Article

Evaluation of complementary use of organic manure for sustainable water yam production in Uyo, southeastern Nigeria

Article

Evaluation of complementary use of organic manure for sustainable water yam production in Uyo, southeastern Nigeria

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Abstract

A two year study was conducted at University of Uyo Teaching and Research Farm, Use Offot, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State in 2009 and 2010 cropping seasons to assess the effects of complementary use of different organic manures on water yam growth and yield, economic returns to management as well as attack by some pests. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. There were 8 fertilizer treatments viz: poultry manure (PM), goat manure (GM), and oil palm bunch ash (OPBA) each at ...

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... Yam is highly rich in carbohydrates and is a staple food in Africa (Adegbenro et al., 2013). In addition to that, yam also occupies a place in many traditional marriage ceremonies and in a special diet for mothers in confinement after child birth (Ikeh et al., 2013). According to Ikeh et al. (2013), there is no other crop in Nigeria or Africa at large associated with a great amount of social and cultural activities than yam. ...
... In addition to that, yam also occupies a place in many traditional marriage ceremonies and in a special diet for mothers in confinement after child birth (Ikeh et al., 2013). According to Ikeh et al. (2013), there is no other crop in Nigeria or Africa at large associated with a great amount of social and cultural activities than yam. Adeniyan and Owolade (2012) stated that yams are utilized in different forms. ...
... Like all other crops, yam require good fertile soil for its cultivation. Ikeh et al. (2013) reported that, yam yield is consistently declining principally due to low productivity associated with poor soil fertility status as well as inappropriate cropping systems and practices. The crop is regarded as a heavy feeder crop and usually the first crop to be planted to a land after long period of fallow (Ikeh et al., 2013). ...
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Performance of water yam (Dioscorea alata) clones as influenced by NPK fertilizer rates and staking was tested. The experiment consisted of three NPK fertilizer rates (0-0-0, 50-25-25 and 100-50-50 kg NPK ha-1) and two staking (staking and no-staking). The treatments were arranged using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. A yam set weighing 150g was planted at 1 m apart on the crest of a ridge. NPK 15:15:15 Fertilizer was applied in two split doses at planting to supply the first half of N and whole of P and K while the remaining half of N was applied 6 weeks after sowing (WAS) using Urea (46% N). Weeds were controlled using Pendilin as pre-emergence herbicide applied at the rate of 4 litres ha-1 and was supplemented with hoe weeding at 6 and 9 WAS. Data collected on tagged plants were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and means with significant differences were separated using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at 5% level of significance. The result showed that increasing NPK fertilizer rate on water yam from the control to 50-25-25 significantly (P<0.05) enhanced all the growth and yield parameters assessed in 2011 and 2012 seasons, respectively. However, increase to 100-50-50 kg NPK ha-1 significantly reduced the parameters. Staking water yam significantly increases all the growth and yield parameters assessed with the exception of days to 50% sprouting which responded better to no staking. We therefore, recommend the application of NPK fertilizer (15-15-15 grade) at the rate of 50-25-25 kg NPK ha-1 and use of staking for the production of water yam in Samaru, northern Guinea savanna agro-ecological zone of Nigeria.
... It provides high quality edible oil (48-50%), used in cooking, margarine, salads, easily digestible protein (26 to 28%), and about half of the 13 essential vitamins and more than a 2/3 rd of the 20 essential minerals necessary for normal human growth and maintenance. It produces high quality fodder for livestock [4]. Being a legume, it synthesizes atmospheric nitrogen into root nodule with a symbiotic association of Rhizobium and thereby improves soil for fertility [5]. ...
... Ntare, et al. [10]; Obi [11] and Moyin-Jesu [12] found out that plant derived ash including those of wood and cocoa pod, increased soil chemical properties, P H and yield of vegetables, cassava and maize. Mbah and Akpan [13] reported that ash is an effective fertilizer and liming material for improving soil fertility, while Ikeh, et al. [4] stressed that combined application of oil palm bunch ash and poultry manure at 2.5 tha -1 rate each resulted to high tuber yield of water yam. Effiong, et al. [14] found that oil palm bunch ash and poultry manure treatments increased the soil P H , O.M, N, P, K, Ca, Mg by 6%, 13%, 19%, 28%, 32%, 33% and 21% respectively. ...
... It is very rich in almost all the analyzed parameters Table 2. The rich status of oil palm bunch ash conforms with the reports of varying researchers such as: Ntare, et al. [10]; Effiong, et al. [14]; Akpan [6] and Ikeh, et al. [4]. Plant ash including oil palm bunch ash are veritable liming and fertilizer materials. ...
... This strong yield effect likely reflects the low soil fertility of the experimental site where no amendments have ever been used before. It has been previously reported from southern Nigeria that poultry and goat manure applied at 20 t ha -¹ led to higher yields (26.15 t ha-¹) and tuber numbers (3.43 plant -1 ) than inorganic fertilizer in D. alata (Ikeh et al., 2013). For the first year of their experiment, neither yield nor number of tubers are, however, comparable to our results with D. alata, as they were much lower (respectively 11.43 t ha -1 and 1.5 plant -¹). ...
... In our experiment we observed only two minor pest attacks which may be due to the application of ashes before sowing. Ikeh et al. (2013) reported in their work on D. alata that no pest attack was recorded in treatments that had received oil palm bunch ash. ...
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Kurzzusammenfassung: Die vorliegende Dissertation wurde durchgeführt, um die Diversität der von der Bevölkerung des Mahafaly Plateaus genutzten Pflanzenressourcen zu erfassen, die sozialen, ökologischen und biophysiologischen Bedingungen, die deren Nutzung und Verfügbarkeit bestimmen, zu verstehen und mögliche Alternativen für deren nachhaltige Nutzung in der Region aufzuzeigen. Das Untersuchungsgebiet, die Mahafaly Region, liegt im Südwesten von Madagaskar. Es ist eine der ökonomisch, klimatisch und in Hinblick auf das Bildungswesen am meisten benachteiligten Regionen des Landes. In dem ariden Steppenklima wird die landwirtschaftliche Produktion durch die begrenzte Wasserverfügbarkeit und den geringen Gehalt an Bodennährstoffen und organischer Substanz limitiert. Teil der Region ist der in jüngerer Vergangenheit erweiterten Nationalpark Tsimanampetsotsa mit einer Vielzahl an der lokalen Bevölkerung heiligen Waldflächen ebenso wie von ihr gemeinschaftlich genutzten Waldflächen, die jedoch durch Brandrodung und Raubbau der Waldressourcen zunehmend gefährdet sind. Um die Verwendung von wilden Yams und Heilpflanzen zu untersuchen, wurde eine ethnobotanische Erhebung in fünf Dörfern in der Mahafaly Region durchgeführt und die Diversität, das lokale Wissen sowie die Verwendung dieser Pflanzen erfasst. 250 Haushalte wurden zufällig ausgewählt, um anhand von teilstrukturierten Interviews deren sozio-ökonomischen Merkmale zu ermitteln. Die erhobenen Daten erlaubten die Charakterisierung der soziokulturellen und sozioökonomischen Faktoren, welche die Intensität der Verwendung von wilden Yams und Heilpflanzen beeinflussen. Hierbei wurde die jeweilige Rolle in der Sicherung des Lebensunterhaltes der Bevölkerung identifiziert. Die Art-Umwelt-Beziehung und die gegenwärtige räumliche Verteilung des wilden Yams wurde basierend auf abiotischen und biotischen Faktoren untersucht und mit Hilfe von Ordinationsverfahren und eines Nischen-basierten Habitat-Modells vorhergesagt. Darüber hinaus wurden Art-Wirkungskurven entlang von Bodengradienten erstellt. Die Auswertungen ermöglichten es, die Umwelt- und Habitatansprüche verschiedener Yams-Arten sowie die Bedeutung der durch den Menschen induzierten Veränderungen auf die Artverfügbarkeit zu verstehen. Vor diesem Hintergrund wurden verschiedene alternative Methoden zur Verbesserung der Regeneration von wildem Yams für die örtliche Bestandserhaltung und die nachhaltige Nutzung in der Mahafaly Region untersucht. Insgesamt wurden sechs wilde Yams-Arten und 214 Heilpflanzenarten aus 68 Familien und 163 Gattungen im Untersuchungsgebiet identifiziert. Die Ergebnisse der Cluster- und Diskriminanzanalyse deuteten ein klares Muster in der Ressourcen-Nutzung an und ergaben zwei Gruppen von Haushalten, die sich in der Intensität der Sammlung von wilden Yams und Heilpflanzen, dem Wissen über deren Nutzung und ihrem Wohlstand unterschieden. Letzteres wurde durch den örtlichen Viehbestand, nichtlandwirtschaftliche Haushaltsaktivitäten, die verfügbare landwirtschaftlichen Nutzfläche sowie Ernteerträgen bestimmt. Ein generalisiertes lineares Modell stellte heraus, dass ökonomische Faktoren die Sammelintensität von wilden Yams signifikant beeinflussten, wohingegen die Nutzung von Heilpflanzen stärker von soziokulturellen Faktoren abhängt. Die Redundanzanalyse zeigte ein klares Muster in der Verbreitung von wilden Yams-Arten in den verschiedenen Lebensräumen. Mit Hilfe eines nichtparametrischen multiplikativen Regressionsmodells konnten 37-88% der Variation in der Häufigkeit der Arten erklärt werden. Die Ergebnisse deuteten zudem auf die Bedeutung der Vegetationsstruktur, Nutzungsintensität sowie der Bodeneigenschaften bei der Bestimmung der Vorkommen wilder Yams-Arten hin. Die Vorhersage der Verbreitung dieser Ressourcen zeigte, dass reichhaltige Vorkommen selten und meist begrenzt in offenen Dornwäldern und Dorndickichten vorkommen, wo die Ernte sehr arbeitsintensiv ist. Feldversuche zum Yams-Anbau zeigten darüber hinaus, dass die Keimfähigkeit durch Vorbehandlung des Saatgutes verbessert werden konnte und die vegetative Regeneration der oberen Knollenteile (Kormus) eine höhere Keimrate hatte als die Minisetts der Knollen. Die in-situ Regeneration aus den oberen Teilen von wilden Knollen war möglich, wobei der Erfolg signifikant vom Bodentyp abhing. Die Verwendung von Dünger (10-20 t ha-1) erhöhte die Erträge von D. alata und D. alatipes um 40%. Der Anbau von weiteren heimischen D. alata-Sorten aus benachbarten Regionen sollte daher gefördert werden.
... Farm operations like weeding, mulching, staking, chemical applications must be carried out at the right time for bumper yield. Ikeh et al. [15] reported that, yam yield is consistently declining principally due to low productivity associated with poor soil fertility as well as inappropriate cropping systems and practices. Akanbi et al. [16] stated that farmers in most of the developing countries continue to crop on infertile soils. ...
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The study of economics of yam production was carried out in Gboyin Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria. The specific objectives are to: describe the socio-economic characteristics of yam farmers, determine and analyse the profitability of yam production, determine the input and output relationship of yam production and identify constraints to yam production. Three- stage sampling procedure was used to obtain information from respondents. A total number of 140 respondents selected randomly from four towns (Ode- Ekiti, Agbado, Aisegba and Ilumoba) were used for the study. Data were collected with interview schedule administered to obtain information from the farmers. Descriptive statistics, budgetary, profitability and multiple regression analysis were used to analyse the data. The result of the study showed that both males and females are involved in yam production in the study area with mean age of 45 years and mean household size of 5 members. The mean faming experience and farm size was 10 years and 1.83 hectares respectively. Majority (83.57%) had formal education (primary, secondary and tertiary education) and had no access to loans. The result of budgetary analyses showed that yam production is profitable with an average net farm income of N 91, 876.50 per production season. The profitability indicators revealed that the enterprise is viable and worthwhile. The coefficient of both fertilizer and farm size were significant at (P< 0.001), labour at (P< 0.05) while the coefficient of seed was significant at (P< 0.10) probability level. These variables are very vital and crucial in yam production. Inadequate capital and planting materials, high cost and inaccessibility to inputs, and poor produce price etc are the problems of yam production in the study area. It was concluded that yam production is a profitable, viable and worthwhile enterprise which can be embarked upon by both the youths and adults of the study area.
... Studies have shown that the application of manure has positive effects on the physical and chemical properties of soil mainly due to increase in organic matter [7,8,9]. The important roles of organic matter include being a rich source of essential plant nutrients [10], helps in improving moisture holding capacity of the soil, improves soil structure, soil aeration, water permeability, acts as pH buffer, contains metal-organic matter complexes that help in making available micro nutrients to crop [11,12,13]. Nutrient availability to crop is affected by soil physical, chemical and biological properties and these are also influenced by the environmental factors. ...
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