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Abstract

Sugarcane is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries around the world, with increasing annual production. The largest sugarcane producing countries are, in millions of tons: Brazil (721), India (347), China (123), and Thailand (96). Sugarcane is grown mainly for sucrose extraction for the production of sugar and ethanol. However, the sugarcane culture is responsible for generating, as a residue, the sugarcane bagasse (140 kg of bagasse are produced for every ton of sugarcane processed), and thus this is the most abundant lignocellulosic residue in Brazilian agriculture. The sugarcane bagasse, a byproduct, is nowadays valued by producers from the sugar-alcohol sector, since it is presented as a main feedstock source for bioenergy and biofuel production. The sugarcane bagasse is mostly composed by cellulose/glucan, a linear polysaccharide made up by ß-1,4-D-glucose unities; hemicellulose, a heterogeneous polysaccharide composed by differentiated amounts of hexose and pentose sugars; and lignin, an aromatic macromolecule, which gives a high complexity and recalcitrance to the lignocellulosic structure. This biomass can be used to generate electrical energy through thermal conversion, and has several potential and industrial applications: as a nutritive additive for ruminant ration, as feedstock for the production of second generation ethanol, among other potential uses. These applications show that the use of sugarcane bagasse may represent economic and environmental importance for the producing countries. In this context, this chapter presented the sugarcane production and its social impacts, bagasse chemical composition and properties, and the main potential applications that have been studied in industrial scale.

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... Particularly, the sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) bagasse (SCB) that contains approximately 75% of SiO2 [62] is the by-product of the sugar and ethanol industry. On average, 140 to 280 kg of bagasse are generated per ton of sugarcane [63][64][65]; thus, about 300 million tons of sugarcane bagasse is produced. This residual has been widely used for a number of industrial applications, such as fuel, cement-replacing material, production of glass-ceramic material, and geopolymers, among many others [66]. ...
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The predominant aim of the current study was to synthesize the nanofertilizer nanoparti-cles ZnO_MnO-NPs and FeO_ZnO-NPs using Andean blueberry extract and determine the effect of NPs in the growth promotion of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and Andean lupin (Lupinus mutabilis sweet) crops. The nanoparticles were analyzed by visible spectrophotometry, size distribution (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Solutions of nanoparticle concentrations were applied to cabbage, with solutions of 270 and 540 ppm of ZnO_MnO-NPs and 270 and 540 ppm of FeO_ZnO-NPs applied to Andean lupin. Zinc was used in both plants to take advantage of its beneficial properties for plant growth. Foliar NPs sprays were applied at the phenological stage of vegetative growth of the cabbage or Andean lupin plants grown under greenhouse conditions. The diameter of the NPs was 9.5 nm for ZnO, 7.8 nm for FeO, and 10.5 nm for MnO, which facilitate the adsorption of NPs by the stomata of plants. In Andean lupin, treatment with 270 ppm of iron and zinc indicated increases of 6% in height, 19% in root size, 3.5% in chlorophyll content index, and 300% in leaf area, while treatment with 540 ppm of iron and zinc yielded no apparent increases in any variable. In cabbage, the ZnO_MnO-NPs indicate, at a concentration of 270 ppm, increases of 10.3% in root size, 55.1% in dry biomass, 7.1% in chlorophyll content, and 25.6% in leaf area. Cabbage plants treated at a concentration of 540 ppm produced increases of 1.3% in root size and 1.8% in chlorophyll content, compared to the control, which was sprayed with distilled water. Therefore, the spray application of nanofertilizers at 270 ppm indicated an important improvement in both plants' growth.
... Sugarcane, a tall-growing perennial crop (typically 3-4 m in the maturity stage) with a high sucrose concentration in the stem internodes, accounts for nearly 80% of global sugar production (Shield, 2016;Wang et al., 2020) and provides a bioenergy source for ethanol production (Cardona et al., 2010). Sugarcane is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries like Brazil, India, or China (Melati et al., 2017), which are the top three sugarcane producing countries. Sugarcane reaches a production of 1.9 billion tons around the world according to the World Food Organization (FAO) statistics (2018). ...
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Crop leaf area index (LAI) mapping from remote sensing observations is highly demanded for regional agricultural applications, such as crop health monitoring and crop yield prediction. However, the popularly used model inversion method inevitably presents an ill-posed problem, which leads to unstable and inaccurate retrieval results. An agricultural parcel is a relatively homogeneous object due to uniform agricultural practices and similar environmental conditions. Crops inside a parcel generally present the same growth stage and similar growth status. In this study, a new method was proposed by adopting spatiotemporal constraints at the parcel level in the model inversion process for LAI retrieval. Firstly, phenology information of parcels was utilized to constrain the LAI ranges based on the established prior knowledge, which described the temporal variation of LAI during the life cycle of crop. Subsequently, spatial constraint was adopted in the model inversion through a proposed novel cost function, which assumed the spatial autocorrelation of parameters inside a parcel according to the first law of geography. Sugarcane was taken as an example to evaluate the proposed method. The method was applied to Sentinel-2 data and validated using ground-measured LAI data. The retrieved model parameters exhibited smoother spatial patterns and lower intra-parcel spatial variations through the proposed parcel-level inversion method, compared to the conventional pixel-level inversion method. Evaluations of LAI retrieval accuracy showed that the parcel-level inversion method yielded more accurate results (root mean square error (RMSE): 0.34 m²/m²; relative root mean square error (RRMSE): 20.89%), compared to the pixel-level inversion method (RMSE: 0.56 m²/m²; RRMSE: 34.53%). The spatiotemporal constraint strategy presented the ability to prevent severe overestimation and underestimation. Among the validation data set, the accuracy of the severely overestimated samples of the pixel-level method (RMSE: 0.93 m²/m²) was improved via the new method (RMSE: 0.43 m²/m²); the accuracy of the severely underestimated samples of the pixel-level method (RMSE: 0.66 m²/m²) was improved via the new method (RMSE: 0.26 m²/m²). Finally, the proposed method was applied to obtain sugarcane LAI mapping. The study demonstrates that the proposed parcel-level spatiotemporal constraint strategy improves the accuracy of LAI retrieval, has the capability of producing a highly reliable crop LAI mapping, and shows good potential for agricultural applications at regional scales.
... Lignocellulosic agricultural residues such as sugarcane bagasse are produced in large quantities every year (more than 1287 million tons) (Melati et al. 2017). Currently, the residue is mainly used as a fuel source to power sugar mills (Mandal and Chakrabarty 2011). ...
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Use of enzyme for extraction of nanocellulose from sugarcane bagasse is greener alternative. Literature indicates that effectiveness of these enzymes can be improved by auxiliary enzymes or mediators. In the current study, extraction of nanocellulose using laccase with these moderators, auxiliary enzyme glucose oxidase and mediator molecule, ABTS [2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate)] individually was done. Cellulose and lignin content, FT-IR, TGA and DSC analysis, XRD, SEM and PSA were done. Enzyme moderators improved the performance of laccase in lignin degradation. Lignin and cellulose content, crystallinity were used as parameters to optimize the concentrations, which was found to be ABTS (at 1.4 mM) and glucose oxidase (at 0.15 mg ml ⁻¹ ). At the optimal concentration, nanocellulose was extracted. Properties of nanocellulose obtained from both routes were compared. Size analysis revealed 339 nm and 636 nm for nanocellulose obtained with glucose oxidase and ABTS, respectively. Defibrillation was better in the case of the former one as seen from SEM. Graphical Abstract
... Due to sugarcane being the major supplier of sugar (approximately 80% of the global sugar consumption), sugarcane has been an important crop, and its cultivation is one of the most important activities in the world. It is estimated that producing 1 tonne of sugarcane generates approximately 140 to 280 kg of bagasse, which is a fibrous waste product of sugarcane once sugar is extracted (Melati et al. 2017). According to Suliman and Almola (2011), each tonne of sugarcane yields approximately 26% bagasse fibres, which are most burnt as bioenergy for producing electricity in the sugar mills. ...
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This experimental research was conducted to study the combined effect of agricultural by-product wastes on the properties of concrete. The coconut shell ash (CSA) was utilized to substitute cement content ranging from 0 to 20% by weight of total binder and sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) to substitute fine aggregates (FA) ranging from 0 to 40% by weight of total FA. In this regard, a total of 300 concrete specimens (cylinders and cubes) were prepared using 1:1.5:3 mix proportions with a 0.52 water-binder ratio. The study investigated the workability, density, permeability, and mechanical properties in terms of compressive and splitting tensile strengths. Additionally, the total embodied carbon for all mix proportions was calculated. It was observed that with an increase in CSA and SCBA contents, the workability, density, and permeability reduced significantly. Due to CSA and SCBA being pozzolanic materials, a gain in compressive and splitting tensile strengths was observed for certain concrete mixes, after which the strength decreased. The increase in embodied carbon of SCBA increased the total embodied carbon of concrete; however, it can be said that C15S40 which consists of 15% CSA and 40% SCBA is the optimum mix that achieved 28.75 MPa and 3.05 MPa compressive and tensile strength, respectively, a reduction of 4% total embodied carbon.
... Sugar cane bagasse (SCB), a by-product of sugar refining, amounts to about 140 kg per ton of sugar cane processed (54). SCB has high water absorbing ability due to its residual sugar content. ...
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The increasing demand of wood shavings (WS) and sawdust (SD) by other industries and growing concerns of potential chemical contaminants from wood products have amplified research interest in alternative bedding materials for commercial poultry. Several alternative materials—corn cob (CC), straws (ST) and hays (HA), sand (SA), shredded papers (SP), rice hulls (RH), peanut hulls (PH), and gypsum (CaSO 4. 2H 2 O 2 )—can replace conventional ones in poultry houses, depending on availability, cost, and ability to absorb and adsorb moisture and provide the birds enough room to exhibit their natural behaviors. Alternative materials hold a brighter future as bedding materials, but more studies about their physicochemical properties and litter management practices for optimum poultry welfare are recommended.
... Lignin can be found in feedstocks such as sawdust, wood chips and sugar-cane bagasse [6,7]. This last one is generated on a large scale (>200 MMT in Brazil) as residue in countries that are producers of bioethanol and sugar, like Brazil, India and China [8]. Most industries use this waste (0.3 T of wet bagasse per tonne sugar cane) in cyclic processes for energy generation [9], however, by using an appropriate pre-treatment it can be an abundant source of lignin (~22% of the dried bagasse). ...
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In this work, a waste-derived lignin with abundant uncondensed linkages, using accessible solvents (acetone/water mixture) and low-cost catalysts showed successful depolymerization for the production of target molecules 4-ethylphenol, 4-propyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenol and 4-propyl-2-methoxyphenol. Lignin samples were obtained from sugar-cane bagasse residue by an organosolv process. Four alumina-based catalysts (Pt/Al2O3, Rh/Al2O3, Ni/Al2O3 and Fe/Al2O3) were used to depolymerize the sugar cane lignin (SCL) in an acetone/water mixture 50/50 v/v at 573 K and 20 barg hydrogen. This strategic depolymerisation-hydrogenolysis process resulted in the molecular weight of the SCL being reduced by half while the polydispersity also decreased. Catalysts significantly improved product yield compared to thermolysis. Specific metals directed product distribution and yield, Rh/Al2O3 gave the highest overall yield (13%), but Ni/Al2O3 showed the highest selectivity to a given product (~32% to 4-ethylphenol). Mechanistic routes were proposed either from lignin fragments or from the main polymer. Catalysts showed evidence of carbon laydown that was specific to the lignin rather than the catalyst. These results showed that control over selectivity could be achievable by appropriate combination of catalyst, lignin and solvent mixture.
... Lignocellulosic biomass is a compound by cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, and this composition can be variable among different types of biomass, and in different anatomical regions of the same biomass [23]. Sugarcane bagasse has a chemical composition containing 36% of cellulose, 28% of hemicellulose, and 20% of lignin [24]. ...
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Lignocellulosic materials are complex, recalcitrant, and difficult to release fermentable carbohydrates, such as xylose. Xylose is the feedstock for the development of products with high added value, such as ethanol, butanol, xylitol, and furfural. A high xylose yield was obtained from epidermis-free stem and external fraction (containing epidermis) of sugarcane with minimal formation of degradation products using dilute acid pretreatment. The influences of variables such as sulfuric acid concentration (% m/m or % m/v), reaction time (min), and solid/liquid ratio (% m/v) on acid pretreatment were investigated through a central composite design. In study region 1, stem and external fraction had xylose yields of 58.69 and 55.33%, as well as 1.79 and 2.16% of furfural. The optimal condition to obtain high xylose yield was observed with the use of 50% m/m or 1% m/v of sulfuric acid. The highest xylose extraction was achieved in the epidermis-free stem, leading to a less recalcitrant fraction. Xylose has a key role in obtaining products with high added value. For this reason, this study obtained high xylose yield applying optimal conditions of dilute acid pretreatment, with minimum degradation products.
... Sugarcane has been described as a rich solar energy reservoir due to its high yields, in comparison to yield of wheat (1 ton/Ha), grass (2 ton/Ha) and trees (20 ton/Ha), for example (Pandey and Soccol, 1998). On average, 1 ton of sugarcane generates 140 to 280 kg of bagasse, the fibrous by-product remaining after sugar extraction from sugarcane (Sun et al., 2004;Chandel et al., 2012;Melati et al., 2017), so about 300 million tons of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) is produced annually. More than 50% of the SCB is used by the sugar factories themselves as a fuel for the boilers to generate steam and the rest is burnt in biomass power plant to generate electricity (Pandey & Soccol, 1998;Boussarsar, 2008;Liu et al., 2008). ...
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Agricultural and forestry residues, also known as lignocellulosic residues, have a unique potential based on their quantity and structure for the production of renewable energy and molecules, in order to solve the issues raised by the use fossil hydrocarbons. Lignocellulosic biomasses are essentially made of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. Fractionation and purification of these three compounds are necessary for their valorization. In this work, sugarcane bagasse and sunflower oil cake were used. Mild alkaline chemical fractionation was studied in detail, since it has numerous assets. Membrane filtration and elution chromatography processes were assessed individually and combined, in order to purify the compounds of the alkaline extract. It resulted in the production of four purified fractions: lignin oligomers, hemicelluloses oligomers, phenolic monomers with a carboxyl group and last fraction with inorganic salts and phenolic monomers without a carboxyl group.
... It is a dry and fibrous residue left after the extraction of sugar juice from sugarcane. Approximately 300 lb of bagasse are produced for every ton of sugarcane processed (Melati 2017). In general, bagasse composition consists of approximately 47%-52% cellulose, 25%-28% hemicellulose, and 20%-21% lignin (Dotaniya et al. 2016). ...
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Bagasse is an agricultural by-product derived from the sugarcane milling process. It is a dry and fibrous residue left after the extraction of sugar juice from sugarcane. Over 2 million metric tons of bagasse is generated each year in South Florida, and need exists to find environmentally sustainable, yet economically viable use for it. Application of bagasse as a potential soil amendment on mineral soils to grow sugarcane seems like a good option to utilize the product. This factsheet explores the feasibilty of using bagasse as a organic soil amendment to grow sugarcane on mineral soils in South Florida.
... The content of extractives, as well as the chemical composition of structural sugars and lignin present in sugarcane, may vary according to their genotype, tissue, and environmental conditions during planting (location, rainfall, available nutrients, temperatures, etc.); this reflects on their development and provokes diversity in its constitution. Sugarcane bagasse presents great heterogeneity and extractive represents on average 6.61% of its composition [23]. Studies with sugarcane bagasse diluted acid pretreated (175°C, 40 min reaction time, and acid load 1.25% m/m H 2 SO 4 ) revealed 48% cellulose, 19% xylan, and 26% lignin [24]. ...
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The sugarcane bagasse is a heterogeneous material and needs a pretreatment to breakdown its complex structure to make cellulose accessible to enzyme action. This study aimed to evaluate pseudo-lignin formation, enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane fractions (leaf, external fraction, internode, and node), and bagasse after partial delignification and acid pretreatment. The leaf and external fraction presented the highest content of lignin, and external fraction was the most recalcitrant material resulting in lower glucose release. Pretreatment with diluted sulfuric acid (20% m/m or 2% m/v) generated 5 g/L of acetic acid and 2.07 g/L of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (external fraction in natura and leaf extractive-free, respectively). Furfural ranged between 0.11 g/L (node delignified) and 0.06 g/L (leaf, external fraction, and node in natura). A decrease was observed in pseudo-lignin formed with extractive-free and delignified biomasses, with different structure compared with non-delignified samples. The biomass partial delignification and subsequent pretreatment with dilute acid generate a material with fragmented anatomical structure, with improved cellulose accessibility, favoring enzymatic hydrolysis achieving more than 90% of glucose yield (up to 12 g/L). This study has shown strategies to decrease material heterogeneity and avoid pseudo-lignin formation as it results in lower recalcitrance and better efficiency of the enzymatic hydrolysis.
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Chapter
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In response to energy security concerns resulting from fossil energy supply shortage and climate change issues, the production, conversion, and use of biomass materials for energy has been the subject of much development. Net energy balance (NEB) and life cycle assessment (LCA) are useful tools to evaluate environmental sustainability and identify opportunities for improvement of the environmental efficiency of biofuels. The life cycle environmental impacts associated with molasses ethanol production and five major impact categories: global warming potential, photo-oxidant formation, acidification, human toxicity, and eutrophication, are presented. For assessing the energy efficiency of biofuels, the NEB for the entire production system must be assessed in terms of the difference in energy content of the biofuel produced and fossil fuels and other energy sources required to produce it. The chapter presents the energy analysis based on an existing molasses ethanol plant in Thailand that is associated with a sugar mill.
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World Sugarcane production has more than 500 years of history and integrates the agricultural activities of growing, harvesting and transportation of sugarcane with industrial production in sugar mills and distilleries. The integration of the territory is needed as an agro-industrial cluster to solve logistical problems, productivity, innovation and new productions, as productive diversification and transition from conventional sugar mill and distilleries to biorefineries, to increase competitiveness. However, it has challenges related to low agricultural productivity derived from conventional practices of crop management, climate change and other ecological and socio-economic constraints such as vulnerability (pests, diseases, drought, etc.) and environmental impacts that are a risk to food security and the conversion to biorefineries. Therefore, at the present time, sugar industry and sugarcane crops are a potential source and epicenter of renewable energy, biofuels and biomaterials, as well as a food crop, but they are becoming more widely recognized as a source of rural livelihoods in developing countries and it will require a systematic effort, innovative and multidisciplinary methodologies of analysis to determine critical points that threaten the environmental and economic sustainability to improve the profitability and productivity with a reduction in the cost of production. This paper presents an approach or a conceptual framework as a new methodology for analysis based on existing knowledge of the sugar industry and the state of the art, for evaluating diversification using the multicriteria evaluation by analytical hierarchy process (AHP) as a tool suitable for analyzing complex systems, and for the identification of alternatives to the current situation and their discussion to facilitate decision making in the use of sugarcane as raw material in biorefineries to produce sugar based value-added products and derivatives as ethanol and cogeneration, bioplastic, etc. in cleaner production.
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An ideal renewable resource is one that can be replenished over a relatively short timescale or is essentially limitless in supply. Improved resource utilisation can positively influence the profits of industry as well as enable new companies to start up, produce new growth and expand innovation opportunities by moving towards the ultimate sustainability goal of a zero-waste circular economy. Green chemistry emerged in the 1990s as a movement dedicated to the development of more environmentally benign alternatives to hazardous and wasteful chemical processes as a result of the increased awareness in industry of the costs of waste and of government regulations requiring cleaner chemical manufacturing. Three different types of biorefinery have been described in the literature: Phase I biorefinery (single feedstock, single process and single major product), Phase II biorefinery (single feedstock, multiple processes and multiple major products) and Phase III biorefinery (multiple feedstocks, multiple processes and multiple major products).
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