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Effect of combined resistance and endurance exercise training on regional fat loss

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Background: The present study tested the possibility of a localized fat mass (FM) reduction by means of training programmes focusing on specific bodily regions. Methods: Sixteen physically inactive women (age: 31±4; BMI: 27.5±2.1), randomly allocated to two groups, completed an 8 week training programme. In one group (UpBdResist) training sessions consisted of upper body resistance exercises followed by 30-minute cycling at 50%VO2max, while the other group (LwBdResist) performed lower body resistance exercises followed by 30 minutes on an arm-ergometer. Regional body composition was assessed by DEXA and skin fold measures. Results: Regardless of a similar reduction in both groups, UpBdResist training elicited a greater reduction of the upper limbs (UL) FM as compared to the lower limbs (LL) (Δ% UL vs. LL: -12.1±3.4 vs. -4.0±4.7; P=0.02). Conversely, in the LwBdResist group, FM loss was more pronounced in the LL as compared to the UL (Δ% UL vs. LL: -2.3±7.0 vs. -11.5±8.2, P=0.02). Likewise, LwBdResist elicited a larger effect on lean mass (LM) of the LL as compared to UL (Δ% LL vs. UL: +8.4±5.8 vs. -2.7±5.0, P<0.01), yet no differences between upper and lower limb LM changes were detected in UpBdResist group. Conclusions: The present data suggest that a training programme entailing localized explosive resistance exercise, prior to an endurance exercise bout, may target specific adipose tissue sites eliciting localised fat mass loss in the upper and lower limbs.
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794 THE JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS June 2017
Anno: 2017
Mese: June
Volume: 57
No: 6
Rivista: The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Cod Rivista: J Sports Med Phys Fitness
Lavoro: 6358-JSM
titolo breve: EXERCISE AND REGIONAL FAT LOSS
primo autore: SCOTTO di PALUMBO
pagine: 794-801
citazione: J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2017;57:794-801
of exercise as compared to gluteal 3 and clavicular SCAT,
even when aerobic exercise was conducted with the up-
per limb.4 Mechanisms underpinning such regional dif-
ferences have been identied in a site-specic sensitivity
to exercise-induced catecholamine stimulation, which
suggests an independent regulation of regional adipose
tissue depots.5 Hence, owing the consequent metabolic
implications of fat distribution modications, along with
the attraction of aesthetic body sculpting the hypothe-
sis of localised fat mass loss by targeted exercise (also
known as “spot slimming”) has gained interest overtime.
Adipose tissue distribution on human body appears
to strictly affect the pathophysiology of obesity
and related metabolic abnormalities.1 Along with the at-
tainment of a chronic energy decit, physical activity,
in the component of exercise training, exerts a pivotal
role in the prevention and treatment of weight gain and
obesity, by promoting the mobilisation and oxidation of
fatty acid stored in the adipose tissue (AT).2 However,
AT sites located in different body regions do not equally
respond to exercise. For instance, abdominal subcutane-
ous AT (SCAT) has been shown to be a preferential target
Effect of combined resistance and endurance
exercise training on regional fat loss
Alessandro SCOTTO di PALUMBO 1, Enrico GUERRA 2, Carmine ORLANDI 3,
Ilenia BAZZUCCHI 1, Massimo SACCHETTI 1 *
1Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences, “Foro Italico” University of Rome, Rome, Italy; 2ELAV Institute, Città di
Castello, Perugia, Italy; 3Tor Vergata University of Rome, Rome, Italy
*Corresponding author: Massimo Sacchetti, Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences, “Foro Italico” University of Rome, Piazza Lauro De
Bosis 6, 00135 Rome, Italy. E-mail: massimo.sacchetti@uniroma4.it
ABSTRACT
BACKGROUND: The present study tested the possibility of a localized fat mass (FM) reduction by means of training programmes focusing on
specic bodily regions.
METHODS: Sixteen physically inactive women (age: 31±4; BMI: 27.5±2.1), randomly allocated to two groups, completed an 8 week train-
ing programme. In one group (UpBdResist) training sessions consisted of upper body resistance exercises followed by 30-minute cycling at
50%VO2max, while the other group (LwBdResist) performed lower body resistance exercises followed by 30 minutes on an arm-ergometer.
Regional body composition was assessed by DEXA and skin fold measures.
RESULTS: Regardless of a similar reduction in both groups, UpBdResist training elicited a greater reduction of the upper limbs (UL) FM as
compared to the lower limbs (LL) (Δ% UL vs. LL: -12.1±3.4 vs. -4.0±4.7; P=0.02). Conversely, in the LwBdResist group, FM loss was more
pronounced in the LL as compared to the UL (Δ% UL vs. LL: -2.3±7.0 vs. -11.5±8.2, P=0.02). Likewise, LwBdResist elicited a larger effect on
lean mass (LM) of the LL as compared to UL (Δ% LL vs. UL: +8.4±5.8 vs. -2.7±5.0, P<0.01), yet no differences between upper and lower limb
LM changes were detected in UpBdResist group.
CONCLUSIONS: The present data suggest that a training programme entailing localized explosive resistance exercise, prior to an endurance
exercise bout, may target specic adipose tissue sites eliciting localised fat mass loss in the upper and lower limbs.
(Cite this article as: Scotto di Palumbo A, Guerra E, Orlandi C, Bazzucchi I, Sacchetti M. Effect of combined resistance and endurance exercise train-
ing on regional fat loss. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2017;57:794-801. DOI: 10.23736/S0022-4707.16.06358-1)
Key words: Weight loss - Exercise - Physical conditioning, human.
The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2017 June;57(6):794-801
DOI: 10.23736/S0022-4707.16.06358-1
© 2016 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA
Online version at http://www.minervamedica.it
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
BODY COMPOSITION, NUTRITION
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EXERCISE AND REGIONAL FAT LOSS SCOTTO di PALUMBO
Vol. 57 - No. 6 THE JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS 795
Lavoro: 6358-JSM
titolo breve: EXERCISE AND REGIONAL FAT LOSS
primo autore: SCOTTO di PALUMBO
pagine: 794-801
citazione: J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2017;57:794-801
limbs) on body composition, with particular regard to
fat mass (FM) distribution.
Materials and methods
Subjects
Twenty-two young women were enrolled according
to the following inclusion criteria: 1) age between 25
and 40 years; 2) BMI between 23 and 30 kg/m2; 3) not
physically active (less than 1hr/week); subjects were
also excluded if they were smokers, had high alcohol
intake, presented any chronic cardiovascular, metabol-
ic, pulmonary disease, or assumed any medications or
supplements.
Six subjects (3 per groups) did not complete the study.
Therefore, the entire protocol was completed by 8 sub-
jects per group. Subjects characteristics are reported in
Table I.
The study was approved by the Local Ethics Com-
mittee. Participants gave their written consent after be-
ing informed of the purpose of the research, the experi-
mental procedure, and the possible related benets and
risks of the study.
Experimental design
A randomised controlled trial with two intervention
groups was designed in order to determine the effect of
two different exercise training protocols on regional fat
distribution.
After a preliminary analysis, subjects were randomly
assigned to the two groups, which performed a 12-week
training programme conducted 3 times per week. The
training session of the rst group (UpBdResist, resis-
tance exercise for upper body) entailed a combination
of resistance exercises for the upper body, followed by
an aerobic exercise bout for the lower body. The sec-
ond group session (LwBdResist, resistance exercise for
lower body) consisted in a combination of resistance
exercises for the lower body, followed by an aerobic ex-
ercise bout for the upper body.
Procedures
Preliminary analysis
Subjects performed two preliminary sessions, 2 to 4
days apart. The rst session was held in the laboratory,
The question has been matter of debate for long.
The early observations of Olson and Eldelstein,6 who
detected a reduced skinfold in the arm undergoing re-
sistance exercise compared to the control arm, were not
supported by subsequent investigations.7-9 Neverthe-
less, the interest was renewed and supported by studies
adopting more accurate investigation techniques. Ko-
stek et al.10 for instance, failed to detect any signicant
regional SCAT reduction, as assessed by magnetic reso-
nance imaging, after 12 weeks of resistance training of
the non-dominant arm, in spite of a signicant skinfold
reduction. In contrast, data supporting the possibility of
regional lipolysis were reported by Stallknecht et al.,4
who found that during one-leg endurance exercise, adi-
pose tissue blood ow and interstitial glycerol concen-
tration were greater in the AT adjacent to the contracting
muscles, compared to the AT in the resting muscles.
Interestingly, in such a contradicted scenario, the im-
pact of different exercise types has not been thoroughly
investigated. Indeed, it is logic to assume that by re-
sponding to the entity of the stressing stimulus, physi-
ological adjustments to exercise are specic, i.e. the di-
verse components of exercise (duration, intensity, type,
modality, timing, nutritional status), differently and
specically affect metabolic pathways. As an instance,
high intensity resistance exercise elicits a large release
of catecholamines and other lipolytic mediators,11 yet
lower energy expenditure and fat oxidation,12 as com-
pared to aerobic endurance exercise. Moreover, differ-
ent exercise combinations/sequences may induce differ-
ent responses in terms of lipid utilisation. Indeed, it was
shown that lipolysis and fat oxidation were augmented
when aerobic exercise was preceded by a resistance
exercise bout,13 whereas a blunted growth hormone re-
sponse occurred when resistance exercise followed aer-
obic exercise.14 Furthermore, Kang et al.15 highlighted
the role of exercise intensity, by demonstrating that fat
oxidation during aerobic exercise was greater when pri-
or resistance exercise intensity was high.
Based on the abovementioned observations, it could
be hypothesized that the combination of diverse exer-
cise types, when performed in different bodily region,
may induce different effects on regional body compo-
sition. The aim of the present study was thus to elu-
cidate the effect of combining explosive resistance ex-
ercise with steady state endurance exercise, performed
separately in different body regions (lower limbs/upper
COPYRIGHT© 2017 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA
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(either sporadically or systematically, either printed or electronic) of the Article for any purpose. It is not permitted to distribute the electronic copy of the article through online internet and/or intranet file sharing systems, electronic mailing or any other
means which may allow access to the Article. The use of all or any part of the Article for any Commercial Use is not permitted. The creation of derivative works from the Article is not permitted. The production of reprints for personal or commercial use is
not permitted. It is not permitted to remove, cover, overlay, obscure, block, or change any copyright notices or terms of use which the Publisher may post on the Article. It is not permitted to frame or use framing techniques to enclose any trademark, logo,
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SCOTTO di PALUMBO EXERCISE AND REGIONAL FAT LOSS
796 THE JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS June 2017
lowed by 18 W increase in power output every minute
until either the criteria for documentation of VO2max
where met (plateau in VO2 despite increasing work
rate; reaching 95% of the age-predicted maximal HR)
or volitional exhaustion was reached. The pedal ca-
dence was kept constant at 60 rpm for the entire test
duration.
second session
Subjects arrived at the gym between 9.00 and 10.00
a.m., three hours after consuming a standardized break-
fast. In order to evaluate maximal strength, one repeti-
tion maximum (1RM) was assessed for each muscle
group involved in the training programme according
to the following order: chest press, low row, arm curl,
deltoids machine, triceps machine for UpBdResist, and
gluteus machine, seated leg curl, abductor machine, leg
extension, adductor machine for LwBdResist. After a
warm-up set of 10 repetitions at 50% of the predicted
1RM, the load was progressively increased by 5-10 kg
after each attempt until the subject was unable to per-
form a single lift. A rest interval of 2 minutes between
sets, and 5 minutes between different machines, was es-
tablished.
After a 30-minute rest, subjects performed an incre-
mental submaximal exercise test in order to identify
the workload corresponding to 50% VO2max previously
determined. UpBdResist group exercised on an elec-
tromagnetically braked cycle-ergometer (Excite + Top,
Technogym, Gambettola, Forlì-Cesena, Italy) whereas
LwBdResist group exercised on electromagnetically
braked cycle ergometer (Excite + Bike, Technogym,
Gambettola, Italy). Gas exchange were measured by a
portable Gas Analyser (K4b2, Cosmed, Italy). Air tem-
perature was kept constant among the different experi-
mental sessions.
The testing session was replicated at the end of week
6, in order to adjust the relative exercise workload.
exercise training Protocol
Training sessions were performed under the supervi-
sion of an exercise specialist. Subjects completed a re-
sistance circuit training consisting of 5 exercises on the
following isotonic machines (Technogym, Gambettola,
Italy): chest press, low row, arm curl, deltoids machine,
whilst the second in the gym where training sessions
were delivered.
First session
Participants were instructed to refrain from exercise
since two days preceding the rst experimental trial.
They arrived at the laboratory between 08.00 and 09.00
a.m. after an overnight fast.
anthroPometry
Height and weight were measured by, respectively,
a stadiometer and a medical scale. Skinfold thickness
were measured at triceps and front thigh by a Harpen-
den skinfold caliper. The average of three readings was
recorded. Measurements were entirely conducted by the
same investigator.
dexa analysis
DEXA (Lunar iDXA, GE Healthcare, Little Chalfont,
UK) was used to assess body composition. To dene
regional body composition, the trunk was divided from
the upper limb by a line passing through the humeral
head and the apex of the axilla, and from the lower limb
by a line passing from the iliac crest to the perineum.
At the end of the DEXA assessment, subjects consumed
a standard snack (8 kJ*kg-1: 55% CHO, 20% protein,
25% fat).
incremental maximal test
Thirty minutes after the snack, maximal aerobic
power was measured adopting a graded maximal aero-adopting a graded maximal aero-
bic power test performed on a mechanical braked cycle
ergometer (Monark 894E, Monark Exercise, Vansbro,
Sweden). Throughout the test, respiratory gases were
measured breath by breath usinga portable gas analy-
ser (K4b2, Cosmed, Cernusco sul Naviglio, Milan,
Italy). Before testing, the O2 and CO2 analyzers were
calibrated with gases of know concentrations (15.1%
oxygen, 5.0% carbon dioxide), and a 3-L syringe was
adopted to calibrate the turbine Environmental condi-
tions were monitored by a portable thermo-hygrometer
(BAR208HG, Oregon Scientic, Taulatin, OR, USA).
The test started with a 6-minute warm-up at 50 W, fol-
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EXERCISE AND REGIONAL FAT LOSS SCOTTO di PALUMBO
Vol. 57 - No. 6 THE JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS 797
way repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine
main (training regime, bodily region) and interaction ef-
fects. When interaction effects were observed, between
groups and between districts effects were detected by
one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with base-
line values as covariates, and within group (same dis-
trict) effects were detected by paired samples T-test.
Signicance was set at α level of 0.05. Cohen’s d was
used to calculate the effect size between two means.
Values are reported as means±SD.
Results
Subjects characteristics are reported in Table I. No
signicant difference between groups was detected at
baseline.
training comPliance
Of the 22 volunteers initially enrolled in the train-
ing programme, 16 completed the post-treatment as-
sessment (72%). Three subjects withdrew for personal
reasons, including lack of time and other concomitant
commitments. One subject entered a hypo-caloric diet
and failed to comply with dietary activity pattern, and
two subjects were not compliant with the training pro-
gramme. Compliance was set at 85% of the session held.
Changes in body composition over the 12-week train-
ing period are reported in Table II.
Whole body
Total body mass did not change signicantly after the
training programme in both groups (Δ% UpBdResist vs.
LwBdResist -1.1±3.8; -1.0±4.5). FM signicantly de-
creased after the training period in both groups with no
effect of different training regime. Lean mass (LM) did
not change in both groups as compared to baseline.
triceps machine for the UpBdResist group; gluteus ma-
chine, seated leg curl, abductor machine, leg extension,
adductor machine for the LwBdResist group. For each
exercise, 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 60% 1RM were per-
formed requiring the subjects to provide the maximal
contraction velocity, with a 30 seconds inter-set recov-
ery, in an effort to induce the maximal power output for
any specic movement 16 and to increase the metabolic
stress.11, 17 At the completion of the circuit, the same
sequence was repeated for a second time.
Resistance exercise was followed by a 30-minute
aerobic exercise conducted at an intensity correspond-
ing to 50% VO2max. UpBdResist exercised at the cycle-
ergometer whilst LwBdResist at the arm-ergometer. En-
durance exercise intensity was set as reported to elicit
maximal fat oxidation in untrained women.18
In order to detect the regional effect of exercise type,
resistance exercise was performed with the UL by Up-
BdResist, and with the LL by LwBdResist. Conversely,
endurance exercise was conducted with the UL by LwB-
dResist, and with the LL by UpBdResist at the same
exercise intensity (50% VO2max previously determined
at the cycle-ergometer) to provoke similar energy ex-
penditure between groups. A 10-minutes warm-up and
a 5-minutes cool down period were performed at the
beginning and at the end of each training session.
dietary intake and Physical activity
Subjects were asked to maintain their usual dietary
pattern and physical activity level throughout the pro-
gramme. A four days food-diary (two week days and
two weekend days) and a physical activity log were ad-
ministered at baseline, at week 6, and at week 12.
Post-training analysis
Three days after the last training session, participants
replicated the pre-treatment assessment with the excep-
tion of the maximal oxygen uptake test.
Statistical analysis
Statistical analysis was performed using the Statis-
tical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS for Mac,
version 20). Baseline group differences were assessed
using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). A two
table i.—Subjects characteristics at baseline.
Variable UpBdResist LwBdResist
N. 8 8
Age, yr 32±4 30±4
Height, m 1.63±0.04 1.64±0.09
Body Mass, kg 70.3±7.0 71.7±8.7
BMI, kg*m-2 27.7±2.3 27.4±1.9
VO2max, mL*kg*min-1 26.4±2.7 26.1±3.0
Values are reported as means±SD.
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SCOTTO di PALUMBO EXERCISE AND REGIONAL FAT LOSS
798 THE JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS June 2017
nicantly decreased in both groups with a larger effect
of UpBdResist training.
loWer limbs
FM and LM were respectively augmented and attenu-
ated in LwBdResist as compared to baseline, whereas
no signicant change was observed in UpBdResist.
Thigh skinfold was reduced in both groups with a larger
effect of LwBdResist training regime.
Changes in total and regional FM and LM as results
of the training program are depicted in Figures 1, 2.
trunk
FM and LM, as assessed by DEXA, were not signi-
cantly affected by time or by different training regimes
in the trunk region.
uPPer limbs
UpBdResist training elicited a reduction in upper
limbs (UL) FM, along with a tendency toward an in-
crease in UL LM (P=0.06), whilst no signicant chang-
es were observed in LwBdResist. Triceps skinfold sig-
table ii.—Changes in body composition over the 12-week training period.
UpBdResist LwBdResist UpBdResist vs.
LwBdResist
Variable Pre Post ΔPEffect
size (d) Pre Post ΔPEffect
size (d) PEffect
size (d)
Body mass, kg 70.3±7.0 69.5±7.4 -0.7±2.6 0.48 -0.68 71.7±8.7 70.8±8.7 -0.9±3.1 0.45 -0.05 0.91 0.10
Fat mass, kg (DEXA)
Upper limb 3.1±0.9 2.8±0.9 -0.4±0.3 0.01 -0.33 3.5±1.3 3.4±1.3 -0.1±0.1 0.24 -0.07 0.03 1.34
Lower Limb 9.8±2.8 9.5±3.1 -0.3±0.9 0.49 -0.10 11.0±2.5 9.7±2.4 -1.3± 0.9 0.01 -0.53 0.05 1.11
Trunk 15.1±2.6 14.1±3.4 -1.0±1.4 0.09 -0.33 14.1±4.0 13.5±3.7 -0.6±1.1 0.19 -0.15 0.54 0.31
Whole Body 28.8±4.9 27.1±5.7 -1.7±1.8 0.05 -0.32 29.3±5.4 27.3±4.6 -2.0±2.0 0.04 -0.20 0.75 0.15
Lean mass, kg (DEXA)
Upper limb 4.4±0.6 4.7±0.5 0.3±0.4 0.06 0.54 4.7±1.3 4.6±1.2 -0.1±0.3 0.23 -0.07 0.02 1.13
Lower limb 13.6±0.9 14.0±1.0 0.4±0.2 0.40 0.42 14.0±3.1 15.1±3.0 1.1±0.7 0.01 0.36 0.20 1.35
Trunk 19.4±2.2 19.2±1.8 -0,2±0.8 0.63 -0.09 19.3±3.9 19.5±3.6 0.2±0.8 0.55 0.05 0.44 0.5
Total 39.2±3.5 40.4±3.1 1.2±2.3 0.23 0.36 39.9±6.6 41.2±6.2 1.2±1.6 0.09 0.20 0.93 0.04
Skinfold
Triceps 25.3±3.9 22.4±3.2 -2.9±2.6 <0.01 -0.81 25.9±2.1 24.7±2.0 -1.4±0.5 <0.01 -0.58 0.02 0.47
Thigh 24.9±3.4 23.6±3.6 -1.3±0.5 <0.01 -0.37 24.4±2.6 21.7±2.4 -2.7±1.2 <0.01 -1.07 0.02 1.52
Figure 1.—Changes in total and regional fat mass after the 12-week
exercise training programme in the UpBdResist (black bars) and LwB-
dResist (gray bars) group.
*Signicant between-group difference; §signicant within-group differ-
ence compared to fat mass in the leg.
Figure 2.—Changes in total and regional lean mass after the 12-week
exercise training programme in the UpBdResist (black bars) and LwB-
dResist (gray bars) group.
*Signicant between-group difference; §signicant within-group differ-
ence compared to lean mass in the leg.
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EXERCISE AND REGIONAL FAT LOSS SCOTTO di PALUMBO
Vol. 57 - No. 6 THE JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS 799
Nevertheless, it is noteworthy that the exercise pro-
tocol adopted in the present investigation was different
from those used in the aforementioned studies, which
may relate to the discrepancies observed. Indeed, the
specicity of the exercise response was highlighted in an
elegant study by Stallknecht et al.,4 comparing one-leg
knee extension exercise at different exercise intensities
using the microdialysis and 133Xe washout technique, in
which they showed that lipolysis in SCAT adjacent to
contracting muscle was acutely stimulated by exercise
and associated with an increased adipose tissue blood
ow. Notably, leg SCAT lipolysis was higher at the
highest exercise intensity (85% Wmax), along with an in-
creased arterial epinephrine concentration. In this vein,
Trapp et al.20 compared the effect of steady state cycling
exercise training at 60% VO2max with a high intensity
intermittent cycling exercise on adipose tissue and its
distribution in young women. DEXA analysis revealed
that leg adipose tissue was signicantly reduced in the
high intensity exercise group, but not in the steady state
exercise as well as in the control group. These observa-
tions seem to promote the role of exercise intensity as
a master switch of spot lypolisis. Supporting this hy-
pothesis are the results of Wilmore et al.21 and Staron
et al.,22 who reported a regional SCAT loss after a re-
sistance training intervention ranging from 70 to 90%
1RM, apparently in contrast with Treuth et al.,23 train-
ing at 50-67% 1RM, and Ramirez Campillo,19 training
at 10-30% 1RM, who failed to detect differences.
Investigation techniques adopted in the present work
do not enable to determine the mechanisms underpin-
ning the described effects, yet sole speculations can be
advanced. It is currently known that the lypolitic stim-
ulus is mediated by a complex endocrine, paracrine,
and autocrine response, with catecholamine, GH, and
atrial natriuretic peptide exerting a pivotal role, along
with a reduction in insulin concentration.24 Overall, ly-
politic hormones release reects the acute demand of
the stressor and is thus strictly related to exercise inten-
sity.25 In the present work, resistance exercise program,
entailing high velocity contractions with short rest pe-
riods, was designed to elicit a strong catecholamine re-
sponse and, eventually, the lipolytic stimulus. However,
circulating hormones inuence all adipose tissue depots
and not selectively adipose tissue adjacent to contract-
ing muscles. Indeed, it is ascribed to an increased blood
ow in adipose tissue adjacent to contracting muscles
ul versus loWer limbs
UpBdResist training elicited a greater effect on FM
in the UL as compared to the lower limbs (LL) (P=0.02,
d=1.97), whilst no regional differences were detected in
terms of LM (P=0.14) between UL and LL. Conversely,
in LwBdResist, LL FM and LL LM changed more pro-
nouncedly as compared to UL (FM P=0.02, d=1.21; LM
P<0.01 d=2.04). Arm skinfold variation, as compared
with thigh skinfold, was larger in UpBdResist (P=0.04
d=1.48), yet smaller in LwBdResist (P=0.01 d=1.74).
dietary intake
No signicant differences were detected in terms
of total energy intake in both groups after treatment
(UpBdResist, pre vs. post: 11899±1384 kJ*d-1 vs. 11673
kJ±1950 kJ*d-1; LwBdResist, pre vs. post: 12200±1464
kJ*d-1 vs. 12473 kJ±1754 kJ*d-1).
Discussion
The main purpose of the present study was to test the
effect of exercise type and localisation on regional fat
distribution. We observed that upper and lower limb
subcutaneous adipose tissue was affected in a different
fashion by the different exercise regimes, with the re-
gions undergoing prior resistance exercise experiencing
a greater fat mass reduction.
In spite of a non-signicant reduction in body weight,
whole body fat mass, measured by DEXA, decreased
similarly in both groups, albeit presenting different dis-
tribution. Indeed, treatment effect was greater in body
districts performing resistance training and differed sig-
nicantly between groups when matching according to
body region, as well as within groups when comparing
the UL with the LL.
Skinfold data corroborate what detected by DEXA,
i.e. a signicant greater reduction obtained at the triceps
by UpBdResist, and at the thigh by LwBdResist.
Such observations promote the suggestion that spe-
cic exercise programmes may affect adipose depots in
a selective manner. Intriguingly, they appear in contrast
with the classical studies which negate the possibility
for a spot FM reduction by exercise training.7-10 Like-
wise, a recent investigation 19 failed to detect differ-
ences in FM of the non-dominant leg after 12 weeks of
one-leg resistance training at 10% to 30% 1RM.
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(either sporadically or systematically, either printed or electronic) of the Article for any purpose. It is not permitted to distribute the electronic copy of the article through online internet and/or intranet file sharing systems, electronic mailing or any other
means which may allow access to the Article. The use of all or any part of the Article for any Commercial Use is not permitted. The creation of derivative works from the Article is not permitted. The production of reprints for personal or commercial use is
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SCOTTO di PALUMBO EXERCISE AND REGIONAL FAT LOSS
800 THE JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS June 2017
sity of 50%VO2max measured at the cycle-ergometer.
Thus, as arm cranking exercise has been reported to
elicit a ~20% lower maximal aerobic capacity 28 as
compared to cycling, it is plausible that LwBdResist,
maintained a relative intensity around 65% VO2peak of
the arm cranking, which may have provoked a stronger
adrenergic and glycolytic response.29 However, a com-
pensatory mechanism in fat utilisation during recovery
has been reported after after exercise at higher intensity,
i.e. the higher the exercise intensity, the greater the fat
oxidation during the following recovery period.25
Conclusions
In conclusion, the present data suggest that a train-
ing programme involving localized explosive resis-
tance exercise, combined with subsequent endurance
exercise bout, may target specic adipose tissue sites,
opening to the possibility that appendicular fat mass
in young women may respond to combined resistance
(explosive) and endurance exercise training depending
on where the former is applied. However, it remains to
be addressed whether the effect of exercise on spot fat
reduction is related to specic body district targeted in
the present investigation, or it may also occur in other
body regions.
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(either sporadically or systematically, either printed or electronic) of the Article for any purpose. It is not permitted to distribute the electronic copy of the article through online internet and/or intranet file sharing systems, electronic mailing or any other
means which may allow access to the Article. The use of all or any part of the Article for any Commercial Use is not permitted. The creation of derivative works from the Article is not permitted. The production of reprints for personal or commercial use is
not permitted. It is not permitted to remove, cover, overlay, obscure, block, or change any copyright notices or terms of use which the Publisher may post on the Article. It is not permitted to frame or use framing techniques to enclose any trademark, logo,
or other proprietary information of the Publisher.
EXERCISE AND REGIONAL FAT LOSS SCOTTO di PALUMBO
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Conicts of interest.—The authors certify that there is no conict of interest with any nancial organization regarding the material discussed in the manuscript.
Manuscript accepted: May 20, 2016. - Manuscript revised: May 6, 2016. - Manuscript received: December 16, 2015.
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... A pesar que estos resultados fueron superiores a los obtenidos en nuestra investigación, nuestros datos apuntan igualmente hacia una mejora global de la composición corporal, es decir, aumento de la masa libre de grasa y disminución del tejido adiposo. Otros autores apoyan esta afirmación, señalando que el orden de ejercicio realizado (resistencia y fuerza) es independiente del resultado alcanzado (Kilen et al., 2021), mientras que otros autores observaron una mayor disminución en el porcentaje de grasa corporal cuando se realizaron ejercicios de fuerza seguido por entrenamiento aeróbico (Scotto et al., 2017). En este contexto y confirmando los resultados obtenidos, al comparar los efectos con un estudio realizado en mujeres universitarias donde se aplicó entrenamiento concurrente durante 11 semanas con una frecuencia semanal de 3 días, se aprecia una ddisminución del porcentaje de grasa corporal (-5,7 %) (Davis et al., 2008), resultados similares pero inferiores a los obtenidos en nuestro estudio (-7,01 %). ...
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Background: The notion that specific exercises reduce localized adipose tissue depots (i.e., targeted fat loss) and modify fat distribution is commonly termed spot reduction. According to this long-held popular belief, exercising a limb would lead to greater reduction in the adjacent adipose tissue in comparison to the contralateral limb. Aside from popular wisdom, scientific evidence from the 20th and 21th century seems to offer inconclusive results. Objective: To summarize the peer-reviewed literature assessing the effects of unilateral limb training, compared to the contralateral limb, on the localized adipose tissue depots on healthy participants, and to meta-analyse its results. Methods: We followed the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and SCOPUS electronic databases, using several relevant keywords combinations. Independent experts were contacted to help identify additional relevant articles. Following a PICOS approach, we included controlled studies that incorporated a localized exercise intervention (i.e., single-limb training) to cohorts of healthy participants (i.e., no restriction for fitness, age, or sex), compared to a control condition (i.e., contralateral limb), where the main outcome was the pre-to-post intervention change of localized fat. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. Pre- and post-intervention mean ± standard deviation for fat-related outcome from the trained and control groups (limbs) were converted to Hedges’ g effect size (ES; with 95% confidence intervals [CI]), using a random-effects model. The impact of heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 statistic. The risk of reporting bias was explored using the extended Egger’s test. The statistical significance threshold was set at p < 0.05. Results: From 1,833 search records initially identified, 13 were included in the meta-analysis, involving 1,158 male and female participants (age, 14-71 years). The 13 studies achieved a high methodological quality, and results with low heterogeneity (I2 = 24.3%) and no bias (Egger’s test p = 0.133). The meta-analysis involved 37 comparisons, with 17 of these favouring (i.e., greater reduction of localized fat) the trained limb, and 20 favouring the untrained limb, but the ES ranged between -1.21 to 1.07. The effects were consistent, with a pooled ES = -0.03, 95% CI -0.10 to 0.05, p = 0.508, meaning that spot reduction was not observed. Conclusion: Localized muscle training has no effect on localized adipose tissue depots, i.e., no spot reduction, regardless of the characteristics of the population and of the exercise program. The popular belief on spot reduction is probably derived from wishful thinking, and convenient marketing strategies, such as influencers seeking increased popularity and procedures’ sellers interested in increasing advertising.
... On the latter, most of the studies used skinfolds to evaluate changes after training [20][21][22][23][24][25]; recent comparative studies indicated that skinfold measurements do not permit accurate evaluation of SAT thickness because it is operator-dependent and influenced by anatomical site and skin thickness [28,29]. Regarding training modalities, it is well known that combining in the same training session endurance and strength exercises may exert a greater effect on total body fat loss [30] and, as recently demonstrated, and it might also have some positive effects on regional fat loss [31]. However, the effects of an alternation of strength and endurance training (mixed circuit training: MCT) has, until now, not been investigated. ...
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Accumulation of adipose tissue in specific body areas is related to many physiological and hormonal variables. Spot reduction (SR) is a training protocol aimed to stimulate lipolysis locally, even though this training protocol has not been extensively studied in recent years. Thus, the present study sought to investigate the effect of a circuit-training SR on subcutaneous adipose tissue in healthy adults. Methods: Fourteen volunteers were randomly assigned to spot reduction (SR) or to a traditional resistance training (RT) protocol. Body composition via bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and subcutaneous adipose tissue via skinfold and ultrasound were measured before and after eight weeks of training. Results: SR significantly reduced body mass (p < 0.05) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (p < 0.05). Conclusions: circuit-training SR may be an efficient strategy to reduce in a localized manner abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue depot.
... There is some debate about changes of body composition and blood profile after exercise. 4,[18][19][20][21][22][23][24] Various observations have suggested that specific exercise programs can affect muscle mass and fat mass. 4,22,23 However, other observations negated the possibility of im- 20 showed no significant differences in lipid profile after 6 weeks or 8 weeks of exercise compared to baseline. ...
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... Dumbbells, rubber exercise tubing, one's own body weight, bricks or any other objects that causes the muscles to contract can be used as external resistance [91]. RT has been proved to be beneficial for humans, including delaying aging [92], reducing fat mass and changing body shape [93], alleviating injury and pain in muscle [94], burning calories [95], preventing and treating metabolic syndrome [96] as well as bone-related diseases [97]. The present review will focus on its function of building muscle strength and mass to prevent and manage sarcopenia in elder people. ...
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... For the above, considering the main reasons to practice any sport or physical activity (health and fitness) (Damásio, et al., 2016;European Commission, 2018;Fermino, et al., 2010), the growing number of sport participants in health or fitness centers (European Commission, 2018) and the fitness trends for 2018 (Veiga, et al., 2018) in a specific context (Spain), the objectives of this investigation were: (1) analyze the benefits of different 8-week fitness programs on health parameters (weight, fat mass, fat-free mass); and (2) analyze the benefits of different 8-week fitness programs on fitness parameters (maximum upper strength, explosive lower strength). These health and fitness parameters were selected from the ACSM (2017) guidelines for exercise testing and prescription, and the research methodology followed in similar and recent studies (Grenlee, et al., 2017;Hermassi, et al., 2017;Illán, et al., 2018;Oliveira, et al., 2017;Savkin & Aslan, 2017;Scotto di Palumbo, Guerra, Orlandi, Bazzucchi, & Sacchetti, 2017). ...
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The adrenergic regulation of lipolysis was studied, before and after 30 min of submaximal exercise, in isolated adipocytes removed from the abdominal and gluteal regions of healthy non-obese men and women. Noradrenaline-induced lipolysis was significantly enhanced in gluteal adipocytes from men but not in women after exercise. However, the pure beta-adrenergic responsiveness was equally increased in gluteal adipocytes of both sexes after exercise, as judged by the effect of isoprenaline. Furthermore, the alpha 2-adrenergic anti-lipolytic responsiveness was more apparent after exercise in females than in males thereby counter-balancing the increase in the beta-adrenergic effect in the gluteal region in the former. The increased beta-adrenergic responsiveness induced by exercise in gluteal adipocytes of males could be mimicked by agents acting at the levels of adenylate cyclase, coupling proteins, phosphodiesterase, and protein kinase and seems to be due to an adaptive enhancement at the hormone-sensitive-lipase level. There was no change in the stoichiometric properties of beta-adrenoceptors of gluteal adipocytes after exercise. Abdominal adipocytes of both sexes were four to five times more responsive to noradrenaline than gluteal ones. However, exercise induced no further enhancement of the catecholamine-stimulated lipolysis rate in fat cells from this site. Thus, the influence of exercise on catecholamine-stimulated lipolysis is regional and sex dependent. Men, but not women, have a greater ability to adapt lipolysis to increasing energy demands during exercise that are due to an acute increase in the effectiveness of the hormone-sensitive lipase complex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)