Conference Paper

Two hop adaptive routing protocol for underwater wireless sensor networks

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Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) facilitate a wide range of aquatic applications in many domains. However, harsh underwater environment poses challenges like low bandwidth, long propagation delay, high bit error rate, etc. Node mobility and uneven distribution of sensor nodes create void holes in UWSNs. Avoiding void hole creation benefits in many ways: it is mandatory to avoid void hole creation for better coverage over an area, less energy consumption in the network and high throughput. In such conditions, minimization of void hole probability in locally sparse regions is focused in this paper. Two hop adaptive vector based forwarding (2hop-AHH-VBF) routing protocol selects forwarder based on two hop potential neighbor number information. Meeting the void holes during forwarding path is significantly reduced in this way. Moreover, successful transmissions guarantee reliable packet delivery and reduced energy tax. Simulation results verify that proposed scheme outperforms in packet delivery ratio and energy tax while compared with AHH-VBF.

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... Each node, in this case, calculates the holding time depending on the depth difference. A hop-by-hop vector-based routing protocol is discussed by Ahmed et al. [18]. It produces a vacuum zone where the nodes are not accessible due to mobility issues or energy loss. ...
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p class="Affiliation"> A little change in the environment that goes unnoticed in an underwater communication network might lead to calamity. A little alteration in the environment must also be adequately analyzed in order to deal with a potential crisis. A priority-based routing protocol is required to ensure that the vital data perceived by the sensor about the environment changes. The priority-based routing system guarantees that vital data packets are delivered at a quicker pace to the destination or base station for further processing. In this work, we present a priority-based routing protocol based on the energy efficient hybrid cluster routing protocol (EEHRCP) algorithm. The suggested approach keeps two distinct queues for lower and higher priority data packets. In order to ensure that these packets get at their destination without any information loss and at a quicker rate, all of the crucial sensed data is passed through a higher priority queue. Test findings show that the suggested technique increases throughput, delivery percentage, and reduces latency for the crucial data packets. </p
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