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Cinnamon Oil


Abstract and Figures

Cinnamon is a common spice that has been used for several centuries by different cultures around the world. It is obtained from different parts of a tropical evergreen tree belonging to the genus Cinnamomum. Various reports have dealt with the numerous properties of cinnamon and its major components not only for human health but also for agriculture applications. In this chapter, important aspects of trees from the Cinnamomum genus, and their products, such as botany, pharmacology, toxicology, and some end uses, with a special focus on the pesticidal potential for agriculture and indoor uses, are covered.
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Cinnamon Oil
Khalid Haddi, Lêda R.A. Faroni, and Eugênio E. Oliveira
7.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 118
7.2 Botany of the Plant ............................................................................................................. 118
7.3 Methods of Extraction of Oil ............................................................................................ 119
7.3.1 Conventional Methods for Oil Extraction .......................................................... 120
7.3.2 Advanced Methods for Oil Extraction ................................................................ 121
7.3.3 Conventional versus Advanced Methods for Oil Extraction .......................... 121
7.4 Methods of Analysis of Oil ............................................................................................... 122
7.5 Composition of Cinnamon Oil......................................................................................... 123
7.6 Physical and Chemical Properties of Oil ........................................................................ 124
7.7 General Uses of Oil ............................................................................................................ 125
7.7.1 Usage in the Ancient Periods ............................................................................... 125
7.7.2 Food Uses ................................................................................................................ 127
7.7.3 Medicinal Uses ....................................................................................................... 127 Antioxidant Properties ........................................................................... 128 Hypoglycemic Properties ......................................................................128 Other Medicinal Uses .............................................................................129
7.8 Pesticidal Uses of Cinnamon Essential Oil .................................................................... 129
7.8.1 Antibacterial Properties ........................................................................................ 129
7.8.2 Antifungal Properties ........................................................................................... 130
7.8.3 Insecticidal Properties ........................................................................................... 131 Against Vector of Human Diseases ...................................................... 131 Against Agricultural Insect Pests ......................................................... 131 Against Stored Product Pests ................................................................ 132 Against Medical–Veterinary Insect Pests ............................................ 132
7.8.4 Acaricidal Effects ................................................................................................... 132
7.8.5 Nematicidal Effects ................................................................................................133
7.8.6 Repellency Effects .................................................................................................. 133
7.8.7 Herbicide Effects .................................................................................................... 134
7.9 Advantages as a Pesticide ................................................................................................. 134
7.10 Limitations as a Pesticide ..................................................................................................136
7.11 Essential Oil–Based Pesticides ......................................................................................... 138
7.12 Conclusions .........................................................................................................................138
References .....................................................................................................................................138
118 Green Pesticides Handbook
7.1 Introduction
Cinnamon is a common spice that has been used for several centuries by different
cultures around the world. It is obtained from different parts of a tropical evergreen
tree belonging to the genus Cinnamomum. Various reports have dealt with the numer-
ous properties of cinnamon and its major components not only for human health but
also for agriculture applications. In this chapter, important aspects of trees from the
Cinnamomum genus, and their products, such as botany, pharmacology, toxicology, and
some end uses, with a special focus on the pesticidal potential for agriculture and indoor
uses, are covered.
7.2 Botany of the Plant
The genus Cinnamomum (Lauraceae) includes more than 250 aromatic evergreen trees and
shrubs of up to 10–20 m, primarily distributed in Southeast Asia, China, and Australia
(Barceloux 2009). Investigations conducted at the beginning of the 1980s have shown that
this genus has a center of diversity in south India (Ravi ndran et al. 2003). However, although
formerly thought to be a purely Asiatic genus, Cinnamomum has been enriched with spe-
cies such as Phoebe, transferred from neotropical genera based on studies and investiga-
tions carried out by taxonomists such as Kostermans. Kostermans has also dened the key
characteristics for the Cinnamomum species identication (Kostermans 1980, 1983), leading
the genus to include not only the Asiatic species but also New World ones. A very detailed
botanical characterization of different species of the genus Cinnamomum can be found in
the monograph on cinnamon and cassia written by Ravindran et al. (2003).
There are mainly four types of cinnamon:
1. True cinnamon, Cinnamomum verum J. Presl, also called Ceylon cinnamon,
Cinnamomum zeylanicum, or Mexican cinnamon, Laurus cinnamomum L. Moderately
sized (10–15 m) evergreen trees with smooth and brown branches when young.
The leaves are opposite or subopposite, leathery, ovate or elliptic to broadly ovate,
tripli nerved with the three main nerves prominent on both surfaces. Young leaves
are reddish and later turn dark green. The bark is smooth, light pinkish brown, and
up to 10 mm thick. Small, pale yellow, campanulate owers, arranged in cymes,
are borne in axillary or terminal panicles. The owering time is from October to
February. The fruit is a eshy, ellipsoid to oblong-ovoid drupe, which contains one
seed and turns dark purple or black when ripe between May and June.
2. Cassia cinnamon, Cinnamomum aromaticum Nees, or Chinese cinnamon, Cinnamomum
cassia J. Presl. This evergreen tree grows up to 18–20 m high. Young branches are
smooth and brown, and the bark is gray to brown colored and is 13–15 mm thick
when mature. The leaves are simple, opposite to subopposite, oblong lanceolate or
oblanceolate, with three prominent veins. The leaves are glabrous above and with
microscopic hairs below. These leaves are reddish when young and dark green
when mature. The small, white owers are borne in axillary or terminal panicles
with characteristics similar to those of C. verum. The owering takes place from
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119Cinnamon Oil
October to December. The fruit is a green, one-seeded, eshy, globose drupe and
turns pink-violet when mature. This fruit is similar in size to a small olive.
3. Vietnamese cinnamon, Cinnamomum loureiroi. Although considered for a long
time as a different species, the Vietnamese cinnamon seems to be a C. cassia. The
difference seen in the nal product is a result of different harvesting processes
between Vietnam and China. The confusion is believed to derive from the fact that
the original C. loureiroi, described by Loureiro and on which he based his study, is
a very rare species or even could be mislaid or lost (Dao 2003).
4. Indonesian cinnamon, Cinnamomum burmannii. It is a small evergreen tree, up to
15 m tall. Bark smooth, grayish brown, 2–3 mm. Leaves are opposite or subop-
posite, elliptical-ovate to oblong and triplinerved. They are pale red and nely
hairy when young. Older leaves are glabrous, glossy green above and glaucous
pruinose below. Inorescences axillary or subterminal, slender, paniculate-
cymose. Flowers are green to dark red. The fruit is ellipsoid or oblanceoloid with
a pointed tip.
5. Other species include Indian cassia, Cinnamomum tamala, and camphor, Cinnamomum
camphora. Indian cassia is a moderate-sized (around 8 m) evergreen tree with
four morphotypes. Leaves are alternate, subopposite or opposite, glabrous, three-
nerved from the base and are pink when young. Morphotypes are differentiated
according to the morphology of the leave. The owering starts from May. The fruit
is slender, ellipsoid, acutish cup obconical, and eshy, and fruits ripen between
June and July. C. camphora is a small to medium-sized tree with small triplinerved
leaves that are glabrous on both surfaces or sparsely puberulent beneath only
when young. Flowers are small, yellowish-white, and similar to those of C. verum.
They appear in April to May. The fruit is a small, purplish-black, ovate or subglo-
bose drupe and ripens in August to November.
7.3 Methods of Extraction of Oil
Traditionally, the main products of the Cinnamomum genus are formed by its leaves and the
dried, inner bark extracted from shoots, traded as quills, quillings, ships, and powder, and
extensively used in avoring of various dishes and processed food. But recently, interest
in the value-added products, such as bark oil and leaf oil, extracted mainly from C. verum
cinnamon bark, has been consistently growing. These oils are used in food, pharmaceuti-
cal, and perfume industries. The high value of these oils is a result of time- and effort-
consuming extraction processes. The high price of these oils depends to a large extent not
only on the quality of raw material used but also on the extraction process, methods, and
nal use of the oil.
Like most other essential oils, cinnamon oils can be extracted using a large array of
techniques (Ravindran et al. 2003; Wang and Weller 2006; Tongnuanchan and Benjakul
2014; El Asbahani et al. 2015). Such techniques and methods can be classied into two
broad classes: conventional and advanced methods (De Castro and Garcıa-Ayuso 1998;
Huie 2002; Doughari 2012; El Asbahani et al. 2015).
The conventional methods include distillation and organic solvent extraction, while
the advanced methods include a number of innovative techniques, such as supercritical
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120 Green Pesticides Handbook
uid extraction (SFE), subcritical extraction liquids, ultrasound-assisted extraction,
microwave-assisted extraction, solvent-free microwave extraction, microwave hydrodif-
fusion and gravity, microwave steam distillation (MSD), and microwave steam diffusion
(Doughari 2012; Dima and Dima 2015; El Asbahani et al. 2015). A subclass of the inno-
vative methods mostly used at laboratory and microsampling analysis scales includes
Clevenger distillation, microdistillation, and headspace solid-phase microextraction
(Dima and Dima 2015).
7.3.1 Conventional Methods for Oil Extraction
Distillation is one of the oldest, simplest, and most widespread methods of extracting cin-
namon essential oils, especially at commercial levels (Meyer-Warnod 1984; Ravindran et
al. 2003; Wong et al. 2014; Dima and Dima 2015). In the cinnamon bark or leaf hydrodistil-
lation process, water vapors are used as solvent driving, at boiling temperature, the cin-
namon essential oil molecules (codistillation). The extraction device is simple and includes
a heating source surmounted by a copper or steel tank, partially lled with water, where
bark or leaves are added. The distillate produced from the tank passes through a precool-
ing system to a condenser, consisting of copper tubing immersed in a large water tank,
and a decanter to allow condensation and separation of essential oil and water. In some
cases, there are various tanks connected to the same condenser (Ravindran et al. 2003).
When the raw material is not immersed in water but maintained at a certain distance
above the water surface using a grid or perforated support in a way that allows the vapor
circulation from the bottom upward and across the raw material, the process is termed
vapor hydrodistillation. The last variant of the distillation process is called steam distil-
lation, and it uses two separate tanks for vapor generation and essential oil extraction.
The steam produced in the rst tank is introduced into the lower part of the second tank
(extractor) and allowed to pass through the raw material.
Although widely used, especially in small-scale extraction units, the distillation method
suffers from some drawbacks: prolonged extraction time (3–6 hours); degradation of some
temperature-sensitive molecules; simultaneous extraction of other components, such as
plant pigments; and environmental negative impacts (El Asbahani et al. 2015).
Together with steam distillation, solvent extraction has been widely used for the extrac-
tion of essential oils from various plant parts, including cinnamon bark and leaves. This
technique uses either pure organic solvents or mixtures of them. Different solvents, includ-
ing hexane, petroleum ether, methanol, propanol, methylene chloride, and ethanol, can be
used for extraction (Areias et al. 2000; Pizzale et al. 2002; Kosar et al. 2003; Tongnuanchan
and Benjakul 2014), but acetone is the most commonly used one. Basically, in this method,
the solvent is mixed with the ne grounded plant material, heated to extract the essential
oil, and then ltrated. Subsequently, the ltrate is concentrated by solvent evaporation.
The resulting concentrate is a resin or a combination of wax, fragrance, and essential oil
(concrete), from which the absolute essential oil is obtained using an alcohol-based distil-
lation (Tongnuanchan and Benjakul 2014). At an industrial level, the Soxhlet extraction
method is the most used among the solvent-based extraction methods. In conventional
Soxhlet, the sample is placed in a “thimble” made of strong lter paper, which is placed
in a thimble holder in the chamber of the Soxhlet apparatus, and gradually lled with
condensated fresh solvent from a distillation heated ask. When the liquid reaches the
overow level, a siphon aspirates the solute of the thimble holder into the distillation ask
in a continuous process until complete extraction is achieved (De Castro and Garcıa-Ayuso
1998; Ravindran et al. 2003).
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121Cinnamon Oil
7.3.2 Advanced Methods for Oil Extraction
Supercritical uid extraction is one of the innovative techniques used for cinnamon oil
and other essential oil extraction (Aghel et al. 2004; Khajeh et al. 2004; Braga et al. 2005;
Carvalho et al. 2005; Moura et al. 2005; Fornari et al. 2012). It is using the supercritical
state of a solvent uid, usually CO2, achieved when the temperature and the pressure of
the solvent are raised above its critical value (31°C; 74 bar) (Wang and Weller 2006). Fluids
reaching their supercritical state have both gas and liquid characteristics and present a
density similar to that of liquids, low viscosity, and a high diffusion coefcient. Moreover,
uids like CO2 gas are cheap and available at high purity, nontoxic and nonammable,
easily manipulated, and adjusted by varying the pressure and temperature, which is non-
aggressive for thermosensitive molecules. The technique has great versatility, and the end
product is virtually free from any solvent traces. In this process, the temperature and pres-
sure of CO2 are adjusted to reach the supercritical state; after that, the solvent is allowed
to pass through nely ground raw plant material. The uid and the dissolved compounds
are transported to one or more separators for a depression step, where the CO2 is gradu-
ally decompressed, resulting in lower solubility of the solute and leading to the separation
of the solute from the solvent. Once the material is separated, the gas is compressed and
recycled back to be reused again in the extraction process (Fornari et al. 2012). When water
is used as the uid, the technique is called superheated water extraction.
Although the supercritical extraction technique is considered a good tool to overcome
the disadvantages of the conventional methods, it is not practiced for commercial cin-
namon or cassia oil production because this technology is very costly and has little nal
product quality enhancement compared with solvent-extracted product (Doughari 2012;
Ravindran et al. 2003).
Two other relatively newer methods used to extract cinnamon oil mainly for small-scale
and laboratory analyses are ultrasound-assisted extraction and microwave-assisted extrac-
tion (Gallo et al. 2010; Gursale et al. 2010; Dvorackova et al. 2015; Sowbhagya 2016). The
ultrasound-assisted extraction uses ultrasonic waves with frequency higher than 20kHz
to induce mechanical vibration leading to the destruction of cell and storage gland walls
of plant material immersed in water or solvent and the release of cell contents, including
essential oils (Wang and Weller 2006; El Asbahani et al. 2015). The microwave-assisted
extraction uses electromagnetic radiations (frequency higher than 0.3 GHz) that can inter-
act with cellular water and create heat, leading to cell disruption and facilitating the release
of cell contents.
7.3.3 Conventional versus Advanced Methods for Oil Extraction
A continuous search for economically and ecologically sound extraction technologies as
an alternative to conventional extraction methods has been growing over recent years.
These novel techniques aim to overcome the drawbacks of conventional ones with respect
to extraction time, solvent consumption, extraction yields and purity of the essential oil,
reproducibility, and energy consumption and operating costs.
Various studies have compared two or more methods for cinnamon oil extraction con-
sidering several of the above-cited criteria. Gallo et al. (2010) analyzed the total polyphe-
nols of different extracts of C. zeylanicum, and other species, using microwave-assisted
and ultrasound extraction methods. Considering factors such as the extraction time and
the solvent wastage, the results suggested that the microwave-assisted method was more
effective than the ultrasound extraction method, as higher recoveries for C. zeylanicum
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122 Green Pesticides Handbook
were obtained. The microwave-assisted method was considered effective in extracting
antioxidant components from cinnamon. Using the ethanol extraction technique, Yang
et al. (2012) obtained a higher yield than with the supercritical CO2 extraction when
studying the antioxidant activity of various parts of C. cassia, while Golmohammad etal.
(2012) compared two aqueous solutions of C. zeylanicum bark obtained by superheated
water extraction and distillation methods, followed by a solid-phase extraction method.
Golmohammad et al.’s results showed that the distillation yielded a higher quantity of
essential oil, but the superheated water extraction improved the purity of the oil extracted.
Another recommendation of Golmohammad et al. is the use of the solid-phase extraction
method as an alternative to liquid–liquid extraction for its simplicity and low cost. More
recently, Wong et al. (2014) compared steam distillation with Soxhlet methods and con-
cluded that although the quantity of oil extracted was higher with the Soxhlet method,
steam distillation was the most suitable method for extracting cinnamaldehyde, as it uses
a lower temperature. Dvorackova et al. (2015) concluded that the best option to extract phe-
nolic compounds from cinnamon was the classical solvent-based extraction method, and
they considered the extraction methods based on sonication and shaking to be inappropri-
ate when they studied phenolic compounds from C. cassia using four different extraction
methods: classical solvent, ultrasonication, maceration, and shaking.
7.4 Methods of Analysis of Oil
The important demand for essential oils by the avor, cosmetic, health, and phytomedicine
industries is leading to large quantities of cinnamon extracts, and particularly cinnamon
essential oil, being produced and traded worldwide. Thus, analysis of the physical and
chemical compositions of such extracts and oils is becoming a pertinent issue to ensure
quality, consumer safety, and fair trade (Figueiredo et al. 1997, 2008; Do et al. 2015). It is
also well known that the chemical composition of essential oils, including cinnamon oils,
depends on many factors, such as growing conditions, harvest periods and techniques,
drying processes, and extraction and isolation methods used. Such issues were reported
earlier, in the 1970s and 1980s, as problems faced by the food industry to distinguish
between commercially available cinnamons and cassia (Lawrence 1967; Archer 1988).
Moreover, cases of falsication and fraud have been reported (Kubeczka 2002; Price and
Price 2007; Do et al. 2015). Thus, for both consumers and chemical companies, it is neces-
sary to determine a prole (e.g., physical, organoleptic, or chemical characteristics) of the
constituents of essential oils (Dima and Dima 2015; Do et al. 2015).
Traditionally, essential oil analysis was performed to investigate their quality aspects,
focusing on their purity and identity. However, with the improvements in instrumental
analytical chemistry, the characterization of essential oils has allowed the scanning of a
greater number of molecular constituents of essential oils. Most of the data available on
cinnamon’s physical and chemical composition were determined earlier by conventional
methods (reviewed in Wijesekera 1977; Senanayake et al. 1978; Senanayake and Wijesekera
2003). These data have been ne-tuned with more recent and innovative methods that
include gas chromatography (GC), chiral GC, isotope-ratio mass spectrometry, high-
performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), high-performance thin-layer chromatogra-
phy (HPTLC) analysis, vibrational spectroscopy (infrared [IR], Fourier transform infrared
[FTIR], and near infrared [NIR]), and their coupled and multidimensional chromatography
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123Cinnamon Oil
variants (Jayaprakasha et al. 2002, 2003; El-Baroty et al. 2010; Jayawardena and Smith 2010;
Jayaprakasha and Rao 2011; Golmohammad et al. 2012; Kamaliroosta et al. 2012; Khoddami
et al. 2013; Li et al. 2013a,b; Wong et al. 2014; Dvorackova et al. 2015). Very detailed descrip-
tions of all these methods can be found in Kubeczka (2002) and Zellner et al. (2009).
The early analytical techniques were used for physical measurements, such as relative
density, optical activity, and refractive index, or melting, congealing, and boiling point
determinations of cinnamon essential oil. But when combined with modern analytical
techniques, such as column-based liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, all
these techniques resulted in the identication of essential compounds present in very small
quantities (Ravindran et al. 2003). Chromatography is a separation procedure based on the
relative afnities of the compounds to be separated toward stationary and mobile phases.
The mixture of compounds to be separated is subjected to ow by mobile liquid through
the stable stationary phase. Compounds with higher afnity to the stationary phase travel
slower and for a shorter distance, while compounds with lower afnity travel faster and
longer. The separated compounds are further identied by other techniques, like ultra-
violet (UV)–visible, infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and mass spectroscopy.
Chromatography can be planar with the stationary phase consisting of a plane surface,
like in thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and paper chromatography (PC), or columnar
with the stationary phase lying in the walls of a capillary tube, while the mobile phase
is ushed through the column like in column chromatography, gas chromatography, and
high-pressure liquid chromatography. In general, the volatile fraction of an essential oil is
analyzed by GC, while the nonvolatile by liquid chromatography (LC).
Finally, organoleptic properties and nutritive and mineral values of cinnamon essential
oil can be assessed with different methods. They include olfactive and sensory analy-
ses by specialized individuals, with high risks of inconsistency deriving from variability
between individuals and ofcial methods of analysis based on standard procedures like
those of the Association of Ofcial Analytical Chemists (AOAC 2003) used by Gul and
Safdar (2009) to determine the nutritive and mineral compositions of cinnamon.
7.5 Composition of Cinnamon Oil
The chemical composition of cinnamon oils varies depending on several factors that
include the part of the plant used, age of trees, growing season and location, and extrac-
tion methods (Kaul et al. 2003; Rajeswara et al. 2007; Barceloux 2009; Wang et al. 2009;
Paranagama et al. 2010; Geng et al. 2011; Li et al. 2013a,b; Pandey et al. 2014; Wong et al.
2014; Chakraborty et al. 2015).
One of the rst detailed studies of cinnamon oil composition was carried out by
Senanayake et al. (1978). Different parts of the cinnamon plant have different primary con-
stituents: cinnamaldehyde is majorly found in bark oil, eugenol in leaf oil, and camphor in
root-bark oil (Wijesekera 1977). In the European Pharmacopoeia (2008), and according to
a summary report on the essential oil of cinnamon bark by the Committee for Veterinary
Medicinal Products, the cinnamon bark essential oil mainly contains cinnamaldehyde
(55%–76%), eugenol (5%–18%), and saffrole (up to 2%). Cinnamon bark contains up to 4%
of essential oil, consisting primarily of cinnamaldehyde (60%–75%), eugenol (1%–10%),
cinnamyl acetate (1%–5%) (WHO 1999), β-caryophyllene (1%–4%), linalool (1%–3%), and
1.8-cineole (1%–2%) (ESCOP 2003). Wang et al. (2009) reported that the main constituents
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124 Green Pesticides Handbook
found in the leaves of C. zeylanicum are eugenol (79.75%), trans-cinnamaldehyde (16.25%),
and linalool (0.14%).
Leela (2008) summarized the results of several authors and reached 124 and 66 different
volatiles that could be found in different parts of C. verum and C. cassia plants, respec-
tively. At least 94 volatile components have been found in cinnamon bark (Gong et al.
2004). A total of 26 compounds have been characterized from the C. zeylanicum ower oil,
with (E)-cinnamyl acetate, trans-alpha-bergamotene, and caryophyllene oxide being the
major compounds (Jayaprakasha et al. 2002, 2003; Jayaprakasha and Rao 2011). The oil
of C.zeylanicum buds contains 34 compounds consisting of terpene hydrocarbons and
oxygenated terpenoids, with alpha-bergamotene and alpha-copaene found to be the major
compounds (Jayaprakasha et al. 2002). The volatile oil from C. zeylanicum fruit stalks con-
tains more than 27 compounds, including (E)-cinnamyl acetate and (E)-caryophyllene as
major compounds (Jayaprakasha et al. 2003). Geng et al. (2011) found that the majority
of compounds in different parts of C. cassia oil belonged to the sesquiterpene hydrocar-
bon and oxygenated sesquiterpene fractions, with trans-cinnamaldehyde (33.95%–76.4%),
cinnamyl alcohol acetate (0.09%–49.63%), 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (0.09%–6.69%), and
copaene (1.09%–14.3%) as major compounds.
The main components of the essential oil obtained from the bark of C. zeylanicum are
eugenol, cinnamaldehyde, and linalool (Kubeczka 2002; Kubeczka and Formáček 2002),
while C. cassia bark contains cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, cinnamyl alcohol, and cou-
marin (Ranasinghe et al. 2013). Other Cinnamomum species were found to have lower con-
tents of cinnamaldehyde (He et al. 2005).
Some constituents frequently encountered in cinnamon bark oil include eugenol, euge-
nol acetate, cinnamyl acetate, cinnamyl alcohol, methyl eugenol, benzaldehyde, cuminal-
dehyde, benzyl benzoate, linalool, monoterpene hydrocarbons (e.g., pinene, phellandrene,
and cymene), carophyllene, and safrole. Cinnamon leaf oil also contains many of the major
constituents present in cinnamon bark oil (e.g., cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl acetate, euge-
nol acetate, and benzaldehyde), as well as other minor compounds, like humulene, iso-
caryophyllene, alpha-ylangene, coniferaldehyde, methyl cinnamate, and ethyl cinnamate
(Leung and Foster 1996).
Other minor constituents also reported to be found in cinnamon essential oil include
oligopolymeric procyanidins, cinnamic acid, phenolic acids, pentacyclic diterpenes,
cinnzeylanol and its acetyl derivative cinnzeylanine, and the sugars mannitol, -arabino-
-xylanose, -arabinose, -xylose, and α--glucose, as well as mucilage polysaccharides
(ESCOP 2003). Several nonvolatile compounds (e.g., cinncassiols, cinnzeylanol, cinnzeyl-
anin, anhydrocinnzeylanol, anhydrocinnzeylanin, several benzyl isoquinoline alkaloids,
avanol glucosides, coumarin, b-sitosterol, cinnamic acid, protocatechuic acid, vanillic
acid, and syringic acid) have been also reported to be found in cinnamon essential oils
(Leela 2008).
7.6 Physical and Chemical Properties of Oil
Essential oils are oily aromatic liquids that are soluble only in organic solvents. They are
immiscible with water due to their hydrophobic nature and lower density compared with
that of water. In the ISO standards lists (ISO 2003), cinnamon oil is described as the essen-
tial oil obtained by steam distillation of the leaves of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Lauraceae),
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125Cinnamon Oil
growing mainly in Sri Lanka. It is a clear, mobile liquid with a light to dark amber color.
It is characterized by a spice-like odor reminiscent of eugenol. At 20°C, its relative density
is between 1.037 and 1.053; its refractive index is between 1.527 and 1.540; and its optical
rotation ranges from –2.5° to + 2°. It shall not be necessary to use more than 2 volumes of
ethanol, 70% (volume fraction), to obtain a clear solution with 1 volume of essential oil. The
phenol content of cinnamon leaves oil should be between 75% and 85%.
Sri Lanka is the major world exporter of cinnamon essential oil. The Sri Lanka Standards
Institution species that the cinnamon leaves’ oil refractive index has to be between 1.530
and 1.540, its specic gravity has to be between 1.034 and 1.050, its solubility should be
1.5volumes of 70% (v/v) ethanol at 28°C, and it should contain no less than 75% of total
phenols. For the cinnamon bark oil, the values are as follows: refractive index between
1.555 and 1.580, specic gravity between 1.010 and 1.030, solubility of 1.5 volumes of 70%
(v/v) ethanol at 28°C, and containing no more than 18% of total phenols for the superior
special and average grade. Its content in cinnamic aldehyde was also specied for superior
grade (not less than 60% m/m), special grade (55%–60%), average grade (45%–55%), and
ordinary grade (30%–45%).
Leela (2008), based on the works of Baslas and Baslas (1970), reported some of the physi-
cochemical properties of C. verum leaf’s oil. The specic gravity ranges from 1.044 to 1.062,
the refractive index is between 1.522 and 1.530, its optical rotation is 3.60, and its eugenol
content is estimated at 65%–87.2%. It shall not be necessary to use more than 2volumes
of ethanol, 70% (volume fraction), to obtain a clear solution with 1 volume of essential oil.
All these data were obtained at 30°C.
For the Open Chemistry Database (NCBI 2016), the physicochemical characteristics of a
product named cinnamon oil are listed under the reference PubChem CID 6850781. This
reference lists the synonyms of cinnamon oils as cassia oil, Chinese cinnamon, cassia
bark oil, and cinnamon bark oil. The cinnamon oil is described there as a slightly water-
soluble liquid that darkens and thickens on exposure to air with a molecular formula of
C19H22O2 and a molecular weight of 282.37678 g/mol. When heated to decomposition, it
emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes. Its density at 20°C is 1.052–1.070 for cassia oil,
1.037–1.053 for cinnamon leaf oil, and 1.010–1.030 for cinnamon bark oil (at 25°C). The
optical rotation at 20°C varies from –2.5 to +2 for cinnamon leaf oil and from –2 to 0 for
cinnamon bark oil. The index of refraction at 25°C ranges from 1.6 to 1.5910 for cassia oil,
1.5730 to 1.5910 for cinnamon bark oil, and 1.53 to 1.54 for cinnamon leaf oil (20°C). The
solubility at 20°C is 1 volume in 3 volumes of 70% ethanol for cassia oil, 1 volume in 2
volumes of 70% ethanol for cinnamon leaf oil, and 1 volume in at least 3 volumes of 70%
ethanol for cinnamon bark oil.
The Open Chemistry Database also gives a detailed physicochemical description of the
major constituents of the cinnamon oils. A summary of the physicochemical properties of
cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, linalool, coumarin, and camphor are given in Table 7.1.
7.7 General Uses of Oil
7.7.1 Usage in the Ancient Periods
Cinnamon and cassia have been used since ancient times as avoring and medicinal
ingredients. Cinnamon is mentioned in the Bible as a component of the oil used by Moses
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126 Green Pesticides Handbook
Physicochemical Properties of Major Constituents of the Cinnamon Oils
Boiling Point
(°C at 760
Index (at 20°C) Description
Cinnamaldehyde C9H8O 132.15922 253 –7.5 1.048–1.052
1.618–1.623 Clear yellow oily liquid with an odor of
cinnamon and a sweet taste
Solubility in water: 1420 mg/L (25°C)
Dissolves in 1:2.5 (v/v) of 70% alcohol
Eugenol C10H12O2164.20108 225 –9.2 to –9.1 1.0652 (20°C) 1.5405 Clear colorless pale yellow or amber-colored
liquid; odor of cloves; spicy pungent
taste; darkens and thickens on exposure
to air
Solubility in water: 2460 mg/L (25°C)
1 ml dissolves in 2 ml 70% alcohol
Linalool C10H18O 154.24932 198 0.858–0.868
1.4627 Colorless liquid; odor similar to that of
bergamot oil and French lavender with a
good stability
Solubility in water: 1600 mg/L (25°C)
Soluble in alcohol, ether, xed oils,
propylene glycol; insoluble in glycerin
Coumarin C9H6O2146.14274 301.71 71 0.935 (20°C) Colorless crystals, akes, or colorless to
white powder with a pleasant fragrant
vanilla odor and a bitter aromatic
burning taste
Solubility in water: 1.900 mg/L (20°C)
Soluble in ethanol; very soluble in ether
and chloroform
Camphor C10H16O 152.23344 209 174–179 0.992 (25°C) 1.5462 Colorless or white crystals with a
penetrating, aromatic odor
Solubility in water: 1600 mg/L (25°C)
1 g dissolves in about in 1 ml alcohol, 1 ml
ether, 0.5 ml chloroform
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127Cinnamon Oil
for the purpose of anointment (to make a person holy). It has also been used as an ingre-
dient in many ancient Indian medicinal preparations. In Egypt, cassia, along with other
exotic herbs, was used not only in daily life, like cooking and bathing, by the privileged
classes, but also as the botanical ingredients in mummication rituals. Cinnamon was
sometimes exchanged in the barter system with other goods under the Roman Empire
7.7. 2 Fo od U se s
Cinnamon is used as a spice, a condiment, and avoring material principally in cookery;
chocolate preparation, especially in Mexico; many dessert recipes, such as apple pie, dough-
nuts, and cinnamon buns, as well as spicy candies; coffee; tea; hot cocoa; and liqueurs. In
the Middle East, in Turkish and Persian cuisine, cinnamon is often used in chicken and
lamb meat dishes and in a variety of thick soups, drinks, and sweets.
Cinnamon is an excellent spice used with meat and poultry in Indian and Moroccan
dishes. It is an essential part of the curry pastes used across Asia. It is also used, along with
other spices, in pickles, sauces, soups, confectionaries, and canned fruits. Cinnamon is a
popular avoring in numerous alcoholic beverages, such as “cinnamon liqueur,” which is
popular in Europe (Willard 2013). Krishnamoorthy and Rema (2003) reported that cinna-
mon bark oil is used frequently in the food, pharmaceutical, and perfume industries. It has
largely replaced cinnamon powder in the processing industry, since it can be measured
accurately according to well-established replacement ratios for ground spice using oils and
oleoresins, such as the ones elaborated by Tainter and Grenis (1993).
7.7.3 Medicinal Uses
Cinnamon and cassia are believed to have a broad spectrum of medicinal and pharmaco-
logical applications. In folk medicine, cinnamon is used for the treatment of impotence,
frigidity, dyspnea, eye inammations, leukorrhea, vaginitis, rheumatism, and neuralgia,
as well as wounds and toothaches (WHO 1999). In African and Chinese pharmacopoeias
and traditional systems of medicine, cinnamon is indicated for the treatment of dyspep-
tic conditions, including mild spastic conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, fullness and
atulence, and loss of appetite. Cinnamon is also known to be a carminative, expecto-
rant, and antidiarrheal, and to be useful for bronchitis, itching, and urinary disease (Leela
2008). Cassia is traditionally used for digestive problems, such as atulence, colic, dys-
pepsia, diarrhea, and nausea, as well as colds, inuenza, fevers, arthritis, and rheuma-
tism (Barceloux 2009). Recent pharmacological studies have shown that besides its role as
a spice, cinnamon can be used as a hypoglycemic and cholesterol-lowering (Khan et al.
2003), wound pro-healing (Kamath et al. 2003), and anti-inammatory compound (Chao
et al. 2005). It is a risk-reducing agent for colon cancer (Wondrak et al. 2010) and can pre-
vent bleeding due to its anticoagulant properties (Husain and Ali 2013). Several studies
have reported the anti-inammatory activity of cinnamon and its essential oils (Sosa et
al. 2002; Li et al. 2003; Matu and Staden 2003; Chao et al. 2005; Tung et al. 2008, 2010).
Cinnamaldehyde, the major compound of cinnamon, exhibited anti-inammatory activity
by inhibiting the activation of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B
cells (Reddy et al. 2004; Lee and Balick 2005). Other constituents of cinnamon oil belong-
ing to the avonoid group have been demonstrated to possess anti-inammatory activities
(Kim et al. 2004; Stoner and Wang 2013).
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128 Green Pesticides Handbook Antioxidant Properties
Cinnamon bark has been shown to contain very high concentrations of antioxidants
(Dragland et al. 2003). The higher antioxidant activities of cinnamon, compared with
those of other spices, have been previously described (Murcia et al. 2004; Shan et al. 2005).
Considerable antioxidant activities of various extracts of cinnamon have been reported by
Mancini-Filho et al. (1998), and their inhibition of fatty acid oxidation and lipid peroxida-
tion was demonstrated in vitro (Shobana and Naidu 2000). Singh et al. (2007) evaluated the
antioxidant potential of cinnamon volatile oils and oleoresins of leaf and bark and their
major components by comparing their lipid inhibitory activities with selected antioxidant
activities and concluded that the volatile oils and oleoresins of cinnamon leaf and bark
have good antioxidant properties. Yang et al. (2012) compared the antioxidant activities
of extracts of various parts of C. cassia (barks, buds, and leaves) obtained by supercritical
carbon dioxide extraction and ethanol extraction and showed that the extracts of Cinnamon
barks exhibited higher antioxidant activity than other parts of cinnamon. Moreover, Yang
et al. (2012) also demonstrated that ethanol is the best solvent to obtain the main antioxi-
dant constituents.
Etheric, methanolic, and aqueous cinnamon extracts also inhibited oxidative processes
in vitro (Dhuley 1999; Mathew and Abraham 2006; Lin et al. 2007). Several in vitro studies
have demonstrated the antioxidant effects of the essential oil obtained from the bark of
C.zeylanicum and its main components (Lee et al. 2002; Jayaprakasha et al. 2003; Chericoni
et al. 2005; Lee and Balick 2005). Studying the free radical–scavenging activities of various
medicinal plants, Okawa et al. (2001) concluded that different avonoids extracted from
cinnamon have good antioxidant properties. The study of Lee et al. (2002) showed that
cinnamaldehyde and other compounds of cinnamon have inhibitory activities against
the production of nitric oxide. In vivo study carried out by Lin et al. (2003) showed that the
ethanolic extract of C. cassia exhibited signicant antioxidant activity compared with the
natural antioxidant α-tocopherol. El-Baroty et al. (2010) found that cinnamon essential oil
exhibited appreciable in vitro antioxidant activity. Volatile oils of C. zeylanicum showed
signicant antioxidant activities, as reported by Jayaprakasha and Rao (2011). Hypoglycemic Properties
Pharmacological studies, on human and animals both in vitro and in vivo, have recently
been trying to show that cinnamon may play a possible role in improving glucose and
insulin metabolism (Imparl-Radosevich et al. 1998; Onderoglu et al. 1999; Broadhurst et al.
2000; Kar et al. 2003; Khan et al. 2003), and that cinnamaldehyde may have a potential role
as an antidiabetic agent with contrasting results.
In his analysis of randomized controlled trials including more than 500 patients, Allen et
al. (2013) established that when taken in a dose ranging from 0.12 to 6.0 g/day for approxi-
mately 4 months, cinnamon contributed to a statistically signicant decrease in the levels
of fasting plasma glucose, coupled with an improvement in the lipid prole. The same con-
clusions were reached by Alanazi and Khan (2015) in their meta-analysis of 16 randomized
control trials with 638 patients, where they concluded that the consumption of cinnamon
is associated with a statistically signicant decrease in the levels of fasting plasma glucose,
total cholesterol, and triglyceride. However, the high degree of heterogeneity in the studies
analyzed may limit the ability to apply these results to patient care.
Regarding the cinnamon compound mechanism of action in diabetes, Sheng et al.
(2008) explained that its role in insulin resistance derived from the increased expression
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129Cinnamon Oil
of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) α and γ. Moreover, the effect of cin-
namon on PPAR γ was found to be analogous to that of the thiazolidinediones in type 2
diabetes (Rafehi et al. 2012). A different role played by C. cassia in mitigation of insulin
resistance was advanced by Jitomir and Willoughby (2009) and consisted of the enhance-
ment of expression of insulin-sensitive glucose transporters by acting on the phosphory-
lation of signaling proteins. Finally, cinnamon has also been reported to have an insulin
mimetic and insulin-sensitizing action (Howard and White 2013). A good review of poten-
tial mechanisms of action may be found in Medagama (2015). Other Medicinal Uses
Cinnamon is also frequently used as avor in chewing gums due to its effects and ability
to remove bad breath, and it has been traditionally used as tooth powder and for dental
problems such as toothaches and bad breath (Aneja et al. 2009; Jakhetia et al. 2010; Gupta
et al. 2012). The active component cinnamaldehyde is said to be cardioprotective (Song et
al. 2013) and has a vasorelaxative effect (Alvarez-Collazo et al. 2014). A systemic review of
previous studies has suggested that cinnamon-supplemented diets can result in a signi-
cant fall in blood pressure (Wainstein et al. 2011; Akilen et al. 2013).
Much research has been done to see the effect of cinnamon on melanoma cells, and the
results of a study suggested that C. cassia can inhibit the survival, viability, and prolifera-
tion of tumor cells in vitro without having a signicant effect on the normal cells (Han et al.
2004). C. cassia bark extracts also effectively inhibited the virus-induced cytopathogenicity
in MT-4 cells infected with HIV (Premanathan et al. 2000). Cinnamon, cinnamon extracts
and essential oils, and constituents of cinnamon, such as monoterpenoids and cinnam-
aldehyde, have all been reported to exhibit anticancer, antitumor, antiproliferative, and
antimutagenic effects (Shaughnessy et al. 2006; Bhattacharjee et al. 2007; King et al. 2007;
Wu and Ng 2007; Duessel et al. 2008; Dong et al. 2009; Lin et al. 2009; Sharifar et al. 2009).
7.8 Pesticidal Uses of Cinnamon Essential Oil
7.8.1 Antibacterial Properties
Cinnamon oils have been widely studied for their antimicrobial effects on various bacte-
ria (Hili et al. 1997; Chao et al. 2000; Matan et al. 2006; Shan et al. 2007; Singh et al. 2007;
Abdollahzadeh et al. 2014). Cinnamon oils and extracts, as well as their major compo-
nents cinnamaldehyde and eugenol, have been found to exhibit antimicrobial effects on
both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria such as Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli
(Friedman et al. 2004), and Listeria monocytogenes (Yuste and Fung 2002). El-Baroty et al.
(2010) found that cinnamon essential oil exhibited a strong antibacterial activity against
Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, and Micrococcus
luteus and gram-negative bacteria Alcaligenes faecalis, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeru-
ginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Serratia marcescens (Chao et al. 2000). Cinnamon bark oil
and its major components showed antibacterial effects on the major respiratory and gas-
trointestinal tract pathogens Haemophilus inuenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus
pyogenes, and S. aureus (Inouye et al. 2001a,b). Furthermore, when incorporated in biolms,
cinnamaldehyde has also been reported to have negative effects on E. coli and Pseudomonas
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130 Green Pesticides Handbook
spp. (Niu and Gilbert 2004), Burkholderia spp. (Brackman et al. 2009), uropathogenic E. coli
(Amalaradjou et al. 2010), Vibrio spp. (Brackman et al. 2011), methicillin-resistant S. aureus
and Staphylococcus epidermidis (Jia et al. 2011; Kavanaugh and Ribbeck 2012), Candida spp.
(Khan and Ahmad 2012), Listeria spp. (Upadhyay et al. 2013), Salmonella spp. (Zhang et al.
2014), S. pyogenes (Shafreen et al. 2014), and P. aeruginosa (Kim et al. 2015). Ouattara et al.
(2000) reported that incorporating cinnamaldehyde into chitosan lm reduced the growth
of Lactobacillus sakei, Serratia liquefaciens, and Enterobacteriaceae on the surface of meat
Antibacterial activities of cinnamon bark oil and cinnamaldehyde have been attributed
to considerable alterations in the structure of cell envelopes (Di Pasqua et al. 2007). The
membrane permeability may be affected by an inhibition of energy generation, probably
due to the inhibition of glucose uptake or utilization of glucose (Gill and Holley 2004).
The cinnamaldehyde of the biolm is partially caused by the downregulation of quorum-
sensing systems (Kim et al. 2015).
The antibacterial actions of natural extracts of cinnamon have been suggested to be a
relevant tool in the control of pathogens of aquatic animals. In their investigations, Yeh et
al. (2009) demonstrated that shrimp treated with natural extracts of cinnamon exhibited an
enhanced disease resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus.
7.8.2 Antifungal Properties
Based on several in vivo and in vitro studies, cinnamon essential oils and its major com-
ponents have been found to exhibit signicant inhibitory effects against several fungi,
including Coriolus versicolor, Laetiporus sulphureus, Eurotium spp., Aspergillus spp., and
Penicillium (Chipley and Uraih 1980; Cao 1993; Mastura et al. 1999; Guynot et al. 2003; Simić
et al. 2004; Cheng et al. 2006). trans-Cinnamaldehyde, a component in the oil of C. zeyl-
anicum, was the most active compound against 17 micromycetes (Simić et al. 2004). The
essential oils of several Cinnamomum species showed anticandidal and antidermatophytic
activity in vitro (Lima et al. 1993; Mastura et al. 1999). Quale et al. (1996) reported that the
use of C.zeylanicum allowed overcoming the resistance to uconazole in Candida isolates.
Singh et al. (2007), using several methods to study the antifungal efcacy of cinnamon
essential oil and its oleoresin, reported that the volatiles elicited from the essential oils
extracted from cinnamon leaves were found to be 100% antifungal against Aspergillus
niger, Aspergillus terreus, Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium graminearum, Penicillium citrinum,
and Penicillium viridicatum, but not against A. ochraceus and A. terreus. The leaf oleoresin
showed complete mycelial zone inhibition for P. citrinum, and volatiles elicited from the
essential oils extracted from cinnamon barks showed complete inhibition against fungi
such as F. graminearum, F. moniliforme, P. citrinum, P. viridicatum, and A. terreus (Singh et al.
2007). Moreover, Singh et al. (2007) also suggested that among cinnamon oil constituents,
cinnamaldehyde possessed the best antifungal activity. El-Baroty et al. (2010) found that
cinnamon essential oil has a strong antifungal activity against four fungal strains: A. niger,
Penicillium notatum, Mucora heimalis, and Fusarim oxysporum. Cinnamon oils and extracts
showed good antifungal activities against important plant diseases. Wilson et al. (1997)
found that among 49 essential oils tested, C. zeylanicum demonstrated a great antifun-
gal activity against Botrytis cinerea, while Montes-Belmont and Carvajal (1998) reported
that A. avus was totally inhibited with C. zeylanicum. In other studies, C. zeylanicum
was fungicidal against pathogens isolated from banana, including Colletotrichum musae,
Lasiodiplodia thebromae, and Fusarium proliferatum (Ranasinghe et al. 2002); exerted antifun-
gal activity toward Oidium murrayae (Chu et al. 2006); and inhibited conidial germination
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131Cinnamon Oil
of Colletotrichum gloesporioides (Barrera-Necha et al. 2008). In in vitro experiments, it was
found to have a good mycelial inhibition of the corn rot F. oxysporum f.sp. gladioli (Barrera-
Necha et al. 2009), to be highly effective against the growth of Rhizoctonia solani (Nguyen
et al. 2009), and to have an excellent antifungal activity against early blight of tomato
Alternaria solani (Yeole et al. 2014). The investigations of Wang et al. (2014) showed that
cinnamon microemulsions had high in vivo control activity against gray mold of pears
Botritys cinerea.
7.8.3 Insecticidal Properties Against Vector of Human Diseases
As many other essential oils, cinnamon essential oils offer great potential in medical ento-
mology, especially against mosquitoes, which represent one of the most relevant vectors
of human diseases. They have been shown to be effective larvicides against mosquitoes
(Cheng et al. 2004, 2009; Chang et al. 2006). Larvicidal tests demonstrated that the compo-
nents of leaf essential oils, such as cinnamaldehyde–cinnamyl acetate and cinnamyl alco-
hol, had an excellent inhibitory effect against the fourth-instar larvae of the yellow fever
mosquito Aedes aegypti (Cheng et al. 2004; Chang et al. 2006). Results of mosquito larvicidal
assays also showed that the most effective constituents in leaf essential oils were cinna-
maldehyde, eugenol, anethole, and cinnamyl acetate. Cinnamon has also shown excellent
repellency in tests conducted on blood-starved females of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes (Chang
et al. 2006). Reviewing the literature of mosquito larvae control using botanical larvicides,
Pavela (2015) concluded that from 122 initially studied plant species, 3 Cinnamomum spe-
cies were among the 7 most signicant botanical larvicides that may be considered suitable
sources for substances to control mosquito larvae. Against Agricultural Insect Pests
Cinnamon oils and its components, such as cinnamaldehyde, are well-known insecticidal
compounds that have been studied against a variety of other insects (Huang and Ho 1998;
Lee et al. 2001; Chang and Cheng 2002; Lee et al. 2008). The antitermitic activities of the
essential oils from the leaves of C. osmophloeum and its chemical ingredients against the
Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus were investigated by direct con-
tact application (Chang and Cheng 2002). Results have demonstrated that the indigenous
cinnamon leaf essential oil has a good effective antitermitic activity, and that cinnamal-
dehyde, eugenol, and α-terpineol extracted from indigenous cinnamon leaf essential oil
are responsible for the high antitermitic effectiveness. Cheng et al. (2008) described that
the leaf essential oil of C. osmophloeum exhibits effective toxicity in both open and closed
exposure against red imported re ants, with trans-cinnamaldehyde as the major com-
ponent in the essential oil playing the key role in controlling the red imported re ant
Solenopsis invicta. Park et al. (2000), using a fumigation test, found that the Cinnamomum
bark–derived compounds were much more effective against larvae of the oak nut weevil
Mechoris ursulus in closed cups than in open ones, indicating that the insecticidal activity
of tested compounds was attributable to fumigant action. Park et al. (2000) concluded that
the Cinnamomum bark–derived materials could be useful as a preventive agent against
damage caused by M. ursulus. Ovicidal activity of C. zeylanicum oil was reported for the
rice moth Corcyra cephalonica (Bhargava and Meena 2001). Passino et al. (1999) reported
insecticidal activity of C. zeylanicum oil against the Mediterranean fruit y Ceratitis capitata.
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132 Green Pesticides Handbook Against Stored Product Pests
In stored product pests, the susceptibility of the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae to fumigant
actions of cinnamon oil was investigated, along with other essential oils, and resulted in
100% mortality within 1 day of treatment in closed containers (Kim et al. 2003). In a differ-
ent study, Paranagama et al. (2003) concluded that C. zeylanicum leaf essential oils can be
used as stored paddy rice protectant, as it kept the samples studied free of S. oryzae and the
angoumois grain moth Sitotroga cerealella, two major pests of stored grains, without alter-
ing the quality of the stored rice.
C. cassia and its major constituent, cinnamaldehyde, exhibited fumigant toxicity and
residual effects against S. oryzae (Lee et al. 2008), and C. cassia vapor caused the highest
mortality of various life stages of the red our beetle Tribolium castaneum (Mondal and
Khalequzzaman 2009). The insecticidal effects of cinnamon oil and other essential oils
were evaluated by Karahroudi et al. (2010) for three of the most important stored product
pests of the Indian mealmoth Plodia interpunctella, the confused our beetle Tribolium con-
fusum, and the pulse beetle Callosobruchus chinensis, and the results indicated that cinna-
mon essential oil has good fumigant activity against the three tested species.
In their study, Jumbo et al. (2014) evaluated the insecticidal (e.g., lethal toxicities, dis-
turbances on reproductive traits, and persistence of action) and repellent activities of cin-
namon, C. zeylanicum, and clove, Syzygium aromaticum, essential oils on the bean weevil
Acanthoscelides obtectus in a nonfumigant manner. Jumbo et al. (2014) concluded that cin-
namon not only has a good insecticidal activity but also signicantly reduced the bean
weight losses caused by A. obtectus. Similar results were reported by a study on C. macu-
latus and S. oryzae (Brari and Thakur 2015), where the essential oil of C. zeylanicum and its
two components (cinnamaldehyde and linalool) were found to exhibit contact and fumi-
gant toxicity against the adults of both insect species tested. Against Medical–Veterinary Insect Pests
In veterinary area, the application of camphor and cinnamon oils to water buffalo, at con-
centrations similar to the ones used in the laboratory studies, resulted in a large decline
in numbers of the ungulate lice Haematopinus tuberculatus up to 6 days after application
(Khater et al. 2009). The same study reported a decrease in a number of three y species
(Stomoxys calcitrans, M. domestica, and Hippobosca equina) on treated cattle. Results also indi-
cated that the essential oils from cinnamon and its most predominant compound had high
ovicidal activity against various harmful ies (Shen et al. 2007).
In veterinary use, although anthelmintic effects of Ceylon cinnamon were reported as
early as in the 1950s by Cavier (1950), it is only recently that Williams et al. (2015) showed
for the rst time that cinnamon bark has anthelmintic potential in vitro using swine nema-
tode Ascaris suum, and this derives both from its proanthocyanidin tannins and most nota-
bly from trans-cinnamaldehyde. However, their in vivo experiments with pigs and poultry
made them reach a conclusion that for the potential of trans-cinnamaldehyde to be used
as an anthelmintic against intestinal helminthes, appropriate formulations to stabilize and
protect the compound will likely be necessary.
7.8.4 Acaricidal Effects
Cinnamon displayed acaricidal activity against the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae
(Kim et al. 2004). In investigations conducted by Bahadon and Azarhoosh (2013), it was
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133Cinnamon Oil
demonstrated that plant preparations from C. cinnamon and other aromatic plants can be
used for controlling D. gallinae. On the basis of LC50 values, essential oil extracted from cin-
namon leaves was one of the most active oils among 24 Tai herbal oils tested against house
dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Veeraphant et al. 2011), which was attributed
to be due to its eugenol content (Veeraphant et al. 2011). By evaluating the acaricidal and
repellent effects of cinnamon essential oil on the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides farina
and D. pteronyssinus, Oh (2011) demonstrated that cinnamon bark essential oil was a very
effective acaricide at the concentration of 0.125 μl; it had good repellent effect when used
at the concentration of 0.094 μl.
The results of dose–mortality experiments, carried out by Shen et al. (2012) to test the
effects of trans-cinnamaldehyde (a component of cinnamon essential oil) on the common
worldwide parasite of rabbits, the rabbit ear mite Psoroptes cuniculi, indicated that this com-
pound had a good killing activity against P. cuniculi adults, and that trans-cinnamaldehyde
can be considered as a promising agent for mite control. Similar results were already
reported by Fichi et al. (2007), as he showed cinnamon leaf to have high levels of acaricidal
efcacy against P. cuniculi in rabbits at concentrations of 2.5%.
However, the mechanism of cinnamon oils’ and extracts’ acaricidal activity is not yet
well understood. Ellse and Wall (2014) suggest that the acaricidal efcacy of essential
oils may be linked to the vapor pressure to which the mites are exposed, as it affects the
concentration of volatile. Vapor assays conducted by Na et al. (2011) using 34 compounds
extracted from Cassia spp. and Cinnamomum spp. showed that α-methyl-E-cinnamaldehyde
and E-cinnamaldehyde had acaricidal efcacy comparable to that of the chemical acaricide
7.8.5 Nematicidal Effects
Park et al. (2005) reported nematicidal activity of plant essential oils, including C. verum and
its components, against the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Analyzing
the activity of 88 commercial essential oils against mixed-stage of B. xylophilus, Kong et al.
(2006) identied highly active C. zeylanicum bark essential oils showing nematicidal activ-
ity that proved to be higher than those obtained for some commercial synthetic nemati-
cides, such as fenitrothion.
7.8.6 Repellency Effects
In investigations conducted by Prajapati et al. (2005), the essential oil of C. zeylanicum
proved to be oviposition deterrent and repellent against three mosquito species tested
(Anopheles stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus). Yang et al. (2004) investigated
the repellent activity of methanol extracts and steam distillate from 23 aromatic medicinal
plant species against female blood-starved Ae. aegypti, and they found that at a dose of
0.1 mg/c m2, the repellency of extracts of C. cassia bark and C. camphora steam distillate was
comparable to that of deet. The duration of the effectiveness for extracts from C. cassia bark
was comparable to that of deet.
Laboratory studies suggested that cinnamon may be useful as an insect repellant (Cloyd
et al. 2009). Hori (2003) described C. cassia as having repellent activity against the cigarette
beetle Lasioderma serricorne, while in the study of Jumbo et al. (2014), cinnamon oil exhib-
ited repellent actions against A. obtectus, in accordance with other investigations, such as
the one carried out by Liu et al. (2006), and where they described a good repellent activity
exhibited by essential oil from the seeds of C. camphora against storage pests S. oryzae and
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134 Green Pesticides Handbook
Bruchus rugimanus. In addition, cinnamon essential oils displayed repellant action against
the red bud borer Resseliella oculiperda (Van tol et al. 2007).
Hanifah et al. (2012) reported that C. zeylanicum showed the highest repellency rate com-
pared with the other plants extracts in a study carried out to evaluate the repellency of six
plant extracts against the larval stage of Leptotrombidium deliense, the mite vector of scrub
7.8.7 Herbicide Effects
In a laboratory and greenhouse experiments with essential oils from different plants
(including cinnamon), Tworkoski (2002) tried to determine the herbicidal effect of plant-
derived oils and identify the active ingredient with herbicide activity. Essential oils in
aqueous concentrations from 5% to 10% (v/v) added of two adjuvants (nonionic surfactant
and parafnic oil blend at 0.2% [v/v]) were applied to shoots of the common lambsquar-
ters Chenopodium album, the common ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia, and johnsongrass
Sorghum halepense in the greenhouse; shoot death occurred within 1 hour to 1 day after
application. Essential oil (1%, v/v) from cinnamon was one of the most phytotoxic and
caused electrolyte leakages, resulting in cell death. Eugenol (one of the major components
of cinnamon) was conrmed to be the active ingredient in the essential oil of cinnamon.
Campiglia et al. (2007) evaluated and compared the inhibition effect exerted by the
essential oils of cinnamon, peppermint Mentha × piperita L., and lavender Lavandula spp.
on seed germination of some of the most common weed species of the Mediterranean
environment, like pigweed Amarantus retroexus L., wild mustard Sinapis arvensis L., and
ryegrass Lolium spp. Their results highlighted a control in the weed germination, with
cinnamon oil exhibiting the highest inhibition effect compared with lavender and pep-
permint ones. The dicotyledonous species have been more susceptible to the cinnamon oil
inhibition of seed germination than the monocotyledonous ones.
Under controlled and semicontrolled conditions (laboratory and greenhouse), Cavalieri
and Caporali (2010) studied the allelopathic effects of essential oil extracted from C. zey-
lanicum on the seed germination of seven Mediterranean weed species (i.e., redroot pig-
weed A. retroexus L., black nightshade Solanum nigrum L., common purslane Portulaca
oleracea L., common lambsquarters C. album L., wild mustard S. arvensis L., ryegrass Lolium
spp. and common vetch Vicia sativa L.). Cinnamon oil showed drastic inhibitory effects,
and in a semicontrolled condition, the 345.6 mg/L concentration of cinnamon essential
oil totally inhibited the seed germination of A. retroexus L. (Cavalieri and Caporali 2010).
7.9 Advantages as a Pesticide
The use of essential oils as pesticides has drawn a large and continuous interest, exempli-
ed by the very high number of studies dealing with extraction, chemistry, toxicology, and
uses of essential oils (Ravindran et al. 2003; Bakkali et al. 2008; Barceloux 2009; El-Baroty et
al. 2010; Doughari 2012; Rao and Gan 2014; Tongnuanchan and Benjakul 2014; Chakraborty
et al. 2015; Dima and Dima 2015; El Asbahani et al. 2015; Medagama 2015). Cinnamon
essential oils are no exception to this rule. This wide interest found its basis in the prob-
lems faced with chemical pesticides, such as risk to human health and environment, pest
resurgence, secondary pest problems, and the development of resistance, as well as the
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135Cinnamon Oil
concerns expressed by consumers and pressure groups about the safety of pesticide resi-
dues in food. The essential oils, including cinnamon oils, are considered natural, and their
use as spices and in food industry is often regarded as sufcient evidence of their safety.
Pesticide products containing certain of these essential oils are exempt from toxicity data
requirements by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA).
Essential oils and their main constituents are generally regarded as safe products owing
to this positive perception to their very low mammalian toxicity. The estimated oral intake
LD50 for rat is 1.160 mg/kg (body weight) for cinnamaldehyde, and it is 500 mg/kg for
eugenol (Shivanandappa and Rajashekar 2014) and 2790 mg/kg for linalool (OECD 2002),
representing very low mammalian toxicity values compared with other insecticides. In
the fact sheet of cinnamaldehyde issued by the USEPA, it is written, “Cinnamaldehyde is
Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) by the Flavoring Extract Manufacturers’ Association
and is approved for food use by the Food and Drug Administration. Cinnamon oil, which
contains 70% to 90% cinnamaldehyde, is also classied as GRAS, and, like cinnamalde-
hyde, is used in the food and avoring industry” (USEPA 2015).
This mammalian selectivity was partially attributed to the mode of action of various
components of essential oils like eugenol (Enan et al. 1998). In fact, Enan et al. (1998) dem-
onstrated that a number of essential oil compounds act on the octopaminergic system of
insects. For instance, eugenol was found to mimic octopamine in increasing intracellular
calcium levels in cloned cells from the brain of Periplaneta americana and Drosophila mela-
nogaster (Enan 2005). Altering the functioning of octopamine by a compound like eugenol
results in total interruption of nervous system functioning in insects, which makes the
octopaminergic system of insects a sound and rational target for insect control, as these
receptors are not found in vertebrates.
Essential oils such as cinnamon oils are a mixture of many biosynthetically diverse
compounds and analogs. This characteristic diversity is related not only to the age and
developmental stage of the part source of the oil, but also to the growing conditions
(Regnault-Roger et al. 2012). In the case of cinnamon oil, the cinnamaldehyde is acting
on the energy production system, possibly interfering with glucose uptake or utilization,
and besides eugenol acting on the octopaminergic system, linalool, a frequently reported
monoterpenoid in cinnamon oil, has been demonstrated to act on the nervous system,
affecting ion transport and the release of acetylcholine esterase in insects (Re et al. 2000).
Finally, synergistic effects between the components of essential oils have been reported by
previous studies (Berenbaum 1985; Miresmailli et al. 2006; Joffe et al. 2012; Koul et al. 2013;
Faraone et al. 2015; Omolo et al. 2005). This indicates that the effect of the major compo-
nents needs synergism from secondary constituents in the essential oils. This mixture of
compounds with various sites of action and synergized effects between the essential oil
constituents may be behind the improved efcacy of essential oils as insecticides and is
surely playing a crucial role as a barrier for resistance development.
The essential oils and their components are generally considered safe for the environ-
ment, as they are majorly nonpersistent (Isman 2000). The major components of cinnamon
oil are also nonpersistent, and hence have little impact on the environment when used as
pesticides. The USEPA reports that because cinnamaldehyde is not soluble in water and
rapidly degraded in the soil, it is not expected to pose any hazard to nontarget organ-
isms (USEPA 2015). Eugenol is anticipated to be short-lived in the environment, and is
rapidly dissipated and degraded via volatilization and atmospheric decomposition (Marin
Municipal Water District 2008). Most linalool, both natural and synthetic, is released to
the atmosphere, where it is rapidly degraded abiotically with a typical half-life below
30minutes (OECD 2002). In water, linalool is readily biodegraded under both aerobic and
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136 Green Pesticides Handbook
anaerobic conditions; the same is predicted for soil and sediment. This nonpersistent char-
acteristic is linked to the susceptibility of the essential oil and its compounds to tempera-
ture and UV light degradation, resulting in short residual activity with shorter restriction
intervals for the treated areas (Miresmailli and Isman 2006).
Historically, aromatic plants and plant extracts were widely used for insect control in
traditional agricultural systems in many developing countries. Using techniques as easy
and affordable as steam distillation, plants products such as essential oils may be afford-
able for small farmers under the conditions of improving safety use and knowledge about
both the accurate compositions and the pesticidal activities.
7.10 Limitations as a Pesticide
Essential oils such as cinnamon oil have been intensively studied for their pesticidal
activities and have been described as a sustainable, effective, and affordable alternative
to chemical insecticides. However, such oils still face various challenges regarding their
use as pesticides. Various reports have described human toxicity cases of cinnamon and
cinnamon oil involving local irritation and allergic reactions (Barceloux 2009). Because
of its skin-sensitizing property, the use of bark oil in perfume and cosmetic industry
is very limited (Ravindran et al. 2003), and occupational allergic contact dermatites,
although rare (Kanerva et al. 1996), have been reported among workers with cinnamon
(Kanerva et al. 1996).
The cinnamon essential oil biological activities are linked mainly to their major compo-
nents: cinnamaldehyde (for bark oil) and eugenol (for leaf oil). Although synergism among
major and minor components is well known, each of the dominant constituents of the oils
is acting with a single mode of action, making them in this regard similar to conventional
synthetic insecticides (Copping and Menn 2000). In fact, Correa et al. (2015) evaluated the
toxicity (including the effects on the population growth rates) of cinnamon essential oils,
as well as its effects on the behavioral (locomotory) and respiratory rates of four Brazilian
populations of Sitophilus zeamais with distinct susceptibilities to traditional insecticides
(phosphine and pyrethroids) and concluded that although cinnamon essential oil has the
potential to control S. zeamais populations, insects from the studied populations that are
resistant to traditional insecticides (e.g., pyrethroids and phosphine) might share some
physiological and behavioral mechanisms to mitigate the actions of such essential oils.
Moreover, Haddi et al. (2015), in a recent study, reported that the sublethal exposure to cin-
namon essential oil of a population of S. zeamais susceptible to conventional insecticides
resulted in stimulatory responses in the median survival time and the number of larvae
per grain. The sublethal exposure elicited behavioral and physiological mechanisms that
these insects normally use to overcome the actions of insecticides. Such ndings showed
that replacing synthetic insecticides with botanical insecticides like cinnamon essential
oils to control insect pests still needs further investigation and scrutiny. More studies are
also needed on the potential effects of the use of cinnamon oils on the nontarget and ben-
ecial insects (Isman 2000), especially because a study demonstrated negative effects of the
alcohol extract of C. camphora on two aphid parasitoids, Aphidius gifuensis and Diaeretiella
rapae (Zhou and Liang 2003).
The nonpersistence of essential oils, rst looked at as an environmental advantage, may
turn out to be an issue, as higher quantities will be needed to reach the same levels of
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137Cinnamon Oil
control achieved with conventional insecticides, which may lead to higher residues in the
environment (Copping and Menn 2000). Pest control in foodstuffs may face a problem
of odor acceptability by consumers if cinnamon essential oils are applied as contact and
fumigant, due to its strong avored smell.
The availability of the raw material is another concern for the use of cinnamon oil as
a pesticide to a large extent (Isman 2000). Furthermore, the wide use of these oils will
depend deeply on the possibilities of growers to provide the essential oil industry with
standardized material. Variability and inconsistencies in composition will inuence the
extraction efciency and may jeopardize the investors’ interest in such a risky sector.
List of Commercially Available Cinnamon-Based Pesticides
Products (Trade Name) Uses and Activity Description Composition
Snail & Slug Away Kills snails and slugs and their eggs Active ingredients: Cinnamon oil
Other ingredients: Soap bark, water,
soybean oil, sunower oil
Weed Zap Contact, nonselective, broad-
spectrum, foliar applied herbicide
Controls both annual and perennial
broadleaf and grassy weeds; does
not translocate
Clove oil: 45%
Cinnamon oil: 45%
Other ingredients (lactose and water): 10%
Weed-A-Tak Kills broadleaf weeds, grasses, vines,
and brush
Citric acid: 4.0%
Cinnamon oil: 1.0%
Clove leaf oil: 1.0%
Other ingredients: 94% (lecithin, water)
Cinnacure Fungicide, insecticide, miticide 30% cinnamaldehyde
Cinnamite Fungicide, insecticide, miticide 30% cinnamaldehyde
Valoram II Kills and repels numerous insect
Clove/cinnamon/mint oils
Armorex II Kills and repels numerous insect
Clove/cinnamon/mint oils
Kinnamon 70 Fungicide, insecticide, accaricide Cinnamon extract 50% w/w
Citrokinnamon 50–30 Fungicide, insecticide, accaricide Cinnamon extract 50% w/w, citrus extract
30% w/w
Cinnamon extract JBQ Combats powdery mildew and
spider mite pests
Preventive and curative
Cinnamon extract (70%) and conditioners
Flower farm pesticide Natural insecticide/miticide/
Cinnamon oil, cottonseed oil, rosemary
Final Stop® Pest Control
Killer Spray
Controls: Ants, cockroaches, spiders,
eas, wasps, stink bugs, moths,
silversh, mosquitoes, centipedes,
earwigs, gnats, chiggers, ticks,
pillbugs, crickets, and other nasty
creepy-crawly insects
Active ingredients: Cinnamon oil,
rosemary oil, sesame oil, peppermint oil,
thyme oil, garlic extract
Inert ingredients: Beeswax, calcium
carbonate, carrageenan, cellulose, citric
acid, glycerin, kaolin, lecithin, mustard
powder, sodium bicarbonate, sodium
chloride, soybean oil, wintergreen oil,
distilled water
Spider Killer Against spider mites, thrips,
nematodes, cochineal, aphids, and
other insect pathogens
Rich in cinnamon (Cinnamomum
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138 Green Pesticides Handbook
7.11 Essential Oil–Based Pesticides
The review of the available experimental data (Section 7.8) supports the hypothesis that
cinnamon oil is an effective natural pesticide and repellant against insects. Cinnamon
essential oils and/or their constituents have shown a broad spectrum of insecticidal, miti-
cidal, nematicidal, fungicidal, and bactericidal activity, as well as having a good repellency
potential. Moreover, registration specications indicate that they are user and environ-
ment safe. Nevertheless, few cinnamon-based pesticides are available in the market for
wide use (see Table 7.2). The majority of the pesticides with composition containing cin-
namon or its constituents are targeting mainly small-scale uses, such as home garden and
indoor applications. The only major exception is Cinnacure, which is recommended for
large-scale uses, as both an insecticide and a fungicide.
7.12 Conclusions
Although cinnamon tree products have played key roles in nutrition, medicine, and reli-
gion for centuries, their use as green pesticides is still limited. The chemistry of the genus
Cinnamomum is interesting, but efforts in the research and development of these tree spices
and their products have been restricted mainly to the volatile oil and its constituents.
Various studies have dealt with the potential benets of Cinnamomum for human health
with controversial results. The pesticidal activities of cinnamon species have received little
attention, and more research and scientic investigations are needed to unleash the huge
potential of a tree qualied often as the “spice of life.
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... The cinnamon bark EO can be obtained from different parts of the tropical evergreen tree, which is important for human health and agriculture uses [102]. Previously, a study reported that a combination of cinnamon bark EO with piperacillin resulted in a synergistic relationship with FIC ≤ 0.5, and this result indicates the possibility of using cinnamon bark EO as a resistance-modifying agent against MDR bacteria [97,103]. ...
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Consumption of fruits is rapidly increasing due to high nutritional properties. Fresh fruits provide all the necessary supplements like fibre, vitamins, etc which are lacking these days in routine diet. Due to less shelf stability market faces a high quantitative and economic loss. Research are being performed to provide a permanent and effective solution to this social stumbling block. In this context, edible coatings have proven themselves an effective primary packaging material in delaying ripening process with maintained nutritional properties. Furthermore, it was observed that the effectiveness of edible coatings was significantly improved by incorporating active components like essential oil into it. The essential oils (EO) exhibit antioxidant and antimicrobial properties thus are being used in nanoemulsions form for active delivery of properties. This unification aims to retain the freshness of fruits by preserving and protecting the shelf stability for as long as possible. This article gives the insight about the potential benefits of essential oil based nanoemulsions and their potential applications in fruits and vegetables.
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Phytomedicines are becoming more popular in treatment of infectious diseases worldwide. Cinnamomum verum essential oil (EO) has been used as a therapeutic alternative for various diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of the C. verum leaf EO against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Effect of EO vapor on planktonic cells was determined using microatmosphere technique. CLSI M7-A10 method was employed in Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) experiments. Effect of EO on established biofilms was quantified and visualized using XTT and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). In-vitro toxicity was evaluated using Human Keratinocytes (HaCaT). Chemical analysis of EO was done using Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). All tested strains were sensitive to cinnamon oil vapor. EO exhibited 0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL MIC and MBC against all test strains. Minimum Biofilm Inhibitory and Biofilm Eradication Concentrations (MBIC50 and MBEC) were 1.0 and 4.0 mg/mL. SEM indicated cellular shrinkages, cell wall damages, and decreased biofilm densities. Cinnamon oil didn’t show any toxicity on HaCaT cell at any concentration tested. Eugenol was the most abundant compound in C. verum oil. C. verum EO shows an antibacterial and antibiofilm activity with minimal toxicity on host.
Fusarium wilt, whose etiological agent is the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol), is one of the main diseases that limit tomato production. Tomato seed treatment can reduce pathogen infestation as well as protect seeds during seedling germination, emergence and initial development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of seed treatment with natural products in order to reduce Fusarium wilt incidence in tomato seedlings. Origanum vulgare L. (Ovu) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cze) essential oils (EOs) were characterized by gas chromatography (GC-FID and GC-MS). Ovu EO showed 98.46% of monoterpenes while Cze EO showed 89.27% of phenylpropanoids. The first experiment evaluated in vitro effect of EOs, carvacrol (CAR) and eugenol (EUG) at 200; 400; 600; 800 and 1,000 μg mL⁻¹ against Fol. The lowest effective concentrations (EC100) were 323 μg mL⁻¹ (Ovu EO) and 166 μg mL⁻¹ (CAR). The fungicidal effect has been proven only for Ovu EO (400–1,000 μg mL⁻¹). CAR showed fungistatic action between 200 and 1,000 μg mL⁻¹. There was no phytotoxic effect on tomato seeds treated with Ovu EO and CAR. The second experiment was carried out with the two most active natural products that were not phytotoxic to tomato seeds. Ovu EO and CAR at 1,200 μg mL⁻¹ reduced area under the disease-progress curve (AUDPC) by 52 and 54%, respectively. These results highlight that Ovu EO and CAR reduce the incidence of Fusarium wilt in tomato seedlings after seed treatment, without causing phytotoxic action.
The plant-based biopesticides have been proposed as insect pest control tools that seem to be safer for the environment and human health when compared to synthetic conventional molecules. However, such assumptions are generally made without considering the absence of detrimental effects on sublethally-exposed non-target organisms or showing the physiological basis of the selective action of such botanical products. Thus, by using in silico-based and in vivo toxicological approaches, the present investigation aimed to disentangle the ecotoxicological selectivity of clove, Syzygium aromaticum, essential oil against the aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis and the non-target ladybeetle, Coleomegilla maculata. We also investigated whether the sublethal exposure to clove essential oil would affect the locomotory and predatory abilities of C. maculata. We found that the clove essential oil concentration estimated to kill 95% (LC95: 0.17 μL/cm2) of the aphids was lethal to <18% of C. maculata. Indeed, our in silico results reinforced such differential susceptibility, as it predicted that eugenol and β-caryophyllene (i.e., the clove essential oil major components) bound to three potential molecular targets (i.e., transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, octopamine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors) of the aphids but only to the octopamine receptors of the ladybeetles. Additionally, the ladybeetles that were exposure to the clove essential oil exhibited unaffected abilities to locomote and to prey upon R. maidis aphids when compared to unexposed ladybeetles. Thus, by displaying lower toxicity against the ladybeetles, the clove essential oil represents a safer alternative tool to be integrated into programs aiming to manage aphid infestations.
Inflammation is triggered by numerous factors including oxidative stress, environmental pollutants, microbial agents, and physical damage to tissues. Chronic inflammation, characterized by a prevalence of macrophages and lymphocytes in the affected tissues and the overexpression of a host of cellular cytokines, chemokines, and inflammatory enzymes, promotes all stages of cancer development including initiation, promotion, cell transformation, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. This chapter describes some key mechanisms by which naturally occurring dietary compounds, either alone or in combination, reduce the harmful effects of inflammation and the risk for cancer development. The most extensively studied compounds are a series of polyphenols which influence the inflammatory process in multiple ways including their ability to scavenge oxidative radicals, influence carcinogen activation and detoxification, and regulate expression levels of numerous transcription activators and their associated cytokines, chemokines, and inflammatory enzymes. In the past, the inhibitory effects of naturally occurring compounds, especially the polyphenols, have been attributed mainly to their intrinsic antioxidant capacity; however, it is likely that their direct binding to cellular macromolecules and the associated effects on gene transcription and translation, as well as on enzyme activity, may be equally as important.
BACKGROUND: The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae is the most important ectoparasite in domestic poultry. Some plant preparations have been shown to be an effective acaricide against it. OBJECTIVES: The acaricidal effects of cinnamon, mint, and eucalyptus extracts were studied. METHODS: Mites were counted in the monitoring traps for the first time in a layer house with a history of D. gallinae problem. Then, some rows of layer house were sprayed using a concentration of 27.50 mg/Cm3 cinnamon, 28.30 mg/Cm 3 mint, 63 mg/Cm3 eucalyptus extracts and a similar row was used as an untreated control group. Red mite traps made of cardboard were used to assess the mite density during days 1 and 7 after treatment and removed after 24 h. The collected mites were counted and the efficacy against all mite stages (larvae, nymphs and adults) was calculated. RESULTS: Results showed that on day 1 and 7 after the administration of cinnamon extract, efficacy rate was 66.97% and 12.91%, respectively. Moreover, efficacy rate on day 1 and 7 was 80.85% and 58.14% when treatment was done with eucalyptus extract, 90.19% and 40.24% with mint extract. Also, statistical analyses showed significant differences between trapped mites during the first day after plant preparations treatment and control group. But this study did not show significant differences between trapped mites during the firts week after plant extracts treatment with the exception of eucalyptus. CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that plant preparations can be used for controlling poultry red mite.
Forty-two commonly used essential oils were investigated for the antioxidant capabilities by DPPH free-radical scavenging activity, total phenolic contents and photochemiluminescence (PCL) assay. At the concentration of 5 mg/mL, cinnamon bark (91.4 ± 0.002%), origanum (86.66 ± 0.008%) and thyme wild (52.54 ± 0.016%) were shown to own the strongest DPPH free-radical scavenging activity. Their total phenolic contents were 658.40 ± 4.383, 1107.20 ± 0.768 and 275.50 ± 0.607 (μg GAE / 5 mg essential oil), respectively. To compare with the standard reference BHA (μg/mL), their EC50 were in the order: BHA (25.11 μg/mL) < cinnamon bark (90.63 μg/mL) <origanum (751.51 μg/mL). The photochemiluminescence assay was also employed to investigate the antioxidative capabilities of lipid-soluble substances (ACL). The results were as follow: cinnamon bark (133.9 ± 0.26 μmol trolox/g) > origanum (62.63 ± 1.73 μmol trolox/g) > theme wild (5.88 ± 0.16 μmol trolox/g). The chemical compositions of cinnamon bark, origanum and thyme wild were analyzed by GC-MS and followed by DPPH free-radical scavenging activity assay to confirm that eugenol, carvacrol and thymol were the major compositions contributing the antioxidative capabilities of the essential oils.