Clinico-demographic profile among female with alcohol related problems in the eastern part of Nepal

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p> Background: Alcohol can affect anyone. It is not prejudicial towards any race, colour, sex, religion or economic level. It affects individual’s life, personal relationship, health and occupational functioning.1 Alcohol is estimated to cause a net harm of 3.7% of all deaths and 4.4% of the global burden of disease.3 This study will provide baseline data and pave way for further studies and broaden the implication for the management and control of alcohol related problems in female. Objective: To provide baseline data about the clinico-demographic profile of the female with alcohol related problems. Method: A semi- structured proforma was designed to collect the data. A total of 51 female patients participated in the study after giving their written informed consent. Result: The maximum number of patients were in the age group of 41-50 (37.2%); followed by the age group 31-40 (31.3%). The mean age was 42.63 ± 11.11 years. The predominant caste was Rai 33.3% followed by Limbu 19.6%. All the cases were Hindus by religion. Most of the cases were married (82.3%) housewives, (56.8%) with nuclear family (68.6%) and illiterate (58.8%). The age of first alcohol intake was 17.45±9.45 years, total duration of use 24.86±14.7. Family custom (56.88%) was the most common reason for the first use of alcohol. Local distilled alcohol was preferred (58.8%) and 72.5% used to drink alone. The most common presenting complaint was auditory hallucination (12.36%). Conclusion: The most affected age group was at the peak of their economic and reproductive abilities. Most of the patients were illiterate and jobless. A comprehensive educational awareness program about alcohol use and its effects on the female as a whole, with special attention to pregnancy and lactation is to be undertaken at the community level, with maximum female participation. It is important to recognize and realize that women have unique aspects to their alcohol problems and to understand the complex interplay of roles they have to play in the form of daughter, mother, wife, in-law and manager of the household activities including taking care of children as well as elderly at home and plan accordingly. Health Renaissance 2015;13(2): 30-42</p

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... To date, only a few studies from Nepal have reported the prevalence of substance use among adolescents. 7,8 However, little is known about the Nepali youth population residing in the eastern region. Hence, we aimed to examine the prevalence of substance use among youths residing in Gadhi Municipality, as well as associations between substance use and selected socio-demographic variables. ...
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Background: Tobacco and alcohol are the most prevalent substances in Nepal and their use is becoming a serious health problem. We aimed to find out the prevalence of substance use among youths and assess the association with selected demographic variables. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 813 youths residing in Gadhi Rural Municipality, ward number 1. The youths were selected through total enumerative sampling and eligible candidates were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires on substance use. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Nearly 54% of the youths belonged to the age group 16-25 years and 51.2% were females. Tarai Janajati ethnic group represented 64.2%, and 99.8% were Hindu by religion. The prevalence of substance use was 26.4%. The majority of the youths (62.2%) had started the consumption of substances between the age of 13-20 years. Many (36.2%) had been using the substances for 6-10 years. Almost two-thirds (62.2%) had a family history of substance use. Curiosity was the main reason (29.7%) for the youths to consume the substance. Nearly 37% of the youths were found to be alcohol dependent. Age, sex, ethnicity, and income were significantly associated with substance use (p < 0.05). Conclusion: About one in every four youths was involved in substance use. In addition, it was more prevalent in male youths and the majority had started using substances at the age of 13 to 20 years.
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People with psychiatric problems often visit a general hospital. Many of them require emergency service. B P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS) is one of the few health institutes in Nepal providing comprehensive 24-hour psychiatric emergency service. This study aims to document the pattern of psychiatric emergencies in a tertiary care hospital of Eastern Nepal. All psychiatric emergencies referred from different departments in 30 random days during a six month period were enrolled. This is a descriptive study with convenience sampling method where the diagnoses were made based on the‘International Classifi cation of Disease and Infi rmity’ (ICD-10). One hundred twenty-nine cases were referred in the study period. The M:F ratio was 1.3:1. The service users were predominantly young adults. The majority of cases were seen in the emergency department and medical ward. The most common causes for the consultation were behavioral problems (39%), altered consciousness (32%) and somatic complaints (17%). Approximately 83% received the diagnosis of Category F of the ICD-10. Mental and behavioral disorder due to substance use (F10-19) was the most common disorder (30%), followed by mood/affective disorders (23%) and neurotic, stress-related anxiety disorders (16%). Roughly 46% had co-morbid physical illnesses and 8% received only a physical diagnosis. About 20% had attempted suicide using different means, poisoning being the most common. Emergency psychiatric consultation for mental problems is sought by almost all departments of a general hospital. These consultations are most commonly sought for substance use, mood or anxiety disorders.
A community-based cross-sectional survey with cluster sampling method (probability proportionate to size) was carried out to estimate the prevalence of alcohol consumption among Nepalese women in Dharan town to assess the pattern of use and to identify the factors associated with this habit. A representative sample of 2340 women, aged 15 years and above was interviewed in 2002. The estimated prevalence of alcohol consumption was nearly 17%. Alcohol use is prevalent among females of hill ethnic groups. Nearly half of the divorced (formal or informal) women consumed alcohol. The women, aged 50 years and above, were at risk to become addicted to its use. Most popular drink in this area is a homemade product (Local Raksi). The alcohol users are more likely to smoke as well. More than 9% of pregnant women are found to consume alcohol during their pregnancy. Effective awareness programs are required to discourage the excessive use of alcohol among women and encourage those seeking regular health care services.Key Words: Prevalence, pattern, factors, women, alcohol, Dharan, Nepal.
This study examines the association between early onset alcoholism and family history to determine whether family history of alcoholism is predictive of earlier initiation of drinking, more rapid onset of dependence once drinking has begun, or both. Using cross-sectional, retrospective data from a large, nationally representative sample of U.S. adults, discrete time proportional hazards models were used to assess the effects of family history saturation (% of alcoholic first- and second-degree relatives) on: ( 1) the risk of initiating drinking among all adults (N = 42,862; 58.4% female) and (2) the risk of progressing from initiation of drinking to onset of dependence among lifetime drinkers (n = 27,616; 50.7% male). Models were estimated for different time periods, to see if the effect of family history saturation varied over time in a manner suggestive of a stronger association with early onset dependence. The positive effect of family history saturation on the risk of initiating drinking was strongest prior to age 15 and declined steadily with increasing age. It was slightly weaker for men than women. After controlling for early initiation of drinking, the direct positive effect of family history saturation on the risk of progressing to dependence increased over time and was slightly reduced among individuals who started drinking before age 18. The indirect effect of family history on the risk of developing dependence, via its effect on early drinking as a risk factor for dependence, was strongest in the interval from 3 to 9 years after initiation of drinking. The association between family history and early onset alcoholism appears to be driven most clearly by family history predicting earlier initiation of drinking. The weak effect of family history on the development of dependence within the first 3 years after initiation of drinking may reflect the preponderance of developmentally limited dependence during this time period. The data are consistent with the links established between novelty seeking, impulsivity and early onset alcoholism. While supporting the possibility of genetic effects via dopaminergic and serotonergic function, these findings also suggest that environmental factors may play an important part in helping to explain the association between family history and early onset alcoholism.
Previous studies of family history of alcoholism (FHA) in college students have typically relied on dichotomous indices of paternal drinking. This study examined the prevalence of FHA and its effects on alcohol use and problems using a density measure in a sample (n = 408) of college students. Undergraduate students completed an anonymous survey in exchange for course credit. Data was collected between 2005 and 2006. Using a density measure of FHA, we observed an overall prevalence rate of 65.9% and a rate of 29.1% for FHA in both first and second-degree relatives. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to investigate relations among FHA, alcohol use/problems and previously identified etiological risk factors for alcohol use disorders (AUD). Results indicated a significant positive association between FHA and alcohol-related problems and this relationship was mediated by age of onset of drinking, behavioral undercontrol and current cigarette use. Behavioral undercontrol also mediated the relationship between gender and alcohol problems. Additionally, FHA was associated with an earlier age of onset of drinking and this was related to greater alcohol use. Assessing density of FHA in future trajectory research may capture a greater number of students at risk for acute alcohol-related problems and/or future development of AUDs. Future preventive interventions with this population, which should begin well before the college years, may benefit from considering personality factors and incorporating smoking cessation to help identify at-risk students and assist those who wish to cut down on their alcohol use but find that smoking acts as a trigger for increased drinking.
Clinico-demographic profile Health Renaissance
Clinico-demographic profile Health Renaissance 2015;13(2): 30-42 questionnaire. Addiction. 2003; 98(3):
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