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Abstract

Plant growth and productivity are adversely affected by drought. The sound of shortage of water on growth, yield and yield quality has been well deliberated in plants. In most cases growth, yield and yield quality are diminished under drought environments. There are four major strategic categories that represent the plant adaptation to desert, which include; lack waterescaping plants, lack water-evading plants, lack water-enduring plants and lack water-resisting plants. On the other hand, several controlling policies have been projected to compact with drought stress which including selection of crops and varieties, tillage and water conservation, moisture conservation through tephra covers, planting date, seed priming, nutrient management and water harvesting technique.
381
Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 23 (No 3) 2017, 381–388
Agricultural Academy
PLANTS ADAPTATION TO DROUGHT ENVIRONMENT
ABDEL RAHMAN AL-TAWAHA*1; MUNIR AZIZ TURK2; YOUSEF M. ABU-ZAITOON1; SALEEM HMOUD
ALADAILEH1; IBRAHIM MOHAMMAD AL-RAWASHDEH1; SULAIMAN ALNAIMAT; ABDEL RAZZAQ
MOHAMMAD AL-TAWAHA3; MOHAMMAD H. ALU’DATT2; MOHAMMAD WEDYAN4
1 Al Hussein Bin Talal University, Department of Biological Sciences, Maan, P.O. Box 20, Jordan
2 Jordan University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, P.O. Box 3030, Irbid, Jordan
3 Universiti Putra Malaysia, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Crop Science, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
4 The Hashemite University, Biological Sciences and Biotechnology Department, 330127, Jordan
Abstract
Al-Tawaha, A. R., M. A. Turk, Y. M. Abu-Zaitoon, S. H. Aladaileh, I. M. Al-Rawashdeh, S. Alnaimat, A. R. M.
Al-Tawaha, M. H. Alu’datt and M. Wedyan, 2017. Plants adaptation to drought environment. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci.,
23 (3): 381–388
Plant growth and productivity are adversely affected by drought. The sound of shortage of water on growth, yield and
yield quality has been well deliberated in plants. In most cases growth, yield and yield quality are diminished under drought
environments. There are four major strategic categories that represent the plant adaptation to desert, which include; lack water-
escaping plants, lack water-evading plants, lack water-enduring plants and lack water-resisting plants. On the other hand, sev-
eral controlling policies have been projected to compact with drought stress which including selection of crops and varieties,
tillage and water conservation, moisture conservation through tephra covers, planting date, seed priming, nutrient management
and water harvesting technique.
Key word: drought; seed priming; tephra covers; tillage; desert
*Corresponding author: abdeltawaha74@gmail.com
Introduction
Drought has always been considered as a key issue that
restricts plant growth and yield. In Mediterranean region it
is expected to have longer and more severe drought periods
in the near future. Plant growth and productivity is affected
by many biotic and abiotic factors (Turk and Tawaha, 2002b;
Musallam et al., 2004; Nikus et al., 2004; Al-Tawaha et al.,
2005a; Al-Rifaee et al., 2007; Tawaha and Al-Ghzawi, 2013;
Barłóg et al., 2016; Bazitov et. al., 2016; Bozhinova, 2016;
Shafea and Saffari, 2016)
In study conducted by Shao et al. (2009) to sympathetic
water defi cit stress-persuaded variations in the rudimentary
metabolic rate of higher plants-biotechnologically that can
improve agriculture in the arid and semi-arid region. They
reported that water shortage is the greatest signifi cant envi-
ronmental issue, harshly affect plant growth and limit it is
productivity over any other environmental issue. Wery et al.
(1994) reported that the harshness of drought is erratic as it
depends on many issues such as occurrence and scattering of
rainfall, evaporation rate, and the ability of the soil to store
water. Even though crop reactions to water shortage are com-
paratively well recognized, it is affects plant by three main
consequences: i. plant growth and physiology, ii. yield and
iii. quality. This review represents a summary of the current
work stated the specifi c properties and mechanisms of water
shortage in crops and signifi cant policies to overwhelmed the
drought effects.
Effects of water shortage on crop growth and physiology
The effects of drought stress on growth have been well
studied in crops. In most cases the growth of annual plants will
382
A. R. Al-Tawaha; M. Aziz Turk; Y. M. Abu-Zaitoon; S. H. Aladaileh; I. M. Al-Rawashdeh; S. Alnaimat; A. R. M. Al-Tawaha; M. H. Alu’datt; M. Wedyan
be diminished by drought more than that of perennial plants.
Li et al. (2004) reported that the major effects of drought in
crop plants are at the cellular level, division and expansion
in a plant’s growth is decreased. Farooq et al. (2008) found
that water shortage can decline leaf growth, plant height and
root growth. Taiz and Zeiger (2006) reported that drought
can decrease germination and stand establishment as a result
of limited the imbibition of water, declined energy source,
and diminished enzyme actions. Hussain et al. (2009) re-
ported that drought decline growth of sunfl ower (Heliantus
annuus L.) because it decrease cell division and cell elonga-
tions. Kramer and Boyer, (1995) found that drought decrease
leaf expansion, and inhibit branching and decrease the effi -
ciency of photosynthesis. On the other hand, Nooden (1988)
documented that drought stress can reduce photosynthetic
rate and leaf area due to early senescence. The phenological
traits such plant height, spike length, and days to heading are
strongly affected by drought. Desclaux and Roumet (1996)
reported that shortage of water can induce reproductive phase
in many plants. Rahman et al. (2002) reported that water
stress, decline sugar production and decrease photosynthesis
rate. Similar result is reported by Malakouti and Tehrania,
(2005) who found that water stress decreases photosynthesis
rate in many crops. Dash and Mohanty, (2001) found that
water stress induce signifi cant injure of photosystems II, and
also induce injury of photosynthetic pigments (Huseynova
et al., 2009; Anjum et al., 2011; Kannan and Kulandaivelu,
2011). Drought stress has a great effect on chlorophyll con-
tent. In contrast, Mafakheri et al. (2010) observed that, Chl
content decreased under drought stress. On the other hand,
Kulshrehtha et al. (1987) reported absence of infl uence of
water stress on Chl content in cereal plants. This variation
may be due to differences in Chl synthesis between the geno-
types. Some reports were also show that under drought stress
the decrease of Chl b is higher than that of Chl a, as result of,
transforming the ratio in favor of Chl a (Jaleel et al., 2009).
Effects of water stress on yield
Water stress is a core abiotic tension that limits plant
growth and production (Forster, 2004). Barnabas et al.
(2008) reported that universal hurts in crop yields from
drought stress defi nitely turn outside the hurts from all other
abiotic factors. Several researchers have found a reduction
in number of grains per spike under drought stress in barley
(Sanchez et al., 2002; Tawaha et al., 2006; Samarah et al.,
2009) and in wheat (Garcia, 2003).
Nezami et al. (2008) indicated that drought stress decline
phenological trait such as plant length, also they reported
that water stress can decline biological yield and grain yield.
In Pakistan, Ahmad et al. (2009) reported that plant height
and yield of sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus L.) decreased
with increasing water stress. Drought has adverse effect
on vegetative and reproductive stages of crops. Mailer and
Cornish (1987) found that drought has adverse effect during
reproductive growth stage (fl owering and fruiting) than the
vegetative growth stage. Similar results have been reported
by Richards et al. (2001). Previous study by Munier-Jolain
(1998) reported that seed weight is decreased under water
stress. In legume, Loss and Siddique, (1997) have shown
that water stress during the reproductive stage of beans can
decrease the number of fl ower per plant as well as of seed
yield.
Abelardo and Antonio (2002) reported that pods per plant
are the mostly affected yield components and during the
stress period it decreased 63.3%. Similar results are reported
by Lopez et al. (2008) who found that the reduction in grain
yield is due to the reduction in the number of pods per plant.
Effects of drought stress on yield quality
It is very likely that the drought will have a major impact
on carbohydrate accumulation. Stone and Nicolas, (1998)
found a strong effect of carbohydrate accumulation in regu-
lation of protein concentration, by letting more nitrogen con-
centration per unit of starch accrued in the grain.
The outcomes of water stress on protein concentration
have been examined by several scientists. Dubetz and Bole
(1973) reported that water stress during fl owering and grain
lling stage, frequently enhance protein level. Furthermore,
abscisic acid and water-stress induce the appearance of pro-
teins that are associated to the stress. Neslihan-Ozturk et al.
(2002). Kim et al. (2000) reported that drought may decline
photosynthetic rate, thus, declining the amount of assimi-
lates obtainable for export to the sink organs. Moreover, it
is well known that drought can also have an effect in carbo-
hydrate metabolism in plant reproductive organs (Liu et al.,
2004). On the other hand, Setter et al. (2001) found different
levels of sucrose in maize ovaries between drought-stressed
and well watered controls. Pallas et al. (1977) described that
the peanut seeds formed under water stress had poorer ger-
mination rate. Results of some researchers clarifi ed that this
was mostly credited to inadequate calcium level that caused
from debilitated calcium uptake under water stress condi-
tions (Cox et al., 1976). Ali et al. (2009) even found seed oil
contents under water stress are a common phenomenon and
it is signifi cantly decreased. In a study conducted by Nasri
et al. (2008) the effect of micro and macro nutrient under
water stress condition in rapeseed is evaluated. They found
that drought stress caused an important decrease of seed oil
content, and of oil yield of fi ve rapeseed cultivars. Regard-
ing the leaf chlorophyll content the results of some research-
383
Plants Adaptation to Drought Environment
ers clarifi ed that water stress stimulates the decrease of leaf
chlorophyll content. (Paknejad et al., 2007; Sun et al., 2011).
The study of Tawaha et al. (2006) has shown that the accu-
mulation of isofl avones (genistein, daidzein and glycitein) is
enhanced under well-watered condition in synthesized soy-
bean.
Major Categories That Represent Strategies of Adap-
tation to Desert
Drought-escaping plants
These are annual plants that are extremely dependent on
autumn and winter rainfall. The main characteristic of this
plants are their ability to complete its life cycle, from germi-
nation to the production of seed, within one growing season.
There are almost evidences that appearance of annual species
is contrariwise correlated to the amount and dependability of
rainfall in the area (Schaffer and Gadgil, 1975). Went (1953)
reported that the annual plants in the desert area are not able
to germinate following a 10 mm rainfall: huge germination
appeared only after a rainfall of 25 mm. This was recognized
to ejection of natural inhibitors in the grain coats. The ger-
mination and the productivity of annual plants generally will
be reduced by drought more than that of perennial plants.
Beatley (1967); Mott (1972) all found that annual plants
can grow well during wet years, and seed production can
increase signifi cantly if the soil remains moist until growth is
completed. There are almost no evidences about the impacts
of temperature on germination and growth of annual plant,
Went (1953) note that very high and very low temperatures
negatively affect the growth of annual plants and may even
cause the plant irreversible damage. Some works were also
performed measuring the optimal temperature for winter
and summer annual plants (Shreve, 1942): this varies from
15-18°C for winter annual and 25-30°C for summer annual
plant species(Went, 1953)
Drought-evading plants
They are deciduous perennial (non-succulent) plants
such as (Carex pachystylis, Rheum palaetinum, TuJipa am-
plyophylla), which limited their cell division and cell ex-
pansion to period when water is available. Naturally such
kinds of plant during drought period go dormant or die back.
Evanari et al. (1982) described that the Carex pachystylis
plant produces new rootlets in a short period of 12 hours
after watering and quickly spread through the surface soils.
The shoot development (leaf, fl ower and fruits) of these spe-
cies occurs only after good development of root system and
some causes the development of reproductive organs (fl ower
and fruit) depend on the availability of moisture during their
stage of growth, in other words the reproductive phase may
be dispensed with in dry years (REF). Some perennial grass-
es such as Mitchell grasses (Astrebla spp.) have rapid growth
rate. Walter and Breckle (1989) found that Astrebla spp is
able to complete vegetative growth within two weeks and to
produce ripe seed after six weeks.
Drought-enduring plants
This kind of plants has various morphological and physi-
ological adaptations in root and shoot, to maintain growth
even in times of extreme water stress. It has been experi-
mentally shown that drought- enduring plants have exten-
sive root system which includes most evergreen shrubs in the
desert, such as in Hammada scoparia (Chenopodiaceae) in
the Middle East. Some works were also performed by Phil-
lips (1963), who found that depths of 53 cm are uncommon,
for Prosopsis sp. Assessment of photosynthetic potential of
leaves enduring plants tends to be considerably lower than
that of deciduous plants (Fitter and Hay 1987). Armond et al.
(1978), Mooney et al. (1978) all found that Larrea divaricata
can remain active during the year and has the ability to keep-
photosynthetic effi ciency in good rates.
Drought-resisting plants
It is succulent perennials plant that developed water-
storing tissue in their leaves, stem and roots. As a result of
extreme size of the vacuole, the cells have a swollen form. In
general, desert succulents have shallow root system, which
let them to respond quickly to light rainfalls.Szarek and Ting
(1975) detected that the Opuntia basilaris plant has stomata
activity following a rainfall of only 6 mm on dry soil. Suc-
culent stem adapted for desert environment and the main
function of the stem are adapted for water storage and pho-
tosynthesize, also the surface of the stem are covered with
waxy material to reduce water losses (REF). In general the
succulent leaves are often reduced to spines, which provide
shade (reduce heat load) in addition to protection. Nobel
(1980) reported that cold temperature has adverse effect on
the growth of desert succulents and freezing injure can hap-
pen to the top of the stem because of radiation heat loss. Re-
sults of some researchers clarifi ed that desert succulents are
not often killed by high temperatures; these are a very com-
mon of most cactus species that can survive temperatures
over 60°C for short periods (Nobel and Smith, 1983; Smith,
1984).
Agronomic Approaches to Stress Management
Choice of crops and varieties
Plant breeders developed and advanced crops and vari-
eties that can survive and grow well in a range of environ-
ments. For many years, the development of drought tolerant
384
A. R. Al-Tawaha; M. Aziz Turk; Y. M. Abu-Zaitoon; S. H. Aladaileh; I. M. Al-Rawashdeh; S. Alnaimat; A. R. M. Al-Tawaha; M. H. Alu’datt; M. Wedyan
crop varieties has been one of the major strategies for orga-
nization water restriction in agriculture (Xoconostle-Cazares
et al., 2010). Tawaha et al. (2006) stated that this can be
reached through improvement of phenological and morpho-
logical characters that can play role in the modifi cation of
plant to drought region. .Previous studies (Hall, 2007; Cat-
tivelli et al., 2008) showed that plant breeding activities have
led to yield enhance in drought exaggerated environments
for many crop such as maize, pearl millet, cowpea, ground-
nut and sorghum. Environmental factors and the genetic fac-
tor play signifi cant role in the yield of major crops (Tawaha
et al., 2006). Moreover, it is well known that selection of
short duration crops was chosen because of the importance
to combat drought and due to their ability to escape termi-
nal drought (Tawaha et al., 2006). National and international
research organizations such as ICARDA, ICRISAT, CIAT,
IITA play important role to improve genetic yield potential
of new cultivars under drought condition.
Tillage and water conservation
The purpose of tillage is to supply a favorable environ-
ment for crop growth and production. Van Duivenbooden et
al. (2000) reported that conventional tillage in semi arid re-
gion is done with four main reasons (i) to organize seedbed,
(ii) to help infi ltration, (iii) to conserve water within the soil
profi le, and (iv) to avoid wind and water erosion of soil. In
current periods, numerous reports have deliberated the role
of tillage system on soil moisture conservation. Detailed
reviews are found in Arshad and Gill (1997); Gauer et al.
(1982); Lyon et al. (1998); Mesfi ne et al. (2005). The effects
of tillage systems on the plant have been reported widely by
Lyon et al. (1998). They mentioned that no tillage system
stored the maximum quantity of water, while the convention-
al tillage stored a minimum amount. Previous studies using
several years of experiments showed that minimum tillage
for soil preparation played a signifi cant role in the increasing
soil water content (Larney and Lindwall, 1995). On the other
hand, Phillips (1984) found that the conventional tillage sys-
tem has greater evaporation in comparison to the no tillage
system. Results of some researchers clarifi ed non-signifi cant
differences in soil water content on silty loam among the
conventional tillage, conservation tillage and no-tillage sys-
tems (Hussain et al.,1999).
Moisture conservation through tephra covers
In recent decades, several resources have been used as
mulch, such as plastic plant residue, straw, etc. Several stud-
ies have demonstrated that application of surface-applied
mulches has been associated with increasing water, heat
energy and nutrient grade in soil, escaping soil and water
loss, avoiding soil salinity (Bu et al., 2002). Li et al. (2000)
reported various environmental factors which are induced by
mulch such as soil temperature, soil moisture, soil salinity
level, nutrients and soil texture. In arid and semi arid areas
the tephra acts as mulch and have used to lower water loss
from soils. Researchers have discussed the possibility of us-
ing crushed rocks added to soil as water conservation tech-
nique (Hartwell and Pember, 1908; Keller, 1948; Coleman,
1977). The tephra acts as mulch and was found to avoid soil
salinity from running back to soil surface through dropping
evaporation (Zhang et al., 1996). Fan et al. (2003) investigat-
ed the mulch on soil physical features and wheat yield, found
that the salinity dose of the soil (0.44%) dropped to 0.07%
after being mulched with straw for two growing seasons.
Planting date
In the arid and semi arid regions the selection of right
planting date for a crop is one of the most signifi cant factors
in its production (Tawaha et., 2001; Tawaha and Turk., 2004;
Tawaha et al., 2005; Tawaha et al., 2010). Moreover, it is
well known that, early planting has been found to be more
appropriate than the late planting, chiefl y for the reason that
the plants fl ower earlier and pods fi ll before the drought peri-
od, resulting into high yields (Tawaha and Turk, 2004). Early
sowing of sesame result of more vegetative growth (plant
height, stem diameter and branch number) (Bremner, 1966);
which eventually, refl ects in the leaf area index. Results of
some researchers clarifi ed that increasing crop growth and
yield in initial seeding date has been documented by numer-
ous workers (Kohn and Storrier, 1970; Doly and Marcellos,
1974; Degenhardt and Kondra, 1981;McDonald et al., 1983).
Seed priming
Drought stress infl uences seed germination and seedling
growth under arid and semi-arid environments. Al-Tawaha
and Al-Ghzawi (2013) reported that both salinity and drought
stress affected germination unfavorably as the effects of
drought stress were more harsh than salinity stress. Seed prim-
ing was defi ned as pre-sowing treatments of the seed, the most
seed priming methods hydro priming is the simple soaking of
seeds in water) and osmotic priming (soaking seed in solutions
of mannitol, potassium nitrate (KNO3). Seed priming could be
used to improve the seed germination under drought stress.
Ashraf and Foolad (2005) indicated that seed priming is one
of the approaches that can be taken to increase germination of
many crops and under both stress and non-stress condition.
Seed priming techniques play an important role for improving
germination and it is uniformity and also, improve seedling
establishment and stimulate vegetative growth (Ansari and
Sharif-Zadeh, 2012; Ansari et al., 2012).
385
Plants Adaptation to Drought Environment
Nutrient management
At present, it is well known that under moisture stress con-
ditions fertilizer increase crop yields under optimum mois-
ture conditions (Turk and Tawaha, 2001; Tawaha and Turk,
2002; Turk and Tawaha, 2002; Tawaha et al., 2003; Turk et al.,
2003). However, it has been found that under moisture stress
conditions also mineral nutrients play a critical role in plant
stress resistance (Marschnerm, 2012). Potassium plays a pri-
marily critical function in plant growth and metabolism, and
it donates extremely to the survival of plants that are under
various water stress conditions (Pettigrew, 2008; Dong et al.,
2010). Marschnerm (2012) reported that K+ plays essential
role in stress resistance and decreased the incidence of diseas-
es. Phosphorus is a major plant essential nutrient which effect
on root growth, which, in sequence, assist in extracting more
moisture and in the end leads to high yields under moisture
stress environments (Lott et al., 2011). Phosphorus applica-
tion enhanced drought tolerance in plant and increased fl ower
formation and fruit production (Anonymous, 1988).
Water harvesting
The arid zone is characterized by extreme heat and insuf-
cient, uneven precipitation and high potential evaporation
over the crop-growing season. If the rain does occur in the arid
and semi arid area, it is very important to be conserved and
used effi ciently (Oweis and Hachum, 2003). For this purpose
the micro-catchments and macro-catchments techniques may
be used for water harvesting in the arid and semi arid areas.
Oeies and Hachum (2003) reported that supplemental irriga-
tion and water harvesting that can improve farmers’ income
in dry environmental conditions. Nilsson (1988) reported that
water harvesting in dry areas offers a number of environmen-
tal benefi ts such as decreasing fl ooding danger, decreasing
soil erosion, reducing water bills, suitable for irrigation,
reduces demand on ground water, can be used for several
non-drinking purposes.
Conclusion
We conclude that plants have different strategies of ad-
aptation to drought areas which include; lack water-escaping
plants, lack water -evading plants, lack water -enduring plants
and lack water -resisting plants. On the other hand, applying
specifi c agronomic practices play an important role of adap-
tion to drought environment.
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Received December, 26, 2016; accepted for printing May, 3, 2017
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... Los extensos periodos secos, producen en la mayoría de las especies de plantas que habitan estos bosques, la pérdida de sus hojas, lo cual también los ha llevado a ser denominados como bosques caducifolios (Castillo-Campos et al. 2008). La defoliación es el producto de la pérdida de humedad, lo cual conlleva al desprendimiento de hojas, permitiendo que los árboles como la teca y el ébano de las montañas conserven el agua durante los períodos secos (Al Tawaha et al. 2017). De igual orma, la caída de hojas también propicia que se abra la capa del dosel, permitiendo la incidencia de la luz solar directa sobre el suelo, facilitando el crecimiento de maleza (Olascuaga & Mercado-Gómez 2016). ...
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Los anfibios y reptiles son animales asombrosos y su biología es mucho más Fascinante y variada de lo que originalmente se consideraba. Esta afirmación se soporta fácilmente en múltiples aspectos, entre los cuales sobresale, su reproducción (Duellman & Trueb 1994; Wells 2007; Balshine 2012; Gómez-Mestre et al. 2012; Vitt & Caldwell 2014; Pough et al. 2016). En los anfibios, por ejemplo, muchas especies no dejan sus huevos en charcas y lagunas, como tradicionalmente ha creído el común de las personas, sino que las hembras los depositan en ambientes terrestres, tales como la superficie de hojas o en ambientes húmedos que se dan a nivel del suelo entre hojarasca y bajo troncos caídos, piedras o raíces de árboles (Duellman & Trueb 1994; Crump 2015). Más aún, hay especies cuya reproducción es tan especializada que los padres o madres transportan a los renacuajos en diferentes partes de su cuerpo , ya sea, por pocas horas o días, mientras los depositan en ambientes específicos, o hasta que las crías terminan su ciclo de metamorfosis y se desarrollen como un adulto, pero en miniatura (Noble 1927; Mendelson et al. 2000; Castroviejo-Fisher et al. 2015). Con respecto a los reptiles, hay ejemplos de especies, donde, - las hembras no requieren que un gameto masculino fertilice sus óvulos para producir crías, o especies, donde el sexo de la progenie no está determinado genéticamente, sino por la temperatura ambiental, lo cual, permiten la incubación de huevos (Tinkle & Gibbons 1977; Shine 1995; Vitt & Caldwell 2014). Los factores o procesos asociados a la evolución de este último aspecto en la reproducción de reptiles, es todo un enigma para los científicos (BlacNburn 2006; Shine 2015). Estos y muchos más ejemplos, que se encuentran a lo largo de este libro, contradicen la imagen que durante décadas se tuvo de los anfibios y reptiles, incluso, por científicos y naturalistas tan prestigiosos como, Carlos Linneo, quien afirmó que estos vertebrados eran animales repulsivos, en los cuales el creador no había ejercido toda su sabiduría y poder (Halliday & Adler 1986).
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Azospirillum Bioinoculant Technology: Past to Current Knowledge and Future Prospects Palani Saranraj, Abdel Rahman Mohammad Al–Tawaha, Panneerselvam Sivasakthivelan, Abdel Razzaq M. Altawaha, Kangasalam Amala, Devarajan Thangadurai, and Jeyabalan Sangeetha
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PART III: ORGANIC AGRICULTURE FOR FOOD SAFETY 13. Organic Production Technology of Rice Shah Khalid, Amanullah, Nadia, Imranuddin, Mujeeb Ur Rahman, Abdel Rahman Al Tawaha, Devarajan Thangadurai, Jeyabalan Sangeetha, Samia Khanum, Munir Turk, Hiba Alatrash, Sameena Lone, Khursheed Hussain, Palani Saranraj, and Arun Karnwal
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This study aims at pointing out parameters of water deficit during the critical for the maize moths, also, to follow the relations between yield and water deficit, provoked by the lack of rains, to establish the possibility of obtaining good yield in conditions without irrigation for the region of Central South Bulgaria. It has been analyzed 40 years data from monthly rain falls (mm), average monthly temperature of the air (°C) during the critical for this culture period (June, July, August) and the yield of maize grain, cultivated without irrigation and irrigated for the period 1972-2012. The soil of the two experimental fields was of the type vertisoil. For the purpose of the study are followed the yield of maize grain from two hybrids - middle late Knezha 530 and late H - 708, cultivated without irrigation (kg/da having 14% moisture) and optimal irrigation. The experimental studies were done by means of block method by four repetitions. The hybrids were cultivated by common agrotechnology for this country. A fertilizing was done by N P K. It was established that the average agroecological potential of the late hybrids maize in Central South Bulgaria in optimal irrigation, established experimentally in risky years was 12 230 kg.ha-1 and without irrigation - 5530 kg.ha-1. In middle late hybrids the yield was respectively 6670 kg.ha-1 and 3990 kg.ha-1. The parameters of the factor “water deficit” and establishment of the lost of grain when cultivated without irrigation could serve for decision making and planning in region of the Central South Bulgaria, as well as for formation of the state policy concerning compensations of the farmers during dry years. The established lost of grain in dry years and the role of irrigation can be used for further economical analysis for planning in risky, dry years and defining the cost and market price in such a meteorological situation. © 2016, National Centre for Agrarian Sciences. All rights reserved.
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The main objective of the study was to evaluate the dynamics of white sugar yield (WSY) by beet crop under conditions of imbalanced application of key nutrients, such as P, K with respect to N. The field trial arranged as one-factorial design was consisted of eight treatments: N0P0K0; N0P1K1; N1P0K1; N1P1K0; N1P0.25K0.25; N1P0.5K1; N1P1K1 and N1P1K1+Ca; where 1 is recommended level of NPK fertilization and Ca means that phosphorus applied as partially acidulated phosphoric rock (PAPR). The harvest of sugar beet took place at following days after sowing (DAS): 92, 113, 134, 155 and 175. Yield of white sugar was determined by set of standard methods used in a sugar beet factory. The course of weather was the dominant factor, affecting realization of yielding potential of a crop on the background of supply of P and K. Under favorable growth conditions, yield of sugar increased accordingly with increasing rates of fertilizer P. Yield forming effect of P, as a rule, revealed in the late-season, resulting in the WSY increase of 30–40% at 175 DAS compared to 155 DAS. The average yield increase in response to optimal application of P was 18.4%, whereas of K only 6.0%. In years with drought, the effect of P was low due to limited development of the storage root to accumulate sucrose. The main reason was a probably insufficient supply of N and K in the mead-season, restricting size of the root. Consequently, the optimum P rate to harvest sufficiently high WSY in years with drought was at the level of 25% of the P recommended rate. On the average, the maximum yield of WSY was harvested in N1P1K1+Ca treatment, indirectly indicating on an importance of Ca as a sugar yield forming nutrient. © 2016, National Centre for Agrarian Sciences. All rights reserved.
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The effects of the different phosphorus rates (0; 75 and 225 kg ha-1) on heavy metal concentrations in soil and tobacco plants have been studied in a stationary field trial. A long-term fertilizer experiment with continuous tobacco cropping system was established on rendzina soil (Rendzic Leptosols) in 1966. Although P fertilizers are considered a source of anthropogenic contamination of soil, the application of increasing P rates did not increase the total Cd, Pb and Cu content in the soil. Slightly higher Ni concentration was observed in plots receiving supplemental P fertilizer as compared to 0 kg P2O5 ha-1 treatment. The changes in the available Cd and Pb content as a result from the long-term P fertilization are insignificant. There was significant increase of available Ni and Cu in the plots treated with 225 kg P2O5 ha-1 compared to the 0 kg P2O5 ha-1 treatment. Increasing levels of P fertilization had no pronounced effect on Cd, Pb and Ni concentrations in leaves. Copper content in leaves decreased with the increase of P fertilizing levels. Therefore, the impact of phosphate fertilizer application on Cd, Pb, Ni and Cu content in soils and tobacco plants was proved to be limited. Under our experimental conditions, the risk of heavy metals’ accumulation in soil and tobacco associated with long-term P fertilization was low. © 2016, National Centre for Agrarian Sciences. All rights reserved.
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The Sahelian zone stretches across Africa from Senegal and Mauritania in the west to Sudan in the east, passing through Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger and Chad. The Sahel transition zone is adjacent to the southern boundary of the Sahara Desert, and its agriculture usually is limited by droughts. Since 1970, the droughts have been even more extreme, and major food crops produced little food and little forage was available for livestock. Millions of people living in the Sahel have suffered from famine and hundreds of thousands of people have died. As of 1974, it was estimated that the livestock population had decreased by about 80%. In the early 1970s, while working as an agronomist/ Professor at the University of California in Riverside and conducting collaborative research in Senegal, Dr. Hall designed a partial agronomic solution to these droughts. In implementing this solution, he collaborated with African students and scientists to breed cowpea varieties that could withstand these droughts and provide food for people and livestock alike. Early-flowering cowpea varieties with resistance to drought, various pests and diseases were bred by researchers in California, Senegal, Sudan and Ghana. Cowpea varieties were released in Senegal, Sudan and Ghana that have produced significant amounts of food in years when traditional cowpea varieties and other staple food crops died out. Enhanced cowpea breeding and agronomy programs now are being conducted by African scientists in Senegal, Burkina Faso, Niger, Cameroon, Nigeria, Ghana and Sudan.
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Limited water availability hampers the sustainability of crop production. Exogenous application of glycinebetaine (GB) and salicylic acid (SA) has been found very effective in reducing the adverse effects of water scarcity. This study was conducted to examine the possible role of exogenous GB and SA application in improving the growth and water relations of hybrid sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under different irrigation regimes. There were three levels of irrigation, viz. control (normal irrigations), water stress at budding stage (irrigation missing at budding stage) and water stress at flowering stage (FS) (irrigation missing at FS). GB and SA were applied exogenously at 100 and 0.724 mm respectively, each at the budding and FS. Control plants did not receive application of GB and SA. Water stress reduced the leaf area index (LAI), leaf area duration (LAD), crop growth rate (CGR), leaf relative water contents, water potential, osmotic potential, turgor pressure, achene yield and water use efficiency. Nevertheless, exogenous GB and SA application appreciably improved these attributes under water stress. However, exogenous GB application at the FS was more effective than other treatments. Net assimilation rate was not affected by water stress as well as application of GB and SA. The protein contents were considerably increased by water stress at different growth stages, but were reduced by exogenous GB and SA application. The effects of water stress and foliar application of GB were more pronounced when applied at FS than at the budding stage. Moreover, exogenous GB application was only advantageous under stress conditions.
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In article is considered total water consumption cotton plant depending on soil-meliorations’ of the zone, mechanical composition of ground in layer of the aerations and constructions, adding soil of water, level soil of water and their mineralization. The Republic of Karakalpakstan is located north of the area of world cotton production. In relation to climate of the region refer to the desert zone. Annual precipitation is 80–100 mm, and the total evaporation is 10–12 times greater than precipitation. Therefore, under these conditions, agriculture is based solely on artificial irrigation. It is therefore necessary to determine the components of the water balance equation soils under cotton. The results of research conducted on the 2009–2014 in farm “Kuat” Chimbay region suggests that the total water consumption of cotton fields depends on the depth of groundwater. Lowering of the groundwater causes the flow of irrigation water increases. The main incoming part of the water balance in soils automorphic series (GWL < 3 m) of irrigation water, less importance rainfall and soil moisture created is not growing season. The total water consumption of cotton on irrigated soils is automorphic series – 6790 m3/ha. The share of irrigation in total water consumption norms cotton field is 58.9%, soil moisture, 34.4%, and 6.6% of precipitation. Transpiration expended 65.5%, evaporation from the soil surface of 40.3%. © 2016, National Centre for Agrarian Sciences. All rights reserved.
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This research was conducted to evaluate maize grain yield by path analysis and its grain filling rate in different combinations of nitrogen and zinc at field conditions. Three maize cultivars were grown at factorial split-plot (FFSP) design with 3 replications based on RCBD (Randomized Complete Block Design). Three levels of nitrogen, including 120, 260, 400 kg/ha and three levels of Zinc, 0, 15 and 30 kg/ha were applied. Results showed that, hybrid 540 have the better grain filling rate to compare with 704. Grain filling rate at 120 kg/ha urea and 15 kg/ha zinc Sulphate, resulted to the highest grain filling rate (3.19 g/m2 per day). Path analysis showed row number have the most direct effects on grain yield in N3Z1 fertilizer combination then thousand kernel weights had the most direct effects on grain yield (0.96) in N1Z2 fertilizer combination. According to the results, proper combination of nitrogen and zinc can increase grain yield in maize. © 2016, National Centre for Agrarian Sciences. All rights reserved.