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Abstract

Crataegus species are known by their biological effects for many years. Crataegus monogyna Jacq. flowers have been ethnomedically used in different parts of Turkey for their many biological effects such as against tachycardia and sedative, antihypertensive, antispasmodic and diuretic. In addition to the widespread use of Crataegus species, many pharmacopoeias and monografts are registered, and a large number of in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies have been carried out with respect to bioactivity and mechanism of action. In vitro, leaves and fruits of Crataegusspecies have also been shown to exhibit antioxidant. However, these properties are influenced by the type of plant organ, the harvest season, the species and the geographical origin. In this contex, different extracts of ripe flowers of Crataegus monogyna (CM) collected from natural habitats on the limit of Konya/Seydişehir-Turkey at September 2015 were evaluated for their antioxidant capacity. Rutin contents was determined as 2.68 μg/ml in ethanolic extract of Crataegus monogyna Jacq., % ABTS· radical scavenging activity of the extract is 78.80±4.09 and 1.080±0.08 μg trolox/mg extract in CUPRAC method. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that flowers of Crataegus monogyna provide considerable antioxidant protection and can be suitable raw material for the medicine, food and cosmetic industries.
ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF CRATAEGUS MONOGYNA L. FLOWERS
Gözde ELGİN CEBE1*, Selin AKTAR1, Sibel KONYALIOĞLU2
1Ege University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, 35100, Bornova, İzmir
2Ege University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Biochemistry, 35100, Bornova
Introduce
Crataegus monogyna    
      
       
   
    !"#$
%  Crataegus   & 

      
  '  
()*+ *$,
   '   
     
       

Material and Methods:
Plant material: -   Crataegus
monogyna    
./01 *+ 2   3 
       
      
     *24526($  &

Chemical Reagents: 7  
.47
Apparatus: .89:4.
  ' 
;   
.&7
<;7 *2+=<(
Preperation of Extracts:
   >    *+ =84 
3= ? '     '
 '     5  7
 '      
    ?' 
.'
'   = =4:7<4:
5'


HPLC Method:
     =<( 

Solvent A: @+2ASolvent
B: 7(B
Max pressure: *2+++  Column oven
temperature: #26(
Scan Wavelength: *++4#++  Column:
Syncronis ( "Analysis Time: 5,
Working Wave Length: *2C5D+*C+
Automatic Sampler Temp: %
Antioxidant Activity:
ABTS
+ Radical Scavenging Method
 7. E  7.  
7.FG$    C#5   
4 $       
7.**H484
54 884D4 $$ I
   '    
'$>
     
8
The CUPRAC (Cupric reducing antioxidant power)
assay:
  '  '  ' 
(.,#   7 5+  
#2+I(II$
 (I$     
' %  '    ' 
'
Results and Discussion
In vitroCrataegus 
   ' '  =
        
       
I''
   Crataegus monogyna  
10./4
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      % 
*D"+""
J0   '   Crataegus monogyna
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  '  C""+L#+!  +"+L++" J
'0'(
I        
  Crataegus monogyna  
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... C. monogyna is also known as common hawthorn, an edible plant which possesses various biological and medicinal properties (Prinz et al., 2007). In C. monogyna, leaves, flowers and fruits are habitually utilised for treating heart alignments (Konyalioglu, Cebe and Aktar, 2017). C. monogyna is also used to treat digestive ailments, kidney stones and dyspnea. ...
Article
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Crataegus monogyna plants are well known for their medicinal property. Extraction and identification of compounds rich in antioxidant present in C. monogyna is the main focus of this research paper. Firstly, solid-liquid extraction of different plant parts (leaves, flowers and fruits) of C. monogyna using different solvents (aqueous, ethanol and methanol) was conducted to identify the suitable plant part and solvent type that contributed to the maximum yield of total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS)). Upon extraction, liquid-liquid partition using solvent with different polarities (water, n-hexane and chloroform) was conducted prior to fractionation of antioxidant compounds. Bioassay-guided fractionation of antioxidant compounds from the most antioxidant-rich plant part of C. monogyna was conducted using chromatographic methods and the antioxidant compounds were identified via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) analysis. Lastly, the cardiac activity of the most antioxidant-rich fraction was investigated using the H9c2 rat myoblast cardiac cell line. As results, solid-liquid extraction of different plant parts of C. monogyna using different solvents revealed that the fruit of C. monogyna extracted with ethanol had the highest TPC (0.070 mg GAE/g), antioxidant activity (DPPH 90.35% and ABTS 71.37%) and crude extract yield (0.49±0.05g). Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract afforded twelve fractions (F1 to F12) and F9 presented the highest antioxidant values (DPPH 46.14% and ABTS 45.06%) and TPC (28±0.002 mg GAE/g). GC-MS/MS profiling of F9 revealed eleven antioxidant compounds and five major compounds as 2-(3,4 dihydroxy phenyl)-3,5,7-trihydroxychromen-4-one (19.46%), 1H-1,2,3,4-Tetrazol-5-amine,1-ethyl-N-[(1-methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)methyl]-) (11.24%), benzenesulfonamide, N-[[5-(aminomethyl)-2-furanyl]methyl]-(8.21%), 4-Nonylphenol (8.01%) and 1,3,2-Dioxathiolane-4-methanol, 2-oxide (7.49%). The findings of current research conclude that the antioxidant compounds present in the most antioxidant-rich plant part of C. monogyna (fruit) are polar in nature and are majority phenols. Fraction F9 shows an effective cell viability percentage (99.5%) against H9c2 cells on a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that C. monogyna ethanol fruit extract possesses therapeutic potential against rat myoblast cells. In conclusion, C. monogyna fruit is an excellent alternative of natural antioxidant.
... and flavonoid (vitexin 2 0 '-Orhamnoside, acetylvitexin 2 0 '-O-rhamnoside, and hyperoside) (Kirakosyan et al. 2003). In Turkey, the major compound is rutin in the ethanol extract of the flowers of Crataegus monogyna Jacq as 2.68 mg/ml and provides considerable antioxidant activity (78.80 ± 4.09) (Konyalioglu et al. 2017). ...
Article
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Crataegus monogyna is an important plant of the Rosaceae family, widely used in traditional medicine to treat various conditions such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, asthma, and nephritis. The aim of the current study was to assess the chemical composition, antioxidant, and antibacterial activity of leaves’ extracts against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The total amounts of polyphenols and flavonoids contained in the dry extracts of plants were estimated by colorimetric methods. DPPH assay was utilized to measure the antioxidant activity of C. monogyna. The phytochemical compounds were determined through HPLC technique, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ethanol extract was performed using the broth dilution method. The ethanol extract represented the richest extract in polyphenol with 473.4 mg GAE g⁻¹ and flavonoids 80.9 mg CE g⁻¹ and showed considerable antioxidant potential IC50 =22.50 µg/ml. The antibacterial susceptibility test against Staphylococcus aureus 0.512 mg/mL.
... Hawthorn extracts have proved to be beneficial to the nervous system and are used against migraines, memory loss and calming, thus on that way improving overall condition of the organism (Elango & Devaraj, 2010;Zhang et al., 2004;Novais et al., 2004). Due to the presence of different types of bioactive components, the extracts of leaves, flowers, and fruits of this plant species exhibit extraordinary antioxidant activity (Keser et al., 2014;Konyalioglu et al., 2017;Özcan et al., 2005). ...
Article
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Considering the facts that phenolic compounds have many pharmacological effects, as well that antioxidant effect of phenolic compounds has been proven in various experimental systems, aim of this research was to determine the content of total phenols and flavonoids and evaluation of antioxidant activity in ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of fruits and leaves of the plant species Crataegus monogya Jacq., which is known as common hawthorn. The content of total phenolic compounds was determined by the spectrophotometric method using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the content of flavonoids was determined using aluminum chloride. In vitro evaluation of the antioxidant activity of tested extracts was performed using the DPPH method. The amount of total phenolics was varied in fruits and leaves extracts and ranged from 38.05 ± 0.18 to 365.11 ± 0.32 mg GAE/g dw. Ethyl acetate extract of hawthorn leaves showed the highest content of phenolic compounds (365.11 ± 0.32 mg GAE/g dw). The flavonoid content was different in the fruits and leaves of hawthorn and ranged from 21.11 ± 0.11 to 122.98 ± 0.21 mg RU/g dw, whereby the highest content of flavonoids was found in ethyl acetate extract of leaves (122.98 ± 0.21 mg RU/g dw). Antioxidant activity of the tested extracts was expressed as IC50 values and ranged from 5.53 ± 0.08 to 293.51 ± 0.28 μg/ml. Ethyl acetate extract of hawthorn leaves showed considerable antioxidant potential (IC50 = 5.53 ± 0.08 μg/ml). Based on the obtained results, a significant correlation was found between the antioxidant activity and the content of total phenolics and flavonoids compounds in hawthorn fruits and leaves extracts.
... In our study the radical scavenging properties of hawthorn extracts from fruits and flowers evaluated by DPPH method showed highest results than previous report of Borros et al., [8]. It was also demonstrated that ethanolic extract of Crataegus monogyna Jacq., showed promising antioxidant activity by ABTS and CUPRAC methods [37]. Therefore, these three medicinal plants can be considered as the best sources of antioxidants for future application in food formula. ...
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Full-text available
The aim of the current study was to determine the biologically active substance in different extracts from five medicinal plants collected from the Rhodopes mountain: thyme (Thymus vulgaris L), St John's wort (Hypericum perforatym L), cotton thistle (Onopordum acanthium), common hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) and common juniper (Juniperus communis) and to evaluate their antioxidant potential. Three types of extracts were prepared with water, 50% ethanol and 70 % ethanol. The content of total phenols, total flavonoids, total chlorophylls, total carotenoids and total fructans were analyzed. The antioxidant activity of extracts were evaluated by two assays DPPH and FRAP. From the obtained results fructans were found only in flowering heads extracts of cotton thistle (Onopordum acanthium)-0.8 g/100 g dw plant material. The highest values of total chlorophylls and total carotenoids were detected in 70 % ethanol extracts from common hawthorn flowers (1897.2 and 266.3 μg/g dry extract, respectively). The 50 % ethanol extracts of St John's wort and thyme were characterized as rich sources of total phenols-above 200 mg GAE/g dry extract, while 50 % ethanol extract from flowering heads extracts of cotton thistle demonstrated the highest total flavonoids content-100 mg QE/g dry extract. All extracts obtained by St John's wort and thyme showed the highest antioxidant potential (from 2000 to 2800 mM TE/g dry extracts). Extracts form thyme, St John's wort, cotton thistle and flowers of common hawthorn dominated significantly above all investigated plants. These four medicinal plants showed their application in food and cosmetic formulas with potential beneficial healthy effect.
Article
Crataegus is a genus of well-known medicinal plants that comprises numerous species with various biological activities. Determination of chemical composition and antioxidant activity of some endemic species of this genus could lead to the finding potentially active compounds. This work presents the first phytochemical investigation of endemic species Crataegus microphylla Koch subsp. malyana K. I. Chr. & Janjić from Bosnia. Etanolic extracts of leaves with flowers and berries were prepared by ultrasound and Soxhlet extractions. The results of HPLC-ED analysis of plant extracts revealed the highest content of gallic acid, caffeic acid, and hyperoside in leaves with flowers prepared by Soxhlet extraction 0.04 mg GAE/g DW, 0.60 mg CA/g DW and 2.61 mg HYP/g DW, respectively. The content of total phenolic compounds, determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method, varied from 2.47 to 13.35 mg GAE/g DW. Total flavonoid content was determined using AlCl3 method. The content of flavonoids ranged 0.01-1.09 mg QE/g DW. The ABTS and DPPH assays were used for the evaluation of antioxidant activity of plant extract. The extract that showed the best antioxidant activity for DPPH antioxidant assay was extract of leaves with flowers prepared by Soxhlet extraction (IC50 0.78 mg/mL). For ABTS method extract of berries prepared by Soxhlet extraction showed the best antioxidant activity (IC50 0.39 mg/mL).
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