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Effects of fermented plant juice and fruit juice on growth and yield of tomato for sustainable practices


Abstract and Figures

The experiment consisted of five treatments of fermented plant juice (FPJ) and fermented fruit juice (FFJ). The treated plants with FPJ and FFJ produced early flowers and fruits compared to untreated plants due to the enhanced production of auxin and essential nutrients. Total soluble solids were also observed to increase after 10 weeks of FPJ and FFJ application. Photosynthesis rate increased in all treatments except T3; while transpiration rate increased only at T4 compared to control. The findings we clearly suggested to use both combinations as FPJ water spinach for enhancing the vegetative growth of tomato plants than FPJ bamboo shoots (T3 and T5), while FFJ pineapple for better reproductive development of tomato plants rather than FFJ banana (T5) for ensuring future sustainable eco-friendly agriculture practices.
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Bangladesh J. Bot. 46(1): 405-412, 2017 (March) Supplementary
Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia,
UPM Serdang, 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
Keywords: Tomato, Fermented fruit juice, Fermented plant juice, Organic fertilizer,
Plant hormone
The experiment consisted of five treatments of fermented plant juice (FPJ) and fermented fruit
juice (FFJ). The treated plants with FPJ and FFJ produced early flowers and fruits compared to
untreated plants due to the enhanced production of auxin and essential nutrients. Total soluble
solids were also observed to increase after 10 weeks of FPJ and FFJ application. Photosynthesis
rate increased in all treatments except T3; while transpiration rate increased only at T4 compared to
control. The findings we clearly suggested to use both combinations as FPJ water spinach for
enhancing the vegetative growth of tomato plants than FPJ bamboo shoots (T3 and T5), while FFJ
pineapple for better reproductive development of tomato plants rather than FFJ banana (T5) for
ensuring future sustainable eco-friendly agriculture practices.
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is among the local vegetables that are able to
penetrate retail sector as well as export market. In Malaysia, Cameron Highlands is occupying the
largest area for tomato production because of their suitability on the climate (Islam et al. 2012).
The usage of fermented plant juice (FPJ) and fermented fruit juice (FFJ) as foliar fertilizer
along with the fertigation system is expected to increase and improve yield and quality of the
tomato. The foliar application becomes promptly available to the crops because form of nutrient
application is better than direct fertilization (Naz et al. 2011). The major aims of this study were to
investigate the influence of different types and combinations of FPJ and FFJ on the performance
and changes of vegetative growth, physiology, yield and quality of tomato.
Materials and Methods
The experiment was conducted in Control Environment System 2 (CES 2) at Agrotechnology
Unit, University Agriculture Park, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) using white polybags (16
inch × 16 inch) filled with coconut coir dust (CCD) and empty fruit bunch (EFB) at a ratio of 1 : 1
according to method of Zulkarami et al. (2010). The experiment was conducted in CRD with five
replications. The seedlings of tomato cultivars MT1 was used in this study collected from
Malaysian Agricultural Development Institute (MARDI), which has special adaptation to low-land
environment and condition. Tomato seedlings were watered every 2 hrs for 5 to 10 minutes every
day depending on the weather and growth stages using automatic fertigation system under the roof
shelter of plastic film.
*Author for correspondence: <>. 1School of Agriculture Science and
Biotechnology, Faculty of Bioresources and Food Industry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Tembila
Campus, 22200 Besut, Terengganu, Malaysia.
406 SAKIMIN et al.
Different combinations of FPJ and FFJ were applied at different developmental stages
(vegetative and flowering/fruiting) and sprayed at weekly basis (Table 1). The formulations were
sprayed until all parts of the plant wet. FPJ formulation was sprayed at the early stage of the
plants, just a week after being transplanted to the polybags for 3 weeks. After that, different
organic formulations made up from FFJ were applied at flowering during week 4 and 5 after
transplanting and fruiting stage during week 6 to 10 after transplanting till the end of the
experiment. For control treatments (T1) seedlings were only fertilized with copper formulation
(Table 2) without spraying any FPJ and FFJ.
Table 1. Five different treatments were used in the study.
Stage Treatment
Vegetative Flowering and fruiting
T1 (Control) Without FPJ Without FFJ
T2 FPJ water spinach FFJ banana
T3 FPJ water spinach FFJ pineapple
T4 FPJ bamboo FFJ banana
T5 FPJ bamboo FFJ pineapple
Table 2. Copper formulation as a stock of chemical fertilizer used in the experiment.
Stock Type of fertilizer Gram (g)/160 l
Calcium nitrate [Ca(NO3)2] 15300.00 A
Iron EDTA [Fe] 164.00
Potassium nitrate [KNO3] 13:0:46 12000.00
Monopotassium phosphate (MPK) [KH2PO4] 0:52:34 1800.00
Magnesium sulphate [MgSO4] 5640.00
Manganese sulphate [MnSO4] 16.60
Boric acid [H3BO3] 40.00
Zinc sulphate [ZnSO4] 2.20
Copper sulphate [CuSO4] 0.78
Natrium/ ammonium molybdate [(NH4)6Mo7O24.4H2O] 0.78
Plant heights, the area of tomato leaves, fresh weight and dry weight of shoot and root were
measured. Physiological parameters like; photosynthesis rate, stomata conductance and
transpiration rate were measured from fully expanded leaf from the third or fourth node from the
apex of the plant. The parameters were measured by using portable photosynthesis machine
(Model LICOR, LI-6400) two times at 45 and 90 DAT. Measurement unit for photosynthesis rate,
stomata conductance and transpiration rate were µmolCO2/S, mmol/m2/S and mmol/S,
Harvested fruits were manually counted and the fruit diameters were ranged as less than 1.5
cm, 1.6 - 3.0 cm, 3.1 - 4.5 cm and more than 4.5 cm. The total weight of marketable fruits in range
of more than 4.5 cm was also measured. Fruits were cut and mixed homogenously prior mashed
using pistil and mortar. Pure juice was placed on the prism glass of digital hand-held pocket
refractrometer to obtain the soluble solids content (SSC) reading. The unit expressed as
Data were subjected to ANOVA using Statistical Analysis System (SAS version 9.3)
software. Differences among means were separated using LSD at p 0.05 level.
Results and Discussion
The effect of the five treatments: (T1) without application of fermented plant juice (FPJ) and
fermented fruit juice (FFJ) as a control, (T2) FPJ water spinach + FFJ banana, (T3) FPJ water
spinach + FFJ pineapple, (T4) FPJ bamboo + FFJ banana and (T5) FPJ bamboo + FFJ pineapple
FPJ and FFJ treatments on plant height of tomato from 0 to 10 weeks after transplant (WAT) has
been presented in Fig. 1. Higher plant height was observed in plant treated with FPJ bamboo shoot
(T4 and T5) at vegetative stage and FPJ pineapples at flowering and fruiting stage on 3 and 5
WAT. Better performance of plant height might probably because new shoot plant has higher
auxin content, therefore it might be useful to trigger generation and differentiation of new shoot
cell. Our result is supported in manual of Cho’s Global Natural Farming (Reddy 2011). The
bamboo shoot FPJ also helps crops to obtain their needed N to increase in volume, thus suitable to
be used during vegetative growth.
Fig. 1. Plant height of tomato as influenced by FPJ and FFJ treatments for every 2 WAT.
Table 3. Shoot fresh and dry weight (g) of tomato plants as influenced by FPJ and FFJ treatments for
45 and 90 DAT.
Shoot fresh weight (g) Shoot dry weight (g) Treatment
45 DAT 90 DAT 45 DAT 90 DAT
T1 14.04 d 223.22 c 8.3 d 71.91 d
T2 47.5 b 428.68 b 11.24 c 133.4 b
T3 41.58 c 460.44 a 12.61 a 139.42 a
T4 65.65 a 237.9 c 12.91 a 83.12 c
T5 41.89 c 446.6 ab 1.34 e 132.65 b
Mean values and ± SE with different lower case letters in a row are significantly different at p 0.05.
The total leaf area differed significantly among the treatments applied at 45 and 90 DAT.
Water spinach showed the highest shoot fresh and dry weight of tomato plants during 45 DAT
(Fig. 2). It showed that FPJ water spinach gave better result in producing shoots and large leaf area
408 SAKIMIN et al.
compared to FPJ bamboo shoots. According to Borhan (2011), water spinach can be a good
growth promoter as it grow fast and may contain high natural growth hormones such as auxin. FFJ
pineapple gave better result in total leaf area rather than FFJ banana at 90 DAT. Pineapple
contained with high amount of K which is about 109 mg in 100 g of fresh pineapple and it is good
for stimulating early growth of plants (Rudrappa 2009).
Fig. 2. Total leaf area of tomato as influenced by FPJ and FFJ treatments for 45 and 90 DAT. Each bar
represents mean values (±SE) with different lower case letters are significantly different at p 0.05.
The fresh root and dry weights for all treatments also differed significantly (Table 4). The
effects of treatments on root fresh and dry weight were also significantly influenced by age of the
plants after transplanting. Fresh and dry weight of root increased with the increasing of day of
transplanting period.
Table 4. Root fresh and dry weight (g) of tomato plant as influenced by FPJ and FFJ treatments
for 45 and 90 DAT.
Root fresh weight (g) Root dry weight (g)
Treatment 45 DAT 90 DAT 45 DAT 90 DAT
T1 6.23 d 55.8 d 2.11 d 16 c
T2 9.7 c 107.17 c 2.66 b 21.48 a
T3 11.61 b 115.11 a 2.70 a 17.49 b
T4 14.74 a 59.48 d 2.73 a 12.46 d
T5 9.07 c 111.65 b 2.25 c 17.94 b
Mean values and ±SE with different lower case letters in a row are significantly different at p 0.05.
Minor variation was observed between treatments and age of the plants on root to shoot ratio
but the results was statistically non-significant (Fig. 3).
Fig. 3. Effect of FPJ and FFJ treatments on root to shoot ratio of tomato after 45 and 90 DAT. Each bar
represents mean values (± SE) with same lower case letters are non-significantly different at p 0.05.
Root to shoot ratio tends to increase with plant size which reflects the preferential assimilating
partitioning above ground. Higher root to shoot ratio means the large proportion of roots which
may compete more effectively soil nutrients, while low root to shoot ratio show there are high
proportion of shoots that can receive more light energy for photosynthesis. Allaby (1998) opined
that, large proportions of shoot are the characteristics of vegetation in early succession phase while
high proportions of root growth are characteristics of climax vegetation phase. However, Atwell
et al. (1999) reported that in herbaceous plants, root to shoot ratio typically decrease with age due
to sustained investment of carbon in above-ground structures. Low root to shoot ratio indicates
that the root were able to supply the shoot with water, nutrient, stored carbohydrates and certain
growth regulators (Wira et al. 2011). Low root proportion compared to shoot proportion on the 90
DAT maybe due to the restriction of root growth in limited size of the polybags.
Table 5. Effect of FPJ and FFJ treatments on photosynthesis rate (Ps) stomatal conductance (gs) and
transpiration rate of tomato after 45 and 90 DAT.
Photosynthesis rate
(µmol CO2/S)
Stomata conductance
Transpiration rate
45 DAT 90 DAT 45 DAT 90 DAT 45 DAT 90 DAT
T1 12.45 d 19.15 bc 0.6 a 0.38 c 6.28 a 4.13 bc
T2 15.08 c 19.8 b 0.29 d 0.45 b 3.92 c 4.85 b
T3 18.98 a 14.98 d 0.49 c 0.42 bc 5.39 b 3.72 c
T4 14.52 c 23.21 a 0.62 a 0.83 a 6.09 ab 6.39 a
T5 17.48 b 18.02 c 0.55 b 0.39 c 5.42 b 4.19 bc
Mean values and ±SE with different lower case letters in a row are significantly different at p 0.05.
The interaction between treatments and age of the plants (45 and 90 DAT) on photosynthesis
(Ps) rate, stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate, differed significantly (Table 5). The Ps rate
was seen to increase with the increasing of plant age as well as treatments except T3, where a bit
reduction was observed. Aleric and Kirkman (2005) reported the differences on Ps rates is based
on mass and leaf area. In another finding Aleric and Kirkman (2005) showed that lack of Ps rate
and shoot growth due to higher specific leaf area opposed to leaf thickness or higher root mass
ratio as such occurred in Triticum species. According to Borowski and Michalek (2008), there was
410 SAKIMIN et al.
a direct relationship between the stomatal conductance of the leaves and the intensity of
transpiration and Ps. The fluctuation in stomatal conductance influenced the changes in
transpiration as mentioned earlier by Kang and van Iersel (2004).
Table 6. Number of flowers and fruits of tomato developed for each week after transplant as influenced
by FPJ and FFJ treatments.
Treatment T1 T2 T3 T4 T5
W3 1 - 2 - 2 - 2 - 3 -
W4 9 - 6 - 8 - 10 - 6 -
W5 11 1 17 0 19 1 16 3 14 1
W6 12 1 27 3 18 2 11 3 26 3
W7 23 4 28 3 26 3 9 6 39 3
W8 19 7 33 8 25 5 10 6 35 5
W9 19 14 37 12 23 8 19 5 40 11
W10 16 13 36 6 22 11 24 2 39 2
*Here WAT denotes week after transplant, W is for week and T is for treatment
Significant differences were observed for number of flowers and fruits produced by tomato
plants influenced by FPJ and FFJ treatments after transplant (Table 6). There were several reasons
for the fluctuation on numbers of fruits counted during the experimental period. Firstly, the
branches that produced many fruits broke down because the branch could not support the fruit
Fig. 4. Effect of FPJ and FFJ treatments on total marketable numbers of fruits under certain range of diameter
produced after 10 WAT.
weight although it was already being staked. Secondly, some of the fruits have been attacked by
the pests before being wrapped to prevent further damage occurs. Our results were similar to the
work of Ali et al. (2013) who found that foliar application enhanced the growth, flowering and
marketable yield of tomato.
Fig. 4 showed the effect of FPJ and FFJ treatments on numbers of marketable fruits under
certain range of diameter produced. Most of the fruits produced on plants treated with T3 had
diameter range 1.6 - 3.0 cm and represent the highest number of fruits produced among the
treatments in that range.
Fig. 5 represented the total soluble solid (TSS) of tomato fruits according to the range of
diameter as influenced by the FPJ and FFJ application. T2 fruits showed the increasing of TSS
when the diameter of the fruits increased. The increased TSS gradually occurred with the
advancement of ripening process (Cartwen 2000, Moneruzzaman et al. 2008). The percentage of
TSS recorded in all treatments relatively higher compared to the commercial production.
According to Jones (2008), higher TSS in tomato usually ranged from 4.5 to 6.0%. Despite, in our
study the small diameter range of fruits like 1.6 to 3.0 cm were aslo contained higher percentage
of TSS (Fig. 5)
Fig. 5. Total soluble solid of tomato fruits is according on the diameter of fruits as influenced by FPJ
and FFJ treatments after 10 WAT.
Present findings suggested that FPJ water spinach gave better result in enhancing the
vegetative growth of tomato plants than FPJ bamboo shoots. While, FFJ pineapple supported the
reproductive phase of tomato plants rather than FFJ banana. In conclusion, the findings of this
research work have a number of important applications for future practice especially providing
information in producing organic fertilizer from agriculture waste in order to move forwards in
achieving sustainable agriculture.
The authors sincerely acknowledge Universiti Putra Malaysia for financial support of this
study and Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia for
providing all types of analytical and technical supports of this study. They also would like to thank
Mr. Salehuddin Yahya and Mrs Noorazimah Taharim for providing them the commercial FPJ and
FFJ to be used for this study.
412 SAKIMIN et al.
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Photosynthetic, morphological, and growth responses to light environment can be useful measurements to determine favorable habitat conditions for the conservation of endangered species. For Lindera melissifolia (Walt.) Blume, we compared morphological and photosynthetic responses under natural and controlled light regimes, and growth under three light treatments: 100%, 42%, and 19% full sunlight. Typical sun-shade morphological responses to decreasing light levels included decreased stomatal density, increased specific leaf area, and increased leaf area ratio. Photosynthetic capacity (3-6 μmol CO(2) · m(-2) · s(-1)) was consistent with other shade-tolerant species. Light-saturated rates of photosynthesis of experimental plants increased with increasing light up to 42% sunlight, but declined at 100% sunlight. The 100% light treatment also resulted in lower plant biomass, primarily from a reduction in root biomass. Results indicate that canopy conditions at levels below 40% sunlight are optimal for plant growth and should be considered in management and reintroduction efforts for this species.
While tomatoes continue to be one of the most widely grown plants, the production and distribution of tomato fruits have been changing worldwide. Smaller, flavorful tomatoes are becoming more popular than beefsteak tomatoes, greenhouse-grown tomatoes have entered the marketplace, and home gardeners are using the Internet to obtain information for growing tomatoes. Encompassing these changes, Tomato Plant Culture: In the Field, Greenhouse, and Home Garden, Second Edition clearly presents the characteristics, nutritional information, environmental requirements, and production aspects of tomato plants and fruits. Authored by one of the foremost experts in hydroponics, the book outlines the history of the tomato plant and fruit and delves into the author's personal experiences with tomato plant cultivation. It discusses the characteristics and composition of the plant as well as seedling and seed production. The author elucidates the physical features of the fruit and the mineral nutrition of the plant. He also examines the physical and chemical characteristics of soils most desirable for plant growth, makes fertilizer recommendations, and explores the factors involved in greenhouse tomato production. In addition, the book looks at ways to identify and control plant diseases and insect pests. With scientific data, trivia, and troubleshooting advice, this technical yet accessible book enables scientists, commercial growers, and home gardeners to cultivate a successful crop of tomatoes.