends.
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Antibiotics are widely used in zoo technical and veterinary practices as feed supplementation to ensure wellness of farmed animals and livestock. Several evidences have been suggesting both the toxic role for tetracyclines, particularly for oxytetracycline (OTC). This potential toxicity appears of great relevance for human nutrition and for domestic animals. This study aimed to extend the evaluation of such toxicity. The biologic impact of the drug was assessed by evaluating the proinflammatory effect of OTC and their bone residues on cytokine secretion by in vitro human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Our results showed that both OTC and OTC-bone residues significantly induced the T lymphocyte and non-T cell secretion of interferon (IFN)-γ, as cytokine involved in inflammatory responses in humans as well as in animals. These results may suggest a possible implication for new potential human and animal health risks depending on the entry of tetracyclines in the food-processing chain.
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Urolithiasis is a nutritional disease that affects domestic carnivores. Past and recent literature on urolithiasis was reviewed for information on anatomical occurrence, physiology of urine formation, prevalence, mineral composition, clinical signs, laboratory findings, dissolution therapy, surgery and prevention of urolithiasis. The acquired knowledge of complexed and multifaceted urolithiasis is a tremendous achievement towards the treatment and control of the disease. However, eradication of the disease is the most challenging as it requires total overhaul of all the factors that are responsible for the formation of uroliths. © 2015, Bulgarian Journal of Veterinary Medicine. All rights reserved.
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The use of the generic term "meat and animal derivatives" in declared ingredient lists of pet foods in the European Union is virtually universal. In the wake of the 2013 "horse meat scandal" in the human food chain, we examined the presence and authenticity of animal sources (cow, chicken, pig and horse) of proteins in a range of popular wet pet foods in the United Kingdom. Seventeen leading dog and cat foods were sampled for the relative presence of DNA from each of the four animal species by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. No horse DNA was detected. However, there was detection at substantial levels of unspecified animal species in most products tested. In 14 out of 17 samples, bovine, porcine and chicken DNA were found in various proportions and combinations but were not explicitly identified on the product labels. Of the 7 products with prominent headline descriptions containing the term "with beef", only 2 were found to contain more bovine DNA (>50%) than pig and chicken DNA combined. There is a need for the pet food industry to show greater transparency to customers in the disclosure of the types of animal proteins (animal species and tissue types) in their products. Full disclosure of animal contents will (a) allow more informed choices to be made on purchases which are particularly important for pets with food allergies, (b) reduce the risk of product misinterpretation by shoppers, and (c) avoid potential religious concerns.
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The study investigated the effect of oxytetracycline (OTC) on the anti-oxidative defense system, the structure (hemolysis rate and morphology) and function (ATP enzyme activity) of human red blood cells (hRBCs) to investigate the possible toxic mechanism of OTC to hRBCs. The experimental results indicate that OTC can cause a decline in the function of the antioxidant defense system of hRBCs, resulting in oxidative stress. OTC can bring about morphological changes to hRBCs, and further leads to hemolysis, when the concentration of OTC is over 8×10-5 M (about 164 µg/ml). At a low OTC concentration, below 4×10-5 M (82 µg/ml), OTC can enhance the activity of ATP enzyme of hRBCs, known as hormesis. However, at a high concentration, above 4×10-5 M (about 82 µg/ml), the ATP enzymatic activity was inhibited, affecting the function of hRBCs. The estalished mechanism of toxicity of OTC to hRBCs can facilitate a deeper understanding of the toxicity of OTC in vivo.
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Introduction: Antibiotics are largely employed in zootechnical feed to preserve human and animal species from zoonosis due pathogenic infective agents. Aim: Due to the increasing number of pathologies related to diet (e.g. food intolerances), we investigated the toxic effects induced by antibiotics residues, oxytetracyclines, present within the industrial food on both human and domestic animals' health. Zootechnical products obtained from animal bones industrial transformation, and their related toxic effects have been pointed out. Methods: Comparative analysis of published papers has been conducted from 1910 up to 2014. Results: The comparative analysis revealed the presence of oxytetracycline residues and other antibiotics in food intended for human and animal consumption, which resulted in multisystemic toxic effects. Discussion: Either metabolism and possible measures to prevent exposure to oxytetracycline have also been examined, however a more detailed understanding of biochemical effects of such class of antibiotics is required.
Dandelion (Taraxacum spec) is a wild plant that has been used for centuries as a traditional medicine in the relief and treatment of several diseases. This use is due to the presence of sesquiterpenes, saponins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and sugars, among others, found in the organs of the plant. The aim of this work is to provide a current review of developments and trends in research on the Taraxacum genus, with a focus on traditional uses and pharmacological properties. This should shed light on the potential of this plant as an attractive commercial herbal medicine. Documents were collected, analyzed, and classified for information regarding medical, agronomic, genetic, and biological aspects of the Taraxacum species. This process was based on a thorough search of documents indexed by scientific search engines. Two important periods of research on Taraxacum have been identified: the first, between 1930-1950; and the second, from 1990 to today. During the former, agricultural and genetics research on this plant were, due to the shortage of natural rubber, the focus. In contrast, the main drive in Taraxacum research is now the recovery of bioactives and/or applications in medicine. Pharmacology is the main area in which these plants have been tested, thanks in part to its widely known traditional uses; however, there is less than enthusiastic interest in further human clinical trials. In other areas, Taraxacum sports an enormous list of compounds of industrial interest; and while it is true that only a small amount of these compounds are immediately available in Taraxacum organs and makes it relatively commercially unattractive, only scarce efforts have been made to improve yields. Compounding this issue, most studies of its growth and cultivation have been focused mainly on controlling it as a weed detrimental to certain industrial crops. To wit, in spite of all the research carried out, less than 1% of all the species identified so far (>2,500) have been studied (including T. officinale, T. coreanum, T. mongolicum and T. platycarpum). This is a indication of the little knowledge that we have about this genus so far. Biotechnology (involving genetics, agriculture, and biology) is the most powerful means by which to take advantage of all the medicinal potential of Taraxacum. Great strides have been made in identifying metabolic pathways for synthesizing terpenes, one of the most important compound families in clinical applications. In order to improve yield and performance of the plant in the field, greenhouse cultivation is another aspect taken into account, deriving an increase in recovery of bioactives from Taraxacum organs. Even while considering that only a few species have been studied, their different biochemical and cultivation profiles indicate huge potential for qualitative improvements in composition through genetic engineering, thus directly impacting pharmacological properties. Taraxacum is has been traditionally considered a natural remedy, well-inserted into popular knowledge, but with low commercial applicability. Only once the recovery of pure and highly reactive compounds can be pursued at (a qualitatively and quantitatively attractive) economical scale, human clinical trials would be of interest in order to prove their efficacy and safety, positioning Taraxacum as an important commercial source of natural drugs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Seventy-five male cats with urethral obstruction were prospectively enrolled to evaluate gross urine color at urinary catheter placement for correlation with diagnostic findings. Cats with darker red urine were more likely to be azotemic (serum creatinine concentration >2.0 mg/dl [177 µmol/l]), and urine color correlated well with serum creatinine and serum potassium concentrations. Darker urine color was negatively correlated with urine specific gravity. Urine color was not associated with the presence or absence of lower urinary tract stones on radiographs or ultrasound. Cats with darker red urine at the time of urinary catheter placement are likely to have more significant metabolic derangements and may require more aggressive supportive care.
Phytotherapy, the use of plant based extracts (derived from fruits, seeds, roots, or bark) as medicines or health-promoting agents are often used as first-line treatments for bothersome male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Their use, either as monotherapy or in conjunction with conventional pharmaceutical treatments is becoming increasingly popular worldwide. There are now over 30 of these phytotherapeutic compounds available, with saw palmetto and pygeum being the most widely used. This paper discusses the mechanism of action, reported efficacies and potential side effects of a number of the most common phytotherapies being used for male LUTS, as well as summarizes outcome data relevant to these agents from the most current peer-reviewed publications.
The incidence and nature of urolithiasis in the cat is described. A new method for the relief of severe struvite urethral obstruction in the male cat is advocated, using retrograde irrigation with Walpole's acetic acid/ sodium acetate buffer pH 4.5. It is suggested that there is an essential physiological difference between stone-forming and non-stone-forming cats. The recurrence of urolithiasis in known stone-formers can be prevented by dietetic measures aimed at lowering both the specific gravity and the magnesium concentration of the urine. The effect of castration on the incidence of urolithiasis is discussed.