Yeast Biotechnology



Yeasts are truly fascinating microorganisms. Due to their diverse and dynamic activities, they have been used for the production of many interesting products, such as beer, wine, bread, biofuels, and biopharmaceuticals. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (brewers’ or bakers’ yeast) is the yeast species that is surely the most exploited by man. Saccharomyces is a top choice organism for industrial applications, although its use for producing beer dates back to at least the 6th millennium BC. Bakers’ yeast has been a cornerstone of modern biotechnology, enabling the development of e icient production processes. Today, diverse yeast species are explored for industrial applications. This Special Issue is focused on some recent developments of yeast biotechnology, i.e., bioethanol, wine and beer, and enzyme production. Additionally, the new field of yeast nanobiotechnology is introduced and reviewed.

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S.cerevisiae is an industrially important organism known for its ability to produce ethanol as the demand for ethanol is increasing day by day all over the world, the need to find better and alternative ways to increase ethanol production is also rising. In this work we have proposed such alternative but effective method for producing ethanol by S.cerevisiae. Here, we are reporting for the first time the effect of nitrosative stress on ethanol production. Under in vivo condition, nitrosative stress is marked by the modification of macromolecules in the presence of reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Our result showed that treated cells were more capable for ethanol production compared with untreated cells. Our result also showed enhanced alcohol dehydrogenase activity under stressed condition. Further ethanol production was also optimized by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) with stressed cells. Further, production of ethanol with immobilized beads of stress affected Saccharomyces cerevisiae was also determined. Overall, the obtained data showed that under nitrosative stress, the maximum ethanol production is 34.4 g/l after 24 h and such higher production was observed even after several cycles of fermentation. This is the first report of this kind showing the relation between nitrosative stress and ethanol production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae which may have important industrial application.
The aim of this study was to develop a bioprocess for low temperature fruit wine making from ready-to-use freeze-dried raw materials: sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) juice and the psychrotolerant and alcohol resistant yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae AXAZ-1 immobilized on porous delignified cellulose. The effect of storage time of the freeze-dried raw materials at 4 °C (0, 30, and 60 days) on the fermentation efficiency of the yeast, as well as on the quality of the produced wines was evaluated. Sweet wines (>14% v/v alcohol) were produced without need for extra commercial alcohol addition. The sweet, sour cherry wines produced at 10 °C using the freeze-dried raw materials, were analyzed for their aroma profile by headspace SPME GC–MS analysis as well as for their sensory attributes. All wines had similar aroma characteristics with fresh and fruity (cherry) notes, and high esters content. The fermentation kinetics and the sensory characteristics indicate the potential of the freeze-dried raw materials as a ready-to-use mixture for good quality sour cherry sweet wine making even at low temperatures.
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