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Multiple Problem Youth: Delinquency, Substance Use, and Mental Health Problems.

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Abstract

1 Introduction.- 2 The Demographic Distribution of Delinquency and ADM Problems.- 3 Prevalence and General Offending/Use Patterns: The Joint Occurrence of Delinquent Behavior and ADM Problems.- 4 Age, Period, and Cohort Effects.- 5 Developmental Patterns.- 6 The Etiology of Delinquency and ADM Problems.- 7 Prediction of Delinquent and ADM Behavior from Other Delinquent and ADM Behavior.- 8 Summary and Implications.- References.- Appendix A Frequency of Alcohol Use.- Appendix B Mental Health Measures.- Appendix C Prevalence and Offending/Use Rates for Multiple Problem Types.- Appendix D Annual Transition Matrices for Problem Behavior Types.- Author Index.

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... The other components of the integrated theory, strain and control, are themselves less collective in nature. Family involvement (but not necessarily school involvement), as measured in the present study, gives some indication of a pattern of association and interaction in a typically (but not universally) prosocial context, but based on both prior statements and tests of the integrated theory (Elliott, Huizinga, and Ageton 1985;Elliott, Huizinga, and Menard 1989;Menard and Johnson 2015), plus their more distal connection to the context (the peer group) in which gang fighting would occur, we would expect the direct effects of strain and control theoretical variables to be weak or nonsignificant. ...
... The survey was originally designed to test integrated theory, so variables from strain, social control, and social learning theories are included in the dataset. The NYSFS also included information about a variety of delinquent behaviors, alcohol and substance abuse, mental health, and more (see Elliott and Ageton 1980;Elliott, Huizinga, and Ageton 1985;Elliott, Huizinga, and Menard 1989). This dataset contains information about the original respondents from ages 11-17 (in the first wave) to 37-43 in the most recent wave. ...
... In order to test integrated theory, several categories of predictors are used. Following Elliott, Huizinga, and Menard (1989), delinquent peer group bonding (DPGB) was measured by using an interaction term. The first part of the interaction was involvement with friends, which was an additive scale using the following variables: the amount of time spent with friends during afternoons during an average week; the amount of time spent with friends during evenings during an average week; and time spent with friends on weekends. ...
Article
This paper uses integrated theory to explain gang fighting. Integrated theory combines elements of social control, social learning, and strain theories. We focus on gang fighting to assess the generality of integrated theory because it constitutes serious violent collective behavior which is linked to other problem behaviors. Few explanations for such behavior are offered. We examine the relationship between integrated theory and gang fighting using multi-level modeling and data from the first five waves of the National Youth Survey Family Study for the period 1976–1980. Support for direct effects of some components of integrated theory was found, including normlessness, delinquent peer-group bonding, and grades in school.
... Most of the survey research on the alcohol/drug-violence connection has relied on self-reports, which generally are accepted as reliable and valid indicators of both criminal behavior and alcohol and drug use. In addition, self-reports provide a more direct, sensitive, and complete measure of various deviant behaviors than do measures based on official law enforcement and institutional records (for greater detail and supporting studies, see Elliott, Huizinga, and Menard 1989;Farrington et al. 1996; for a discussion of measurement errors inherent in official records, see Fagan 1993a). Of course, there are many caveats concerning the use of self-report data, especially with long-term drug users who may lack the inability to remember past events, misunderstand many questions, and conceal certain behaviors and/or exaggerate others (Chaiken and Chaiken 1990). ...
... Studies examining the association between various stages of drug use and delinquency have reported a high degree of synchrony in the progression. Abstainers and alcohol-only users are most likely to be nondelinquents; compared with only alcohol users, those who use both alcohol and marijuana are more likely to be delinquent; and those who progress to the use of other drugs, compared with those who do not, are most likely to also progress to involvement in more serious forms of delinquency (Elliott, Huizinga, and Menard 1989;Fagan et al. 1987;Fagan, Weis, and Cheng 1988;White, Johnson, and Garrison 1985). Yet, these types of analyses have also indicated that there are several heterogeneous groups of adolescents; for some, drug use and delinquency are closely related, and for others they are independent of each other (see Fagan et al. 1987;White, Pandina, and LaGrange 1987;White and Labouvie 1994) In addition, these typological studies indicate that the strength of the associations between substance use and delinquency depends on the severity of the delinquency and the types of substances used (Fagan et al. 1988), as well as the age, sex, and nature of the sample examined (Huizinga and Jakob-Chien 1998). ...
... In contrast, data from community samples of adolescents do not provide strong support for a direct association between alcohol/drug use and violence (Carpenter et al. 1988;White 1997b). In a national sample of adolescents, Elliott, Huizinga, and Menard (1989) examined self-reports of the use of alcohol and drugs immediately prior to commission of index offenses. They found no relationship between acute drug use and property or violent crime. ...
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This chapter explores changes and continuities in the drug-crime rela-tionship during the past several decades. First, we discuss the rela-tionship in a historical context highlighting changes in U.S. Federal policy. Next, we examine the key methodological issues involved in empirically understanding the drug-crime connection. In this section we identify inconsistencies in definitions and measurement of key variables and discuss the advantages and limitations of alternative sampling frames. We then trace trends in drug use and crime over time using national and city-level datasets. These data demonstrate that trends vary by city and that there is no uniform association between any type of drug use and any type of crime. After this, we present gen-eral theoretical models of the drug-crime connection, including that drug use causes crime, that crime leads to drug use, and that both drug use and crime are caused by the same factors. Next, we review the empirical research that supports and refutes these explanatory models. The review indicates that one single model cannot account for the drug-crime relationship. Rather, the drug-using, crime-committing population is heterogeneous, and there are multiple paths that lead to drug use and crime. The chapter concludes with a discussion of poli-cy options and implications for the next century.
... Assessing the hypotheses also requires data on agentic stresses, communal stresses, depression, and law violation. Such data are not readily available, but the National Youth Survey (NYS), collected by Elliott et al. (1985Elliott et al. ( , 1989, provides limited information on each of these variables to provide a more comprehensive and simultaneous assessment of each of these hypotheses than has been available to date. ...
... In 1981, the respondents ranged in age from 16 to 22. The attrition rate over the span of data collection was low, 13%; and comparisons of respondents across waves indicated that loss by demographic variables and law violation did not influence substantially the underlying distributions on these variables (Elliott, Huizinga, and Menard 1989). I use the data from the 796 female respondents and 805 male respondents who remained in the sample at the time of the 1981, 1982, and 1983 interviews. ...
... These scales include property, violent, and public order offenses, following Elliott et al. (1985), but exclude juvenile status offenses. This study uses rates of offending (i.e., ordinal responses of 0 ϭ never, 1 ϭ one to two times per year, 2 ϭ once or twice a year, etc.) rather than frequency of offending (i.e., actual numeric counts) because the former are distributed more normally (Elliott, Huizinga, and Menard 1989). This study also uses the log of the dependent variable to further correct for skewness. ...
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This article unites arguments from the sociology of mental health, criminology, and the sociology of gender to explore the role of gender in the stress process. The author proposes that gender acts upon the stress process in three ways. First, males and females may report exposure to different types of stresses. Second, males and females may be vulnerable to different types of stresses. Third, males and females may respond to stress in different ways - law violation versus depression. Arguments are tested about the relative importance of differential exposure versus differential vulnerability to various stresses for understanding the gender gaps in law violation and depression using the National Youth Survey, OLS regression, and Kessler's method for decomposing differences in exposure and vulnerability to stress. The results provide limited support for these arguments, suggesting that females report more exposure than do males to some communal stresses, whereas males report more exposure than do females to the agentic stresses included in this study. Vulnerability to these stresses also varies across gender, with females generally expressing greater vulnerability to communal stresses in the form of depression and males expressing greater vulnerability to agentic stresses in the form of law violation. Some deviations from this general pattern are discussed, and recommendations for future research follow. © 2005 by Pacific Sociological Association. All rights reserved.
... Second, we use multiple analytic strategies that make different underlying assumptions to assess whether any significant relationships are plausibly causal in nature. Third, guided by the findings from prior health research that reveal a pathway from lead exposure to later impulsivity and impaired mental health (Braun et al., 2006;Winter and Sampson, 2017), coupled with associations among impulsivity, mental health problems, and antisocial behavior in the criminological literature (Elliott, Huizinga, and Menard, 1989;Farrington, 1998;Gottfredson and Hirschi, 1990), we assess whether impulsive behavior and compromised mental health (i.e., anxiety or depression) mediate any relationship between childhood lead exposure and adolescent delinquency. 1 Fourth, we test whether there is an additional association between childhood lead exposure and official arrests in adolescence. Because there is little theoretical reason to predict that lead exposure has a direct effect on the criminalization process, we expect any effects of lead on later arrest to be mediated by antisocial behavior. ...
... The results in tables 2 to 4 support the hypotheses that 1) there is a long-term link between childhood lead exposure and antisocial behavior in later adolescence, and 2) this relationship is plausibly causal in nature. Prior research findings linking childhood lead exposure to later impulsivity and impaired mental health (Winter and Sampson, 2017) as well as associations among impulsivity, mental health problems, and antisocial behavior in the criminological literature (Elliott, Huizinga, and Menard, 1989;Farrington, 1998;Gottfredson and Hirschi, 1990) motivate our third question identified earlier: Is the relationship between lead exposure and antisocial behavior partially mediated by individuals' impulsive behavior and mental health? ...
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The consequences of lead exposure for later crime are theoretically compelling, but direct evidence from representative, longitudinal samples is sparse. By capitalizing on an original follow-up of more than 200 infants from the birth cohort of the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods matched to their blood lead levels from around age 3 years, we provide several tests. Through the use of four waves of longitudinal data that include measures of individual development, family background, and structural inequalities in how lead becomes embodied, we assess the hypothesized link between early childhood lead poisoning and both parent-reported delinquent behavior and official arrest in late adolescence. We also test for mediating developmental processes of impulsivity and anxiety or depression. The results from multiple analytic strategies that make different assumptions reveal a plausibly causal effect of childhood lead exposure on adolescent delinquent behavior but no direct link to arrests. The results underscore lead exposure as a trigger for poisoned development in the early life course and call for greater integration of the environment into theories of individual differences in criminal behavior.
... Previous findings indicate that Cohen's intervening variables, specifically academic performance and school involvement, do have an effect on delinquency (Blumstein, Farrington, and Moitra 1985;Elliott and Voss 1974;Elliott, Huizinga, and Menard 1989;Farnworth, Schweinhart, and Berrueta-Clement 1985;Figueira-McDonough 1983;Kelly and Balch 1971;LaGrange and White 1985;Lane 1980;Thornberry et al. 1985;Wiatrowski, Griswold, and Roberts 1981;Wiatrowski et al. 1982). However, all of these variables together with elements of frustration and reaction formation have not been tested, which is required in order to remain true to Cohen's hypothesized relationships. ...
... Cohen believed that the relationship between social class and delinquency could be mediated by academic performance or school involvement, such as participation in extracurricular activities. Other researchers have established that children with poor school performance are at a higher risk of delinquency (Blumstein et al. 1985;Brunner 1993;Elliott et al. 1989;Farnworth et al. 1985;Figueira-McDonough 1983;LaGrange and White 1985;Lane 1980;Richardson 2003;Richardson 2005/2006;Siegel, Welsh, and Senna 2003;Thornberry et al. 1985Thornberry et al. , 1991Wiatrowski et al. 1981Wiatrowski et al. , 1982. Greenberg's work (1981) supported Cohen's idea that schools create personal failure, showing that the grading and evaluation structure within schools contributed to student-perceived failure. ...
... Self-reports are generally accepted as reliable and valid indicators of delinquent behavior and drug use (Farrington et al. 1996;Hindelang, Hirschi, and Weis 1981;Single, Kandel, and Johnson 1975). According to Elliott, Huizinga, and Menard (1989), self-reports provide a more direct, sensitive, and complete measure of various forms of deviant behavior than measures based on official law enforcement and institutional records. Self-reports also have their limitations in terms of the accuracy of recall, misunderstanding the questions, and efforts to conceal or exaggerate (Chaiken and Chaiken 1990). ...
... Therefore, the results of this study should be evaluated in light of possible measurement limitations. (For greater detail on the advantages and disadvantages of self-report data, see Elliott et al. 1989;Farrington et al. 1996;Hindelang et al. 1981.) Illegal activities. 1 We examined the frequency (number of times) of commission of 19 different types of illegal acts within the past year. ...
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This study examined the proximal effects of alcohol and drug use on adolescent illegal activity. Four years of longitudinal data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study were analyzed for 506 local male adolescents. Participants reported committing offenses against persons more often than general theft under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Aggressive acts were more often related to self-reported acute alcohol use than to marijuana use. Those who reported committing illegal acts under the influence reported committing offenses with other people and being arrested more often than those who did not. Offenses under the influence were more prevalent among heavier alcohol and drug users, more serious offenders, more impulsive youth, and youth with more deviant peers. There were no significant interaction effects of alcohol and drug use with impulsivity or deviant peers in predicting whether illegal acts were committed under the influence. The association between drug use and illegal activity during adolescence is complex.
... Data for this study are taken from the National Youth Survey (NYS; Elliott et al. 1989). The NYS involves a multiple cohort sequential design based on a probability sample of households in the continental United States, selected using a multistage, cluster sampling design, and appears to be representative of the total 11-through 17-year-old youth population in the United States as established by the U.S. Census Bureau for 1976 (Elliott et al. 1989). ...
... Data for this study are taken from the National Youth Survey (NYS; Elliott et al. 1989). The NYS involves a multiple cohort sequential design based on a probability sample of households in the continental United States, selected using a multistage, cluster sampling design, and appears to be representative of the total 11-through 17-year-old youth population in the United States as established by the U.S. Census Bureau for 1976 (Elliott et al. 1989). The initial survey interviewed 1,725 adolescents, and attempts were made to recontact and interview each of the original respondents in each of the first four (annual) follow-up surveys. ...
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Interactional theory argues that theoretical variables and delinquency have reciprocal causal relationships. While empirical support for the reciprocal relationships has been found, the impact of delinquency on later changes in the variables, including attenuated attachment to family, needs more elaboration. Labeling theory may offer a constructive extension to interactional theory, given their common emphases on theoretical integration, age-varying effects, and reciprocal relationships. The present study suggests an extended interactional model with the labeling dimension. Using structural equation modeling, both the original and extended models were tested with longitudinal data from a nationally representative sample. The present study tested statistical and substantive significance of the paths hypothesized by each model. Findings lend support for the extended interactional model; providing as much as a 48.2% increase in its explanatory power when compared to the original interactional model. The extended interactional model incorporating labeling theory may contribute to both interactional theory and labeling theory for juvenile delinquency.
... The NYSFS project has been reviewed since its inception by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the Behavioral Research Institute or the IRB of the University of Colorado. Informed consent or assent was obtained from all respondents and informed consent from parents for their child's participation was obtained for all respondents under the age of 18 prior to a respondent being interviewed (Elliott, Huizinga, and Menard 1989). This resulted in a sample of 1,725 focal respondents, who were the sample to be surveyed each year through Wave 5 ( W5; 1977-1981), every 3 years through W9 (1984)(1985)(1986)(1987)(1988)(1989)(1990)(1991)(1992)(1993), and annually at W10 (2002) and W11 (2003). ...
... In an effort to limit spurious effects, this study includes several demographic control variables-all of which are associated with a host of problem behaviors (Capaldi et al. 2012;Elliott et al. 1989;Moffitt et al. 2001). Time-varying demographic control variables assessed from each wave include age, education (in number of years, including college), and whether the respondent received public assistance. ...
Article
Using prospective data collected across 14 years by the National Youth Survey Family Study (N = 1,436), we assessed change in aspirations, future expectations, and strain, as well as contemporaneous and longitudinal effects of these predictors on drug use, offending, and the perpetration of intimate partner violence. Growth curve models showed that, although time significantly predicted change in these variables, trajectories remained relatively stable. Contemporaneous random-intercept regression models revealed that all three measures were associated with all three problem behaviors. The effects were predictive longitudinally but some associations and gender differences were attenuated when controlling for prior involvement in outcomes.
... In recent years, researchers and practitioners increasingly have focused on the mental health needs of juvenile offenders (Elliott, Huizinga, and Menard 1989;Cocozza 1997;Bilchik 1998;Burns 1999;Cocozza and Skowyra 2000). However, there still remains relatively little recognition of the importance or prevalence of mental health needs among youths processed through the juvenile justice system (Cocozza 1992;Towberman 1992;Hubner and Wilson 2000). ...
... This foundation has slowly eroded, especially during the last decade of "get tough" reforms (Singer 1996;Torbet et al. 1996;Torbet and Szymanski 1998). Whether due to this erosion, increased attention to potential etiological linkages between mental disorder and crime (Hodgins 1993), or an increasing reliance on justice rather than social service systems to handle individuals with mental illnesses (Liska, Markowitz, Whaley, and Bellair 1999;Cocozza and Skowyra 2000;Goldkamp and Irons-Guynn 2000), recently there have been calls for more systematically identifying and addressing the mental health needs of youthful offenders (Elliott, Huizinga, and Menard 1989;Dembo and Brown 1994;Bilchik 1998;Anderson 2000;Cocozza and Skowrya 2000;U.S. Public Health Service 2000). However, much of the research to date has focused primarily on providing earlier and more accurate clinical assessments of mental disorders among juvenile referrals (e.g., Rivers, Dembo, and Anwyl 1998;Hoge 1999) and on establishing whether and to what extent mental disorder causes crime (Hodgins 1993; Barratt and Slaughter 1996;Blackburn 1998). ...
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Despite growing attention to the mental health needs of juvenile offenders, there are critical challenges yet to be resolved in addressing these needs. The challenges include: (1) increasing scholarly and practitioner recognition of juvenile offender mental health needs; (2) raising awareness about the importance of mental health as a potential predictor of recidivism and as constituting the "best interests" of juveniles; (3) focusing attention on co-occurring rather than specific areas of need (e.g., mental health, emotional stability, education/disability, substance abuse, peer and family relations, health/hygiene, sexual adjustment, employment/vocational skills); (4) promoting the use of needs assessments through [a] clarifying the purposes and appropriate uses of assessments throughout juvenile justice processing, [b] improving the reliability and validity of assessment instruments, and [c] enhancing the feasibility of conducting assessments; (5) identifying resource and service gaps and promoting diversion; and (6) encouraging collaboration among juvenile justice, child welfare, social service, and education systems. This paper outlines each of these challenges, their implications for efficiently and effectively addressing the mental health needs of youths, and recommendations for how to resolve them.
... Multivariate studies can control for situational and personal characteristics that are measured, but it is not possible to rule the effect of unobserved factors in the absence of random assignment. There is very strong evidence for a shared risk propensity for substance use, delinquency, school problems, accidents, and mental health problems (see Elliott, Huizinga, and Menard, 1989;Kessler et al., 2005). So almost certainly some of the observed associations between marijuana use and poor outcomes are not causal. ...
... That is, research to date on risk and need assessment of juveniles has tended to focus either on incarcerated populations or, increasingly, on survey-based studies of juvenile offending (Elliott, Huizinga, and Ageton 1985;Elliott, Huizinga, and Menard 1989;Farrington 1998a-b; Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention 1999). ...
Article
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Researchers emphasize the importance of risk and criminogenic needs in developing intervention strategies for juvenile offenders. Yet, few jurisdictions collect information about the risk/needs profile of known youthful offenders or whether their needs are being addressed. This study estimated the prevalence of mental health, substance abuse, educational, and family-related needs for youths referred to seven juvenile probation departments in Texas, which represent 21% of referrals statewide. Analyses indicate that the most prevalent needs are problems associated with parental supervision, school behavior, school attendance, parental/family problems, disposition/self-image, and substance abuse. Additional analyses suggest that substantial gaps exist between the number of juveniles needing and receiving programs and services. It is concluded that such information is absolutely essential if policy makers are to formulate appropriate and adequate intervention strategies for court-involved youth.
... The sampling plan of the RYDS was designed to oversample youth at high risk for serious delinquency and drug use because the base rates for these behaviors are relatively low (Elliott, Huizinga, and Menard, 1989;Wolfgang, Thornberry, and Figlio, 1987). To accomplish this goal while being able to generalize the findings to a population of urban adolescents, the following strategy was used. ...
Article
The short‐run deleterious effects of gang involvement during adolescence have been well researched. However, surprisingly little empirical attention has been devoted to understanding how gang involvement in adolescence influences life chances and criminal behavior in adulthood. Drawing on the life‐course perspective, this study argues that gang involvement will lead to precocious transitions that, in turn, will have adverse consequences on the fulfillment of adulthood roles and statuses in the economic and family spheres. Moreover, problems fulfilling these conventional roles are hypothesized then to lead to sustained involvement in criminal behavior in adulthood. Using data from a sample of males from the Rochester Youth Development Study, results from structural equation models support the indirect link between gang membership and noncriminal and criminal outcomes in adulthood. Specifically, gang involvement leads to an increase in the number of precocious transitions experienced that result in both economic hardship and family problems in adulthood. These failures in the economic and family realms, in turn, contribute to involvement in street crime and/or arrest in adulthood. Implications for the criminal desistance process are discussed.
... The alpha coefficient was .81. A violent peer network is measured by three items adapted from the National Youth Survey (Elliott, Huizinga, and Menard, 1989), which asked respondents how many of their close friends had engaged in violent acts. We summed the responses to the items to obtain a total score regarding the extent to which the respondents' friends engaged in violent behavior. ...
Article
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Although numerous studies have found a strong relationship between offending and victimization risk, the etiology of this relationship is not well understood. Largely absent from this research is an explicit focus on neighborhood processes. However, theoretical work found in the subculture of violence literature implies that neighborhood street culture may help to account for the etiology of this phenomenon. Specifically, we should expect the magnitude of the victim–offender overlap to vary closely with neighborhood‐based violent conduct norms. This research uses waves 1 and 2 of the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS) to test the empirical validity of these notions. Our results show that the victim–offender overlap is not generalizeable across neighborhood contexts; in fact, it is especially strong in neighborhoods where the street culture predominates, whereas it is significantly weaker in areas where this culture is less prominent. These results indicate that neighborhood‐level cultural processes help to explain the victim–offender overlap, and they may cause this phenomenon to be context specific.
... Previous research has shown that offending variety scales are preferable to frequency and dichotomous scales, which largely reflect variation in the least serious offenses (Sweeten, 2012). The items were culled from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version 4 (DISC-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994), in waves 1 through 4 and from the measure created by Elliott, Huizinga, and Menard (1986) in waves 5 and 6. Although the wording and exact content of these scales varies across these two forms, most of the items were comparable. ...
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This study assesses self-control theory’s (Gottfredson & Hirschi 1990) stability postulate. We advance research on self-control stability in three ways. First, we extend the study of stability beyond high school, estimating group-based trajectory models (GBTM) of self-reports of self-control from age 10 to 25. Second, drawing in part on advances in developmental psychology and social neuroscience, especially the dual systems model of risk taking (e.g., Steinberg 2008), we investigate whether two distinct personality traits—impulsivity and sensation seeking—often conflated in measures of self-control, exhibit divergent developmental patterns. Finding that they do, we also estimate multitrajectory models to identify latent classes of co-occurring developmental patterns for these two traits. We supplement GBTM stability analyses with hierarchical linear models and reliable variance estimates. Lastly, using fixed effects models, we explore whether the observed within-individual changes in the global self-control measure as well as impulsivity and sensation seeking are associated with within-individual changes in crime net of overall age trends. We examine these ideas using five waves of data from a sample of several hundred African American adolescents from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS). Results suggest that self-control is unstable, that distinct patterns of development exist for impulsivity and sensation seeking, and that these changes are uniquely consequential for crime. We conclude by comparing our findings to extant research and discussing the implications for self-control theory.
... We analyzed data from the National Youth Survey (NYS) collected in its first, sixth, and seventh waves. The NYS drew respondents from throughout the continental United States using a multistage, clustered probability sample Elliott, Huizinga, and Menard 1989). In the first wave of the NYS, collected in 1976, 1,725 respondents ranging in age from 11 to 17 years were interviewed, and the demographic characteristics of these respondents corresponded to those of similarly aged youth from throughout the country ). ...
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Studies of race and crime have emphasized the effects of social disadvantage and discrimination on increasing crime among African Americans. The authors extend this literature by examining various beliefs and institutions that have developed within African American communities that, in contrast, decrease criminal behavior. A model of cross-canceling, indirect effects between race and crime was developed and tested with data from the National Youth Survey. The results demonstrate that some factors, such as single-parent families, lowered educational attainment, and crime-ridden neighborhoods, increase criminal behavior among African American respondents relative to Whites. However, other factors, such as increased religiosity, strong family ties, and lowered alcohol consumption, decrease crime. These findings highlight the complex effects of race on crime.
... The sampling plan of the RYDS was designed to oversample youth at high risk for serious delinquency and drug use, because the base rates for these behaviors are relatively low (Elliott, Huizinga, and Menard 1989;Wolfgang, Thornberry, and Figlio 1987). To accomplish this while still being able to generalize the findings to a population of urban adolescents, the following strategy was used. ...
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This article examines the short-term impact of formal criminal labeling on involvement in deviant social networks and increased likelihood of subsequent delinquency. According to labeling theory, formal criminal intervention should affect the individual’s immediate social networks. In many cases, the stigma of the criminal status may increase the probability that the individual becomes involved in deviant social groups. The formal label may thus ultimately increase involvement in subsequent deviance. We use panel data of a sample of urban adolescents to examine whether involvement in deviant social groups mediates the relationship between juvenile justice intervention and subsequent delinquent behavior. Using measures from three successive points in time, the authors find that juvenile justice intervention positively affects subsequent involvement in serious delinquency through the medium of involvement in deviant social groups, namely, street gangs and delinquent peers.
... Inclusion of age squared in the model served to estimate the curvilinear effect of age. That is, as it is usual that delinquent behavior peaks at the age of 15, an estimate of the declining trend after the age of 15 was necessary (Elliott et al. 1989). ...
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Whereas the influence of consumption of pornographic and other problematic activities on young people's delinquent involvement has been a popular concern in Hong Kong, it has not acquired rigorous and generalizable evidence from longitudinal research. With a baseline study of 2,500 randomly selected young people and a follow-up study of 1,686 of them, the present study examined the activities and delinquent and moral behavior over a period of two years. Results from structural equation modeling reveal that the activities and their composite factor, known as the hedonist lifestyle, had only weak effects on subsequent delinquent and moral behavior. The apparent contribution of the hedonist lifestyle disappeared in the model that included friends' behavior as the antecedent. Hence, friends' delinquent behavior and moral behavior were more important predictors and explained away effects of the hedonist lifestyle. These findings are consistent with the interpretation of subculture theory that focuses on the subculture and lifestyle shared among friends as a root of young people's behavior. Hence, the hedonist lifestyle is primarily a concomitant of the delinquent subculture and unlikely to be a unique predictor of delinquent behavior.
... Nevertheless, several major large-scale national self-report surveys now exist. 4 Similarly, several waves of an international self-reported crime surveys have been undertaken. 5 In general, data concerning terrorist events from these three sources are either entirely lacking or face important additional limitations. ...
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Compared to most types of criminal violence, terrorism poses special data collection challenges. In response, there has been growing interest in open source terrorist event data bases. One of the major problems with these data bases in the past is that they have been limited to international events—those involving a national or group of nationals from one country attacking targets physically located in another country. Past research shows that domestic incidents greatly outnumber international incidents. In this paper we describe a previously unavailable open source data base that includes some 70,000 domestic and international incidents since 1970. We began the Global Terrorism Database (GTD) by computerizing data originally collected by the Pinkerton Global Intelligence Service (PGIS). Following computerization, our research team has been working for the past two years to validate and extend the data to real time. In this paper, we describe our data collection efforts, the strengths and weaknesses of open source data in general and the GTD in particular, and provide descriptive statistics on the contents of this new resource.
... The α coefficient was .79. Violent peers was measured by three items adapted from the National Youth Survey (Elliott, Huizinga, Menard 1989), which asked respondents how many of their close friends had engaged in violent acts. We summed the responses to the items to obtain a total score regarding the extent to which the respondents' friends engaged in violent behavior. ...
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The authors extended Elijah Anderson's “code of the street” thesis to explain victimization among a longitudinal sample of 720 African American adolescents from 259 neighborhoods. Specifically, the authors assessed whether the street code promotes greater safety or aggravates the risk for victimization. Anderson portrayed the code of the street, which encourages individuals to appear aggressive and tough, as an adaptation necessary for safely functioning in a disadvantaged, high-crime community. He theorized that adopting the street code promotes respect among one's peers and would-be attackers, thereby increasing one's safety against victimization. The authors found no support for the idea that adopting the street code reduces victimization. Instead, their findings suggest that individuals who adopt the street code have higher levels of victimization. Furthermore, adopting the street code exacerbates the risk for victimization beyond what would be the case from living in a dangerous and disorganized neighborhood.
... The items on smoking, alcohol use, delinquency, violence, and suicide were drawn from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Youth Risk Behavior Survey (CDC YRBS)." Additional risky behavior items were selected from the University of Colorado's National Youth Survey (Elliott, Huizinga, and Menard 1989), and the Monitoring the Future Survey (Johnston, O'Malley, and Bachman 2003). ...
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Mattering is the belief that one makes a difference in the lives of others. We explore the effect of mattering on adolescent suicide ideation. The data source is the 2000 Youth At Risk Survey, composed of interviews with 2,004 youths, age 11–18 and screening interviews with their parents. Our analysis reveals that those who matter more are significantly less likely to consider suicide. In addition, we elaborate the relationship between mattering and suicide ideation by postulating a series of intervening variables (self-esteem and depression): mattering influences levels of self-esteem, which in turn influences depression, which ultimately leads to suicide ideation. Results demonstrate that mattering is mediated fully by these intervening variables, and that self-esteem is the primary source of the mediation. We discuss the implications of these results for adolescents' self-concepts.
... However, no comparable prospective followups examine the influence of marriage, employment, or other factors on young women's levels of criminal activity. One reason little is known about female-offender behavior over time is that traditional longitudinal studies, including unselected cohort designs or even a national probability sample (Elliott, Huizinga, and Menard 1989;Osgood et al. 1988), do not include sufficiently large numbers of seriously delinquent girls to provide for a comprehensive analysis. For example, Stattin, Magnusson, and Reichel (1989) found in a follow-up of 1,393 pupils in Sweden that only 15 females had an official crime record as juveniles, while 165 males were convicted of at least one offense prior to age 18. ...
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This article analyzes data derived from the first detailed long-term follow-up of a sample of serious adolescent female delinquents and similarly situated males. Neither marital attachment nor job stability, factors frequently associated with male desistance from crime, were strongly related to female or male desistance. A symbolic-interactionist perspective on desistance is developed as a counterpoint to Sampson and Laub's theory of informal social control, and life history narratives are used to illustrate the perspective. This cognitive theory is generally compatible with a control approach but (a) adds specificity regarding underlying change mechanisms, (b) explains some negative cases, and (c) fits well with life course challenges facing contemporary serious female (and more provisionally male) offenders.
... In an attempt to integrate empirical findings on adolescent substance abuse into a causal model, Simons et al. (1988, p. 245) therefore used as the primary foci of their model"parenting factors, peer group influences, and adolescent substance abuse." Elliott et al. (1985) and Elliott et al. (1989) give recognition to community and other broader environmental influences on substance use and other forms of delinquency, but they do not treat these as direct sources of control and social learning. Elliott et al. (1985) see both social disorganization and inadequate family socialization as exogenous variables with indirect effects on drug and alcohol use and other forms of delinquency. ...
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This paper examines how membership in a highly concentrated Vietnamese‐American community affects the drug and alcohol use of Vietnamese‐American secondary school students. It suggests that research on adolescent substance abuse has had a tendency to concentrate on the family environment and the peer group. For this ethnic group, however, the present study finds that involvement in the ethnic community has a strong negative effect on drug and alcohol abuse, both directly and indirectly, through lessening the likelihood that adolescents will have substance‐abusing friends. Vietnamese language use is found to be an especially influential aspect of ethnicity. It is suggested that research on adolescent substance abuse should place more emphasis on community‐level explanations, such as the effect of ethnic and other sorts of social groups that surround individuals and families.
... A large quantity of research on the sociology of deviance, and specifically on violent crime, in the United States from the 1980s onwards has made use of the National Youth Survey (NYS), conducted and first analyzed by Delbert Elliott, David Huizinga, and colleagues at the Institute of Behavioral Science of the University of Colorado, formerly the Behavioral Research Institute (Elliott, Huizinga, Knowles, and Canter 1983;Elliott, Huizinga, and Ageton 1985;Elliott, Huizinga, and Menard 1989;Elliott 1994 controls and to be more confident about the direction of causation than one can be with cross-sectional data (see Elliott 1994:17). Elliott, Huizinga, et al. sought to improve the internal validity of their studies by trying to illuminate and correct for biases that might be introduced by the use of self-report data (Elliott and Ageton 1980; and critically examining the scales they created for analyzing survey data , thus enhancing the quality of their quantitative analyses. ...
... Sociologists have long theorized that social and economic deprivation is an important cause of crime and related-problem behaviors. Substantial empirical research has linked poverty with crime (Elliott, Huizinga, & Menard 1989;Kposowa, Breault, & Harrison 1995). High levels of family disruption (e.g., single parent households) are also associated with serious crime and violence, particularly for minority adolescents (Glaeser & Sacerdote 1999;Ousey 2000;Sampson 1987;Sampson, Raudenbush, & Earls 1997;Shihadeh & Steffensmeier 1994). ...
Article
The business improvement district (BID) is a popular economic development and urban revitalization model in which local property and business owners must pay an assessment tax that funds supplementary services, including private security. BIDs constitute a controversial form of urban revitalization to some because they privatize economic development and public safety efforts in public space. This study examines whether BIDs provide tangible benefits beyond their immediate boundaries to local residents in the form of reduced violence among adolescents. The empirical analysis advances an existing literature dominated by evaluation studies by introducing a theoretically driven dataset with rich information on individual and neighborhood level variables. The analysis compares violent victimization among youths living in BID neighborhoods with those in similarly situated non-BID neighborhoods. We find no effect of BIDs on violence. However, we do find that youth violence is strongly correlated with neighborhood collective efficacy and family-related attributes of social control. In conclusion, we argue that BIDs may be an agent of crime reduction, but this benefit is likely concentrated only in their immediate boundaries and does not extend to youths living in surrounding neighborhoods.
... Some research suggests that there is little to no relationship, while other research suggests there is (Empey et al. 1999). For example, Elliott et al.'s (1989) analysis of the National Youth Survey data suggest that self-reported felony assault and robbery are much greater among lower-class youth. Many of the existing studies examining this issue conflate individual and community-level social conditions, thus obscuring precisely what socioeconomic factors contribute to delinquency. ...
... Interviewers read words to children, who had to identify a picture (among a set of four pictures) corresponding to the word (Dunn and Dunn, 1997). Finally, early juvenile delinquency is measured by children's self-reports about participating in 17 delinquent activities from the "Things that You Have Done" scale (Maumary-Gremaud, 2000; also see Elliott, Huizinga, and Menard, 1989). The measure of delinquency is a sum of these items (Thornberry and Krohn, 2002). ...
Article
Research SummaryWe use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3,197) to consider the heterogeneous effects of maternal incarceration on 9-year-old children. We find that maternal incarceration has no average effects on child wellbeing (measured by caregiver-reported internalizing problem behaviors, caregiver-reported externalizing problem behaviors, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Third Edition scores, and child-reported early juvenile delinquency) but that the effects vary by mothers’ propensities for experiencing incarceration. Maternal incarceration is deleterious for children of mothers least likely to experience incarceration but mostly inconsequential for children of mothers more likely to experience incarceration.Policy ImplicationsIt is important that public policies take into account the fact that not all children experience similar effects of maternal incarceration. For children of mothers who are unlikely to experience incarceration, the negative consequences of maternal incarceration could be driven by at least three factors, all of which may operate simultaneously and all of which potentially call for different policy interventions: (a) jail incarceration as opposed to prison incarceration, (b) incarceration for a crime that did minimal—or no—harm to their children, and (c) inadequate family supports for coping with maternal incarceration. We discuss these policy implications.
... Following Matsueda's (1992) original analysis, our analysis uses variables from the first three waves. The attrition rate over the three-year span was low, 4 percent in 1978 and 6 percent in 1979, and comparisons of respondents across waves indicate that loss by demographic variables and law violation did not substantially influence the underlying distributions on these variables (D. Elliott, Huizinga, and Menard 1989). We use the data from 1,086 youths who reported having engaged in delinquency during the second wave and 586 youths who reported they did not engage in delinquency during this time. ...
Article
Objective We assess Matsueda’s reflected appraisals model of delinquency across groups of previously delinquent and nondelinquent adolescents. We hypothesize that the reflected appraisals process, which entails incorporating informal appraisals by significant others into self-identities, differs across delinquent and nondelinquent adolescents. Method We estimate cross-group models of the reflected appraisals process among delinquent and nondelinquent adolescents using the data (National Youth Survey) and methodology (structural equation modeling) from Matsueda’s original research. Results The informal labeling and identity processes articulated in the reflected appraisals model better explain delinquency continuity than delinquency onset. Notable differences across previously delinquent and nondelinquent groups are found with respect to the influence of parental appraisals on reflected appraisals and with respect to the influence of race on parental and reflected appraisals. Conclusions Informal labeling predicts both continuity and onset of delinquency. Continuity results from delinquent adolescents incorporating troublemaking appraisals into their self-identities and living up to those labels. Identity processes prove unimportant for linking troublemaking appraisals to delinquency among falsely appraised adolescents. Future research is needed to assess the possibility that false appraisals produce delinquency through processes articulated in general strain and defiance theories. We also discuss avenues for future research on race, identities, and delinquency.
... All else being equal, black and other race respondents exhibit relatively low levels of juvenile delinquency (Table 5). This reflects the fact that minority youths have rates of substance use lower than those of their white counterparts (Elliott, Huizinga, and Menard 1989;Oetting and Beauvais 1990;Wallace, Bachman, O'Malley, and Johnston 1995;Friedman and Ali 1997). 4 Explanations for the higher rates of substance use among whites have ranged from differences in socioeconomic well-being among racial and ethnic populations (Maddahian, Newcomb, and Bentler 1988) to racial differences in the accuracy of self-reported substance use (Mensch and Kandel 1988) to sample selectivity in school-based surveys that underestimate drug use among minority dropouts (Oetting and Beauvais 1990). ...
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We apply criminological theories of social control to explore the relationships among adolescent pregnancy, pregnancy resolution, and juvenile delinquency. While most ever-pregnant girls have especially high rates of delinquent behavior, adolescent mothers exhibit delinquency levels no higher than those of their never-pregnant peers. Unlike adolescent females who end their pregnancies through abortion, those who keep their babies experience a dramatic reduction in both smoking and marijuana use. Our results suggest that among adolescent girls, the birth of a child has a strong trajectory-modifying effect. It serves as a mechanism of social control and substantially reduces the likelihood of delinquent behavior.
... Compared to the collection of victimization data in the United States, the collection of self-report survey data has been more sporadic. Nevertheless, several major large-scale national self-report surveys now exist (Elliott, Huizinga, and Menard 1989). Similarly, several waves of an international self-reported crime study have been undertaken (Junger-Tas, Terlouw, and Klein 1994) and have produced a variety of empirical analyses (Farrington et al. 1996; for a review, see Junger-Tas and Marshall [1997]). ...
Article
Social and behavioral research on terrorism has expanded dramatically. However, theoretical work that incorporates terrorism and collection of valid data on it has lagged behind theoretical work on other criminological subjects. Theorizing has been dominated by deterrence perspectives. Threats of severe consequence for terrorist acts in general show little promise, but there is evidence that increasing the certainty of consequences works in some situations. Research on terrorism will be improved if it moves beyond deterrence to include concepts drawn from legitimacy, strain, and situational perspectives. Limitations of traditional criminology data sources for studying terrorism have encouraged the development of open‐source‐event databases. The most comprehensive, created by combining the Global Terrorism Database with RAND‐MIPT data, documents more than 77,000 terrorist incidents from 1970 to 2006. Attacks peaked in the early 1990s and then declined substantially until 9/11. They have since substantially increased. The regional concentration of terrorism has moved from Western Europe in the 1970s, to Latin America in the 1980s, to the Middle East and Persian Gulf in the twenty‐first century. Despite the enormous resources devoted to countering terrorism, surprisingly little empirical information is available on which strategies are most effective.
... Some research suggests that there is little to no relationship, while other research suggests there is (Empey et al. 1999). For example, Elliott et al.'s (1989) analysis of the National Youth Survey data suggest that self-reported felony assault and robbery are much greater among lower-class youth. Many of the existing studies examining this issue conflate individual and community-level social conditions, thus obscuring precisely what socioeconomic factors contribute to delinquency. ...
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This report summarizes the state of knowledge about children and youth with disabilities at risk of delinquency or already involved with the juvenile justice system. It reviews the existing research as well as perspectives of service providers, administrators, policy makers, and advocates. Following an executive summary and introductory chapter, chapters address the following topics: (1) background; (2) data and methodology; (3) current laws and philosophical framework; (4) disability, delinquency, and juvenile justice; (5) risk and protective factors associated with juvenile delinquency; (6) program and policy trends; (7) promising practices and criteria/measures of effectiveness; (8) implementation of disability law and programs (barriers and facilitators); and (9) recommendations. Recommendations urge identifying a range of strategies to promote compliance with federal disability law for at-risk children and youth; increasing funding and/or resources to schools and the juvenile justice system; designating a single federal agency whose sole focus is the needs of youth with disabilities entering the juvenile justice system; conducting research on the true prevalence of youth with disabilities across all stages of the juvenile justice system; and conducting an assessment to determine what programs and policies are most effective in schools, communities, and the juvenile justice system. Five appendices provide additional detail and list resources. (Contains approximately 200 references.) (DB)
... We fit both a normal distribution and a Studentized t distribution using the Newton-Raphson algorithm described in Chapter 2. The estimates from each distribution corroborate one another, and the sequence of initiation is clear: cigarette smoking precedes alcohol consumption, which precedes marijuana use, which precedes cocaine use. These findings are echoed in Elliott et al. (1989). Given that we employed all survey years to obtain these estimates, the differences in initiation ages between substances are all significant. ...
... Delinquent peers. Children self-reported their affiliation with deviant peers using an instrument adapted from the National Youth Survey (Elliott, Huizinga, and Menard 1989). They were asked how many of their close friends (1 ¼ none, 2 ¼ some, and 3 ¼ all) had engaged in seven delinquent acts in the previous year. ...
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Objectives This study seeks to contribute to research on the patterning and stability of code of the street beliefs. We describe trajectories of street code beliefs from late childhood to emerging adulthood and investigate social factors that influence membership in and distinguish between trajectories. Methods Using six waves of panel data from the Family and Community Health Study, group-based trajectory models were estimated to describe developmental patterns of street code beliefs from age 10 to 26. Correlates of street code beliefs, including racial discrimination, parenting practices, and neighborhood crime, were used to predict trajectory membership. Results Analyses identified five distinct trajectories of street code beliefs. Four trajectories were largely stable across the study period; however, one group, comprised of 12 percent of the sample, dramatically declined in beliefs. Being male and experiencing racial discrimination significantly distinguish between all of the trajectories. Parental monitoring and perceptions of neighborhood crime differentiate between the declining trajectory and the stable trajectories. Conclusions Findings provide insights into the developmental patterns and correlates, of street code beliefs. Results suggest beliefs are malleable but remain largely stable and underscore the need for more nuanced, longitudinal approaches to the code of the street.
... Respondents self-reported their affiliations with deviant peers based on an instrument adapted from the National Youth Survey (Elliott, Huizinga, and Menard 1989). They were asked how many of their close friends had engaged in 12 separate deviant acts in the past year. ...
Article
Path modeling and data from a survey of African Americans is used to test hypotheses derived from three criminological theories: General Strain Theory, Self-Control Theory, and Biased Attribution/Attachment Theory. I focus on the psychological mechanisms that mediate the association between criminal victimization and anti-social behavior and substance use. The findings show some support for the theories tested. The effect of violent victimization on anti-social behavior and marijuana use was indirect through depression and low self-control, and the effect of childhood sexual victimization on affiliations with deviant peers was indirect through depression and low self-control. Theoretical implications and limitations of the study are discussed.
... The National Youth Survey (NYS) has become one of the best known and widely used sources of self-reported delinquency data (Elliott, Huizinga, and Ageton 1985;Elliott, Huizinga, and Menard 1989). NYS is a 5-year panel study of a national probability sample of 1,726 persons ages 11 to 17 in 1976. ...
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The millennium marks the beginning of a second century for the for-mal system of juvenile justice in the United States. From its inception, the central focus of the system has been delinquency, an amorphous construct that includes not only "criminal" behavior but also an array of youthful actions that offend prevailing social mores. Thus, the meaning of delinquency is markedly time dependent. Likewise, meth-ods for addressing the phenomenon have reflected the vagaries of social constructions of youth and youth deviance. American juvenile justice was founded on internally conflicting value systems: the diminished responsibility and heightened malleability of youths ver-sus individual culpability and social control of protocriminality. During its first century, the latter generally have become increasingly predominant over the former. Those most caught up in the system, however, have remained overwhelmingly our most marginalized youths, from immigrants' offspring in the early 20th century to chil-dren of color in contemporary society. The implications of such theo-retical and sociodemographic variations are considered, and their implications are reviewed for public policy beyond mere political symbolism.
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The overarching aim of this article is to explore the recidivism sequence as one of the largest problems for correctional ambitions in Western countries. Criminals are identified by a qualitative method called 'thick description', which is a deep and detailed description of those criminals. This is also a method in the identification of unaffected fashion, which is generally based on change, group identification and art. The results show that the effects of perceived threats to identity and self-esteem are associated with group membership and fashion statements. The recidivism frequency and its reality are due to an authenticity and the true self, which is not subject to ambivalence in the case of criminals and their role in the society as such. The conclusion is that we cannot, as paradoxical as it may seem, cure the recidivism problem in the world of criminals. This is because an authenticity based on the true self (a self-concept), anchored in the definition of fashion and the wider society as such, cannot easily be changed.
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Using a sample of 400 homeless street youth, this article examines the role that self- control plays in the generation of crime and drug use as well as its link to negative social consequences. It also explores if these social consequences are themselves related to crime as predicted in strain and differential association theory, or if their impact is eliminated by the presence of low self-control. The results reveal that low self-control predicts a range of criminal behaviors as well as drug use. Consistent with the general theory, low self-control influences the association with deviant peers, the adoption of deviant values, length of unemployment, and length of homelessness. However, the results reveal that a number of social consequences; including deviant peers, deviant values, length of homelessness, relative deprivation, and monetary dis- satisfaction; have an effect on criminal behavior and drug use controlling for self- control lending support to other theoretical perspectives. Results are discussed in terms of developing the general theory by incorporating other perspectives.
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Recent studies evince that interpersonal racial discrimination (IRD) increases the risk of crime among African Americans and familial racial socialization fosters resilience to discrimination's criminogenic effects. Yet, studies have focused on the short-term effects of IRD and racial socialization largely among adolescents. In this study, we seek to advance knowledge by elucidating how racialized experiences—in interactions and socialization—influence crime for African Americans over time. Elaborating Simons and Burt's (2011) social schematic theory, we trace the effects of childhood IRD and familial racial socialization on adult offending through cognitive and social pathways and their interplay. We test this life-course SST model using data from the FACHS, a multisite study of Black youth and their families from ages 10 to 25. Consistent with the model, analyses reveal that the criminogenic consequences of childhood IRD are mediated cognitively by a criminogenic knowledge structure and socially through the nature of social relationships in concert with ongoing offending and discrimination experiences. Specifically, by increasing criminogenic cognitive schemas, IRD decreases embeddedness in supportive romantic, educational, and employment relations, which influence social schemas and later crime. Consonant with expectations, the findings also indicate that racial socialization provides enduring resilience by both compensating for and buffering discrimination's criminogenic effects.
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This article builds upon a symbolic interactionist model of delinquency (Matsueda 1992) by assessing whether an interactionist model can account for the gender gap in delinquent behavior. We argue that delinquency is determined in part by the self as conceived by symbolic interactionists, which in turn is determined by a process of labeling by significant others. We estimate a cross-gender model of delinquency using data from the National Youth Survey and find that, for both males and females, parental appraisals significantly affect youths' reflected appraisals, which in turn predict delinquency. Nevertheless, we find some gender interactions: for males, parental labeling and reflected appraisals have a larger effect on delinquency, and males are more likely to be falsely accused by parents. When we take into account gender differences in both levels of independent variables and the magnitude of effects of those variables, our model explains a substantial portion of the gender gap in delinquency.
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The overarching aim of this article is to explore criminal recidivism. Criminal recidivism is one of the largest problems for correctional institutions and thus ambition in Western countries. In particular, we aim to provide a partial explanation as to why some correctional ambitions worldwide frequently have such a low success rate in dealing with recidivism in general. The objects of analysis in this study are criminals as a distinct group of citizens, outsiders if you will, a them in an us-and-them dichotomy. The results of the study then become an explanation that can be portrayed in terms of a trajectory of meaning in a process over time. Here we consider the consumption of crime as being similar to the consumption of fashion recognized in a personal role and identity. Fashion is chosen as an example of consumption that pertains to desire and hence to longing for a better life.
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Previous studies were able to identify numerous predictors of aggressive and violent behavior in youth. Although it is to be expected that these predictors may behave differently with varying personal and situation-specific characteristics, no study has yet empirically examined whether predictors of youth violence really exhibit differential effects. The current study will fill this gap in the literature by asking how do some predictors of youth violence differ between slightly and highly criminal individuals? To answer this question a representative sample of German students of the ninth class from 2007 and 2008 was used (N = 44,610). Using the technique of quantile regression the effects of the predictors sex, origin, risk seeking, number of delinquent friends, alcohol consumption, parental violence, interparental violence and violent victimization on the number of violent incidents were analyzed. The results showed that all predictors significantly influenced the number of violent incidents; however, the effects of all predictors also varied significantly with the intensity of criminal activity of offenders. Whereas all predictors were valid for highly criminal individuals, only some predictors also influenced the amount of violent crime in occasionally violent youth. These results have important implications regarding the identification of new predictors, theory building and practice. Additionally, the present approach of studying differential effects might prove useful to psychology and law in general. The more empirical research is individualized, the better this research can also be applied in practice.
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National Youth Survey Family Study (NYSFS) respondents were examined to identify the characteristics of individuals and their sociological environments, that would make them more likely to have consistency between self reported and officially recorded records of arrest. Somewhat surprisingly, it was found that those most likely to be at risk of arrest (males, high exposure to delinquent friends, higher level of substance use) are more likely to have consistency between officially recorded and self-reported arrests. Findings will be helpful in both producing more accurate information on arrests and in increasing sensitivity to the possibility of bias in arrest records that may be based on sociodemographic or behavioral characteristics of the individual.
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Approximately 15–20 percent of pregnancies result in miscarriage, yet pregnancy loss remains a socially taboo topic and one that has received limited attention in the literature. Utilizing nationally representative longitudinal data from the NLSY97, this study examines the influence of miscarriage on mental health and whether this relationship is moderated by religious participation. Results from this study suggest that miscarriage is associated with lower mental health among women who also experience a live birth. Results also suggest that religious participation moderates the relationship between miscarriage and mental health; religion is more likely to lead to increases in mental health among women who experience a miscarriage than among women who do not experience a miscarriage. Overall, evidence suggests that religion may be an important coping mechanism for women who deal with pregnancy loss.
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Participation in risky sexual behaviors has many deleterious consequences and is a source of concern for parents as well as practitioners, researchers, and public policy makers. Past research has examined the effect of family structure and supportive parenting on risky sexual behaviors among emerging adults. In the present study, we attempt to identify the mediators that explain this relationship. Using survey data from a sample of over 2,000 college students (1,297 females and 780 males) we use structural equation modeling to investigate the role of commitment to marriage, desired characteristics in an intimate partner, and sociosexuality in linking the influence of family structure and supportive parenting to risky sexual behaviors. Results indicate that respondents from continuously married families were more committed to marriage, and this commitment reduced the probability of risky sexual behavior both directly, as well as indirectly through its negative impact on unrestricted sociosexuality. On the other hand, respondents who reported having supportive parents rated sensitivity and similarity of values as more important in a mate than physical attractiveness and sexual compatibility. This approach to mate selection reduces unrestricted sociosexuality and, in turn, risky sexual behavior. Even after taking our mediators into account, there is still a direct effect of family factors on risky sexual behavior. Gender differences in the pattern of findings are discussed and directions for future research are identified.
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A small number of scholars have attempted to reorient current thinking about the way cultural effects operate in poor neighborhoods. Scholars argue that socioeconomic disadvantage fosters heterogeneity in cultural models. Moreover, cultural heterogeneity theoretically plays an important role in shaping adolescent decision-making in poor neighborhoods, including decisions related to violent behavior. We test these assumptions using multilevel data comprised of a sample of African-American adolescents. Our findings lend support to these arguments. In particular, the results suggested that neighborhood structural disadvantage increases the degree of disagreement or heterogeneity regarding the inappropriateness of violence. Further, exposure to cultural heterogeneity increased adolescents’ involvement in violent behavior and had a moderating influence on the link between individual frames and adolescent violent behavior.
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Using data from a nationally representative, longitudinal, and prospective sample of men and women, and controlling for prior involvement in the outcomes and demographic effects, the consequences of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) on substance use and depression were examined over a 3-year period. The results were unexpected. Men in the sample were more likely than women to report the prevalence of minor and violent IPV victimization, whereas women in the sample were more likely than men to report the prevalence of minor and violent IPV perpetration. Additionally, the consequences of IPV were more apparent for male respondents than for female respondents. Implications of these findings are discussed, as are the study’s limitations, and future research directions.
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